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Shining a spotlight on Dark Patterns

Jonathan Smart and Hadley Zielonka look at some of the ways in which e-commerce sites are misleading consumers and what regulators are doing to stop them.

It is something that most online shoppers will be familiar with. You are browsing online, when a pop-up informs you that “12 other people have viewed this item in the last 24 hours” and there are “only 3 left at this price”.  

However, in late 2019 a spotlight was shone on this type of practice when cyber-security researcher Ophir Harpaz discovered that in some instances these statements are simply not true. In a tweet that led to significant media coverage she discovered that one flight website she was looking at included code to claim that a random number between 28 and 45 people were viewing a flight at any given time.

For some online shoppers, dark patterns are a mere annoyance. For others, dark patterns create a sense of urgency which induces them to purchase something they may not have otherwise bought.  

So, what are dark patterns?

The interface designs that are behind these prompts or digital nudges are known as dark patterns. The term ‘dark patterns’ was originally conceived in 2010 by Harry Brignull as a way of describing how a user interface can be designed to deceive users into doing things. Brignull broadly categorises these dark patterns into 12 types ranging from the self-explanatory ‘trick questions’ to something Brignull calls ‘confirmshaming’. An ironic example of confirmshaming comes from a well-known publisher. When trying to obtain email addresses from users, it offered these two choices: ‘Unlock the 80 must-reads’; or, ‘I don’t read’.

Although some dark patterns are fairly brazen (automatically adding an item to a shopping basket), many others are not, for example the growing use of pre-ticked check boxes. One of the main problems with surreptitious dark patterns is that they can potentially mislead consumers, causing financial loss. A second, sometimes less obvious, problem is that dark patterns can deceive users into relinquishing substantial amounts of personal data.

Dark patterns in a digital world

A study by Princeton University in 2019 analysed over 50,000 product pages from 11,000 shopping sites. The study identified the use of dark patterns 1,818 times. However, the authors believe the actual number is much higher.

This is concerning when you consider that by 2021, it is predicted that nearly 93% of UK internet users will be engaged in online shopping. According to the Office of National Statistics, 19% of all retail sales in January 2020 were online sales. Indeed whilst online commerce was already experiencing growth year on year, it is likely that the current landscape of Covid-19 will leave an indelible mark on the way we shop. 

A very recent study from Ipsos conducted from the period of 12 to 14 March 2020 suggests that 31% of Italian consumers and 18% of UK consumers used ecommerce ‘more frequently’ than they did in the month preceding.  It is likely that consumers will increasingly turn to the internet to shop in the coming months of social distancing and store closures, meaning more consumers (some who may be newer to doing things online) will be exposed to the pitfalls of dark patterns. 

But dark patterns also exist in application. These are often designed to make it difficult to locate things such as privacy related information or information about closing an account. Colours, language and tough-to-find options are frequently used to steer or confuse users. A 2019 study by the Competition and Market Authority (CMA) commented that: “The effect of making navigation towards privacy settings and the selection of alternative options to the default a multi-stepped and partially obfuscated process has been described as a ‘dark pattern’. By relying on the fact that consumers generally do not change default settings, platforms are able to maximise the number of consumers that will share the maximum amount of their personal information, to the benefit of the platform.

Although dark patterns are often unethical, the question remains: Are dark patterns legal?

The Law – fifty shades of grey

There has historically been a number of calls to introduce legal regulation to govern “dark patterns” in online shopping. However, in some instances dark patterns are already illegal in the UK. For example, Brignull’s ‘sneak into basket’ category is already illegal under both the Consumer Rights Directive (CRD) and the Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Regulations 2000 (CPDSRs) which prohibits misleading or aggressive sales practices. This means that services or goods that a consumer has not specifically ordered cannot be automatically added at checkout (for instance, insurance or a gift card). 

Data protection 

However, other dark patterns are more subtle. Dark patterns are often employed to trick users into handing over personal data. A report entitled ‘Deceived by Design’ by Forbrukerrådet, a Norwegian government agency, revealed that the way Google, Facebook, and Microsoft use dark patterns is “arguably an unethical attempt to push consumers toward choices that benefit the service provider. ”  The report further questions whether such practices are “in accordance with important data protection principles in the GDPR” (General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 (GDPR)).

As many will be all too familiar, GDPR defines consent as: “any freely given, specific, informed and unambiguous indication of the data subject’s wishes by which he or she, by a statement or by a clear affirmative action, signifies agreement to the processing of personal data relating to him or her” (Article 4(11) General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679). This begs the question: Can a user freely give their consent when dark patterns nudge them to make particular choices?

On the face of it, the answer seems to be no. A recent study supports this, with researchers saying: “We scraped the designs of the five most popular CMPs on the top 10,000 websites in the UK… We found that dark patterns and implied consent are ubiquitous; only 11.8% meet the minimal requirements that we set based on European law. ” [Emphasis added.]

But if companies are using dark patterns to circumvent the principles of GDPR, what is being done about enforcement?

Arguably, very little. There has been a noticeable lack of consequential GDPR enforcement in relation to dark patterns. The largest GDPR fine to date was levied against Google for €50 million by the French data regulator CNIL; however, this is only a drop in the bucket compared to an estimated $113.26 billion in Google website ad revenues alone.

The absence of meaningful GDPR enforcement in the UK is surprising when considered against the backdrop of attention paid to the safety and storage of personal data. It seems GDPR regulators are less worried about how companies obtain that data in the first place and more focused on what happens when it escapes into the ether. 

Yet, perhaps surprisingly, it seems that competition regulators are starting to pay attention.

The Competition & Markets Authority (CMA) recognised the issue, and following an investigation, published a set of principles for travel booking websites. In February 2019, travel booking websites that employed potentially misleading practices provided the CMA with undertakings to follow the CMA’s principles and cease using such tactics by September 2019.

However, although the CMA is ostensibly clamping down on travel booking sites, it may not go far enough. The consumer protection legislation central to the CMA’s investigation was the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 (CPRs). Despite the CMA’s investigation which raised serious concerns around misleading practices, the CMA did not make a finding on whether consumer laws were breached and did not seek to enforce the legislation through the courts. 

Digital “Whack-a-Mole”

In the age of the internet, regulators will need to catch up with the speed at which site operators are employing different tactics. It seems that some of the offenders the CMA found to be using dark patterns to mislead and exploit consumers are still manipulating consumers via alternative methods. Many patterns arguably breach existing consumer protection and competition regulation; however, regulators seem reluctant to step in. 

Consumer watchdog group Which? published on 3 March 2020 a scathing article which examines how “travellers are paying up to 12% too much for their UK hotel room” because of rate-parity clauses. The purpose of a rate-parity clause is to ensure the online travel agencies (OTAs) do not lose business to the hotels through direct bookings. A rate-parity clause will often prohibit hotels from publishing lower rates on their websites. 

This seems to fly in the face of anti-competition law. Indeed, Which? reports that the practice is banned in France, Italy and Austria. The UK is noticeably not on this list.

But what about the regulators for the advertisers themselves?

Dark patterns and advertising – A legal loophole?

In July 2019, the CMA commenced a market study into online platforms and digital advertising. An interim report estimates that the costs of digital advertising in the UK in 2018 was around £13 billion.

The UK’s regulator of advertising through all media is the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA). The Committee of Advertising Practice (CAP) works in tandem with the ASA and is responsible for writing the UK Code of Non-broadcast Advertising and Direct & Promotional Marketing (CAP Code). Online advertisers are governed by the CPRs and the CAP Code.

However, it is important to remember the ad industry is self-regulated. The ASA website claims:

“The self-regulation system works because it is powered and driven by a sense of corporate social responsibility amongst the advertising industry. Advertisers have an interest in maintaining the system because… Making sure that consumers are not misled, harmed or offended by ads helps to maintain consumer confidence in advertising. Advertising that is welcomed by consumers is good for business” .

This raises the concern that the very industry using dark patterns is self-regulating. But what happens when a marketer breaks the rules it helped write?

Enforcement – A Rare Breed?

The ASA can refer advertisers who repeatedly break the CAP Code to other bodies, although the ASA’s website highlights that “such referrals are rarely necessary, as most advertisers prefer to resolve the matter directly with [them]. ” [Emphasis added.]

The National Trading Standards (NTS) acts as the legal backstop for the ASA and receives funding from the ASA to deal with referrals. The NTS or local trading authority will then decide whether or not to investigate or take any enforcement actions, although the NTS’ website states there are “rare occasions where some form of Court action is required to resolve the matter.” [Emphasis added.]

Regulation reform needed to upgrade from dial-up

It is clear that tighter regulation is needed to tackle deceptive practices such as dark patterns, but it seems unlikely that this can happen through self-regulation. Without meaningful enforcement and financial punishment from regulators, companies will continue to circumvent the system at the expense of the consumers. Perhaps it is time for the law to speed up the regulatory system to keep up with this digital age.

Jonathan Smart is a partner in the litigation services team at Shoosmiths LLP specialising in technology disputes.

Hadley Zielonka is a fourth seat litigation trainee at Shoosmiths LLP planning to qualify into Commercial Litigation.

Beware Dark Patterns Online – Spotlight #388

1. Good Monday Morning

It’s June 28. Spotlight is off next Monday for the Independence Day holiday. Be safe and happy until then. We’ll be back in your email on July 12..

Today’s Spotlight is 1,068 words — about a 4 minute read.

2. News To Know Now

Quoted: “We need more choices, not to replace Google or Bing, but to offer alternatives… if we do not have our own [search] index, we are just a layer of paint on top of Google or Bing.” — Josep M. Pujol, Chief of Search at Brave to TechCrunch upon the browser launching its own search engine.

a) Western Digital is warning owners of its MyBook external hard drive devices to disconnect them from the internet because hackers are using an exploit that enables them to remotely wipe the drives. (Krebs on Security)

b)  An Amazon fulfillment center in Scotland is destroying millions of unsold items every year. An ex-manager at the facility provided ITV with documentation showing 124,000 items were destroyed during one week in April. Companies using Amazon to store and fulfill their products can ask the company to destroy the stock rather than pay to have unsold items returned. The fulfillment center is one of 24 in the UK and 185 globally.

c)  Telephone carriers have until Wednesday to finally implement the Stir/Shaken call verification system that will make it harder for companies making robocalls to hide their actual telephone number. CNET has an FAQ on the new program.

3. Search Engine News — New Search Message for Breaking News

Google is now using a consumer friendly message to respond to queries about evolving news stories for which the search engine has not yet indexed reliable content. This type of situation is exactly how Google News was created following the 9/11 terror attacks, but the main search index has not had this type of protection.

That meant that breaking news events traditionally kicked off a rush to post information to be among the first results in Google during a normally chaotic time.

Google also announced that it will expand its coverage of harassment-based search results. They say that they will apply “ranking protections to help prevent content from low quality sites appearing in search results for people’s names.”

Google used the example of the Babcock family in the UK that had been targeted by false reports online that the men in that family were pedophiles and child molesters while the women were labeled cheaters and scammers. Sites such as Ripoff Report, Deadbeats Exposed, and She’s a Homewrecker were specifically described in a New York Times expose that Google linked to. Sites like Ripoff Report often charge hundreds or thousands of dollars to have a subject go through “mediation” before removing a post with information another person has posted.

4. In The Spotlight — Dark Patterns

Dark patterns are under the spotlight in consumer circles and may soon be as familiar a term as robocalls.  The phrase is used to describe a type of internet design that tricks or pressures a person into taking an unwanted action. Think of them as dirty tricks unscrupulous marketers use.

The tactics include disguising ads as editorial content, using hidden buttons and links, confusing trials with paid offers, or creating opt-outs that make you take an action to stop the company from doing something rather than defaulting to nothing. There are also fraudulent behaviors like signing up for recurring bills by simply clicking a button or hiding important terms. 

Usability designer Harry Bignull first codified this disingenuous behavior and now leads the professional effort to identify and halt dark patterns. That includes the new Dark Patterns Tipline that opened in May with support from Consumer Reports and the Electronic Frontier Foundation. The new effort shows multiple examples of bad behavior by well known companies such as Carfax and Grubhub. (Full disclosure: I was on Carfax’s executive team for 8 years beginning in the mid 1990s).

Government is also paying attention. California modified its landmark Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) to ban dark patterns from websites. Those include confusing language or using more steps to opt-out of sharing private data than there are to opt-in. Former FTC Chair Rebecca Slaughter called for national rules to ban dark patterns. During a speech last week, she told a nonprofit group, “…We need to be focusing on the burden on the firms to limit their collection in the first instance, prohibit their sharing, prohibit their abusive use of data.”

Want to test how easy it is to be influenced by this insidious behavior? The Markup has created a quiz that lets you match your wits against these tricky techniques.

5. Debunked — Childhood Vaccines

Memes are floating around social media suggesting that childhood vaccines and laundry detergent share 16 common ingredients. Reuters has the fact check documenting that there are only three common ingredients: water, glycerin, and castor oil.

 6. Following Up — Microsoft Support Rep Hacked

As Microsoft investigated the Solar Winds hack, the group who did that hack compromised a Microsoft employee’s computer to launch targeted attacks against Microsoft customers. This news was breaking throughout the weekend, and there will undoubtedly be more revelations this week. Throughout 2021, Ars Technica has had some of the best coverage of this incident. You can also read our past coverage of the Solar Winds hack.

7. Protip — New Gmail Collaboration Tools

You’ve undoubtedly seen the brand new “Rooms” and “Chat” features in Gmail. Here are step-by-step instructions on using Google Docs, Chat, and other Google-specific programs without having to switch browser tabs.

Screening Room — Wedding Singers

Ryan Reynolds and his Maximum Effort ad agency are behind the latest Match. com commercial featuring real wedding singers crooning a new song penned by award-winning songwriters. 

9. Science Fiction World — AI Lip Reading

That scene in bad spy movies featuring a trained lip reader watching a target through binoculars is about to become anachronistic. Motherboard is reporting that people unable to vocalize may soon be helped by an AI app that translates lip movement into words.

10. Coffee Break — Follow A Drop of Water to the Ocean

This amazing 3-D science visualization simulates a drop of water as it flows from anywhere in the world to larger bodies of water. 

11. Sign of the Times

Out and about in LA

Transcript: Out and about in LA

Los Angeles is the reigning championTitelverteidigerreigning champion when it comes to the city with the worst traffic congestion in the US. But lately, LA is also appearing at the top of lists for worst traffic in the world. As the city’s metropolitan area continues to grow, it’s becoming obvious that something has to change. The agency most likely to bring about that change is the LA County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, or Metro for short. The agency operates public transportation in the LA metropolitan area. Spotlight talked to Metro spokespersonSprecher(in)spokesperson Dave Sotero about the agency’s plans for the future. In the first part of the interview, Sotero to detailausführlich be­schreibendetails the current transport challenges facing Los Angeles.

As everybody that drives in LA well knows, it’s an extremely anxiety-producing experience to try to get from point A to point B on the LA freeway (US)Autobahnfreeway system any part of the day, but the rush hour is unbelievable. LA Times described it as a “soul-crushingzutiefst zermürbendsoul-crushing experience.” And LA is not uniqueeinzigartig, alleineunique in that respect. There’s traffic all over the world, but LA has the onerousdrückendonerous distinction as having some of the nation’s worst traffic and probably the world’s worst traffic. So, that’s really why transit, and what we’re doing in LA to improve transit, is so important for the future. We to anticipateerwartenanticipate that we’re going to get 2.3 million more residentEinwohner(in)residents over the coming decades, and so the situation is not going to improve. We’re going to have more residents and more residents that will want to purchase cars, so we have to proactivelyvorausschauendproactively build out our transit system and make the transit option as well as other multi-modes of travel more beneficialnutzbringendbeneficial, so people can have a really good alternative to driving.

One of the biggest challenges facing Metro is convincing Angelinos to use public transport and leave their cars at home. In the following part of the interview, Sotero talks about dealing with changing traffic patternVerkehrsmuster, -verhaltentraffic patterns. The term “uberization” refers to the ride-sharing company Uber, as well as companies like it.

You know, every transit agency in the country has faced the issue of the changing travel patterns of the public — how they get around and the “uberization” of transportation. So, you know, transit agencies are faced with the challenges of attracting riders back to the system. Some of the ridership has gone down over the years because of the ride-share movement. So, we’re really looking at a lot of different ways that we can attract ridershipFahrgastzahlenridership and help Angelinos make that decision, that, you know what, it is easier to leave the car at home. I’m going to go ahead and take this transit line because it’s closer to where I need to get to and it’s more convenientbequemconvenient and it’s faster. That’s really the triumvirate of benefits that get people out of their cars.

Create repeat patterns with a Live Pattern Preview in Affinity Designer for iPad

Liz Kohler Brown is an artist and designer who creates unique lettering projects, surface designs and illustrations. Here she is to show us how to create a repeat pattern in Affinity Designer.

Affinity Designer for iPad has been a total game-changer for my surface design process. Not only does it enable you to do precise movements with the transform tool, which makes your repeat pattern pixel perfect (goodbye pixel lines and offset repeat elements!) but you can also see a live preview of your pattern as you create it, so you never have to wonder if a repeat element is in the wrong place as you’re working. This totally takes the guesswork out of pattern building!

I’m going to dive right into building a repeat pattern, but if you feel like you need to learn some of the basics like building colour palettes and creating vector shapes for surface design, check out my tutorial on Surface Design in Affinity Designer for more detailed instructions.

Let’s get started!

Please turn on JavaScript to view this video

Not in a video mood? See the whole process in written form below. Let’s start by setting up a live pattern preview document.

Create a New Document

On the document creation page, select pixels as the measurement and enter a document size (I’ll be working at 2000 x 2000 pixels). Turn on Create Artboard then tap OK to open the document.

Create and size an Artboard

In the Documents menu, tap Artboards, then drag your stylus across the background to create another artboard. Open the Transform Studio with Artboard 2 still selected and set the size to double your original artboard (I’ll use 4000 x 4000 pixels since my repeat block is 2000 x 2000).

Create a Rectangle on Artboard 1

In the layers panel select Artboard 1, then tap the Rectangle Tool. Drag your stylus across Artboard 2 to create a rectangle. Open the Transform Studio to adjust the size to 2000 x 2000 pixels and set the position to 0.0.

Create a Symbol

Open the Symbols Studio (with the rectangle still selected). Open the Symbols menu and tap Add Symbol from Selection.

Paste the Symbol onto Artboard 2

In the Edit menu, tap Copy. Select Artboard 2 in the layers panel. In the Edit menu tap Paste four times so you have four Symbol blocks on Artboard 2. Put the four blocks on the four corners of the artboard, using the Transform Studio to be sure each square is exactly in the corner (the Position should be 0, 0 for block 1; 2000, 0 for block 2; and so on).

Test it

Select Artboard 1 (this is where you’ll do all of your pattern building), select a brush and draw something. Then drag that shape in the layers panel to the Symbols layer so that it has a glowing orange line beside it. Only elements that are on the Symbols layer on Artboard 1 will show up on Artboard 2, so double check your layers panel if you have any trouble with the preview showing your elements! The drawing should automatically show up on Artboard 2. If it doesn’t, go back and double-check the steps above.

Create a Master Doc

Rather than redoing this process every time I create a new pattern, I like to use this document as my Master Doc, and just copy it any time I want to start a new pattern. So, delete your test shape, go to your Gallery, tap the Menu symbol on the document, and tap Duplicate a few times. Name one of them ‘Master Doc’ so you will remember to only use that file to copy for making future patterns. I also add the pixel dimensions to the title and create more Master Docs at different sizes like 3000 x 3000 and 5000 x 5000, etc.

Build a repeat pattern

Create your repeat elements

Create some shapes using vector and/or raster brushes in Affinity. When you first start building patterns, it’s easiest to start with abstract or geometric shapes rather than complex forms that have to fit together in a specific way. I’m using the Pen Tool to create simple geometric shapes. Remember to drag each shape to the Symbols layer so it has a glowing orange line beside it.

Design the edges of your repeat

Put one element on the left edge of the canvas, then tap the Edit menu and tap Duplicate. Open the Transform Studio, tap the X position and type + 2000 (there will already be a number there, but rather than deleting it, just add +2000). This moves the duplicated element to the exact opposite side of the canvas.

Fill the edges

Repeat the same process around the edges of the canvas. Since you type +2000 on the X-axis to move something to the right, you’ll type -2000 to move something to the left. Things you need to move up and down rather than left to right can be adjusted on the Y-axis. If you put something on the corner, it has to be duplicated three times, then moved to each of the four corners using the Transform Tool.

Tip:

Once you move each element into place, group it with its parent element by swiping on each of the layers, then tapping Group at the top of the layer’s menu. That way you can easily move elements up, down, left or right, without affecting your repeat layout.

Fill in the centre

Fill the repeat with shapes and filler elements like dots or lines, being sure not to draw on the edge of the canvas. Play around with the placement and colours to get the repeat exactly as you’d like it to be. Check Artboard 2 to see if your repeat is spaced nicely and make adjustments if needed.

Export the file

When you’re ready to export, tap the Documents menu and tap Export. On the export page, choose Artboard 1 as the Area and PNG as the file type, then select a save location.

Share it!

Now you can share the pattern on social media, add it to your online portfolio, or even upload the pattern to print on demand sites like Society6, Spoonflower or RedBubble! If you share the pattern on social media tag us @lizkohlerbrown and @affinitybyserif so we can see your pattern!

Variations

Patterns don’t have to be complex. You can create a beautiful pattern out of simple lines, brush strokes or dots. I made this pattern with the vector brush tool:

When I want to create complex patterns that contain a ton of layers, masks, or raster brush effects, I often make my repeat elements in a separate document, save them as a PNG with no background, then import each element onto my repeat canvas.

When you’re feeling ambitious, start creating complex patterns by fitting pieces together like a puzzle.

Create a whole collection! Choose a cohesive colour palette and stick to it for 4, 10 or even 20 patterns. Working in collections can help you develop your style as a designer and give you a cohesive set of patterns to show off in your portfolio.


About the creator

Liz Kohler Brown is an artist and designer who creates unique lettering projects, surface designs, and illustrations. After earning a Master of Fine Arts degree, she followed her passion of teaching workshops and classes around the world, online and in person.

Liz is a Top Teacher on Skillshare, a designation for the top 1% of teachers. She has created 40+ Skillshare classes on iPad Art & Design and cultivated an online community of artists and designers from every background and skill level who share their work, provide feedback, and offer support to help each other improve and advance their creative goals. You can connect with Liz on Instagram @LizKohlerBrown and get loads of resources for iPad art and design at LizKohlerBrown.com.


Article: Mexican Immigrants in the United States

Despite decreases in population size over the last decade, Mexicans remain the largest group of immigrants in the United States, accounting for about 24 percent of the nearly 45 million foreign-born residents. In 2019, there were about 10.9 million Mexican-born individuals living in the United States. This population declined by almost 780,000 people, or 7 percent, between 2010 and 2019, due in part to increased immigration enforcement and in part to a strengthening Mexican economy. In recent years, the number of Mexicans leaving the United States has outpaced the number of new arrivals, although the country remains far and away the top destination for Mexican emigrants.

Since 2013, Mexico has ceased to be the top country of origin for recent immigrants to the United States, overtaken by India and China. As with immigrants overall, recent arrivals from Mexico are more likely to be college graduates than those who arrived in prior decades.

Figure 1. Mexican Immigrant Population in the United States, 1980-2019

Sources: Data from U.S. Census Bureau 2010 and 2019 American Community Surveys (ACS), and Campbell J. Gibson and Kay Jung, “Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States: 1850-2000” (Working Paper no. 81, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, February 2006), available online.

Click here to view an interactive chart showing the number of Mexican immigrants and their share of all U. S. immigrants over time.

The number of unauthorized immigrants from Mexico has also been on the decline, although Mexicans still make up the majority of the unauthorized population. Mexicans accounted for 51 percent of the 11 million unauthorized immigrants in 2018, according to estimates from the Migration Policy Institute (MPI).

Mexicans in the United States are more likely than other immigrant populations to be long-time U.S. residents, with nearly 60 percent having arrived more than 20 years ago. However, given that a relatively high proportion are unauthorized, Mexican immigrants overall are less likely to be naturalized U.S. citizens than other groups. They are also more likely to live in poverty and less likely to have health insurance than the overall immigrant population.

Most Mexicans who become legal permanent residents in the United States (referred to as LPR status, also known as getting a green card) do so through family reunification, either as immediate relatives of U. S. citizens or through other family-sponsored channels. Mexican immigrants have also benefited immensely from the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, which provides temporary deportation relief and work authorization to unauthorized migrants who arrived as children and meet the program’s education and other eligibility criteria. In early 2020, there were more than 500,000 Mexican participants in the DACA program, accounting for the vast majority of active DACA recipients.

The United States is overwhelmingly the most popular destination for Mexicans living abroad, accounting for 97 percent of all Mexican emigrants. In fact, of all Mexicans residing either in or outside of Mexico in 2019, 8 percent were in the United States. Canada is home to the next largest population of Mexicans (86,000), followed by Spain (53,000), Guatemala (18,000), and Germany (17,000), according to mid-2019 United Nations Population Division estimates. Click here to view an interactive map showing where migrants from Mexico and other countries have settled worldwide. Within the United States, more than half of all Mexican immigrants live in one of two states: California and Texas.

Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau (the most recent 2019 American Community Survey [ACS] as well as pooled 2014-18 ACS data), the Department of Homeland Security’s Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, and the World Bank, this Spotlight provides information on the Mexican immigrant population in the United States, focusing on its size, geographic distribution, and socioeconomic characteristics.

Click on the bullet points below for more information:

Distribution by State and Key Cities
In the 2014-18 period, most immigrants from Mexico lived in California (36 percent) Texas (22 percent), Illinois (6 percent), and Arizona (5 percent). The next six most populous states—Florida, Georgia, Washington, North Carolina, Colorado, and Nevada—were home to an additional 13 percent of the Mexican-born population. The four counties with the most Mexican immigrants were Los Angeles County in California, Harris County in Texas, Cook County in Illinois, and Dallas County in Texas. Together, these counties accounted for 22 percent of the Mexican immigrant population.

Figure 2. Top States of Residence for Mexican Immigrants in the United States, 2014-18

Note: Pooled 2014-18 ACS data were used to get statistically valid estimates at the state level for smaller-population geographies. Not shown are the populations in Alaska and Hawaii, which are small in size; for details, visit the Migration Policy Institute (MPI) Migration Data Hub for an interactive map showing geographic distribution of immigrants by state and county, available online.
Source: MPI tabulation of data from U.S. Census Bureau pooled 2014-18 ACS.

Click here for an interactive map highlighting the states and counties with the highest concentrations of immigrants from Mexico and other countries.

As of 2014-18, the U.S. cities with the largest number of Mexicans were the greater Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, and Dallas metropolitan areas. Close to 31 percent of Mexican immigrants in the United States lived in these four metro areas.

Figure 3. Top Metropolitan Areas of Residence for Mexican Immigrants in the United States, 2014-18

Note: Pooled 2014-18 ACS data were used to get statistically valid estimates at the metropolitan statistical-area level for smaller-population geographies.
Source: MPI tabulation of data from U.S. Census Bureau pooled 2014-18 ACS.

Click here for an interactive map that highlights the metropolitan areas with the highest concentrations of immigrants from Mexico and other countries.

Table 1. Top Concentrations of Mexican Immigrants by Metropolitan Area, 2014-18

Source: MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau pooled 2014-18 ACS.

English Proficiency
Mexican immigrants are less likely to be proficient in English than the overall foreign-born population. In 2019, about 66 percent of Mexicans ages 5 and over reported limited English proficiency, compared to about 46 percent of all immigrants. Approximately 4 percent of Mexican immigrants spoke only English at home, versus 16 percent of all immigrants.

Note: Limited English Proficient (LEP) status refers to those who indicated on the ACS questionnaire that they spoke English less than “very well.”

Age, Education, and Employment

In 2019, Mexican immigrants were about the same average age as the overall foreign-born population but older than the U.S.-born population. Their median age was about 45 years old, compared to 46 for all immigrants and 37 for the native-born population. Mexican immigrants were more likely than the native- and overall foreign-born populations to be of working age (18 to 64 years old; see Figure 4).

Figure 4. Age Distribution of the U.S. Population by Origin, 2019

Note: Percentages may not add up to 100 as they are rounded to the nearest whole number.
Source: MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau 2019 ACS.

Mexicans adults have much lower rates of educational attainment than both the native- and overall foreign-born populations. In 2019, approximately 53 percent of Mexican immigrants ages 25 and older lacked a high school diploma or equivalent, compared to 26 percent of foreign-born adults and 8 percent of U.S.-born adults. Fewer than 8 percent of Mexican immigrants reported having a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared to 33 percent of both U.S.-born and all immigrant adults. However, the college-educated share among Mexicans who arrived within the past five years was much higher: 17 percent.

Mexicans participate in the labor force at slightly higher rates than the native-born and overall foreign-born populations. About 69 percent of Mexican immigrants ages 16 and older were in the civilian labor force in 2019, compared to 67 percent of the foreign-born population and 62 percent of the U.S. -born population. Compared to those two groups, Mexicans were more likely to be employed in the following occupations: service; natural resources, construction, and maintenance; and production, transportation, and material moving (see Figure 5). 

Figure 5. Employed Workers in the U.S. Civilian Labor Force (ages 16 and older) by Occupation and Origin, 2019

Note: Percentages may not add up to 100 as they are rounded to the nearest whole number.
Source: MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau 2019 ACS.

Income and Poverty

On average, Mexicans have lower incomes than the overall foreign- and native-born populations. In 2019, households headed by a Mexican immigrant had a median annual income of $51,000, compared to $64,000 for all immigrant households and $66,000 for native-born-led households.

In 2019, Mexican immigrants were more likely to be in poverty (17 percent) than immigrants overall (14 percent) or the U. S. born (12 percent).

Immigration Pathways and Naturalization

Mexicans are much less likely to be naturalized U.S. citizens than immigrants overall. In 2019, 34 percent of Mexican immigrants had become U.S. citizens, compared to 52 percent of the total foreign-born population.

Compared to all immigrants, Mexicans are more likely to have arrived in the United States at least a decade ago. The largest share of Mexican immigrants, approximately 59 percent, arrived prior to 2000, followed by 28 percent who arrived between 2000 and 2009. About 13 percent have arrived since 2010 (see Figure 6).

Figure 6. Immigrants from Mexico and All Immigrants in the United States by Period of Arrival, 2019

Note: Percentages may not add up to 100 as they are rounded to the nearest whole number.
Source: MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau 2019 ACS.

In fiscal year (FY) 2019, Mexico was the top country of origin for new permanent residents; approximately 156,100, or 15 percent, of the 1 million new LPRs were from Mexico. Most Mexicans who obtain green cards do so through family reunification channels. In FY 2019, 85 percent of Mexicans who received a green card that year did so either as an immediate relative of a U.S. citizen or green-card holder or as another family member of a citizen, a much higher share than the 69 percent of all new LPRs (see Figure 7).

Figure 7. Immigration Pathways of Mexican and All Legal Permanent Residents in the United States, 2019

Notes: Family-sponsored: Includes adult children and siblings of U.S. citizens as well as spouses and children of green-card holders. Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens: Includes spouses, minor children, and parents of U.S. citizens. Diversity Visa lottery: The Immigration Act of 1990 established the Diversity Visa lottery program to allow entry to immigrants from countries with low rates of immigration to the United States. The law states that 55,000 diversity visas in total are made available each fiscal year. Individuals born in Mexico are not eligible for the lottery. Percentages may not add up to 100 as they are rounded to the nearest whole number.
Source: MPI tabulation of data from Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 2019 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics (Washington, DC: DHS Office of Immigration Statistics, 2020), available online.

MPI estimates that as of 2018, approximately 5.6 million (51 percent) of the estimated 11 million unauthorized immigrants in the United States were from Mexico.

Click here to view an interactive map showing the number and geographic distribution (by state and county) of unauthorized immigrants from Mexico and other top origin countries. Click here to view demographic information about unauthorized immigrants nationwide, in most states, and in select counties.

Mexico is also the largest origin country for recipients of the DACA program, which provides temporary deportation relief and work authorization. As of March 2020, there were 517,500 Mexican DACA recipients, representing 80 percent of the 643,600 active DACA recipients, according to U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) data.

Click here to view the top origin countries of DACA recipients and their U.S. states of residence.

Health Coverage

Mexicans have low health insurance coverage rates compared to all immigrants. In 2019, 38 percent of immigrants from Mexico were uninsured, compared to 20 percent of all immigrants and 8 percent of the U.S. born (see Figure 8).

Figure 8. Health Coverage for Mexican Immigrants, All Immigrants, and the U.S. Born, 2019

Note: The sum of shares by type of insurance is likely to be greater than 100 because people may have more than one type of insurance.
Source: MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau 2019 ACS.

Diaspora

The Mexican diaspora is comprised of approximately 38. 5 million U.S. residents who were either born in Mexico or reported Mexican ancestry or origin, according to MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2018 ACS.

Remittances

In 2019, more than $38.5 billion in remittances were sent to Mexico via formal channels, according to the World Bank. Remittances have steadily risen following a dip during the Great Recession in 2008-09. These remittances represented about 3 percent of Mexico’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2019.  

Figure 9. Annual Remittance Flows to Mexico, 1990-2019

Note: The 2019 figure represents World Bank estimates.
Source: MPI tabulations of data from the World Bank Prospects Group, “Annual Remittances Data,” April 2020 update.

Click here to view an interactive chart showing annual remittances received and sent by Mexico and other countries.

Sources

Gibson, Campbell J. and Kay Jung. 2006. Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States: 1850-2000. Working Paper no. 81, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, February 2006. Available online.

Gonzalez-Barrera, Ana. 2015. More Mexicans Leaving than Coming to the U.S. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Available online.

Migration Policy Institute (MPI) Migration Data Hub. N.d. Educational Attainment of U.S. Adults (ages 25 and over) by Nativity and Country of Birth, 2018. Accessed October 29, 2020. Available online.

United Nations Population Division. N.d. International Migrant Stock by Destination and Origin. Accessed October 29, 2020. Available online.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2020. 2018 American Community Survey. Accessed from Steven Ruggles, Katie Genadek, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 7.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.  Available online.

—. N.d. 2019 American Community Survey—Advanced Search. Accessed October 29, 2020. Available online.

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). 2020. Approximate Active DACA Recipients: Country of Birth as of March 31, 2020. Available online.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Office of Immigration Statistics. 2020. 2019 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics. Washington, DC: DHS Office of Immigration Statistics. Available online.

World Bank Group. 2020. Annual Remittances Data, April 2020 update. Available online.

April 23, 2021 – The NAU Review

Kudos to these faculty, staff and programs

Do you have a spotlight item to share with the NAU community?

E-mail your announcements to [email protected], or use our online submission form.

  • Associate professor of anthropology Lisa Hardy co-authored the article, “Fear of vaccines grows with the need for medical ethics” published with KevinMD. The article discusses the importance of public trust for the future of global public health bringing in a conversation about the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine.
  • Yvonne Luna, chair of the Department of Sociology and Social Work and associate professor of sociology, was selected by the American Association of State Colleges and Universities to be one of 35 higher education professionals in the 2021 Emerging Leaders Program. The program was created to prepare early- to mid-career academic and administrative staff to advance to administrative roles with greater responsibility and oversight.
  • Bertrand Cambou, professor in the Department of Applied Physics and Materials Science (APMS), had a patent granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office titled, “Generation of Keys of Variable Length from Cryptographic Tables.” The patent is for a cryptographic infrastructure that provides an approximation of the one-time pad scheme where a cryptographic table is shared between a message sender and recipient by a secure transfer.
  • Fatemeh Afghah, associate professor in the School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems (SICCS), co-authored the article, “Green internet of things using UAVs in B5G networks: A review of applications and strategies” published in Ad Hoc Networks. The article is an overview of the techniques and strategies proposed to achieve green internet of things (IoT) devices by using unmanned aerial vehicle infrastructure.
  • From SICCS, assistant research professor Patrick Jantz, postdoctoral scholar Richard Massey, postdoctoral scholar Chris Hakkenberg and professor Scott Goetz co-authored the article, “Mapping tree diversity in the tropical forest region of Chocó-Colombia” published in Environmental Research Letters. The study developed a methodology to map tree diversity in tropical forest regions using α-diversity estimates from inventories as response variables and forest structural metrics and environmental variables as predictors.
  • Meredith Heller, senior lecturer of women’s and gender studies, was the recipient of the John Leo and Dana Heller award for her recent book titled, “Queering Drag: Redefining the Discourse of Gender-Bending.” The award honors the work and contributions to the Popular Culture Association and the LGBTQ studies that significantly contribute to the understanding and representation of LGBTQ people in popular culture. The book was featured on NBC’s list of “10 LGBTQ books to watch out for in 2020.”
  • Steven Gehrke, assistant professor in the Department of Geography, Planning and Recreation, co-authored the article, “Patterns and predictors of early electric vehicle adoption in Massachusetts” published in the International Journal of Sustainable Transportation. The study analyzed statewide vehicle registry data from 2008 to 2016 to identify the spatiotemporal patterns and environmental associates of early electric vehicle ownership.
  • Professor of educational psychology Timothy Thomason published three books in 2020. “Case Studies in Psychopathology” describes the lives and personalities of 50 famous people and provides diagnostic impressions regarding mental disorders they may have had. “Native American Psychology” provides the information mental health providers need to work effectively with Native American clients. “Wild Psychotherapy” describes the techniques used by some of the most creative psychotherapists in the country.
  • Frederick DeMicco, executive director of the School of Hotel and Restaurant Management, co-authored the article, “Club Medic – Hotel Onsite Medical Clinic: Franchise Model for a Lodging Market Competitive Advantage” published with Hospitality Net. The article discusses the benefits of using a Prontocare business model to add onsite clinics to hotels and resort spas.

 

Spotlight on the June 16 issue

Notable in

Neurology this week

This issue features an article that investigates the genotype-phenotype correlation between neurofibromatosis 1 germline mutations and imaging features of neurofibromas on whole-body MRI; another suggests that identifying the index vein on susceptibility-weighted MRI during a migraine attack can point to the cortical area responsible for the aura symptoms. A featured Views & Reviews explores a sign-based approach for the diagnosis of function gait disorders.

Articles

Patterns of longitudinal cortical atrophy over 3 years in empirically derived MCI subtypes

Cognitive subtypes of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have unique patterns of longitudinal cortical atrophy over time. These findings highlight the heterogeneity of MCI and show that empirically derived MCI subtypes can reliably reflect underlying atrophy, can reduce false-positive diagnostic errors, and have prognostic value for improving prediction of clinical course.

Page 1067

Distinguishing neurosarcoidosis from multiple sclerosis based on CSF analysis: A retrospective study

This study of clinical imaging and CSF findings in patients with neurosarcoidosis highlights that the absence of CSF oligoclonal bands is a useful distinguisher from multiple sclerosis and should be considered in future neurosarcoidosis criteria. Elevated white blood cell counts and protein levels, but not CSF angiotensin-converting enzyme levels, may also be supporting criteria.

Page 1068

Multimodal longitudinal study of structural brain involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

This longitudinal, multimodal imaging study of 292 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis demonstrates progressive cerebral gray and white matter network degeneration. Phenotypic variability and C9orf72 genotype correspond to distinct patterns of brain involvement, which is progressive only during the early stage of disease. Monitoring disease progression may be possible through imaging studies, and early intervention may limit cerebral degeneration.

Page 1073

90,000 Phrases for Research Work | Online constructor of research topics

INTRODUCTION

Theme of work and justification for choosing a theme

This research paper is about …
Have you ever wondered why …? I drew attention to … / thought about this question when …
I was always wondering why …
The desire to know . .. appeared in my childhood. I was interested in …
The theme of our work: “…”.I chose this particular topic for research, because …
In the future, I would like to connect my life with … therefore I am already interested in … and chose … as the topic of my research.
I became interested … after one day …
When I … I was amazed / I became interested …

Relevance

… has become an integral part of our life today. We use … without hesitation …
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Newness

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Tasks

To achieve this goal, we need to solve the following tasks:
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Work tasks:
Work tasks include:
Study the literature on the topic
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CHAPTER

First chapter (theoretical)
Basic terms and concepts, background

Key concepts for our research are….
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Second chapter – description of the study

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CONCLUSIONS, CONCLUSION

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Conclusion
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How to Use Lean Canvas Model for Product Management / Skillbox Media


Block # 5


Determine how to sell and advertise your product.Describe all channels and sales methodology.

The answer depends not only on the product, but also on its audience. Advertising in blogs, banners, TV announcements – it doesn’t matter, the main thing is to tell about the product in the way that is best perceived by the target audience.

Let’s say you’ve created a personal budgeting app and decided to promote it through content marketing. Such a product has different users: young families, students and freelancers. If you promote it only on one site, for example, on vc.ru, then you will reach students, managers and freelancers, and young families will be left on the sidelines. It is important for you to take into account all segments of the target audience, so resources that read everything at once are suitable, for example, Lifehacker.

If your product is suitable only for programmers or designers, then it is better to advertise it on special platforms.


Block # 6


This is where you need to think about the profitability of the product.

If you are going to distribute the product for free, think about how you will earn on it in the future.A paid product, on the other hand, must have sufficient value to make the customer want to pay for it.

Keep in mind that not everyone is ready to buy something that they would love to use for free. For example, a client chooses a task manager to schedule tasks. For personal purposes, a free product with basic functions and a simple interface is suitable for him. There are already more requirements for the program for work, so they will agree to pay more for it.


Block 7


This should include everything that you plan to spend money on.

To create a product that people want to buy, you have to invest in research. It will be necessary to determine the target audience, identify the problem and find solutions, and the finished product will need a website and advertising to be known about.


Block # 8


It doesn’t matter what product you create. For everything, you need criteria by which you will evaluate the result.

Identify key metrics using your AAARRR marketing funnel. It takes into account the main stages that the client goes through while interacting with the product.

AAARRR – marketing funnel of the milestones of the customer’s life in the product


Block # 9


This block will help you differentiate yourself from competitors and make your product stand out even more.

Think about what’s in your product but not others. This should be a strong advantage that is difficult to copy. For example, how to promote a product better than others, or your secret is a team of talented programmers, or a special function.

Troubleshoot damaged presentation in PowerPoint – Office

  • Takes 10 minutes to read
  • Applies to:
    PowerPoint 2019, PowerPoint 2016, PowerPoint 2013, PowerPoint 2010, Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007

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In this article

Note

Office 365 ProPlus renamed to Microsoft 365 Enterprise Applications . For more information on this change, read this blog.

Abstract

You may experience unexpected behavior when using a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation. This behavior can occur due to damage to the presentation. This article contains step-by-step methods that can help you restore part or all of your presentation.

This article is intended for beginner and intermediate computer users. For your convenience, we recommend that you start with a printout of this article.

Symptoms

When you try to open or modify a presentation that is damaged, the following symptoms may occur:

  • When you try to open the presentation, you receive one of the following error messages:

    This is not a PowerPoint presentation

    PowerPoint cannot open file type with extension . ppt

    Part of the file is missing.

  • The following error messages appear:

    General protection fault

    Invalid instruction

    Invalid page failure

    Insufficient system resources

    Not enough memory

Additional information

How to determine if your presentation is damaged

There are several ways to determine if your presentation is damaged.You can try to open the file on another computer that has PowerPoint installed to see if unexpected behavior occurs on another computer. You can try to create a new file in PowerPoint and see if unexpected behavior occurs with the new file. This section describes how to use existing presentations and how to create a new file in PowerPoint to determine if presentations behave in the same way.

Method 1. Open an existing presentation
  1. From the menu File , select Open .
    • In PowerPoint 2007, click Microsoft Office Button .
  2. Select a different presentation, then click Open.

If this presentation opens and appears to be intact, go to Method 3 in this section. Otherwise, go to Method 2 to create a new presentation.

Method 2: Create a new presentation
Step 1. Create presentation
  1. On the File menu , click New and then Welcome to PowerPoint (or Introducing PowerPoint 2010 ).
    • In PowerPoint 2007, click Installed Templates, and then click Introducing PowerPoint 2007 .
  2. Click Create . This process creates a presentation based on a template.
  3. From the menu File , click Save .
    • In PowerPoint 2007, click Microsoft Office Button , and then click Save .
  4. Enter a title for the presentation, then click Save .
  5. Exit PowerPoint.
Step 2. Opening a new presentation
  1. From the menu File , select Open .
    • In PowerPoint 2007, click Microsoft Office Button , and then click Open .
  2. Select a new presentation, then click Open .

If you cannot open or save a new presentation, go to method 3.

If you are unable to create a new presentation, PowerPoint may be damaged and you should start repairing.(See method 3, part 2 below.)

Method 3: General troubleshooting
Windows 10, Windows 8.1, Windows 8, and Windows 7

Part 1.

This procedure allows you to restart your computer without launching add-ons. For a clean reboot, follow the steps below.

  1. Log on to the system with an account with administrator rights.

  2. Click Start, type msconfig.exe in the Start Search box, then press ENTER to launch the System Configuration utility.

    Note

    When prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, enter the password or confirm an action.

  3. On the General tab , select the option Selective startup and uncheck the Load startup items check box. (The Use Original Boot.ini checkbox is unavailable.)

  4. On the Services tab, select the Do not show Microsoft services check box and click Disable All.

    Note

    This step will allow Microsoft services to continue working. After performing a clean restart, you should test the performance of Office and then resume normal startup.

Part 2.

This procedure will have Office check for problems and repair itself.

  1. Click Start and type Control Panel.

  2. Open Control Panel, go to section Uninstall or Change Program (or Add or Remove Programs ).

  3. Scroll down the list of programs and find your version of Microsoft Office. Right-click and then click Modify .

    Note

    We suggest you do an online recovery.

Ways to use if your presentation cannot be opened

Method 1.Drag the presentation onto the PowerPoint program file icon
Windows 10, Windows 8.1, and Windows 8
  1. Right-click the Windows icon in the taskbar, and then select Run.

  2. Depending on your version of PowerPoint, do one of the following procedures:

     % ProgramFiles% \ Microsoft Office
    % ProgramFiles (x86)% \ Microsoft Office
      
  3. Press the enter key.

  4. Find the Powerpnt icon.exe in Windows Explorer.

  5. Drag the damaged presentation icon from one window onto the Powerpnt. exe icon in another window.

PowerPoint will try to open this presentation. If PowerPoint can’t open your presentation, go to Method 2.

Windows 7
  1. Click the Start button and select Documents. Or click the Start button and then search for Windows Explorer.

  2. If you have MSI PowerPoint 2013 installed, enter% ProgramFiles% \ Microsoft Office \ office15 (PowerPoint 2013 64-bit) or% ProgramFiles (x86)% \ Microsoft Office \ office15 (PowerPoint 2013 32-bit) and then press Enter.

    If you have PowerPoint 2013 Select-to-Run version installed, enter C: \ Program Files \ Microsoft Office 15 \ root \ office15 (PowerPoint 2013 64-bit) or C: \ Program Files (x86) \ Microsoft Office 15 \ root \ office15 (PowerPoint 2013 32-bit), and then press Enter.

    If you have MSI version of PowerPoint 2016 installed, enter% ProgramFiles (x86)% \ Microsoft Office \ office16 and then press ENTER.

    If you have the Select-to-Run version of PowerPoint 2016, enter% ProgramFiles% \ Microsoft Office \ root \ Office16 (PowerPoint 2016 64-bit) or% ProgramFiles (x86)% \ Microsoft Office \ root \ Office16 (PowerPoint 2016 32 -bit) and then press Enter.

  3. Locate the Powerpnt.exe icon in Windows Explorer.

  4. Drag the damaged presentation icon from one window onto the Powerpnt.exe icon in another window.

Method 2: Try to insert slides into a blank presentation
Step 1. Create a blank presentation
  1. On the File menu, click New.
    • In PowerPoint 2007, click Microsoft Office Button , and then click New .
  2. Click Blank Presentation, then click New.

This process creates a blank title slide. You can delete this slide later after re-creating the presentation.

Step 2: Insert the damaged presentation as slides
  1. On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click the arrow next to the New Slide button, then choose Reuse Slides.
  2. On the Reuse Slides task pane, click the Browse button.Select the damaged presentation, then click Open.
  3. Click Insert slide for each slide in the damaged presentation.
  4. On the File menu , click Save.
    • In PowerPoint 2007, click Microsoft Office Button , and click Save .
  5. Enter a new title for your presentation and click Save.
Step 3. Apply the damaged presentation as a template

If the presentation does not look what you expect after these steps, try applying the damaged presentation as a template.To do this, follow these steps:

  1. On the File menu, click Save As.

    • In PowerPoint 2007, click Microsoft Office Button , and click Save As .
  2. Enter a new title for the presentation and click the Save button.

    Note

    This will create a backup of the recovered presentation that you can use in case the damaged presentation corrupts this new presentation.

  3. On the Design tab, in the Themes group, click More Options, and then click Search Themes.

  4. Select the damaged presentation and then click Apply. The damaged presentation’s slide master replaces the new slide master.

Note

If unexpected behavior occurs after following these steps, the template may have corrupted the presentation. In this case, use a backup to recreate the slide master.

If the backup of the new presentation exhibits the same damage or strange behavior as the original presentation, go to Method 3.

Method 3: Try opening a temporary version of the presentation file

When editing a presentation, PowerPoint creates a temporary copy of the file. This temporary file is called PPT ####. Tmp.

Note

The #### placeholder is a random four-digit number.

This temporary file can be located in the same folder where the presentation is saved.Or it can be located in the temporary files folder.

Rename the file, and then try to open the file in PowerPoint
  1. Right-click the file and then click Rename.

  2. Change the extension of the old file name from .tmp to .pptx so that the file name resembles the following file name:

    PPT ####. Pptx

  3. Start PowerPoint.

  4. From the File menu, choose Open.

  5. Browse to the folder containing the renamed file.

  6. Try opening the file in PowerPoint.

Note

More than one file can correspond to the temporary file created the last time the presentation was saved. In this case, you might have to open each file to see which is a temporary copy of the presentation.

If there are no temporary files, or if the temporary files have the same corruption or strange behavior, go to Method 4.

Method 4: Make a copy of the damaged presentation
  1. Right-click the presentation, then click Copy.
  2. In Windows Explorer, right-click in an empty area, then click Paste.

If you cannot copy the file, the file may be damaged, or the file may be on a damaged part of the computer hard disk. In this case, go to method 5.

If you can copy the file, try opening a copy of the damaged presentation in PowerPoint.If you are unable to open a copy of the damaged presentation, try repeating methods 1-5 in the “Methods to Use If You Cannot Open a Presentation” section below using a copy of the damaged presentation.

Method 5. Run a check for errors on the hard disk
Windows 10, Windows 8.1, and Windows 8
  1. Close all open programs.
  2. Right-click the Start button and select Explorer .
  3. Right-click the hard drive containing the damaged presentation.
  4. Select Properties, and then select the Tools tab.
  5. In the Error Checking section, select Check Now.
  6. Select the Automatically fix system errors check box.
  7. Select the Check and repair bad sectors check box.
  8. Select Start.
Windows 7
  1. Close all open programs.
  2. Click Start and select Computer.
  3. Right-click on the hard drive that contains the damaged presentation.
  4. Select Properties, and then select the Tools tab.
  5. In the Error Checking section, select Check Now.
  6. Select the Automatically fix system errors check box.
  7. Select the Check and repair bad sectors check box.
  8. Select Start.

Note

Error checking can check for cross-references to the presentation and try to repair the presentation. However, this is not a guarantee that PowerPoint will be able to read the presentation.

Troubleshooting steps if a damaged presentation can be opened

Method 1. Try to apply the damaged presentation as a template
Step 1. Create a blank presentation
  1. From the File menu , select New .
    • In PowerPoint 2007, click the Microsoft Office Button and select New .
  2. Select New Presentation , and then select Create . This process creates a blank title slide. (You can delete this slide after re-creating the presentation.)
Step 2: Paste the corrupted presentation into a blank presentation
  1. On the Home tab , in the group Slides , click the arrow next to New Slides, and then select Reuse Slides.
  2. On the taskbar Reuse slides , select View .
  3. Click the damaged presentation, and then select Open .
  4. Click Insert slide for each slide in the damaged presentation.
  5. Click Microsoft Office Button , and then click Save .
  6. Enter a new title for your presentation and click Save.
Step 3.Apply a damaged presentation as a template

If your presentation doesn’t look what you expect after you try these steps, try using the damaged presentation as a template. To do this, follow these steps:

  1. From the File menu , select Save As .
  • In PowerPoint 2007, click Microsoft Office Button and select Save As .
  1. Enter a new name for the presentation and click Save .

    Note

    This will create a backup of the recovered presentation that you can use in case the damaged presentation corrupts this new presentation.

  2. On the tab of the designer, in the Themes group, select More, and then Search for Themes.

  3. Select the damaged presentation and then select Apply .The damaged presentation’s slide master replaces the new slide master.

Note

If unexpected behavior occurs after following these steps, the template may have corrupted the presentation. In this case, use a backup to recreate the slide master.

If the backup of the new presentation still displays corruption or abnormal behavior, go to Method 2.

Method 2: Transfer slides from the damaged presentation to a new presentation
Step 1.Create a Blank Presentation
  1. From the File menu in PowerPoint, select Open .
    • In PowerPoint 2007, click the Microsoft Office Button , and then select Open .
  2. Locate the damaged presentation, and then select Open .
  3. From the File menu in PowerPoint, select New .
    • In PowerPoint 2007, click the Microsoft Office Button and select New .
  4. Select New Presentation , and then select Create . This process creates a blank title slide.
Step 2.

Copy the slides from the damaged presentation to a new presentation

  1. On the tab of View , select option Slide Sorter . If you get error messages when switching views, try using the Outline view.

  2. Select the slide you want to copy.On the Home tab , select Copy .

    Note

    If you want to copy multiple slides at the same time, hold down the Shift key and then select each slide you want to copy.

  3. Switch to a new presentation. To do this, in the tab Window , select Toggle window in the group View , and then select the new presentation created in step 1.

  4. On the tab of View , select option Slide Sorter .

  5. On the Home tab , select Insert .

  6. Repeat steps 2a through 2f until the entire presentation has been migrated.

Note

In some cases, one damaged slide can cause problems for the entire presentation. If you notice unexpected behavior in a new presentation after you copy a slide into your presentation, the slide is most likely damaged. Recreate the slide, or copy it section by section to a new slide.

If the new presentation is damaged or has strange behavior, go to method 3.

Method 3: Save the presentation as a Rich Text Format (RTF) file

If the entire presentation is damaged, the only option for recovering the presentation would be to save the presentation as a Rich Text Format (RTF) file. If this method is successful, it only restores the text that appears in Outline view.

Step 1.Save your presentation in RTF format
  1. Open your presentation.
  2. From the menu, File , select Save As , select a location to save the file, and then select More Options .
    • In PowerPoint 2007, select Microsoft Office Button , select Save As , and then select Other Formats .
  3. In the list Save file type , select Structure, RTF (*.rtf) .
  4. In the File name box, enter the name you want to use, select the location where you want to save your presentation, and click Save .
  5. Close the presentation.

Note

Any graphics, tables, or other text in the original presentation will not be saved in the .rtf file.

Step 2: Open the .rtf file in PowerPoint
  1. From the menu File , select Open .
  2. In the list Files of type , select All structures or All files .
  3. Select the .rtf file you saved in step 1d, and then select Open .

This procedure will re-create the presentation based on the presentation structure of the original presentation.

How to choose the most effective block diagram

What is a block diagram?

Flowcharts provide the ability to visually depict a process or system using forms or a combination of forms and words.These can range from sketchy hand-drawn images to complex computer diagrams that break down complex concepts into easy-to-read, understandable components. In addition, technical and non-technical personnel in almost any field can use flowcharts.

They are especially useful in a variety of situations including:

  • Process documentation and analysis
  • Development of computer software or networks
  • Communication or process standardization
  • Identifying overlaps, barriers and inefficiencies in processes
  • Create a plan or structure for a new project, department, or business
  • Scheduling Multiple Participants
  • Understanding how users navigate a website or store
  • Production process illustration
  • Create a new product or service

Benefits of

Block Diagram

Along with the ability to work in almost any situation, block diagrams offer a wide range of benefits, including:

Information Visualization

A block diagram can be a panacea as it provides a visual representation of how a product or service should work, how a project should evolve, or how a network might function before it is built. They allow you to identify dependencies, savings opportunities, staffing requirements, and other factors that may affect your project later, so flowcharts can help you save time and money.

Documentation

Using flowchart software, you can digitally save all of your files, send them almost instantly, and even create a library of flowchart templates. That way, your files are always available, your teams stay up-to-date, your company is compliant, and you don’t have to reinvent the wheel the next time you need to create a similar diagram.

Simplified communications

Flowcharts clarify every detail, which can help teams quickly understand the tasks assigned, when and by whom. This information can result in fewer meetings, fewer questions that arise, and more time to get work done. Flowcharts are also useful for informational guides or even for targeting new hires. Basically, flowcharts add context to instruction sets and make repetitive tasks more efficient.

Simple execution

Online flowchart templates get you started quickly. And with simple customizations, streamlined collaboration, and built-in version control, you can create the exact schemas your organization needs, search for information every step of the way, and stay on top of where the latest and greatest files are.

Types of Block Diagrams

While flowcharts can be used to explain anything, most people use them for one of three reasons — to inform decisions, represent processes, or to visualize data — which is why most flowchart templates fall into one of these three categories.So let’s take a look at what each type of flowchart includes and when and why to use them.

1. Decision tree

Think of the decision tree as an if-then flowchart. By letting you create a map of possible outcomes based on a specific set of options, a decision tree can help you see the path clearly and evaluate options.

Decision trees usually start with one node (question), then branch out into two options (decisions), then these options lead to additional nodes (possible outcomes).By their very nature, decision trees are particularly well suited for identifying probabilities and benefits, and can even be used to design algorithms that help predict outcomes.

2. Technological block diagrams

By providing the ability to map and analyze the sequence of activities in the production of a product or service, a process diagram can help you find gaps and overlaps in your process, identify where specific resources, equipment or personnel are needed, identify potential bottlenecks or problem areas, and uncover potential savings. …

In addition to describing how a particular activity should function or specifying the features of a product or service, flowcharts can also be used to train new employees, existing teams, or help third-party vendors or consultants understand your business and where they fit into it.

3. Data flow block diagrams

When you need to deeply analyze your data, a block diagram of the data flow. By using symbols and short text labels to represent inputs, outputs, storage locations, and travel paths, they can combine information into graphical representations of things that can be difficult to express in words.And because they can be used by technical groups and non-technical representatives, they are a great solution when you need to create a presentation for a wide audience.

Example: Data Flow Block Diagram

Block Diagram Recommendations

Creating a flowchart, especially when using a flowchart template, is very easy, but it takes a little more effort to create a great flowchart. So let’s take a look at a few tips for creating a flowchart that is not only informative but also impressive looking.

  • Make your diagrams easier to read . Creating an end-user flowchart means that its design and content will help your audience understand what to look for first and what to look for next. By adjusting the graphics as needed, always using correct grammar, clear headings, and avoiding special jargon, you can ensure that your diagram is user-friendly. (Hint: If you are unsure, show the flowchart to someone unfamiliar with your project.)
  • Be consistent . When you consistently use the same shapes, fonts, colors, and title standards throughout your flowchart, it is easier for your audience to follow you.
  • Use contrasting colors . Consistent use of colors is fundamental, but you don’t want to use the same color or color family for each shape. By using different colors, you can make steps or actions more visible. And by using text colors that stand out from the background, your diagram will be easier to read.
  • Use the program to create flowcharts online . With templates, built-in version control, easy collaboration, and the ability to edit at any time, these programs can help you test your design and create and modify flowcharts as needed.

Integrate your block diagram

Whether you need to make a decision, explain a process, or share data with management, incorporating flowcharts into other business applications and communications can further improve productivity.With a flowchart app and productivity tools, you can extract content for your diagrams from all sources, including documents, files, and social media sites.

Alternatively, you may want to consider integrating your flowcharts with business intelligence (BI) tools, allowing you and your team to work directly with the data and tell a fuller story. With built-in flowcharts and business intelligence tools, you can turn data into compelling visuals, create interactive reports, drill down into the data, and gain insights so you can make fast, informed decisions.

There are many new ways to create flowcharts and innovate your business process. To learn more, check out this step-by-step guide to automating flowchart creation from structured data in spreadsheets and explore modern flowchart tools.

Constructor of privacy policy and personal data processing

2.1. Automated processing of personal data – processing of personal data using computer technology.

2.2. Blocking of personal data is a temporary suspension of the processing of personal data (unless the processing is necessary to clarify personal data).

2.3. Website – a set of graphic and information materials, as well as computer programs and databases that ensure their availability on the Internet at the network address httpsː // thismywebsite · com.

2.4. Information system of personal data – a set of personal data contained in databases, and providing their processing of information technologies and technical means.

2.5. Depersonalization of personal data – actions as a result of which it is impossible to determine, without using additional information, the ownership of personal data by a specific User or other subject of personal data.

2.6. Processing of personal data – any action (operation) or a set of actions (operations) performed using automation tools or without using such tools with personal data, including collection, recording, systematization, accumulation, storage, clarification (update, change), extraction, use, transfer (distribution, provision, access), depersonalization, blocking, deletion, destruction of personal data.

2.7. Operator – a state body, a municipal body, a legal entity or an individual, independently or jointly with other persons organizing and (or) processing personal data, as well as determining the purposes of processing personal data, the composition of personal data to be processed, actions (operations) performed with personal data.

2.8. Personal data – any information relating directly or indirectly to a specific or identifiable User of the website httpsː // thismywebsite · com.

2.9. Personal data permitted by the subject of personal data for dissemination – personal data, access of an unlimited number of persons to which is provided by the subject of personal data by giving consent to the processing of personal data permitted by the subject of personal data for dissemination in the manner prescribed by the Law on Personal Data (hereinafter – personal data permitted for distribution).

2.10. User – any visitor to the website httpsː // thismywebsite · com.

2.11. Provision of personal data – actions aimed at disclosing personal data to a certain person or a certain circle of persons.

2.12. Dissemination of personal data – any actions aimed at disclosing personal data to an indefinite circle of persons (transfer of personal data) or at acquaintance with the personal data of an unlimited number of persons, including the disclosure of personal data in the media, posting on information and telecommunication networks or providing access to personal data in any other way.

2.13. Cross-border transfer of personal data – the transfer of personal data to the territory of a foreign state to the authority of a foreign state, to a foreign individual or foreign legal entity.

2.14. Destruction of personal data – any actions as a result of which personal data are destroyed irrevocably with the impossibility of further restoring the content of personal data in the personal data information system and (or) material carriers of personal data are destroyed.

90,000 Client portrait with examples: TOP creation tools

Have you ever wondered who manages to get good results from sales? As a rule, these are people who:

  • know exactly who they are selling to;
  • found the right channel of communication with the client;
  • make offers at a specific time when buyers are active and most inclined to make a purchase, and not spontaneously.

Perhaps this is the perfect picture.More often it is different: a startup has brought a wonderful and useful product to the market, but does not understand how and to whom to sell it, how to target it.

Or, for example, companies that have been on the market for several years, but still continue to balance on the success-failure ridge, when one channel or campaign gives a result, while others do not.

Often such difficulties arise because of the target audience (CA), the characteristics of which are formulated offhand. But after all, our task with you is to recoup investments and make a profit, so let’s put guesses aside and study our client.We will find out who he is, where he is, what he wants, how it is convenient for him to receive information and buy. To do this, we will draw up a portrait of the client – his avatar, which will be a beacon for all marketing activities.

What is a client portrait and why is it needed?

Client portrait (profile, avatar, person, character)

is a fictional person who combines a set of qualities and characteristics inherent in a segment of the target audience, or, more simply, a collective image of a buyer.

But why narrow the focus on a character when you can take a segment as a basis and work with it? But for what: a segment is a group of people united by common characteristics, but without vivid detailing, which is so necessary for a marketer / targeting specialist / designer and other specialists who help create and promote a product.A product that definitely hits the heart of the customer.

Why else do you need a consumer portrait?

Having an avatar is easier:

  • Create the right unique selling proposition (USP) and find influence triggers, prepare a good offer. This will help understanding the pain of a potential buyer.
  • Personalize the proposal by understanding needs, place of residence, profession, etc.
  • Speak the same language thanks to information about educational level, habits, social status, places visited, etc.d.
  • Choose the right channels and timing of communication through knowledge of routines, habits, devices, social networks.

Points to consider in the finished customer avatar

Consumer portrait templates typically include:

  • Socio-demographic characteristics: gender, age, education, region of residence, social status, income.
  • Description of life position, his goals, pains, values ​​and fears, things / people / services that make him happy.
  • The client’s lifestyle, how everyday life is organized, where he spends time (online and offline), leisure and hobbies.
  • Habits: what devices he uses, what channels he uses when searching for a product / service, what time he is most often online, the frequency of purchases.
  • Who makes the purchasing decision, what influences the decision, how often buys your product or service; principles that are guided when choosing a seller.

But this is one side of the person. The psychological profile of the buyer is no less important for creating a strategy for working with him:

  • What is the client’s temperament?
  • What are the features of your face and body type?
  • How sociable is he?
  • What colors does he prefer?

It will help to create successful branding, write slogans that hit the target, make effective banners.

After clarifying these details, to visualize the person, we add the client’s photo that best matches the person’s description.

The more complete the finished customer avatar is, the easier it will then be to select marketing activities that will satisfy even the most demanding customer.

10 basic sources of customer information

We recommend that you start compiling a portrait of a typical client with statistical data. Data from analytics systems and advertising offices, such as Google Analytics and Yandex.Metrica, Google Adwords and Yandex.Direct, make it possible to understand and highlight the main segments in your target audience.Knowing the general characteristics of the segments, you can proceed to drawing up a portrait of a b2c buyer and filling it with details using interviews, social networks, etc.

Analytics systems Google Analytics and Yandex.Metrica

You can find out about your customers in Google Analytics in the “Audience” tab. It contains all the information about them: gender and age, language, country and city, browser, OS, devices used, interests.

Use the “Create Segment” option to find out the number of users matching your criteria.Having built the segments, you can deeply analyze your target audience and identify intersections.

Google Analytics tools allow you to distinguish user groups by gender, age, language, purchased product category, location … and compare them.

You can narrow the segment by specifying the traffic source, for example: social networks, email, web push, direct visits, etc. In general, you can see which audience is interested in goods / services, and which of them buys.To do this, specify the e-commerce parameters.

In addition, you can build a custom segment that will correspond directly to the criteria that you specify yourself.

Similar data can be obtained in Yandex.Metrica reports: “Audience” and “Technologies”. The first report displays statistics on demographics and interests.

To find out about the preferences of the target audience in terms of choosing a device, browser, OS, the presence of Cookies, etc.you need to go to the “Technologies” report.

You can refine the parameters for a segment inside the report.

CRM

Do you need a meaningful portrait of a corporate client? Let’s analyze leads in CRM.

The CRM customer base is an invaluable source of information about real customers. You can judge which clients with which characteristics convert better. Ideally, if a sales or customer service manager captures key communication points:

  • with what need the client has applied;
  • what difficulties and doubts arose;
  • why he chose your company, what influenced the purchase decision;
  • is his average check; financial discipline and other data.

Depending on the specifics, the business can use its own software, rather than publicly available CRM. So, for example, to create a portrait of a bank client, it is logical to turn to the internal system, which contains all information about the consumer: from a photograph to a description of behavior.

If you have a large business and need to store large amounts of information, use CDP so that not a single kilobyte is lost.

Last post

Marketing research

Customer interview

Nobody and nothing will give you more accurate and complete information about the buyer than himself.Having previously analyzed your audience and highlighting the main segments, conduct in-depth interviews with its representatives. This research method allows you to learn about the habits, motives, goals and other characteristics of the client, which are revealed in a simple survey.

In addition to questions about age, place of residence and work, include in the guide (conversation plan) questions about:

  • Who is he, what is his lifestyle and habits?
  • What does his typical day consist of?
  • What are his values?
  • What is he dreaming of?
  • What failures does he face and how does he solve them?
  • What is his family?
  • What income?
  • How does he manage it?
  • How does one look for the right product?
  • What attracts attention and disposes to purchase?
  • What fears and concerns are there when choosing a product?
  • How and who makes the final purchase decision (if the client has a family)?

Avoid general questions so you don’t get general answers.Ask additional, clarifying questions to find out the details.

No need to post 100, 200, etc. interview. 7-15 is enough to create a marketing portrait of a client from a separate segment. An interview is a qualitative study that will show the picture in all its colors, but will not provide statistics.

Sales interview

These people are at arm’s length from clients. And, perhaps, this is the only source of unique information about them: sales managers know not only the needs of their customers and the frequency of purchases, but sometimes the names of pets and important dates for their families.

Talk to Sales periodically to find out:

  • Who is buying?
  • What are they interested in?
  • What fears, objections?
  • Why refuse to buy?
  • What are their wishes?
  • Where / how is it convenient for them to place an order?

Google AdWords

User characteristics can be obtained from the Google AdWords advertising account. Customized remarketing lists will help with this: users who visited the site, watched a video, left their personal data, and interacted with the application.

To view them, you need to find “Tools and settings” at the top of the advertising office. A large list will be presented to your attention, in the “General audience” section we find the item “Audience manager”:

Audience statistics contains data on:

  • gender and age;
  • lifestyle and interests;
  • place of residence;
  • used devices.

Facebook Ads Manager

You have customer contact details (email, phone), but no idea about their age and gender, education and marital status, etc.etc.? All this can be found in the Facebook ad account.

As it updates, Facebook reveals more and more audience data, such as car availability or average income.

Go to Ads Manager and in the “Resources” block go to the “Audiences” tab.

Create an audience by choosing the Custom Audience type.

You will be offered a number of ways to create an audience from users of your site, application, including the “Client List”.Select this source.

Download the contact file in CSV or TXT format. Facebook will scan the list and provide socio-demographic information for the people on the list.

For ease of further work with audiences in Facebook Ads Manager and eSputnik, you can set up service integration.

Social networks

A customer’s social media profile can reveal:

  • place of work of a person;
  • his marital status;
  • places of visit;
  • 90,251 events that people are interested in and attend;

    90,251 music and film preferences;

  • favorite books, sports, TV shows;
  • 90,251 pages that you liked;

  • what topics are relevant to him.

To collect this information, visit their Facebook page and go to the Information tab.

Analyze dozens of profiles to understand what your customers are breathing.

To automate data collection, use special platforms: Keyhole, Buffer and the like.

Similarweb

Excellent service for preliminary analysis of a number of indicators of a site or application. Unfortunately, the Similarweb data has an error, but you can use it as a guideline for creating a marketing portrait of a client.

Resource allows you to find out:

  • categories of goods interesting for users;
  • 90,251 search queries by which users find a company;

  • popular social networks associated with your website or application;
  • sources from which traffic comes, etc.

Similarweb is one of the resources where you can monitor the performance of competitors, and with this in mind, supplement your understanding of the audience.

Mailing service

If you do mailings, then your system already has information about the behavior of subscribers. Use the information to segment and saturate the customer portrait with important details. For example, determine his average bill, frequency of purchases, preferred channel, activity in the channel (whether he reads mailings on the channel, how willingly he clicks).

Segmenting in eSputnik

It is possible to draw conclusions about the behavior of subscribers based on the results of mailings and contact statistics.

For example, an RFM analysis will show how the groups for interaction with mailings and for the sales that were made from them were distributed. You can also filter the data by specifying the range for sending messages. Or to flesh out the segment to find out how the subscribers who are in it actually behave.

Read about the segmentation of the subscriber base by age of purchase, frequency of purchase and average bill in our article.

Examples of consumer portrait

Beauty salon client portrait

The target audience of a beauty salon, depending on its level and positioning, can be different: from female students to male managers who use the services of a hairdresser and a manicurist once a month.Here is an example of a portrait of a potential client of a beauty salon:

Thanks to such a close acquaintance, we can judge through which channel it is better to communicate with clients, in what tone to write, what will attract their attention, how to “wrap up” the offer so that the client is ready to buy it. You can now simplify the work with the choice of the type of mailings for your beauty salon and get ideas from our material.

Create a mailing list for your clients

Go to

Portrait of a client of a travel agency

A customer marketing profile needs to be created for each major segment.So, for example, the travel business most often works with 6 types of buyers of their services:

  • vacationers who prefer sea holidays;
  • lovers of travel to remote corners of the world in order to attend famous events; hiking fans;
  • fans of extreme recreation;
  • 90,251 active and sports tourists for whom attractions are secondary;

  • explorer tourists who travel to study the culture of other countries.

A portrait of a client of a travel agency needs to be developed for each of them in order to prepare an offer, a newsletter that will interest them.

For example, typical tourist explorer:

  • Age: 32-43 years old.
  • Social status: more often a middle manager, less often a top manager.
  • Choosing a tour operator: according to recommendations, reviews on the network.
  • Important: price and options offered.
  • Channels: it is convenient to recognize offers in Viber, willingly studies offers from targeted advertising. In touch around the clock.
  • Frequent purchases: times a year, mostly in summer.
  • Decision Making: consults with family or friends who have had similar travel experiences.
  • Sources of information: publics and groups in social networks, bloggers.
  • Features: carefully plans the route, always brings souvenirs.

Using this logic, you can create a portrait of a buyer of dentistry, car service, restaurant, hotel, and so on.


Marketing means working closely with each potential buyer, based on an understanding of his needs and pains. Approximate order of making an avatar:

  • To create a well-defined customer portrait, you can start with a conversation with the sales team who will help shape the main segments before moving on to detailing.
  • Create a client’s avatar in the literal sense: pick a photo that matches the appearance of a typical representative of the segment (preferably not a real one), give him a name.
  • Analyze the interests of people who are included in the selected groups in the social. networks and fix them in a card with a portrait.
  • See what analytics systems and statistics of advertising cabinets say about the behavior of site visitors.
  • Invite representatives from each segment for tea interviews to understand the values, motives and needs of your customers.

A business that has been on the market for several years has more tools at its disposal to compose or refine a customer’s avatar. The fuller the portrait, the more ideas are born to establish communication with the client. Combine several of the above techniques to achieve a complete and realistic portrait. You will succeed 😉

Incoming call script | Template with examples and objections

In this article and video, you will learn a step-by-step diagram for writing an effective sales script to handle an incoming customer phone call.When compiling an incoming call script, we are guided by the following inputs:

If the client calls himself, then he already has some kind of formed need. As a rule, this is a need for the product itself or for additional information.

Moreover, in the second case, the client may be interested only in the information itself, and he can plan the acquisition in a completely different place. This can be a specific question, or a detailed consultation, and you will be a kind of reference for the product.

Before the call, the client already has his own strategy and the sooner it becomes clear, the easier and more comfortable it will be for you and your clients.

We also understand that 90% of customers call prepared and most likely they have already received possible information about the product and analogues from open sources. Therefore, our example phone sales script will be as simple and specific as possible.

What does the client want?

When a client makes an incoming call to the company, he wants:

  1. Make no mistake in choosing.
  2. Quickly resolve your issue.
  3. To communicate with him humanly. In this case, I am talking about not having to read the text to him from a piece of paper and that it was comfortable human communication.
  4. So that they don’t make him a fool. So that they do not use manipulative techniques and do not lead by the nose. The client should see that you are not trying to sniff out something for him, but are on his side and protect his interests.

The call script that we will analyze will meet exactly these client-oriented criteria.

Objectives of the incoming call script

In turn, your goals when processing an incoming call and compiling a telephone sales script should be as follows:

  1. Remove the customer’s contacts and place it in the database.
  2. Reveal the purpose of the call and the potential of the client.
  3. Assign target action.
  4. Do everything as quickly as possible.
  5. Leave a good impression.

Note that we do not have a goal of informing the client or answering his questions.This is the most popular misconception. Many people believe that the purpose of processing a call is precisely information, so they are very enthusiastic to answer all the client’s questions, tell everything they know and thereby lose deals.

Selling information is possible, but only if your company is the undisputed market leader or you have the cheapest prices. Otherwise, this strategy will be a losing one.

It is also important to notice what we mean by targeted action.A targeted action is a certain conversion stage that is offered to a client before a purchase in order to increase the chance of a sale. This can be a show, a measurer’s departure, a meeting, an invitation to a store, a test drive, etc. Some kind of free action to which the client will agree more easily than a purchase.

Your target action is also a qualifying filter that shows how much the client is generally interested in the offer. Indeed, if a client wants to buy an apartment, but does not want to come to see it, it looks rather strange.Therefore, the phone script should be focused on the target action, and not on the sale itself.

It is worth making a reservation, in some cases the target action may be the very conclusion of the transaction, if, for example, you have an online store or you are selling a simple product where all questions can be resolved by phone.

Incoming call script

So, you need to accept an incoming call from the client within the first three rings, introduce yourself and introduce your company. Next, listen carefully to the client.

If a customer has already made a purchase decision and immediately says what he needs, there is no need to beat around the bush. Go straight to the target action.

If appropriate, you can ask expert questions:

  • Why are you considering this option?
  • Are you still considering any alternatives or have you already decided on something?

This way you will understand how competent the client is and whether his choice is really the best decision.If this is not the case, move to the needs identification stage, demonstrate your expertise and suggest the best alternatives.

If a client calls to get information, answer his question and immediately (without a pause) propose the target action. Plus, it is desirable to add argumentation why this targeted action is very important.

For example:

  • How much does a 2-room apartment cost?
  • The apartment costs from 2 million. Would you like to book a viewing? You yourself know better to see once than hear a hundred times.
  • I would like to consult on the selection of an alarm system.
  • Yes, of course, would it be convenient for you to drive up to our office? The choice is large, I would tell and show everything on the spot.

If the client is ready for the target action, ask for a name, contact details and sign up for an appointment. If the client is not ready for the target action, there are two options. Either he initially did not intend to buy anything, or there is some reason or doubt behind it.In other words, some kind of objection.

Your task is to find out this reason or doubt and give closing arguments. This can be done using a clarifying question:

  • Why don’t you want to come to our office?
  • And if it’s not a secret, what prevents you from meeting?

If the client’s answer is vague and not specific, then he was not going to buy anything. And if the client is serious, you will hear typical objections “Expensive”, “I’ll think about it”, “Others are cheaper”, “It is necessary to consult” and so on.

Dealing with objections by phone

These objections can be either product or meeting. Most of the objections to the product at this stage can be handled in one phrase:

  • That’s why I propose to meet.

For example.

  • It’s expensive for you.
  • Therefore, I propose to meet so that you can see our quality and what is the reason for this cost.
  • We need to think about it.
  • That is why I propose to meet so that you have all the information to think about.

If the client has objections to the meeting itself. You need to explain its value. Say that at the meeting you will show product samples, give something to try, you cannot reveal all the details of the offer by phone, you will be able to give more flexible discounts, etc.

If, nevertheless, it was not possible to work out the objections and the client “jumps off”, then we move on to the goal of removing contacts and placing the client in the database for further support.

For example:

  • Thank you, I still need to think.
  • Yes, of course think about it, let me send you information for reflection and call you back when you make a decision. Where can you send information to WhatsApp, Viber, Telegram?

I recommend offering messengers. This is a more informal channel of interaction and you will be in front of the client’s eyes, on the list of his friends and in touch. Next, your task is to send the client useful information and ask when to contact him.

How to increase the conversion of the sales script

And a few tips that will allow you to increase the conversion when processing an incoming call:

  1. Don’t ask for a name right away. In many areas of sales, the phrase “how can I contact you” is already causing rejection. My recommendation in this case is not to ask the client for the name right away. First, answer his question, establish contact, and then (as if in passing) specify the name when the conversation has already begun. It will be much more pleasant and comfortable this way.
  1. To increase conversion at the stage of making an appointment, do not tell the client – come at any time or let me come at any time. As if this client is the only one for you.

Tell me this:

  • When would you like to come to us?
  • Tuesday.
  • In the morning or afternoon?
  • In the second.
  • There is free time for 5 or 7 hours.At your convenience?

Thus, you will create the appearance of the workload and the severity of the meeting. This will increase the conversion of the phone sales script at this stage.

  1. If the client says he needs to think about, send a presentation of your company along with useful information to the client.

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