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20 Awesome Kindle Fire Cases

Tablets didn’t really take off until the iPad came around, but it was the price point for Amazon’s Kindle Fire ($159 with special offers, $174 without) ($169.99 at Amazon) that helped them reach ubiquity. Amazon doesn’t disclose sales, but Forrester Research places the Kindle Fire second only to the iPad.

The Kindle Fire tablet has expanded into other versions. There’s one with a 7-inch screen, and an 8.9-inch HD model that comes with or without 4G. But the basic Kindle Fire we focus on here is the smallest of the Fire family.

Because it’s so portable, it needs protection. With a Kindle Fire you can distract yourself on a commute with a long train ride by reading ebooks and magazines in full color and watching shows and movies from Amazon Instant. Once you get to the office, you can use it to access whatever documents you have stored on Amazon Cloud Drive. When you return home after a long day, you can unwind by window shopping in the browser, and the Kindle Fire makes a great second-screen device while catching up on those must-watch shows. But because it’s so portable and has tons of apps for kids (so it’s sure to find itself in small and not so careful hands), it needs protection.

Kindle Fire cases are nearly as varied as the entertainment they provide. Some options encase the Kindle Fire completely, adding security—but also in some instances, unwelcome weight. One case we suggest provides the same enveloping protection but in a lighter surf-blue case formed from foam. For women who like to leave the house with nothing but a sleek clutch, there’s a case that’s as versatile fashion-wise as it is practical.

We’ve put together a great gallery of protective coverings for you to consider here. Once you’ve dressed it up, be sure to check out our 30 favorite Kindle Fire apps.

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1. Marware Swurve

If you really lurve your Kindle Fire, you might want to encase it in the impact-resistant Swurve.

2. Speck FitFolio

The FitFolio follows the contours of your Kindle Fire for compact carrying.

3. Punchcase by Leslie Hsu

There’s no compromising on either space or style with the Punchcase by Leslie Hsu. It can handle the Kindle Fire, an additional ereader, cash, and cards.

4. Built Twist Top Sleeve

Some Kindle Fire cases can be boring, but cases from Built have a different twist, with their unique opening and fun patterns like Robot Uprising (pictured).

5. Marvel Kawaii Spider-Man

Your friendly neighborhood Spider-Man looks supercute on this Marvel Kawaii cover. But that doesn’t mean he’s slacked off; this case protects your Kindle Fire from scratches and bumps with a soft lining and hard plastic frame.

6. Gumdrop DropTech

With a rugged tire pattern outside and bumper-to-bumper protection inside, the DropTech case will steer you clear of accidents.

7. M-Edge Snow White by Shelby

That apple didn’t work out so well for Snow White. If you have a Kindle Fire instead of an iPad and you feel the same, this cover’s for you.

8. Case-Mate DIY

If you can’t find exactly what you’re looking for, Case-Mate lets you design your own with its DIY tool.

9. Woodchuck Kindle Fire Real Wood Skin

10. BoxWave Manila Leather Envelope

Your Kindle Fire can evade would-be thieves with a little subterfuge when you slip it into this manila leather envelope.

11. Griffin Passport Folio

The Passport Folio stows easily to make traveling with your Kindle Fire simple.

12. Cable Knit

13. Vera Bradley Ereader Sleeve

14. Kate Spade New York Jubilee Stripe

15. M-Edge Incline Case

This smart-looking cover borrows more than a little from Apple’s Smart Cover, and its flexible design allows multiple viewing angles

16. Belkin Classic Cover

17. Hard Candy Bubble Case

The Hard Candy Bubble Case may look sweet with its soft touch exterior, but the polycarbonate case means it stands tough.

18. Otterbox Kindle Fire Defender

The Kindle Fire Defender lives up to its name; it’s impact-resistant and has a built-in screen protector.

19. Herschel Supply Co. “Pop Quiz” iPad Case

Pop quiz: What iPad case can fit a Kindle Fire and then some with style to spare? Answer: This handsome Herschel case.

20. Marc by Marc Jacobs Reluctant Stars Mini Tablet Case

If you’re starry-eyed over your Kindle Fire, show it with this sweet pink case.

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25 Hot Kindle Fire Cases, Covers, Skins and Sleeves

The Kindle Fire is bringing up the sales chart at Amazon, and is set to be a big holiday hit.

With any hit, you need accessories, and there are no shortage of Kindle Fire cases and covers to keep your Fire protected and stylish.

The Kindle Fire has a nice look and feel to it, so you king not feel the need for an always on case, especially for reading in bed, so you can also find some nice slip covers in the Kindle Fire case roundup.

Read: 7 Things to do When You Get Your Kindle Fire

Because the Kindle Fire has a glossy display, you may want to add on a pack of anti-glare screen protectors when you order a case.

Amazon Kindle Fire Zip Sleeve – $29.99

Kindle Fire protection in multiple colors.

If you want the official Amazon Kindle Fire case, this is it. You get a L-shaped zipper and your choice of 5 colors from the ostentatious Lime to subdued Grey. A nice choice for users who want to keep their Kindle Fire protected while in a larger bag.

Speck Kindle Fire BookWrap

Available exclusively at Target, this wrap protects in style.

This case comes in several colors and keeps your Fire safe from scratches. You can use the Fire inside the case, or slip it out for case-less use around the house. You can only purchase this case at Target stores. No pricing is available yet.

Marware Folio Kindle Fire Cover – $39.99

A Smart Cover for your Kindle Fire.

If you want an iPad-like Smart Cover for your Kindle Fire, the Microshell Folio from Marware gives you a very similar look. The lid is kept in place with an elastic band, and you also get a hard back to protect your Kindle Fire. The front protection folds up to give you a stand for watching Prime movies and Netflix.

Marware C.E.O. Hybrid Kindle Fire Cover – $44.99

Leather padded Fire cover with a stand and a handle.

If you want a Kindle Fire cover with a leather finish and several useful features, check out the Marware C.E.O. Hybrid Kindle Fire Cover. You get a nice finish, soft interior, 2 stand angles and a hand strap that allows you to keep a good grip on the case while holding it.

Marware Axis Kindle Fire Cover – $39.99

Delivers 6 angles and the ability to tilt and rotate.

If you like flexibility, the Marware Axis Kindle Fire Cover may be the best choice in the bunch. You can tilt and rotate your Kindle Fire in the case, allowing you to stand it up in portrait mode for hands free reading. There is also a hand strap and elastic strap to keep the case closed when not in use.

 

Case-Mate Kindle Fire Tuxedo Case – $40

Leather-esque case with magnets to wake your Fire.

The Case-Mate Tuxedo case comes in black and a nice looking caramel and includes the ability to wake your Kindle Fire from sleep when you open it. The case allows you to place the Fire at an incline while reading in landscape mode. The case uses tape to keep your Fire in place, so you may want to wait for reviews to roll in on this one.

Case-Mate Kindle Fire Venture Case – $50

Sharp red and black case for the Kindle Fire with built in stand for movies.

Case-Mate’s Kindle Fire Venture case delivers a leather look, and allows you to prop up your device to watch movies or read in landscape mode. Your Fire is kept in place with velcro, and the case closes with a button snap.

Belkin Verve Folio for Kindle Fire – $39.99

Leather folio with multiple viewing angles.

The Belkin Verve Folio for the Kindle Fire will be available soon, and offers a leather finish and the ability to angle your Fire in just the right so you can avoid the glossy reflection of the screen while reading or watching movies. When you are done, you can close it up for complete protection.

Belkin Verve Tab Folio – $29.99

Purple, Pink and Black covers for the Kindle Fire.

The Verve Tab Folio protects your Kindle Fire in an array fo colors and stays shut with a magnetic latch. There is a small inner pocket to keep some paper, or that bookmark you have sentimental feelings for.

Belkin Grip Sleeve for Kindle Fire – $25

Kindle Fire sleeve with fun patterns.

The laser etched design on the side of the Belkin Grip Sleeve for Kindle Fire give you a better grip and add a bit of style to your basic Kindle Fire cover. Available in black, teal and pink.

M-Edge Incline Jacket for Kindle Fire – $39.99

Stylish case with 3 landscape angles and one portrait stand angle.

M-Edge delivers another nice looking Kindle Fire case with the Incline case. You can choose from four colors and you are able to stand your Fire up at three landscape angles and in portrait moe for reading. The case secures with a magnetic closure.

M-Edge Slip Sleeve for Kindle Fire – $34.99

Thin and colorful sleeves for the Fire.

Currently you can only get the Slip Sleeve for the Kindle Fire in black, but colorful options appear to be on the way. The minimal case looks nicer than many of the sleeves we have seen, and it is ScotchGuarded to keep dirt from damaging your cover.

M-Edge Hampton Jacket for Kindle Fire – $39.99

Book-like cover for your Kindle Fire

The Hampton Kindle Fire case is a book style cover for the Fire, but you can choose a carbon fiber style finish that looks quite nice. There are other color options coming.

M-Edge Design Your Own Cover  for Kindle Fire

Put your own images and photos on the front of your Kindle Fire

The MyEdge for Kindle Fire isn’t available yet, but if you want the cover of your favorite book, kids pictures or just a favorite scene on your Kindle Fire, you should circle back to M-Edge in the coming weeks.

Pad & Quill Fire Keeper – $59.99

Our favorite iPad book-case comes to the Fire.

the Pad & Quill Fire Keeper case for the Kindle Fire is hand-made in the U.S. and finished with a leather book cover. You can choose from a collection of interior colors and add a pocket to keep a but of paper with you .

Incipio UnderGROUND Felt Sleeve for Kindle Fire – $19.99

Affordable and stylish looking case for the Fire.

The Incipio Kindle Fire UnderGROUND Felt sleeve is one of my favorites thanks to the subdued looks, felt finish and slip shape. It doesn’t hurt that you can get it for $20.

Timbuk 2 Kindle Fire Element Sleeve – $40

Read your Fire anywhere with the clear front and hand strap

The Timbuk2 Kindle Fire Element sleeve has a clear plastic front so you can read your books in the rain, or wherever your life takes you. There’s also a small external pocket if you need to carry a charging cable or headphones.

Timbuk 2 Kindle Fire Professor Jacket – $45

Typing or watching, this stand has you covered

The Professor Kindle Fire Case has a tri-fold design that supports viewing in landscape mode, or places your Kindle Fire at a typing angle if you need to answer a few emails. The color options offer a trio of complementary colors.

Timbuk 2 Kindle Fire Envelope Sleeve – $25

Simple, but great looking sleeve.

The Timbuk2 Kindle Fire Envelope Sleeve isn’t going to win awards for originality, but you get an array of nice color options, the three panel look Timbuk2 is known for and quality protection for just $25.

Timbuk 2 Kindle Fire Cush Sleeve – $35

Memory Foam case for your Kindle Fire.

 

The Timbuk2 Cush Kindle Fire case is similar to the iPad Cush case, and as such offers a lot of protection in a nice slim design. At $35 this is a nice buy.

BUILT NY Kindle Fire Sleeve – $25

Colorful and lightweight, this sleeve will protect you on the road.

BUILT NY has always offered nice sleeves, and the 7″ eReader neoprene sleeve should be a good fit for the Kindle Fire. These sleeves earn a spot thanks to the dots and city grid designs that are both eye catching.

RocketFish MY WAY Kindle Fire Case – $24.99

Interchangeable straps let you change the color to fit your mood.

Best Buy offers the RocketFish MY WAY Kindle Fire Case with interchangeable straps that keep it closed. Inside, you get a slot for a pen. You can use the case to set your Kindle Fire at three different angles.

DecalGirl Kindle Fire Skins – $20

Cool looking skins that protect the front and back of your Kindle Fire

DecalGirl has been offering skins for devices for almost a decade, and the Kindle Fire skins bring the same broad range of images and illustrations. Top notch skins for just $19.99.

Waterfield Kindle Fire Smart Case – $59

Slim and trim, this case protects the Fire with minimal bulk.

Waterfield makes some amazing bags and iPad 2 cases, so it is good to see a favorite come to the Kindle Fire so quickly. Just slide the Fire into this padded sleeve and you’ll have protection. The microfiber liner will even wipe off many of your fingerprints when you take it out to read.

BodyGurdz Kindle Fire Armor Carbon Fiber Skin – $29.99

Carbon Fiber protection and an anti-glare screen guard.

BodyGuardz is another favorite skin maker, that offers nice protection and a great feel. The Kindle Fire Carbon Armor skin also comes with an Anti-glare screen protector, which believe me you will want. Available in black, white and red.

Stay tuned for more Kindle Fire Cases, Covers and Screens.

The Top 10 Cases for Kindle Fire HD 8 (2018 Release)

Posted on Sep 15, 2018 |

If you are going to buy a Kindle tablet or you have it already, then it is important to secure them with a great Kindle cover. In present’s scenario, the market is flooded with Kindle covers and makes it difficult to choose the best Kindle Fire HD 8 case. When you have decided to choose a Kindle Fire HD 8 case, then the first place to buy the cover is Amazon top 10 Kindle Fire HD 8 case. These Kindle cases are designed especially to protect the Kindle tablets all the time. When you put this Kindle case on your Kindle tablet, will make your personality more elegant with their styles. These cases are provided at reasonable prices.

However, you can explore here the 10 best Kindle Fire HD 8 case. These kindle cases are coordinated into this list based on their features. And all of them fit the 2018 release generation.

MoKo Case for All-New Amazon Fire HD 8 Tablet

MoKo Case is designed for the all-new Amazon Kindle Fire HD 8. This It is a combination of style and functionality. Its exterior is made of high-quality PU leather and the interior is of microfiber. This is the protective and lightweight case. It has a feature of automatic wake/sleep. You can wake your device automatically or put your Kindle to sleep when the lid is opened and closed. This case has a dual-angle stand. It can transform into viewing angle or typing without difficulty. This Kindle case has an interior hand strap to use it with one hand comfortably. It has a stylus pen loop. It has openings for camera, ports and button controls.

Amazon Fire HD 8 Tablet Case

A marine blue classy look cover for Amazon Fire HD 8 tablet which is compatible for 7th and 8th generation tablet releases in 2017 and 2018. The material of the case is premium fabric on the exterior and interior of the cover.

Slim designed with built and stand in the case for the hands-free purpose. On portrait and landscape orientation you can put up a device on the stand.
Automatically wake up and sleep feature on case closed and open. Magnetic tape is for closure a case. Over a cover, you can access all buttons, ports and cameras.

Fintie Folio Case for All-New Amazon Fire HD 8

Fintie Folio Case is specially designed for all new Amazon Kindle Fire HD 8. The material of this case is PU leather and soft microfiber to prevent scratches. It is durable, lightweight and comfortable. This case has an auto wake/sleep feature. It is designed with a perfect holder for the stylus. It has a flip capability to convert the case into a viewing stand. This case has an interior pocket that opens for easy device insertion. Fintie Folio Case has a soft inner liner that helps to protect your tablet against damage or fall.

Bear Motion Silicone Case for Fire HD 8

Bear Motion Silicone Case is particularly made for Amazon Kindle Fire HD 8. It is made of impact resistant material. It is very easy, comfortable, durable and safe to carry. This case has a slip-resistant pattern design. This case is very soft to put on. It has a great size and shape. It provides easy access to buttons and ports. Its form-fitting factors protect your Kindle against dirt and scratches. This case is very easy to hold in hand to read and play. It covers all edges of the Kindle completely.

Sevrok All-New HD 8 Tablet Case

Sevrok case is designed for all new Kindle Fire HD 8 Tablets. It is made of high-quality PU leather. It has a soft microfiber interior that offers comfort and protection against scratches. This case is durable, slim, protective and lightweight. Its cover has a flip capability to convert the case to a keyboard stand or viewing stand. It has an auto wake/sleep feature. This slim fit case offers an excellent protection from a fall or damage.

LittleMax Kindle Fire HD 8 Case

This Kindle case cover has dual layer protection, the outer layer of the case cover is scratch proof and made of synthetic leather. This case cover has an auto wake and sleeps feature that makes it smarter. The auto wake/sleep mechanism effectively extends the battery life of the Kindle. It has a smart magnetic strip at the back of the cover that helps to hold the kindle with better grip. It is an excellent and beautiful bumper case for kids and adults. It has perfect design to provide the perfect experience for you. It has 3 card slots for credit, 1 larger pouch for the bill and one pocket.

Fintie Shockproof Case for All-New Amazon Fire HD 8 – [Tuatara Magic Ring]

A shockproof kindle device cover for 7th and 8th generation device.

Designed with a tuatara magic ring, handle which use as a stand on the surface also, A multi-functional grip which is rotating at 360 degrees. It is revolving stand and handle stand for Amazon HD fire 8 tablet. Horizontally and vertically you can adjust a stand.

Dual layer protected material is used. Hybrid soft shock absorption TPU skin & impact-resistant polycarbonate with a hard shell back cover provides outstanding protection for the ultimate drop defense.

Built-in screen protector, shockproof, dustproof and button and port guard.

Famavala Folio Case Cover

Famavala Folio Case Cover is the beautiful case cover for Kindle Fire HD 8. The design of the cover is beautiful and attractive. It provides the full access to Tablet buttons (volume, power), charging slot, and earphone slot without any problem. It is a lightweight, slim and shockproof cover for the Kindle. The small loop is attached to the case to hold a stylus pen. It is made with Premium synthesized leather. The cover is scratch free and the auto wake up and sleep option makes it more perfect. This cover is best for the Kindle.

Fintie Case for All-New Amazon Fire HD 8 Tablet – [Multi-Angle Viewing]

Fintie case cover for new Amazon Fire HD 8 tablet, compatible for 8-inch display and 7th and 8th generation release on 2017 and 2018. Also compatible with the 5th and 6th generation amazon fire HD tablet.

Case give an option to stand on a different angle. A card pocket is internal, can store your business card, bank cards, bills and important notes.

Microfiber interiors and genuine leather outside which gives comfortability of screen. A built-in magnetic strip for closure, auto sleep and wake up feature. Also in close case mode, cut of the case allows using ports buttons headphone jack and volume buttons.

MoKo Case for All-New Amazon Fire HD 8

The MoKo Case cover for Kindle Fire HD 8 is High Quality, Stylish and Durable case cover. This case cover is made with premium PU leather and microfiber interior. It is a perfect case cover for the Kindle which provides the full protection to the tablet and provides the convenient stand position for watching movie or typing. It has the latest design that makes it more attractive and beautiful. It has automatically wake and sleep features in it. It is slim and lightweight case cover that protects the tablet.


Below are some alternatives, also worth a look.

BMOUO Case for All-New Fire HD 8

BMOUO Case is specially designed for all new Kindle Fire HD 8 Tablets. Its style is best suited for your personality. It is made of non-toxic EVA foam rubber material. Its material is very strong that protects your Kindle tablet. This case has accurate cutouts for easy access to camera, speakers, buttons and ports. It is lightweight, protective, convertible, durable, kids proof and shockproof. This case can turn into a handle for easy carrying and handling. It is perfect and it fits your Kindle Fire HD 8 securely.

JETech Case for Amazon Fire HD 8

JETech Case cover is the perfect case cover for Kindle Fire HD 8. It is very lightweight and the slim size of this cover provides the beautiful look to the tablet. The exterior design of the cover provides comprehensive protection for your tablet. It is a very perfect cover as it has automatic sleep and wakes up feature which protects the excess wastage of the battery when not in use. The tri-fold in the front of the cover can support the tablet in two standing positions for viewing and typing. It provides the complete access to the tablet for a better experience.

MoKo Case for All-New Amazon Fire HD 8

The MoKo case cover provides the superior grip and comfortable hold to the user. It is lightweight and protective kid-friendly case. Constructed from impact-resistant rubber which provides the drop protection and impact-resistance safeguarding to the tablet. The precise cutout and openings for buttons controls and cameras allow for easy access to the tablet features. It comes with a lifetime warranty and is a perfect case cover for the Kindle Fire HD 8.

Above mentioned products are the best-seller Kindle Fire HD 8 cases on Amazon. These are the best Kindle case cover that fits perfectly onto your Kindle. If you are looking for the best case cover for your Kindle then you should definitely go for these products. The list of these top 10 best Kindle Fire HD 8 case cover is provided after fully testing of the products. They are durable, comfortable and the list is reliable you can opt these cases for your favorite Kindle. All these Kindle covers are from top brands and provide the full protection to the tablet. We had provided you the best information for the Kindle Fire case. All these come with super handy features that provide the full utilization power to the user without any problem. For the extra protection of your Kindle Fire case buy this amazing product from the Amazon. These products are definitely going to be your best buy for your favorite Kindle tablets.

7 Best Fire HD 10 Case for Book Lovers

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The Amazon Fire HD 10 is the best of both worlds for book lovers; it’s an all in one superfast tablet that lets you browse the internet, watch videos, play games, and more; plus, it doubles up as an e-reader. 

At A Glance: Our Top 7 Picks for Amazon Fire HD 10 Cases

And thankfully, now that it’s no longer the latest model, you can pick up an Amazon Fire HD 10 for a super reasonable price. But if you’ve got yourself one of these devices, you’re going to want to protect it from bumps, scratches, and scrapes. There are countless cases on the market right now, but not all of them offer value for money. Here are 7 of the best Amazon Fire HD 10 cases that not only look great but protect your device from whatever life throws at it. 

Best Amazon Fire HD 10 Cases

1. The Official Amazon Fire HD 10 Tablet Case

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The official Amazon Fire HD 10 case is a solid choice if you’re looking for simple, straightforward protection in a stylish, slimline design. 

The full cover case is made from soft microfiber material, with an anti-scratch interior featuring a magnetic connection to stay securely fastened when it’s closed and on the go. Plus, the auto sleep/wake function means that your tablet automatically wakes on opening and sleeps on closing, helping to preserve your battery life for longer. 

The slimline design makes it easy to slip into a bag or purse and carry around without being too bulky, and while this case doesn’t offer the most robust protection out there, it definitely wins points for style and functionality.  

Pros

  • Streamlined microfiber finish
  • Magnetic wake/sleep function
  • Stays securely fastened

Cons

  • More expensive than other options on this list

2. The MoKo Amazon Fire HD 10 Case

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This MoKo case offers all the protection you need for light use at a super affordable price. Just like the official case, this model automatically wakes your tablet when you open it and sends it back to sleep upon closing. 

All the buttons, ports, and the camera are all easily accessed, and there are no bezels surrounding the screen, so you can swipe away without any obstruction. 

The streamlined case is designed from premium PU leather, with an anti-scratch microfiber interior. 

This is a lightweight option that won’t add unnecessary strain to your wrist when you’re reading e-books or browsing the internet. 

Pros

  • Affordable price
  • Slimline, lightweight design
  • Easy access to ports and no bezels around the edge

Cons

  • Less protection against drops

3. The AKHIOK Amazon Kindle Fire HD 10 Case

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Celebrate your love of books with this super fun “so many books, so little time” case from AKHIOK. The eye-catching microfibre, vegan-friendly leather cover lets everyone know what an avid reader you are while protecting your tablet from everyday wear and tear.

The magnetic closure keeps it securely fastened while you’re on the go, and the automictic wake/sleep function preserves your battery life for longer. 

There’s also a handy kickstand cover that flips backward to transform the case into a viewing stand, so you can watch videos and enter hands-free mode with ease. 

And if you’re the kind of book lover who’s prone to spilling coffee on their tablet case, worry not; the AKHIOK case is made from durable, easy-to-wipe clean PU leather.

Pros

  • Affordable price
  • Eye-catching design for book lovers
  • Handy kickstand for hands-free viewing
  • Wipe clean

Cons

  • Less protection against drops

4. The SEYMAC Amazon Fire HD 10 Shock Proof Case 

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If you need a case that will withstand a beating, then this SEYMAC shockproof case is a great choice. You can see just by looking at it that it can stand up to all kinds of wear and tear. The high-grade thermoplastic polycarbonate shell and silicone anti-skid screen cover provides complete protection against drops, scratches, dust, and lint. 

There’s also a useful hand strap and portable shoulder strap, so it’s a good option for those who like to take their tablets out on the road or hiking in nature. 

The 360 degree rotating kickstand makes it possible to view your device hands-free from multiple angles; plus, it allows you to get some killer shots from the built-in camera if outdoor nature photography is your thing. 

Pros

  • Super tough and durable; perfect for outdoors
  • Built-in shoulder and hand strap
  • Anti drop, dust, and scratch protection

5. The Fintie Amazon Fire HD 10 Case

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If you’re looking for an eye-catching, super stylish case that will also protect your device, then you can’t go wrong with this mandala effect Fintie cover. 

The premium vegan friendly leather exterior is easy to wipe clean, and the soft microfiber interior protects your screen from scratches, fingerprints, dust, and dirt. 

The magnetic cover has a built in auto sleep/wake function, and when it’s flipped backward, it transforms the case into a horizontal stand for hands-free viewing. 

Pros

  • Affordable price
  • Eye catching design
  • Easy to wipe clean
  • Built in stand for hands-free viewing

Cons

  • Less protection against drops

6. The Grifobes Amazon Fire HD 10 Tablet Case 

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This Grifobes vintage leather case is all about style and functionality. The classic black and tan finish is both professional and elegant, and when closed, your tablet will look more like a leather-bound notebook than an electronic device. But it doesn’t just look the part; it’s one of the more robust and protective cases on this list.

There’s also a handy document card pocket where you can discreetly store credit cards, business cards, notes, or bills. And like most of the cases on this list, there’s a magnetic sleep/wake function that preserves your battery life when your tablet is not in use. 

Pros

  • Classic vintage design
  • Robust protection
  • Handy document card pocket

Cons

  • Heavier than most cases on this list

7. The LTROP Amazon Fire HD 10 Case for Kids

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It’s not just grown-ups that are sporting the Fire HD 10, and this super durable case from LTOP is as kid-proof as they come. Thanks to its super thick eco friendly plastic shell, this case can withstand all kinds of bumps, drops, scratches, and scrapes. But despite its chunky appearance, it’s lightweight and easy to carry, even for little hands. 

The case easily attaches on and off and can be wiped clean or even submerged in water to clean up any hard to remove stains. 

Pros

  • Lightweight and easy to carry for little hands
  • Touch and durable; great protection against drops
  • Wipe clean and washable

Cons

  • The built in stand is not as robust as others on this list

Conclusion

These cases will protect your Amazon Fire HD 10 from everyday wear and tear. From streamlined, chic, and lightweight designs to robust, chunky, bulletproof protection, there’s something to suit every type of book lover. 

35+ High-Quality Kindle Fire Cases and Covers

Only a few months ago, Amazon’s tablet, Kindle Fire has grabbed the headlines when it dominated the U.S. market for Android tablets. To beef up the competition even more, there are reports that Amazon will be launching a second-generation of the tablet, the Kindle Fire 2, possibly this July 31. But what would the newest version of the Amazon tablet possess that would probably outshine its nemesis, Apple’s iPad? Well, there are information coming from sources who are privy to Amazon’s plans and they hinted of its intention of offering more features and performance at the same price as the first generation Kindle Fire.

Also, reports are spreading that Kindle Fire 2 will be sporting a higher resolution at 1,280-by-800-pixel display, which is about the screen size of iPad 2, and a built-in camera. To note, the newest Amazon tablet is expected to rock the Android mobile market but nothing is certain yet until the retail giant, cum mobile manufacturer, makes it official announcements and eventually make the product available for grabs.

Meanwhile, if you own the original Kindle Fire, which has proven itself as the top-class, low cost tablet to date, you need not have to throw it around for its newer version, but instead take care of it as what a trusty and reliable friend deserves. And what more to do for its safety than a durable and good looking Kindle Fire case for your nifty gadget?

So here, we are collecting some of the great Kindle Fire cases, cover and sleeves to help you choose a nice protective appendage to your beautiful gadget. All of these cases are of high quality from different suppliers of protective coverings for mobile devices such as iPad, Nook, iPhone, etc. Take your pick and share with us your thoughts. We will also keep you updated when the Kindle Fire 2 cases become available.

FitFolio for Kindle Fire

FitFolio is a Kindle Fire case that combines the fit of a precision-molded hard shell case, with the cover-to-cover protection in a book-style folio. The form-fit hard-shell cradle keeps your Kindle Fire securely in place, so it doesn’t slip or slide, even when the cover is folded back and held in one hand. A book-style cover protects the Kindle Fire screen when it’s in your bag or your jacket pocket. The cover is lined with super-soft padded microsuede and is held securely in place with a small bungee cord. FitFolio is available in fresh fabric or vegan leather designed to match your personality.

Kindle Fire Genuine Leather Cover by Marware

The Marware C.E.O. Hybrid is a form-fitted leather folio cover that protects your Kindle Fire and stands it horizontally for hands-free reading and viewing.  For hands-free reading or viewing in two angles, simply detach the two corner tabs closest to the lid and rest the edge of the Kindle Fire into one of the two grooves on the front lid.

Amazon Kindle Fire Leather Style Cover

Your Amazon Kindle Fire cover ensures your Kindle Fire remains safe and sound when not in use and easily accessible ready for when you need it the most. Crafted from the finest quality alternative to leather and boasting a luxurious protective lining, this Kindle Fire cover keeps it safe and sound from knocks and bumps.

Pop Sleeve for Kindle Fire

The Pop Sleeve will complement the aesthetic of your device with its urban two-tone design. Its expandable shape ensures a snug and secure fit for your device. An easy-to-clean neoprene exterior keeps your device protected while the interior microfiber material helps keep your device’s screen clear of fingerprints.

Kindle Fire Lightweight MicroShell Cover by Marware

The Marware MicroShell Folio is a sleek, lightweight cover that protects your Kindle Fire and stands it horizontally for hands-free reading and viewing. The MicroShell Folio features a hard polycarbonate back shell fused to a rubberized front lid that offers ultra-light protection from scratches and mild impact.

DODOcase Classic for Kindle Fire

Made from black Moroccan cloth and constructed using traditional bookbinding techniques, the cover of the DODOcase for the Kindle Fire is designed to fold back to be used as a stand. An elastic strap keeps your Kindle Fire  protected while on the go.  Our one-piece bamboo tray, carved in San Francisco, perfectly matches the curvature of your Kindle Fire while providing access to all buttons and ports.  Design includes sound channels to direct audio from the speakers.   Available in a variety of interior color choices.

Aquapac Amazon Kindle Fire case pouch – Waterproof

The Aquapac Kindle Fire Waterproof Case is plenty large enough for any device up to 440mm in circumference and 290mm long. It is independently tested and guaranteed to IPX8, which means it remains watertight up to 5 metres. The TPU case allows full use of the touch screen as well as switches and buttons, you can even hear normally right through the case.

Wood Kindle Fire Case exotic Wenge

Protect your new Kindle Fire from scratches and nicks with this awesome, real wood case made out of one piece blank of exotic Wenge wood and a unique aluminum fire button that sits flush with the case making it easy to use when you want to and protected so it is not hit accidentally by setting it on a hard surface.

Fire Keeper for Kindle Fire

Fire Keeper is designed to protect your Kindle Fire in one of our beautiful hand made cases. Includes a port for your charger, headphones and our unique sound channel for better sound quality. Look no further, your Kindle Fire has found a beautiful home.

Verso Prologue Case Cover for Kindle Fire

Prologue covers feature details that tell a story: hand-distressed finishes, carefully embossed embellishments, and intricate foil stamping. Each Prologue cover is constructed by hand so each is a bit different. It is made of animal-friendly “leather” on the outside and Microfiber interior lining that protects your Kindle fire screen.

Amazon Kindle Fire underground Felt Sleeve Case

Providing complete protection for your Kindle Fire, yet slim enough to carry anywhere, the low profile Underground is ideal for an on-the-go lifestyle.

Belkin Grip Sleeve Case for Kindle Fire

If you want more than just a basic sleeve, grip ahold of this. The Grip Sleeve’s textured surface gives you a firm grasp on your Kindle, and the laser-etched silicone is a standout in unique colors and patterns for just the right style.

Marware jurni Kindle Fire Case Cover

The Marware jurni is a fashionable, durable, zippered cover that utilizes a four-point mounting system to secure and protect your Kindle Fire at all times.

Amazon Kindle Fire Zip Sleeve

This stylish nylon sleeve provides optimal protection for your Kindle Fire while you’re on the go. The lightweight material, slim profile, and zipper closure make it easy to quickly and securely stow your device in any bag or purse. The fully enclosed design ensures that your Kindle Fire is protected from all angles.

Incipio Kickstand Lightweight Case for Kindle Fire

This case for Amazon Kindle Fire utilizes four sturdy clips for secure storage and top-notch protection. Slide your tablet into the kaddy and it will be embedded into the raised clips for an enhanced viewing experience without worrying about it slipping out.Keep your Kindle Fire looking flawless; a chic elastic band ensures that your device will stay protected in this Premium Kickstand case.

New York Time Case for Kindle Fire

This synthetic cover stands up to most any abuse you could throw at it while the interior is lined with advanced microfiber, engineered to provide maximum softness where it contacts your e-reader. An interior pocket is a perfect hiding spot for important documents or receipts while on the move. Silicone-striped corner elastic straps keep your device extremely secure, and they’re guaranteed to maintain their tight grip for the lifetime of your device.

Navitech Genuine Napa Leather Case for Kindle Fire

This leather cover adds style, personalization and protects your tablet from bumps, scratches, and falls. It has a magnetic flap closure, with interior room for business cards. This  case is built so that all functions for the amazon kindle fire are accessible including the bezel functions as seen in the pictures

Poetic PU Leather Folio Case for Amazon Kindle Fire

This case is made of PU Leather. It is very easy to insert or pull out your device and easy port access. The nice stand feature make it the simplest and most affordable Kindle Fire case in the market.

Belkin Verve Tab Folio for Kindle Fire

The Verve Tab Folio hugs your Kindle and protects it from scratches and scuffs, with a smooth leather-like exterior and an inner lining that’s soft and smooth against your device. Lightweight and form-fitting, it can slip easily into another bag without excess bulk.

Amazon Kindle Fire Venture Case Black w/ Red Accents

Tech accessories get savvy with the Kindle Fire Venture case. The Kindle Fire case and built-in stand takes a sophisticated approach to protecting and displaying the Kindle Fire. Secured with a button closure, the Kindle Fire cover protects the device from all sides. The built-in stand acts as a presentation easel and workstation, or remains hidden for a flat cover. Featuring a sleek textured finish, the Venture brings a refined touch to the Kindle Fire with a leather-inspired case.

Amazon Kindle Fire PU Leather Flip Case

This leather flip case is designed specifically for the Amazon Kindle Fire and is the perfect low profile, high protection solution for carrying or using your device. This stunningly attractive and unique case is the ultimate compliment to the classy look of your your device and has spaces for all the functions of your device, allowing you to maintain full functionality while in the case. With velcro angle-adjusting mechanism to optimise your desktop viewing angle. Also includes a Qubits-branded Microfibre cleaning cloth specially designed for wiping the surface and screen of your device.

MoKo Case Folio with built-in Stand for Kindle Fire

Custom designed for your precious Amazon Kindle Fire tablet, this case features a combination of functionality and style. The premium quality PU leather boosts a classy look; premium quality no-scratch microfiber interior adds comfort and an additional layer of protection; a built-in stand with two angles: perfect whenever you type an email or watch a movie; access to all controls and features; Well built to protect your tablet for the years to come.

amCase Leather Case and Stand for Kindle Fire

Protect and enjoy your Kindle Fire with this amCase PU Leather Case and Stand. This case is made of High Quality PU Leather Material, protecting your kindle Fire from bumps and scratches. Unique design allows you to access all the Kindle Fire features without taking off the case. 2-in-1 Built-in Stand allows you enjoy your Kindle Fire with 2 strand options. Whether you need a hand free media-viewing stand or a low angle typing stand, this is the right case for you.

Timbuk2 Kindle Fire Professor Jacket

The ultimate Kindle jacket where sophistication meets awesomeness. Classic Timbuk2 styling, custom made-for-Kindle hardware.

rooCASE Dual-View Case for Amazon Kindle Fire

Keep your Amazon Kindle stylishly well-protected in the rooCASE Dual View Leather Case for Amazon Kindle Fire Tablet. This leather case features a pebble-grain texture, and it’s available in several colors. It comes with a handheld sleeve for handheld operation, and it has three grooves for multi-angle viewing. It has a magnetic flap closure, and it provides access to all your favorite device’s ports and controls. The rooCASE Dual View Leather Case for Amazon Kindle Fire Tablet boasts a slim silhouette, and it slides easily in and out of your backpack, tote or messenger bag, carry-on case, or luggage.

Gumdrop Drop Protective Case for Kindle Fire

If you’re looking for the most rugged, durable, yet ultimately affordable Kindle Fire protection, you found it in the Drop Tech Series Kindle Fire Case. Shock absorption, drop protection, extreme ruggedness and hard-core readiness for all adventures, the Drop Tech Series Kindle Fire specifically conforms to the shape of the Kindle Fire and offers multiple layers of protection. This transformer case features a uniquely replaceable, snap-on integrated screen for maximum protection.

Verso Typewriter Case Cover by Molly Rausch

Typewriters embody this kind of potential energy,” says artist Molly Rausch, designer of the Verso Typewriter e-reader cover. “Simply by rearranging the 26 letters of the English alphabet, you can say everything that’s ever been said, and there’s no limitation to what you can do.”

Verso Artist Series Case Cover for Kindle Fire

This case features soft, microfiber interior with full pocket for holding receipts or travel documents. Also it has a patent-pending corner elastics to provide a snug fit without impairing functionality.

CaseCrown Bold Standby Case for Kindle Fire

This case sports a simple and classy design made from synthetic leather, and the interior is lined with non-scratch material so you don’t need to worry about any damages. Simply insert your Kindle Fire in the open pocket and secure it in place with the velcro flap. There is also a magnetic strip built inside for a secure closure. Because the cover is uniquely designed to flip back and transform the case into a comfortable viewing stand, this capability allows the viewer to use the Kindle Fire hands-free whatever your position may be without strain. All features of the Kindle Fire are accessible even with the case on.

BoxWave Satin Leather Kindle Fire Book Jacket

Clean and professional, BoxWave’s Satin Pink Leather Book Jacket is a slim, animal-friendly synthetic leather case that is custom fitted for your Kindle Fire.  The interior of the Satin Pink Leather Book Jacket is lined with a soft grey fabric to help protect your Kindle Fire from scratches.  Another molded tab on the cover of the case keeps the Satin Pink Leather Book Jacket securely closed when your Kindle Fire is not in use.

Decalgirl Kindle Fire Skin – Library

DecalGirl skins for Kindle Fire feature distinct artwork printed in vibrant color onto premium adhesive-backed cast vinyl that is then sealed with a special sating/matte protective coating to reduce glare and prevent fingerpints.

Marware Eco-Vue Genuine Leather Case

The Marware Eco-Vue is an eco-leather folio cover that protects your Kindle Fire and stands it horizontally for hands-free reading/viewing. To stand your Kindle Fire, simply fold the front lid of the Eco-Vue back and place it on a flat surface in the horizontal position. Thin rubberized strips provide additional grip along the edges of the cover. The Eco-Vue features a durable, eco-leather exterior and a soft microsuede interior that protects your Kindle Fire from scratches and mild impact.

AmazonBasics Leather Folio Cover for Kindle Fire

The folio cover features grooves on the microfiber interior that offer multiple viewing angles to enable ease of use when typing email and hands free viewing of movies. Four corner elastics hold your Kindle Fire securely in place with a convenient elastic strap to keep the case open or securely closed.

Wood Kindle Fire Case exotic Macacauba

Thule TKFS-101 Kindle Fire Semi-Rigid Sleeve Case

Whether relaxing in a grove of aspens or taking the commuter bus downtown, this rugged sleeve helps safely transport your Kindle Fire to any destination. Molded, weather-resistant materials form a protective body and create a precise fit for your Kindle.

Verso Urban Calligraphy Case for Kindle Fire

This is a sturdy case for Kindle Fire has a calligraphy text engraved on its body. It has a  soft, suede-like interior with full pocket for holding receipts or travel documents. It fits snugly on your tablet thus no function of your device is impaired.

Kindle Fire Cover – Sublimation Blank Cases

Apple’s huge success gathers numerous apple killers, while most of them are ended by Apple. But the newly published Kindle Fire, presented by Amazon, looks different, and is sweeping around the whole electronic product market with perfect custom echoes.

Kindle Fire is presented by the giant online retailer, Amazon. The less charged kindle will surely receive more applause in the market.

Name: Kindle Fire Cover
Item No.: KDF01
Material: Plastic
Color: Black
Packing: Carton Packing
Application: personal gifts, promotional gifts, gifts of love and festival gifts, etc.

Description:
The kindle fire cover has been proven to be a helper of Kindle fire, enhancing the capacity of entertaining and fast net surfing in the mean time of thorough protection.

Even thought this cover gives as much protection as it can to your precious Kindle Fire, the product considerately reserves room for essential input and output devices.

Matching with the most attractive pictures on the surface, the product would find its place even among numerous gifts just as a glance.

Feature:
1. Durable;
2. Distinctive with eye-catching pictures printed on;
3. Truly protective.

Name: Kindle Fire Cover (Black)
Item No.: KDF02
Material: Plastic
Color: Black
Packing: Carton Packing
Application: personal gifts, promotional gifts, gifts of love and festival gifts, etc.

Description:
The kindle fire cover has been proven to be a helper of Kindle fire, enhancing the capacity of entertaining and fast net surfing in the mean time of thorough protection.
Even thought this cover gives as much protection as it can to your precious Kindle Fire, the product considerately reserves room for essential input and output devices.
Matching with the most attractive pictures on the surface, the product would find its place even among numerous gifts just as a glance.
Feature:
1. Durable and truly protective;
2. Distinctive with eye-catching pictures printed on;
3. Fashionable.

 

Name: Kindle Fire Case (Black)
Item No.: KDF03
Material: PU, Microfiber and Flocking with white polyester
Color: classical Black
Application: personal gifts, promotional gifts, gifts of love and festival gifts, etc.

Description:
The kindle fire case has been proven to be a helper of Kindle fire, enhancing the capacity of entertaining and fast net surfing in the mean time of thorough protection.
Even thought this cover gives as much protection as it can to your precious Kindle Fire, the product considerately reserves room for essential input and output devices.
Matching with the most attractive pictures on the surface, the product would find its place even among numerous gifts just as a glance.
Feature:
1. Durable and truly protective;
2. Direct sublimation printing;
3. Vivid and Clear printing effect;
4. Fashionable with reasonable costs.

Best Kindle Paperwhite cases on Amazon

Deal pricing and availability subject to change after time of publication.

While tablets are great, they haven’t been able to fully replace e-readers. Devices like the Amazon Kindle Paperwhite are still popular and affordable enough for those who want to switch to e-books.

But if you’re going to take your books everywhere, you’re going to need a case to prevent damage. So finding the right one is key. But which cases out there are the best?

SEE ALSO:

Which tablet should you get? We compare the iPad, Fire HD, Kindle, and Galaxy Tab devices

There’s no shortage of choice when it comes to finding cases for the Kindle Paperwhite. And plenty of those cases have gotten super-positive feedback from Amazon users.

After searching Amazon, these are some of the best cases available for anyone who has swapped traditional books for the Paperwhite. Find the one that fits your lifestyle and you’ll be all set.

Credit: Amazon

To keep it on-brand, it only makes sense that one of the first recommendations when it comes to the Kindle Paperwhite is the Amazon protective case. It delivers what would be expected out of a basic case, with the Kindle clipping in and the cover turning it on and off.

64% of users on Amazon vouch for the protective cover with five-star reviews, suggesting that it’s a good addition to anyone’s Kindle.

Credit: Amazon

Credit: Walnew

While e-readers like the Kindle Paperwhite make reading more convenient, that doesn’t mean the elements can’t take their toll. Whether its water, dust, or sand, there are plenty of ways for the Paperwhite to suffer. And you want to be able to take it to the beach or pool, right?

For those sorts of situations, the WALNEW universal waterproof case is the ideal case. This case uses three “zip lock” strips to seal in the Paperwhite. It doesn’t impede functionality either, so you can still read and play games, even when at the beach or just traveling in general.

With 68% of users giving this case five-star reviews on Amazon, WALNEW is clearly doing something right.

Credit: Walnew

Credit: Benuo

Sometimes you want to roll in style, and nothing says style like leather.

Benuo has a case that delivers that quality to the Kindle Paperwhite. Its premium leather case definitely delivers on the style with its simple look. It works like most other cases, with the Kindle snapping into the inner shell with a booklet style. As a bonus, it sports two small slits for any sort of personal or business card you may want to keep with the Kindle to make it look even more profesh.

And don’t worry, plenty of people have been pleased with the Benuo leather case. As it stands, it has received five stars from 69% of users on Amazon.

Credit: Benuo

Credit: Bear Motion

Maybe you want a leather-look case, but don’t care about having a full flip case for the Paperwhite. That is where the Bear Motion slim sleeve comes in. As the name implies, the Bear Motion case is a simple sleeve case to slide the Paperwhite into. It may not be real leather, but it still looks slick.

The choice of simplicity doesn’t hurt the case either, as Amazon users attest with their reviews. Currently, 86% of reviewers have given the case five stars.

Credit: Bear Motion

Credit: Fintie

Let’s be honest, we all get nervous at the sight of young kids with a tablet, because we never know if that tablet will still be in one piece when they’re done. That’s where the right case can really come into play, and Fintie has one for the Paperwhite.

The Fintie Silicon Case is the type of case to look at if durability is crucial to you. The case claims to protect the Paperwhite from potential drops, which is always a big risk with kids.

And 78% of users on Amazon have been happy with the Fintie case, giving it five stars. So you can feel free to encourage your kids to read digitally.

Credit: Fintie

Credit: Moko

The more flexibility you can get out of any piece, the better, and the same goes for cases. MoKo’s vertical flip case has three textured points to allow the Paperwhite to stand at an angle. This allows for hands-free reading. And even when it’s closed, the case uses small magnets to keep the flip cover sealed.

77% of reviewers have been pleased enough with the MoKo case to give it five stars.

Credit: MoKo

Credit: Fintie

Fintie has its own stand case that has a little more of a traditional feel to it. The origami case looks like most traditional flip cases, with the book cover design. However, the front cover has bends that allow the Paperwhite to stand up for some hands-free reading. Simply fold up the back as needed to fit the angle you want.

Amazon reviewers seem to like the unusual design. 70% of users on Amazon have given the Fintie origami case five stars, which means the case delivers. And if you want to roll in style, there are plenty of colors and designs to choose from.

Credit: Fintie

Credit: klevercase

As convenient as e-readers and tablets are, sometimes you want that feel of a physical book. And there is something about a hardcover book that just feels good in your hands. If that’s what you’re looking for, then KleverCase has the cover for you.

The KleverCase book cover for the Paperwhite provides part of that book feel for the e-reader. The case looks like a hardcover while the Paperwhite is snapped in on the inside, giving it a more unique look.

And plenty of people have responded positively to this particular case. Currently, 76% of Amazon users have rated the KleverCase at five stars. You can choose between some of history’s most famous books, like Pride & Prejudice and To Kill A Mockingbird. (Or, for real: The Bible.)

Credit: KleverCase

Credit: Moko

MoKo has another case available for the Paperwhite, the MoKo sleeve, which caters to travelers.

As the name implies, it’s a sleeve case that’s a little more geared for extensive travel. It sports a seal to keep the Paperwhite inside and is made out of nylon and flannel. The materials are a good choice for withstanding drops and preventing damage to the e-reader. And if you need an extra pocket for the charger or headphones, the case has one on the outside.

The Amazon rating backs up the quality of MoKo’s case, with 88% of users on Amazon rating the case at five stars.

Credit: MoKo

90,000 Campfire in the cave in pictures – Interesting places and popular routes

Bonfire in the cave in pictures

The earliest signs of the use of fire in Europe were found in one of the Spanish caves.

Human ancestors learned to use fire at least a million years ago. They transferred this skill or brought it themselves to the Middle East, and from there to Europe: here the first fire was lit about 800 thousand years ago. This is the opinion of the authors of the article published in the June issue of Antiquity.

His traces were found during excavations in the Spanish cave Cueva Negra del Estrecho del Rio Quipar. Archaeologists have found more than 165 stones and tools with traces of heating here. Bones were also found here – they were counted 2.3 thousand, some of them were burned. Microscopic and chemical analyzes show that the objects were heated to a temperature of 400-600 ° C, which means that they were on fire.

But maybe it was a fire that broke out without human intervention? Researchers reject this possibility.They note that the fire could “enter” the cave only 5-7 meters from the entrance, and stones and bones with traces of heating were found further away. In addition, there does not seem to be much dry grass or twigs near the entrance at that time. Geological data indicate that about 800 thousand years ago there was a river and swamps very close to the cave, which means that it was too humid for a natural fire.

Like at other sites where the use of fire was recorded, tools were found in a Spanish cave that speak of the high skill of those who made them.They knew which stone or wood to choose to light the fire, according to Michael Walker of the University of Murcia, the study’s lead author.

Meanwhile, not all experts agree with the dating of the finds. So, anthropologist Juan Manuel Jimenez-Arenas ( Juan Manuel Jimenez-Arenas ) from the University of Granada says that the tools that were found in Cueva Negra are much younger – he estimates their maximum possible age at about 600 thousand years. Mike Walker disagrees with this date.He substantiates the figure of 800 thousand years by fossil fauna – it was at that time that animals lived in Spain, whose bones were found together for tools.

But even if the traces of the fire are 200 thousand years younger, they will still remain the oldest in Europe.

Author: Egor Antonov

Read also:
Found a focus of 300 thousand years old

Israeli archaeologists claim to have found the earliest evidence of daily use of fire.

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Reproduction of the painting “Bonfire in the camp” by Konstantin Korovin

BigArtShop online store presents a large catalog of paintings by the artist Konstantin Korovin.You can choose and buy your favorite reproductions of paintings by Konstantin Korovin on natural canvas.

Konstantin Alekseevich Korovin was born in Moscow into a family of Old Believer merchants. He spent his childhood in the house of his grandfather, where he lived with his parents and older brother. Grandfather Mikhail Ivanovich, a simple peasant, a coachman in the Vladimir province, was a very enterprising person and managed to become the owner of a coachman’s coach, which served the Moscow-Novgorod postal road. Almost the entire Rogozhskaya street with inns belonged to him.His grandfather skillfully combined his commercial interests with a love of art. The coachman’s spirit and business scale in an amazing way coexisted with decency. The imagination of the future artist was formed on the basis of the stories of pilgrims and coachmen.

His father Alexei Mikhailovich received a higher education at the university, his mother Apollinaria Ivanovna came from a noble family, played the harp well. Parents drew well; famous artists Kamenev and Pryanishnikov were frequent guests in the house.

At the age of thirteen, Konstantin, like his older brother earlier, entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture.

By the time the brothers entered the school, the family’s well-being was undermined: considerable family funds were unsuccessfully invested in the construction of railways. Years of a half-impoverished existence dragged on with an eternal concern for money.

Nevertheless, this did not prevent the talented young man from adopting the experience of his teacher Savrasov, who during his lifetime became a classic of Russian landscape painting. It was from him that Korovin learned to feel nature.

Beginning in 1878, Korovin’s life sketches constantly received prizes and gratitude at the school, from the end of 1880 he became a scholar of Prince Dolgorukov, the trustee of the exhibition of the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture.

In 1882, Korovin transferred to the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg, but after 3 months he returned, he was not satisfied with routine teaching. By that time, the landscape class was headed by Polenov, who also had a significant impact on the formation of Korovin as an artist. Moreover, the Polenov family replaced Korovin’s relatives: lack of money led Father Konstantin to commit suicide. A few years later, overworked, her mother died of grief and worries.

Korovin, by his convictions, was a faithful follower of the traditions of democratic painting, but his search for new solutions was accepted as a break with tradition and a departure from realism.So, despite the successes in the years of study, Korovin was released from the School with the title of an out-of-class artist.

At the end of 1884, a significant event for Korovin’s fate took place – Polenov introduced him to the house of the industrialist and patron of the arts Mamontov. There, the young artist became a common favorite, actively participating in all endeavors, and joined the theater.

In the second half of the 1880s, he, who has already designed more than a dozen performances, along with Polenov became the leading decorator of Mamontov’s Russian private opera in Moscow.

Korovin takes an active part in the life of the Society of Art and Literature founded in 1888.

In the winter of 1888-1889, together with Mamontov, the artist visited Italy, France and Spain.

However, during these years, Korovin also needed to look for work. It is known that for Korovin’s undisputed masterpiece “At the balcony. The Spanish women “paid him off with a twenty-five ruble coat. Korovin was forced to take on the writing of scenery, for uninteresting religious subjects and commissioned portraits.

1892-1893 years the painter spent in Paris, where he went in search of creative impressions. Korovin’s artistic activities in Paris, his works, letters and diaries are very instructive and occupy an important place in his biography. The artist’s creative life during this period was intense and difficult. Korovin missed Russia very much and gladly accepts Mamontov’s invitation to go on an expedition to explore the far north of Russia.

One cannot but admire Korovin’s northern works.

Soon after the artist’s return, Mamontov, seeing how Korovin was “overwhelmed” with northern impressions and knowing his versatile talent, commissioned him to design and decorate the Far North pavilion for the grandiose All-Russian Art and Industrial Exhibition of 1896 in Nizhny Novgorod.

The Nizhny Novgorod exhibition gave Konstantin Alekseevich an excellent experience of complex work: an architect, monumental artist, exhibitor, organizer and predetermined his appointment as an artist-consultant of the Russian department at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900.Participation in it has already brought him European fame, two gold, two silver medals and an officer’s cross of the Order of the Legion of Honor.

At the end of the 1890s, the painter linked his fate with the World of Art society. The artist entered the twentieth century as a master in his period of creative maturity. Public recognition of his talent and merits comes. In 1899, Korovin began teaching at the Zvantseva school, and from 1901 he led a portrait-genre workshop with Serov at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, which he himself had once graduated from.

His pupils were subsequently such remarkable artists as Pavel Kuznetsov, Nikolai Sapunov, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Nikolai Ulyanov.

Konstantin Alekseevich was a teacher until the first years of Soviet power, becoming an academician in 1905, on the recommendation of Polenov and Vasnetsov.

Since 1910, Korovin has taken the post of chief decorator and artist-consultant of the imperial theaters in Moscow.

The events of 1917 drew him into their cycle.

After the February Revolution, in 1917, he was appointed a comrade of the Chairman (who was Apollinarius Vasnetsov) of the Union of Plastic Arts, then Chairman and representative of artists at the commissar of the former imperial court.All these administrative, obscure positions of newly created and rapidly disintegrating associations did not at all fit a free artist. He was burdened and soon left them, leaving for Okhotino, his beloved refuge.

Upon his return to Moscow, stormy events awaited him at the School of Painting. In September it was renamed the Second State Free Art Workshops. From hungry Moscow in the summer of 1919, he moved to the Tver province, to the Udomlya station. Korovin and his family settled in the Ostrovna estate, where Levitan once lived.He became interested in fishing on the lake, wrote hunting stories and, of course, was engaged in painting.

Life in Udomlya was much cheaper.But despite his active work after the revolution, Korovin expected two unpleasant news in March 1920: about the eviction from the apartment on Myasnitskaya and about the termination of the security certificate for the workshop in Okhotin. Moreover, he was entrusted with inspector duties. The conditions were extremely difficult for him. “. Affected by the desire of some people that he was less fascinating to young people.”

Again Korovin comes to despair: what to do with his family, canvases, things from the workshop? He does the best he can, even beyond his strength.

In 1921 and 1922, the first personal exhibitions of Korovin took place in Moscow. In the conditions of the aggravated struggle of currents, disputes about the new, Soviet art, they did not have the proper resonance. Even before the revolution, the never-ending attacks on the masters in the press intensified.

The position of the creative intelligentsia deteriorated sharply.Talents were annoying. In 1923, Korovin left Russia, having received, as the newspapers wrote, an invitation from the management of the Parisian Grand Opera to take the place of a decorator. He never returned to his homeland, although to the end he considered himself a citizen of Russia.

The last sixteen years of the artist’s life are associated with France.

Korovin continued to paint, carried out separate orders for theaters in Europe and America. In Berlin (1923) and later in Paris, he arranged several personal exhibitions, he participated in group exhibitions of Russian artists, but in the atmosphere of changing trends in art and fashion, interest in the works of the aging master was gradually lost.

In the twenties, Korovin designed the ballet Don Quixote for Anna Pavlova’s tour in London’s Covent Garden; the opera “The Golden Cockerel” for the theater in Turin; “The Barber of Seville” for Chaliapin’s tours in England and the USA; The Snow Maiden and Prince Igor for the Russian Opera in Paris.

Korovin dreams of returning home to Russia after completing another contract. But money for a living ends before the work ends. Again, you need to sign a contract, and there is no money for the whole family on the way back.

Highly valued among his acquaintances as a storyteller, here he tries himself and is established in the role of a memoirist. For a decade, Russian newspapers in Paris published his essays-memoirs about Russia, about its nature and people, about teachers and friends.

Korovin never managed to enter the life of France. He loved Paris with the love of a guest and was very homesick.

The artist died in Paris on September 11, 1939 and was buried in the Billancourt cemetery. In March 1950, with funds raised by Russian Parisians, the remains of Korovin and his wife were transferred to the Orthodox cemetery in Saint-Genevieve de Bois.

The texture of the canvas, high-quality paints and large-format printing allow our reproductions by Konstantin Korovin to match the original. The canvas will be stretched onto a special stretcher, after which the picture can be framed in the frame of your choice.

Bonfire in the cave Stock Photos and Royalty Free Images. Primal Bonfire

Types of fires and their use.

Bonfire seems to be this word alone gives us warmth and light! And in the conditions of survival, the equipment of the fire becomes the basis for a normal existence! After all, he not only improves a person’s life, but is literally able to save a life!

The fire heats in the cold, dries wet clothes, cooks food on it, scares away insects and predators with it, its light destroys darkness, etc.It is comfortable and calm with him. He simply bewitches with his flame and gives something that sometimes cannot be expressed in words, awakening something primitive in us.

But with all its advantages, it is important to understand that the flame can become the enemy! Therefore, you need to handle it with extreme caution. In addition, one cannot ignore the topic of what types of bonfires are there? We will talk about this today.

The Shalash bonfire is by far the most famous type of bonfire. For the construction, you need to make some kind of a hut out of firewood, and the “entrance” to it should be from the side from which the wind is blowing.Pros and cons of a “Shalash” type fire:

Versatile – cooking, camp lighting, heating. Simple and quick – easy and quick to set up, ignite, ignite and burn. Hot – creates a rather high combustion temperature. Glutton – You will have to often throw up wood, quickly burns out.

Bonfire “Well” – A fairly simple and reliable bonfire, the flame of which is very wide and has a relatively low height. It is good to cook food on this, dry wet things, and this type of fire is also suitable for lighting.Pros and cons of a “Well” type fire:

Simple and fast – quick and easy to build, melt and ignite well. Burns slower than “hut”. Fearful – Particularly vulnerable to rain.

Bonfire “Star” – Some people also call the bonfire “star”. Also suitable for cooking, does a good job of heating shelters. To light this fire, it is advisable to use hardwood firewood (birch, elm, maple, ash, oak, beech, etc.). Logs are laid out around the starting material in a circle (about five to ten pieces).More firewood will not be required, all that remains is to move them to the center as it burns out, so that the “star” retains its integrity and does not go out. This is very convenient when there are several people around the fire. Pros and cons of a Star-type bonfire:

Simple and Convenient – both in terms of construction, maintenance, and for cooking and heating. Economical – saves firewood and time for maintenance. Disadvantage – does not tolerate rain, requires rather thick logs, which must be prepared in advance for which it would be good have a tool (saw or ax, for example).

“Polynesian” bonfire (another name for “pit”) – most suitable for cooking. You need to dig a hole, along the wall of which firewood should be placed in a circle. To ensure better combustion and to exclude attenuation due to lack of oxygen, a smaller hole is often dug next to the first pit, which is connected to it by a passage. Thus, cravings arise. Pros and cons of the Pit bonfire:

Discreet and windproof – perfectly resists wind and hides flames from unwanted attention.Economical and convenient – saves fuel and does not require close supervision. Having thrown up the wood, you no longer need to push anything, everything will burn completely. Digger – it takes time to dig holes, you have to dig. In this case, it is desirable to have a shovel, otherwise you will have to use alternative tools (digging stick, knife, tin can or something else), as a result of which the time and labor intensity of this process increases.

Bonfire “Pyramid” (“Lattice”) – used for overnight stays, heats and illuminates not badly.Burns high and long. It is necessary to lay the logs in layers, each layer across the previous, in the form of a pyramid, the base of which is two parallel logs. It will burn out slowly and consistently, layer by layer, while setting it on fire from above! Pros and cons of the “Lattice” type fire:

Long-term – burns very long Disadvantages – Thick logs are required to get a good long-term effect, which must be cut. It’s easier to do this with a tool.

In addition to the methods of making fires given here, there are other no less interesting and useful ones, we have already talked about some of them separately in our other articles (you can follow the links: Bonfires like “Candle” and the Dakota hearth).

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What types of fires are their pros and cons

Bonfires and their types, what types of bonfires are there, the pros and cons of one or another bonfire. Today we will touch on an interesting topic that everyone who walks into the forest and cooks should be familiar with. There are 7 main types of bonfires:

  • Hut (also called pyramid)
  • Well
  • Taiga
  • Dakota (indoor fire) or Polynesian
  • Nodya
  • Starry
  • Mole (stove)
  • In order to understand all the pros and cons of the above types of bonfires, I suggest that you familiarize yourself with each of them in more detail.

    A fairly common type of fire, I would say the vast majority of people use this type of fire. At least I use this fire more often than others.

    This type of fire is quite simple to make. You need to take the wood and fold it in the shape of a hut, put a kindling fire inside the hut and set it on fire.

    Attention! The first row of the fire is laid out of thin branches, when they start to burn, put a larger firewood (we put firewood to form a hut).Thus, we will protect ourselves from extinguishing the fire, because if we immediately put down a hut of thick firewood, the kindling may go out before the firewood starts to burn (my personal opinion, from experience)

    This is a “hot” fire that can be used both for cooking and drying clothes, as well as for lighting and heating the parking lot.

    It is not advisable to use this fire for heating the parking lot at night, because it requires a lot of firewood and frequent laying of them.

    Pros: Hot, even and large flame.

    Good for cooking food and drying clothes

    Can be used to illuminate a parking lot as it burns brightly

    Disadvantages: Not suitable for spending the night, because it requires frequent putting firewood in the fire and, accordingly, the presence of an attendant.

    Requires a lot of firewood for long burning.

    The next most popular breeding I would put is this type of fire.

    This fire is just great for cooking, it gives a lot of heat and a directed flame.

    We put the firewood prepared in advance in a well, put the kindling in the center and set it on fire.

    Pros: Directional flame suitable for cooking or drying clothes

    Cons: For such a fire, wood of approximately the same size is desirable. This, in principle, is not a problem.

    Another disadvantage is that this type of fire cannot be used to heat a bivouac, as it gives a directional flame, which is more suitable for cooking.

    This is a great campfire (i.e.e used to heat the camp).

    This fire gives a lot of heat and is made quite simply, of course, if you have firewood (logs) of the required diameter. You can sleep near a properly made taiga fire even in winter. Such a fire can be made in the snow, the fire is very stable in weather conditions

    As already mentioned above, in order to make this fire, you must have either a saw or an ax (at least an ax). Since this fire belongs to the shelter (bivouac), you need appropriate firewood (logs) so that it can burn for 6-8 hours.

    We bring down thick dead trees and cut or cut into several pieces, about 2 meters each.

    A thick tree (podyurlok) is placed across the place where you will spend the night. 2.3 logs 2 meters long are placed on the poyurlok (log). The logs are pushed forward a little and burned from below.

    Attention! On the subjurlock, the 3 logs should lie together, and apart on the ground (see the picture above). This is done so that the part of the logs not extended beyond the subjurlock does not catch fire.

    As the logs are burned out, they will need to be moved. As a rule, it is enough to get up 1.2 times a night.

    This is a wonderful campfire that will provide you with a warm overnight stay, even in winter

    Thick logs required

    It is necessary to wake up 1.2 times a night to move the logs

    This type of fire is not as common as the above, but it has certain advantages. These types of fires are almost invisible and at the same time give a lot of coals.Similar types of hearth fires in bad weather are also good if you make a canopy over them.

    Bonfire “Dakota”, still a little different from the “Polynesian.”

    How to breed: We dig a cone-shaped hole half a meter deep and lay “logs” around the walls and make a fire (Polynesian) at the bottom.

    To make the “Dakota” fire, it is additionally necessary to dig a ventilation draft hole (for this we dig a small hole half meters from the fire, deepen it and connect the hole with an underground passage to the fire).

    Pros: The fire is very convenient for cooking.

    Can be used in bad weather (rain), if you first make a canopy over the fire.

    The fire is practically invisible to “outsiders”

    Cons: It is necessary to dig a hole, which is difficult in the absence of a shovel (or for example in winter).

    The bonfire is highly specialized and can only be used for cooking.

    This is a typical campfire used for spending the night in the forest during the cold season.

    How to breed: Dry logs 2-3 meters long and 25 cm in diameter are required for the nodia.

    There are two types of node, this is a 2-log and 3-log “node”. As for me, a node

    out of 3 logs are much easier to build and burn hotter.

    If you make a fire in winter, you need to clear the area under the “node” from snow or put cross-beams, then put 2 lower logs and make a uniform fire on them along the entire length.

    When spending the night with a “node”, it is advisable to make a reflective screen out of tarpaulin or snow. The heat from the node will be reflected from the screen and warm you.

    Also, the “inverted” tree can serve as a heat shield.

    Node should be located at least one meter away from your sleeping place.

    In order for the logs to light up better, you can first make notches on them, so the fire will ignite the tree faster.

    Pros: This is a campfire for spending the night, next to it you can sleep even in severe frost and sleep well.

    Can heat a group of people at once

    Cons: It takes quite a long time to create it, but it’s worth it.

    This bonfire assumes you have an ax or a saw.

    This bonfire is quite common among the indigenous inhabitants of Siberia

    Several logs (3-5 pieces) are placed in a star-like manner in the center, a fire is lit. As the logs are burned, they are pushed up. This fire is very hot, you can spend the night near it even in winter.

    Very hot fire, gives a lot of heat

    Cons: It is necessary to push the logs towards the center as they burn.

    Thick logs are required, as for any type of campfire.

    This type of fire is a hearth fire. I have not used a similar fire.

    In order to make this fire, it is necessary to dig a hole in a steep slope and bring a hole out at the top of the slope.

    I only know one thing, such a fire makes an excellent smokehouse for fish.

  • Bonfire “Mole”
  • Fish is hung upstairs
  • Firewood: Juniper, cherry or alder
  • That’s probably all I wanted to say about the types of bonfires.If something is not clear, write in the comments. Of course, you can do without a fire if you have a sleeping bag. How to choose a sleeping bag for a hike, see reference

    A bonfire on a bivouac is wonderful. It allows you to fully enjoy the unity with nature. Probably every man at least once was drawn to the forest to a fire, to nature. Sitting by the fire, you imagine yourself as a primitive hunter who sits by the fire, after a successful hunt, eating juicy meat. Fire protects a person from animals, gives him light and warmth.

    Similar entries:

    Types of fires: universal, special and useless

    I remember, in the bearded Soviet years, when I was still a teenager, I got into the hands of a book about tourism, in which there was a chapter devoted to the arrangement of a bivouac. It listed all imaginable and inconceivable types of fires, ranging from the banal “hut” and ending with exotic things like the “Polynesian”. Even then, their diversity aroused a slight bewilderment in me: why bother with this whole vegetable garden, when and so – just in a bunch – it burns very well?

    Subsequently, starting to “pump” my fishing and tourist experience, I became convinced in practice that only three types of fires are really in demand for our brother, the rest are either given in reference books for a word of mouth, or are suitable for specific situations.

    This article will discuss which of them were useful and which were useless.

    Classification of bonfires

    But before we move on to the actual listing and description of different types of fires, it is not superfluous to mention where so many of them came from. As it turned out, this diversity is not without reason, and is explained by the fact that a person specifically wants to get from fire in specific conditions. If we simplify everything, it turns out that there are only three types of bonfires:

    1. Flame bonfires are those in which the burning process goes as quickly as possible, which gives a good, bright flame.This is ensured by absolutely dry firewood (also – firewood from special wood) and a special stacking of firewood, due to which there is an intensive air supply (mainly due to natural draft). The purpose of this type of fire is to illuminate the bivouac and prepare food. In special cases, a flaming fire can be used as a signal fire. They are not suitable for long-term heating (for example, during an overnight stay), because they quickly burn out.
    2. Firefires – those in which, on the contrary, the combustion process is slowed down or even smoldering.For this, the air supply is limited – again with the help of a special design, also for this purpose, firewoods from those types of wood are used that give hot, “long-playing” coals. Such bonfires shine little, but heat (in the form of infrared radiation) is emitted in order. They dry clothes, prepare food (including by roasting on coals), and use them for prolonged heating.
    3. Smokefires – as the name suggests, are designed to produce large amounts of smoke.
    4. Depending on the weather conditions, available firewood, and the current capabilities of the tourist, there are several ready-made options for each type of fire.

      The three most useful and important bonfires

      These are the types of fires that my companions and I use constantly on our sorties. Proven by time, hundreds of cubes of dead wood, and thousands of megajoules of thermal energy.

      “Taiga”

      Fig. 1. The simplest version of the fire: “taiga”. Different sized firewoods are tightly packed parallel to each other. Subsequently – as they burn out, they can be agitated and slightly crossed – in order to optimize the combustion process.

      I believe that the evolutionary path of the genus homo began with him. Primitive man – having barely learned how to burn brushwood (and having ceased, by the way, to be a monkey) – burned “taiga” fires in his caves. Why am I so sure of this? Yes, because information about this type of fire is embedded in the subconscious of each of us at the level of instincts, and is transmitted with genetic memory. The habit of stacking firewood more closely parallel to each other manifests itself in childhood, and is observed even in girls!

      Fig.2. Primitive hunters made a “taiga” fire and warm up.

      I dare to note that in wood-burning stoves, logs are laid out exactly according to the principle of a “taiga” fire before lighting, which once again confirms the fact that this fire is the most traditional and universal.

      There are several varieties of this fire (“hunter’s hearth”, “Tunguska”, “cannon”, etc.). They will be discussed below.

    5. Function: heat.
    6. Purpose: universal. You can cook food, dry clothes and shoes, and warm up.
    7. Breeding method: first, in the place where the fire is supposed to be made, a seed is kindled (which can be some kind of rapidly kindling fire-type fire made of small branches and chips, for example, a “hut” (see below)), then logs are laid on it. As soon as they get charred and start to smolder, consider that the process has started.
    8. Advantages: very good for cooking, while after achieving some skill in stacking logs, the boiler can simply be placed on top – no accessories like crossbars, hooks, etc. are needed.It warms well, has a low flame. Firewood consumption is quite tolerable.
    9. Disadvantages: not found. Although, some tourists may complain that periodically the firewood in the fire needs to be moved to each other, as well as new ones should be added. In my opinion, if this is a drawback, then only if the tourist suddenly decides to spend the night next to the “taiga” without a tent. But, for example, this circumstance did not prevent me from sleeping at all (over the years of outings, I developed a habit of waking up quickly in the middle of the night, quickly stirring up firewood, putting it on, and falling asleep just as quickly).In general, for spending the night there is another type of fire – nodya (see below).
    10. “Hut”, aka “cone”

      Fig. 3. Bonfire “hut”. It flares up quickly, burns out no less quickly.

      A bonfire with an accelerated combustion process – provided by a characteristic design, due to which a good draft arises.

    11. Purpose: in demand when you need to quickly get a hot fire. In principle, it is versatile – it can be used for lighting, cooking and heating.But we mainly use it for the previous fire.
    12. Breeding method: firewood is stacked in a “hut” – thin twigs and flammable material go to the very heart. Then the branches are thicker, and so on. Outside, the thickest firewood will lie (and support the entire structure). It is set on fire from the bottom – from the middle. If laid out correctly, one match is enough.
    13. Advantages: flares up quickly, gives a lot of flame. It illuminates the surrounding area quite well.
    14. Disadvantages: one of the most uneconomical fires in terms of the consumption of firewood, which must be constantly put into it. Otherwise, it will burn out rather quickly.
    15. “Nodya”, aka “two logs”, “three logs”, etc.

      Fig. 4. Classic “node” of three logs. Pay attention – the rear lower log (far left) is slightly larger than the rest in diameter. This is an optional condition, however, it allows some optimization of heat transfer to one side (to the right).

      In principle, this is the same “taiga” fire, only “evolved” towards ideal heating. It is a kind of forest “heater”. The most traditional option is three-log.

      There can also be one-, two- and four-log (according to some information, this is not the limit) bonfires, where the logs are held above each other thanks to four pegs driven in near the ends on both sides, or thanks to a stop that supports a stake driven into the upper log.

      Fig. 5. Double-log “node” – the logs are fixed with pegs, for which it is best to use raw wood and thicker – in order to delay the moment of their burning out. However, usually by the time the pegs stop performing their function, the contacting surfaces of the logs have time to become flat.

      For a double-log “node”, it is better to cut the logs on the adjoining sides. This will make the combustion process more efficient; also in this case, the need for fixing the logs (in pegs or an emphasis) may disappear altogether (of course – if the lower log lies on the ground steadily).

      There is a variant of the “node” where a single log is used. Previously, it is split from the side – like a book, widening the gap with a pair of stakes. Then they put it vertically and set fire to the seed inside. The fire, thanks to the thrust, quickly rises along the gap. After a while – when coals are formed on the inner surface – the log is returned to a horizontal position and put in place.

    16. Purpose: heating during the night.
    17. Breeding method: the seed is placed between the logs and ignited.Another option is an additional fire, which is used instead of kindling.
    18. Advantages: Node is a powerful thing! It burns for a very long time (from 8 hours to one and a half days – depending on the thickness of the logs) and well heats the tourist sleeping next to him. The version with one log at the base can be bred in the snow without fear that the fire will fail.
    19. Disadvantages: before lighting it, you will have to tinker, and anyway, what kind of firewood will not work – only a long, thick dummy, with a diameter of at least 20-30 cm.
    20. Special bonfires

      These are, so to speak, “narrow-profile fires”. Designed for specific purposes, for example – for the same cooking.

      “Hunter’s hearth”

      Fig. 6. “Hunter’s hearth”.

      A variety of “taiga”, differs from the usual version in that two good logs lie along the edges of the stacking of firewood. The result is a kind of “barbecue” on which you can put skewers, or put a saucepan on top.

    21. Advantages: as mentioned above – the pot does not need to be hung.
    22. Disadvantages: in principle, this is not a disadvantage, because it can be eliminated in no time. The logs lying on the edges screen the lateral rays of heat – all of it goes up, so you won’t be able to sleep near this fire and get warm. Usually we do this – during the day we use the “hearth” in the standard configuration, and closer to the night we put the already burned-out side logs on top of the coals with the smoldering side outward, and place some more firewood on top. That is, we will transform the fire into an ordinary “taiga” one.
    23. “Finnish candle”, aka “Indian candle”, aka “wooden primus”

      Fig.7. The essence of the simplest “Finnish candle”.

      There are several types of “Finnish candle”, but almost all of them boil down to creating a “combustion chamber” inside a short log and igniting a fire in it. To do this, the log is split into two or more parts, after which they are applied to each other. Preliminarily, the core of the chopped logs is slightly selected. You can not choose, but then the gaps between them must be left sufficient – for the flow of air. The fire is kindled in the middle from above, usually with chips, flammable liquid, or both at the same time.

      Sometimes a log is not pricked, but cuts are made in it crosswise – about 3/4 of its length from above. But the people did not stop there either, and developed the “ideal Finnish candle”. Its main difference from the rest is engineering excellence, optimal performance and the most clear, directed flame.

      It is done as follows: the log is split into 4 logs, then on each of them we retreat 10 cm from the bottom, and along the sharp edge (where the core is) we make a transverse notch 3-5 cm deep.After that, it is worth hitting the upper end of each log with a hatchet – retreating the same distance from the same edge – the core will chip, but not completely, but just before the notch. Now, if you put the logs together, you get a “glass” with very thick walls, the inner cavity of which will be the “combustion chamber”. But it is too early to start a fire – it is necessary to create a channel for the flow of air. To do this, any two adjacent pieces are cut along a transverse groove on adjoining surfaces – from the lower end of the selected core to the bark.When put together, they form that very channel. Now you can tie the whole structure with rope or wire.

      Fig. 8. “Ideal Finnish candle” – appearance and drawing.

      The flame can be adjusted by covering the lower “air” opening. There is also a possibility of reusable use of the “Finnish candle”: after cooking, we shut off the air supply and put something flat on the upper end, for example, an empty pot or a flat stone.You can just turn the log over. Fire and smoldering inside cease within a few minutes, after which the “Finnish candle” is ready for the next use. And some tourists do not bother and simply extinguish it with water. To light up a “wooden stove” before the next cooking – with the proper amount of kindling – is by no means a problem.

      The only additional detail: it is better to keep the pot at some distance from the end of the log – in order to provide a clearance for the draft. This can be achieved by hanging it over the end, or by placing something under it, for example, a few small pebbles.

      Some tourists practice assembling a “Finnish candle” from three round logs put together.

      Fig. 9. Finnish candle made of three round logs.

    24. Purpose: purely cooking, to some extent – lighting. The three-log version is capable of some heating.
    25. Advantages: directional flame. Hanging the pot is not required – it is simply placed on top. Single-log options – where all structural elements are fastened with wire, or are a continuation of the untreated base of the log, have a very useful function – the ability to drag the fire from place to place in your hands.
    26. Disadvantages: what kind of firewood will not work. All varieties of this fire require a saw, it is also advisable to have a liquid for ignition on hand.
    27. “Camelek”

      This type of fire is used to quickly get boiling water and cook a small amount of food in places where there is a lot of stress with good firewood, but full of all kinds of rubbish like brushwood, wood chips, etc. In fact, it replaces a folding stove-pinch.

      Fig. 10. “Camel”. On the left – three cobblestones set in the form of a hearth.On the right – they are “charged” with brushwood and with a kettle placed on top.

      This is no longer a fire, but actually a full-fledged hearth. The structure consists of three large stones, the shape of which is more or less close to a parallelepiped. It is also possible to lay out a “fire chamber” from a larger number of smaller stones. The main condition is to create a combustion chamber with an open wall, the bottom of the kettle serving as a roof.

    28. Purpose: for tea and quick cooking.
    29. Advantages: compact, very economical, invisible.
    30. Disadvantages: Requires three bricks, or some cobblestones.
    31. “Smoke”

      The purpose of this fire is to accumulate well. Usually it is a medium “hut” (it is easier to light it up, and it gives a lot of flame), covered on top with a decent layer of fresh branches of evergreen plants (pine, spruce and other spruce branches). In the absence of these, you can also use branches of deciduous trees, tall grass, etc.

      The principle of operation is as follows: if necessary, the “hut” quickly ignites and the flame begins to burn everything piled from above, and it, in turn, smokes mercilessly.

    • Function: smoke.
    • Purpose: usually used by seasoned tourists to scare away the midges from the camp (for example, in cases where repellents are forgotten at home, and mosquitoes are dark). But keep in mind – there must be a lot of smoke, otherwise you will only make the little vampires laugh. With this fire, you can send a signal to the aircraft (the column of smoke will be visible from a distance of several kilometers). In especially neglected cases, it is kindled to create a smoke screen – in order to mislead the most likely enemy (for example, in role-playing games).
    • Advantages: high-quality smoke cloud.
    • Disadvantages: the need for a proper amount of spruce branches in the vicinity.
    • “Cannon”, aka “Tunguska”

      Fig. 11. Bonfire “cannon”, aka “Tunguska”.

      In fact, it is a “taiga” one, made of long poles or logs, which rest their burning end on a log lying across. This is necessary – of course – for traction, as well as so that the entire structure can stand on the snow and not go down due to its melting.As they burn out, the poles move.

    • Purpose: universal.
    • Advantages: as mentioned above – this fire can be made in deep snow (or in a damp swamp). Also, the log plays the role of a heat reflector to some extent.
    • Disadvantages: the need to periodically move the burning logs. But keep in mind that at any moment a decent piece can fall off from any of them and roll up to an unsuspecting tourist.
    • “Trench”

      During hikes with a large number of participants, such an ingenious bonfire as a “trench” will come in handy for preparing food “for the whole crowd”.

      Fig. 12. Bonfire “trench”. The length of the dug hole corresponds to the length of all pots at the disposal of tourists + a small space for air flow and firewood, width – along the narrowest pot, depth – about 20 centimeters.

    • Advantages: you can put several cans or pots on such a fire at once. On top of that, it saves firewood.
    • Disadvantages: the need for a shovel.
    • Purpose: Cooking large quantities of food.
    • Useless bonfires

      Useless – from the point of view of an ordinary forest reveler, or an old school tourist-fisherman – like our brother, who is used to simplifying everything. Although, in some special situations, it can come in handy.

      Polynesian

      Have you been to Tahiti? Here we are, too, so we see no point in making such a fire, except for a joke.

      Fig. 13. Bonfire “Polynesian”.

      It is a banal “taiga” fire, for some reason set “on the priest” in a specially dug hole 30 centimeters deep.Thanks to this, it shines well and burns out faster.

    • Appointment: heating, drying clothes.
    • Advantages: they say that if the logs are not close to each other, but are slightly spread apart, it illuminates the surrounding space very well.
    • Disadvantages: the need for a shovel.
    • “Well”, aka “log house”

      Fig. 14. Bonfire “well”.

      This type of bonfire is very popular with some tourists, but it did not take root here.The reason is the need to chop wood along (required to ensure the stability of the structure). In my opinion, it is easier to breed “taiga” and wait a little, than to spend time and energy on splitting logs.

    • Function: fiery.
    • Purpose: food preparation.
    • Advantages: due to the full-fledged vertical thrust – it gives an excellent flame on which you can quickly boil tea, or cook something. It also does not require hanging the pot – you can simply place it on top.
    • Disadvantages: it does not function for long – until it burns out and collapses. After that, the “well” successfully evolves into a slightly scattered “taiga” one. For this reason, if the appearance of the fire begins to arouse suspicion, it is better not to put the pot on it, but hang it up.
    • “Reflector”

      Fig. 15. Bonfire “reflector”.

      It is, to some extent, a hybrid of a “taiga” fire (in a variation of a “hunter’s hearth”) and a node.

    • Purpose: heating during the night, you can cook food on the remains of this fire.
    • Advantages: they say it warms very well – due to the fact that heat is radiated only in one direction.
    • Disadvantages: the complexity of the design (you have to tinker with constructing a reflector, among other things – you need to select special logs for it). Also, apparently, it is necessary to periodically add firewood to this fire. Isn’t it easier then to “portray” a node?
    • “Star”

      Attention! The most “useless” bonfire according to the site “Tract”!

      Fig.16. Bonfire “star”.

      Several logs are placed in the shape of a star, and a flame is lit in the middle between them. As the logs burn out, they should be shifted towards the center.

    • Function: fiery (sort of like).
    • Purpose: Rumor has it that it is good to cook on the “star”.
    • Advantages: even if they are, they are covered by the main disadvantage of the fire. Nevertheless, one of them is worth noting – the “star” is very economical in terms of the consumption of logs.
    • Disadvantages: the main disadvantage is that the tourist needs to constantly monitor the entire structure and push the logs in time, which – if dry – quickly burn out.Wasn’t it easier to use the simpler options? Another point is cumbersome: the logs stick out in all directions like a cuttlefish and occupy a decent area. Our experience of communicating with this bonfire ended very eloquently – having fiddled with the “star” for a short time and stumbled over it a couple of times, we reconfigured this “miracle of technical thought” into an ordinary “taiga” one, after which they didn’t blow a mustache – and brewed tea, and they bungled the porridge with meat, and warmed themselves to their heart’s content.
    “Dakota hearth”, or simply “Dakota”

    Fig.17. “Dakota hearth”.

    According to the “official” legend, this type of fire was invented by the North American Indians. My companions and I tend to believe that all this is misinformation and another attempt to hide the truth. And the CIA developed it, because the Dakota is the perfect spy fire.

  • Purpose: exclusively for cooking food. Well, you can still warm up the pens.
  • Advantages: there is practically no flame at all, smoke – like from a stove (at first there is, then only a light trickle). The bonfire is very inconspicuous.It is also economical in terms of firewood. In fact, it is a stove located in the ground.
  • Disadvantages: to create this fire, you have to pretend to be a gopher and dig a decent hole. Also, sometimes he needs a metal grate or several pieces of reinforcement. You won’t get warm from the “Dakota”. Let it be kindled by tourists-entertainers, or – intelligence agents of the most likely enemy, who were thrown into the Siberian taiga for the purpose of espionage and sabotage. We, in the old fashioned way, will use the “taiga”, or “firelight”.
  • “Pyramid”

    As a matter of fact – a huge “hut”. Good only for pioneer gatherings – when you need a powerful visual effect – to delight the young “Indians”.

  • Purpose: as mentioned above – purely pyrotechnic.
  • Pros: Very bright lighting.
  • Disadvantages: very uneconomical in terms of firewood.
  • “Lattice”

    Fig. 19. Bonfire “grate”.

    It somewhat resembles a well, only without a central shaft, for by its construction it is an ordinary pile, the thickness of the logs in which decreases with height.According to the operation manual, it is ignited from above, after which the combustion zone gradually moves down.

  • Purpose: a fire for a crowd of people. Heating, drying clothes, you can also cook a bucket of soup on it.
  • Advantages: it gives a lot of heat, and shines very badly. And, judging by all estimates, it can be bred in deep snow or in a swamp. True, after the burning zone reaches the bottom row of logs, it will still begin to fall through.
  • Disadvantages: like all similar fires – uneconomical.
  • How ancient people made fire

    Modern archaeologists have found a lot of evidence that the first people did not use fire for cooking, heating or lighting. They were afraid of fire and tried not to approach the burning dry grass or trees. They knew that it brings death and destruction, but they could not tame the wild phenomenon of nature.

    Who and how first began to use fire is still a mystery, but most likely it happened by accident.At some point, the ancient people noticed that after forest fires, hot logs remain, which provide heat, and the meat of dead animals becomes tastier. Another option is also possible: during a strong thunderstorm, lightning could strike a dry tree and ignite it. Undoubtedly, the pioneer who defied his fear was a true daredevil. Thanks to natural curiosity, ingenuity and courage, this primitive man gave his family or his tribe such a miracle as fire.

    People carefully guarded the fire, obtained during a thunderstorm or fire, and trusted only the most responsible representatives of their community to take care of it.However, sometimes the fire was extinguished, and the whole tribe was left without heat and light. In primitive society, there was an urgent need to make fire, not hoping for the next thunderstorm or fire. People in antiquity could get it only by experience. It is not known how many methods they tried, but archaeological finds indicate that only a few of them achieved their goals.

    Scraping is the simplest but most laborious method of making fire. Its essence was to run a dry stick along a wooden board.Pressing the stick with force, the person tried to make the board smolder, so that later he could add dry grass and leaves and thus get fire. Scientists have named this device a fire plow.

    Another device of the ancients – a fire saw. The main difference from the “plow” was that the person drove the stick not along the board, but across it. In this way, the smoldering wood shavings were scraped off. However, man soon found a faster and easier way to get fire – drilling. A hole was made in a log or large chip, into which a stick-drill was inserted.Due to the vigorous rubbing of the stick between the palms of the hands, smoke began to ooze from under it. This meant that the wood powder began to smolder.

    A later and one of the most common and effective methods of making fire is by striking a spark with flint. Flint at that time was an ordinary stone, which was hit hard on a piece of iron ore. The spark was cut at an angle so that the resulting sparks hit the leaves or dry grass. The fire flared up much faster in this way.

    Early Spring | The best on the internet.

    Once upon a time, In primitive times, In the caves lived a primitive tribe, Under the arch a primitive fire was bursting. Cave mothers were talking: About children’s clothes, About baby food, But first of all, About upbringing. They cut large animal skins, Cooked from herbs Soups and potions.

    And after the preparation of the potion and food, They were engaged in comfort in the dwelling. Coming home from the primitive work, the Cave dads did not know worries: They were waiting for smiles, Warmth and comfort And many happy Family minutes.And our Cave Daddies heard: “Well, wipe your dirty paws! Here you will get tired in a day! You will get tired in a day! When, finally, will you become a Man?”

    And the century flew by Imperceptibly for the century, And dad eventually became a man. It happened in the early spring, When he returned home with a bouquet …

    For a long time we forgot the Cave era, But dad, no, no, And he will pull him into the cave. That will pull to the forest, Now to the river, then to the field – On that, on his own, Primitive will.

    Suppose the popes were left alone, what days would come then?

    At first the dads would walk in sorrow.Then they would grumble at each other. They would turn houses into caves. Burn tables And burn wardrobes. Sullen dads, Hungry dads Chew shoes, Galoshes and hats.

    But mothers are on guard. And, honestly, They will never allow this. They will not allow, So that a man has walked into the Stone Age from our century. Long live Mother’s good hands, Working hands, Without laziness and boredom! Which can feed and caress! Which dads SHOULD KISS!

  • Let’s congratulate women with verses!
  • Next …
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    When did people learn to use fire? – Human origin – Human – Children

    Scientists believe that Homo erectus started making fire. It happened about half a million years ago. Until that time, people only knew how to maintain the fire that arose as a result of forest fires, if the flame extinguished, they could not re-ignite it and remained without fire. However, over time, they discovered that if you rub two twigs together for a long time, they get very hot and eventually catch fire, and if you hit two pieces of flint against each other, you can strike sparks with which you can set fire to dry grass and leaves. …

    In the old days, people thought that small fire lizards, the spirits of fire, lived in fire. And there were those who considered fire a deity and built temples in his honor. For hundreds of years, lamps dedicated to the god of fire burned in these temples without extinguishing.

    The custom of maintaining an unquenchable fire is one of the oldest on earth. Many tens of thousands of years ago, people did not know how to make fire. They did not make fire, but found, as they find precious stones now. It is no wonder that the fire was then cherished as a treasure.If it had gone out, there would have been nowhere else to get it: after all, people did not know how to make fire.

    It happened that lightning set fire to a tree. People looked with fear at the fiery beast that devoured the tree, breaking branches with a crash and licking the bark with its tongue. It was scary to come closer, but I didn’t want to leave: on a cold night it was warm and merry near a burning tree.

    Primitive man was a bold creature. He often had to engage in battle with both a huge shaggy mammoth and a mighty cave bear.In the end, there were brave men who were not afraid to approach the dying fire. We do not know who was the first to dare to grab a burning branch and bring home this outlandish prey. Probably, this was done not by one person, but by several in different places. Be that as it may, there were brave, inventive people who tamed fire, like wild animals are tamed.

    The invention of Edison, who made the first light bulb, is nothing compared to the invention of these woolly, long-armed, club-footed people.If there were no fire, we would still be little different from orangutans or gorillas.

    A bright fire illuminated the caves and dugouts of primitive people. But many thousands of years passed before people learned how to make fire. Having learned how to make fire, a person could not be afraid of losing it. If a storm or downpour extinguished the fire, it was always possible to light up a new one.

    But for a long time inextinguishable lamps burned in the temples, reminding of the time when they did not know how to make fire, when fire was a rare and precious find.

    Oddly enough, the most ancient method of making fire has survived to our time. Primitive people made fire by rubbing one wooden stick against another. We, too, produce fire by friction – matches on boxes. But there is a difference, and a very big one. To light a match is a matter of an instant, and to light a piece of wood, even a very dry one, you need to tinker for five minutes, or even more. Yes, and you need to be able. Everyone will light a match, but try to get fire by the primitive method. I highly doubt you will succeed.

    How different religions explained human origins

    People are different from animals: they have intelligence, communicate with the help of speech and create works of art. In ancient times, people tried to explain the difference between man and all other living beings by the fact that the higher divine power created them special. For example, the Bible – the sacred book of Jews and Christians – says that God created man in his own image and likeness….

    For many thousands of years, the ancestors of ancient people moved in the same way as monkeys – on four limbs. About two and a half million years ago, a small group of humanoid creatures learned to walk erect, on two legs.They formed a special species, which scientists call in Latin Homo erectus – “upright man”. Thanks to the ability to walk on two legs …

    Lucy is the name that scientists gave to Australopithecus, whose skeleton was discovered during excavations. Paleontologists and archaeologists are studying the remains of primitive people. Their research helps to reconstruct the long history of the gradual transformation of ancient humanoid beings into modern humans. These ancestors of modern humans are also called hominids.In particular, Australopithecines such as Lucy are also hominids. Lucy lived …

    Hunting and fishing

    Basically, our ancestors ate wild fruits, roots and seeds of plants. However, some groups of people have learned to hunt and fish. Hunting and fishing were not only a source of food: thanks to them, people obtained bones, teeth and skins of animals for making clothes and tools. Primitive people hunted herbivores: mammoths, bison, deer, horses, etc.

    Primitive people lived in small groups, hunted and worked together. For a joint hunt to be successful, they needed to coordinate their actions, that is, somehow communicate with each other. Many animals that live in packs address each other with growls, gestures and screams. However, in the process of evolution, humans have developed a special communication system – a language that made it possible to express …

    How is the age of a fossil determined?

    To determine what our distant ancestors looked like, scientists study their fossil remains – bones and other organic tissue, which eventually turned into stone.There are different methods for determining the age of these remains: samples for the content of radioactive elements in them; study of the composition of soil and rocks in the place where they were found; biological analysis found next to …

    What is excavation?

    Many finds of fossilized remains or traces of the activity of prehistoric people were completely accidental. But some of them were the result of long, focused searches by paleontologists and archaeologists. They study the structure of the soil and determine the time of the formation of its various layers, look for places where rivers flowed millions of years ago – all this data helps them determine how likely it is to find …

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  • types of bonfires, selection of firewood for ignition

    Fire, one of the most powerful elements, indomitable, furious, capable of both destroying everything around, turning it only into ash, and illuminating the road in complete darkness, scaring off a wild beast, warming it with its warmth, not allowing it to freeze even in the most severe frost.

    A man of the 21st century, accustomed to making fire by pressing an electric pieza on his gas stove in a cozy apartment of a metropolis, is slightly lost, being for one reason or another outside of civilization. Where there are no shops, the shelves of which are bursting with an abundance of products, where the meat has already been peeled from films and cut into portions, and does not run, jump or fly somewhere in the forest. Where even bread is sold in slices, in order to finally deprive a person of even the most elementary skills, and to educate him exclusively as a consumer.

    But no one will give us a guarantee of what will happen tomorrow. And it is quite possible that those skills that are so diligently erased from our consciousness with each new generation will become vital tomorrow.

    Today I will talk about one of the most important skills outside of civilization – making fire.

    Selection and preparation of a place for a bonfire

    The first and seemingly elementary rule, but which for some reason is often forgotten, is the location of the fire relative to the sleeping place.

    • If you spend the night in a tent, then the fire should be placed at a distance of at least five meters from its entrance. At a closer location, there is a possibility of burning the tent with an flying spark, or even worse, burning it completely, and it’s good if you are not inside.
    • It is also highly desirable to take into account the direction of the wind. The wind should blow from the tent towards the fire, so that you do not have to breathe smoke, and in order to minimize the arrival of sparks on your home.

    With such an arrangement of the fire, we get maximum safety, but we also lose several advantages.

    • The smoke will not drive the gnaw away from the tent, where mosquitoes and horseflies clog under the upper awning, and they arrange a whole extravaganza if you light a flashlight before going to bed.
    • In our middle zone, even in July, it is pretty cool at night. The cold from the ground will be felt quite steadily, and with such a distant location of the fire, no heating is out of the question, plus the wind removes the heat in the opposite direction.

    All of the above has to do with modern lightweight synthetic tents, but if you are an adherent of the classics, and you have a canvas tent, then, in principle, the fire can be placed much closer, literally three meters away (depending on the type of fire). For example, if this is a “node”, then we will get a pretty good heating of the sleeping place, with a minimum probability of burning it.

    As for the wind direction, this parameter is no longer so critical.A tarpaulin awning is not bad at keeping small sparks. But for all this you will have to pay for the large weight of the tent, about 5-6 kilograms, the worst protection from rain, in comparison with modern materials. Also, when wet in warm weather, the tarp begins to mold.

    Well, if you are a lover of extreme tourism, bushcraft, walking and like to test your skills and your body for endurance, then instead of comfortable tents, set up a canopy or hut, collecting it from what the forest will give you.In this situation, on especially cold nights, the fire can be brought closer to two meters (depending on the type of fire, your clothes and the ambient temperature).

    To the above, you can also add that, if possible, it is advisable to locate your camp near a water source.

    The preparation of the site for the fire place needs to be approached even more seriously than the location of the fire. It must be thoroughly cleaned of forest litter – fallen twigs, needles, cones, grass, leaves.The cleared area should be about five times the size of the intended fire.

    If there is such an opportunity, it is better to dig a shallow hole to fit the size of the fire, 15-20 centimeters deep will be quite enough. Or enclose the perimeter with stones, if they are nearby. Otherwise, one small spark falling on the forest floor can do something irreparable.

    Fire fuel

    It seems that everyone, young and old, knows that firewood is used as fuel for a fire.But once in the forest and having collected the branches lying under your feet, it is not uncommon to encounter the problem of lighting them up due to their dampness.
    If you find yourself in the forest in early spring, or it is rainy autumn in the yard and everything is damp around, then in this situation everything that is lying on the ground is in no way suitable for a fire, at least in the first stages of its breeding.
    It is also worth considering that a lot depends on the type of fire that you want to build. If you just need to boil a mug of water, then very small twigs (brushwood) are suitable for such a task.If you have to cook food in a stationary camp or heat it, then for such purposes you need tree trunks with a diameter of 10 to 35 centimeters.
    Now let’s play a few situations:

    1. Everything is dry in the forest and you managed to find a windblow (trees felled by the wind), then your problem ended there. Now you just have to saw or cut the tree into blocks of the desired size.

    2. The forest is damp and you found a windblown , then before you can effectively ignite it, you need to do a few manipulations. After cutting the felled trunk across, be sure to split the resulting logs along, we are interested in the dry core of the tree. Of course, I cannot give you 100% guarantee that it will be dry, but the probability of this is quite high. We chop off the core from several woods – this will be the basis of our fuel for the fire, then you can already put the more moist parts with the bark up.

    3. The forest is dry, but on the ground there are only small branches , and you need good logs for a high-quality fire.
    Under such circumstances, you need to look for dead wood (dried trees, but not yet fallen). This is pretty easy to do. It doesn’t make sense to look at trunks or bark, it can be deceiving. You need to look at the tops of the trees. If this is a coniferous forest, then difficulties will not arise at all. Dry needles, or none at all, ensures that the tree is dead and completely dry.If it is a deciduous forest, and it is early spring or late autumn outside, then it is a little more difficult here. You need to look closely at the formation of buds, or the remnants of not completely fallen leaves.

    4. It is early spring in the forest, in some places there is snow. The choice between windfall and dead wood, naturally, is made in favor of the latter, but with a small nuance. For the initial building of a fire, a part of the trunk at a height of about one and a half meters from the ground is suitable, since everything below is damp due to melted snow.

    Ignition means

    In this section, I will not consider options such as “splashing gasoline”. But I also see no point in talking about completely exotic methods, such as lighting a fire with a piece of ice, bottle glass or a Pepsi can. For 18 years of extreme tourism, I have never had to use them.

    Means for lighting a fire are not so great, they include standard ones such as matches, a lighter, and less common ones – flint, and a fire bow.If everything is clear with the first two, then I would like to dwell on the last two in more detail.

    Fire

    Until the 19th century, it was the most common tool for making fire. Flint consists of three parts: chisel, flint, and tinder.

    Kresalo was previously made of iron, but it had one drawback – excessive hardness, and it was difficult to achieve sparks with your hands.Subsequently, iron was replaced by mischmetals (an alloy of rare earth elements obtained during the processing of ore), the most common of which is ferrocerium in our time. If in the old days the armchair had various forms, it could even be a small work of art, for example, in the form of two intertwining snakes, nowadays the armchair looks like a metal rod of various diameters and lengths with a wooden or plastic handle.

    Flint , however, was made of a harder material than a chaise.As a rule, in the old days, a natural mineral was used, flint (hence the name). His task was to carve swarf in the form of flammable sparks from a softer armchair. At the present time, due to the manufacture of a chair from softer mishmetals, hardened steel has come to replace silicon, in the form of a metal plate or the butt of a knife.

    Tinder is any flammable material: cotton wool, dry moss, small wood shavings, tinder mushrooms, etc.

    Fire is a very reliable and trouble-free means for making fire, which is not afraid of moisture or mechanical stress.

    By the way, there is no need to constantly carry all three of its components with you. Only one chair will be enough, and flint can easily replace the butt of a knife (after all, a man in the forest without a knife is nonsense), or in extreme cases, any pebble of a suitable shape will do.

    With tinder, everything is easier – they took a knife, cut off small shavings or cut off birch bark, splitting it into small fibers. You can find a tinder fungus, usually sprouting on birches.In general, there is nothing complicated about it.

    Fire is produced with the help of a flint with sharp scrambling movements of flint on a chaise, so that the sparks that are ejected accurately fall on a pile of tinder prepared in advance. When a small coal appears, we begin to inflate it, as it burns up, putting pieces of birch bark or shavings into it. And now, we already have real fire in our hands.

    Fire Bow

    This is already a rather exotic tool, I myself have used it a dozen times, but only to develop a skill.In essence, it can only be useful to you in an extreme situation, when something happened to your equipment, but knowledge is never superfluous, therefore:

    • Find a dry stick or cut it yourself from a piece of wood about 40 centimeters long.
    • Also find a dry, and more or less flat board or chip. If it is not there, then do it yourself with a knife (after all, we always have a knife with us).
    • The third element will be a branch of some elastic shrub, which will become the basis of our bow.
    • As a bowstring, you can use laces or weave a rope from the roots of a tree, lianas, etc.

    Now we are assembling the structure.

    • We take an elastic branch, make recesses at both ends with a knife, tie a rope in these recesses so that it does not slip, bend the branch so that the rope gets a strong tension, and our creation resembles a bow.
    • Next, on a flat board with a knife, we make a recess with a diameter of about our first element (dry stick). Attention, an important detail: you need to cut a small through groove from this recess, it will play the role of a blower, because there is no fire without air.
    • Next, we twist the string of our bow once, around a dry stick. We rest its first end against the depression of a flat plate, and the second against our palm (it is highly desirable to protect the palm with something). We stock up on patience, and due to the force of friction we extract a small coal in our depression of a flat plate.
    • Of course, we must first prepare the tinder, which we will kindle from this coal.

    How to light a fire

    How to light a fire with one match? Very easy! The main thing is preparation.

    • Make sure the wood is dry. How to find dry wood, I said in the section “fuel for a fire”.
    • We find a birch bark, if it is not there, then we take a knife and cut medium-sized shavings, about two handfuls.
    • We find thin dry twigs or with a knife we ​​cut chips from a pole.
    • We set fire to a birch bark or a handful of shavings, as it does, we put brushwood or chips there. As soon as this lights up, you can already put the main logs (bark up). You can immediately lay down the fire, observing the above sequence. That’s all, absolutely nothing complicated, the main thing is not to rush, and not to pile on whatever and whatever.

    Bonfire in the winter forest

    If the task is to make a fire in the winter forest, then there are two options.

    Option one. You clean the place of the fire from snow to the very ground. Yes, the task is not easy, because the snow can be waist-deep or chest-high. But since you find yourself in the forest in winter and you need fire, then it will not be superfluous to warm up before kindling a fire, especially since this task can be performed even without a shovel, with the help of only hands and feet – it has been personally verified. If you have skis, dig with skis.

    Option two. If the crust is more or less dense, we take several deadwood poles at least two meters long (or better, more), put them on the snow tightly to each other, like a flooring, and already in the middle of these poles we assemble a fire. The poles will not let him fall into the snow until their middle is burned out, but as this happens, they can be moved to the center again and the fire turns out to be quite long-lived.

    Bonfire in the rain

    The first step is to find a natural rain canopy in the form of a dense tree crown (be careful, do not burn the tree), or build a canopy yourself.When self-made, in the absence of modern materials, densely laid spruce branches over the poles are well suited as a canopy roof. Just keep in mind that the canopy must be made high enough, at least 180 cm, otherwise there is a possibility of simply burning it.

    If the rain is very heavy, and the forest floor can no longer cope with the abundance of precipitation, then, just like in winter, you can make a flooring for a fire, only using the poles is much shorter, 40 centimeters will be quite enough.The search for dry firewood is no different from the one described above in this article.

    Types of bonfires

    There are a great many types of fires. To be honest, I did not use all of them, but only a part, and selected for myself the most optimal ones, with the highest efficiency, taking into account the labor costs for their preparation.

    I will conventionally divide them into two types: for heating and for cooking. I want to note right away that my division does not mean that you cannot cook food in the first view, and warm yourself with the second.It’s just that the labor costs for creating them are different, and the requirements for comfortable heating and cooking are also different.


    Heating bonfires

    1. Nodya

    A deservedly popular bonfire among hunters and extreme tourists. Its main purpose is to heat a sleeping place, a group of people, up to minus 30 degrees. Its second undoubted plus is the burning time, which can be more than 10 hours without additional human intervention.Nodya also does a good job of preparing food for a group of people. Specifically for a group, since for one or two people at a comfortable ambient temperature, it makes no sense to collect Nodya exclusively for cooking. The fire is quite labor-intensive, you can’t do it with one knife, you need an ax or a saw to prepare it.

    To create Nodya, you need two or three logs (Nodya can be from two or three logs). The diameter of the logs should be about 30 centimeters with a length of about 2 meters, and more is possible.After all, the more massive the logs are, the more heat the fire will give, and the less the likelihood of waking up at night from the cold due to its burning out.
    Also, at least four chocks with a diameter of about 7 centimeters will be useful to us, two of which will be 50 centimeters long, and the remaining – 20 centimeters.

    The bonfire is assembled as follows:

    • We take two longer chocks and place the thinnest log of the three on them.
    • Behind him, close, we put a thick log. These chocks should raise the logs off the ground for better air circulation.
    • On top of these logs along the entire length, we lay brushwood or other ignition.
    • On the very first log (which is the thinnest) we lay out the remaining smaller chocks, and on top of them we put the thickest log hewn from one side, with the board down.
    • We ignite the ignition.As the logs are taken care of, you can remove the blocks from under the thick log, thereby limiting the flow of air, which will reduce the flame, but increase the burning time of the fire.

    2. Taiga bonfire

    Compared to Nodya, it is easier to manufacture, but as a disadvantage, we get the need to wake up 1-2 times a night in order to move the logs. Otherwise, these two bonfires are very similar.

    To create it, we also need large logs of the same size, only in the amount of 4 to 5 pieces.

    • The first log – the thickest (fill) – is laid on the ground.
    • On top of it, we put 3-4 logs across. Slightly, about 40 centimeters, push them forward, and press them tightly against each other and put the kindling under them.
    • The same part of the logs that lies on the ground should not be in contact with each other, but should be fanned apart. This is done in order to slow down the burning out of the fire.


    Cooking bonfires

    1.Polynesian Bonfire

    The most rare bonfire in our latitudes, in my opinion, is in vain.
    I love making this fire in a stationary camp, because it allows you to cook truly delicious dishes, because in its functionality it resembles a stove, and if you cover it with something on top, you get a smokehouse.
    If, for some reason, you want to leave your stay unnoticed, then this bonfire is the best fit for these tasks, since it is hardly noticeable.

    To make it we need:

    • Dig a cone-shaped hole, the depth can vary from 50 to 100 centimeters.
    • Inside this hole, along its circumference, we put logs vertically tightly to each other (the larger their diameter, the longer the fire will burn).
    • In the middle of this hole, we throw brushwood and wood chips and set them on fire. Over time, upright logs will also engage in fire.

    Of the advantages, it can be noted that the flame turns out to be powerful, clearly directed upward, not leaving to the side due to gusts of wind, which positively contributes to the rapid preparation of food. If you lightly extinguish the logs so that they do not give an open flame, and hang a piece of meat in the center of this fire, then we will get even roasting from all sides, and if you cover the hole with something on top, you will get a stove with a smoking function.
    Of the minuses – you need to dig a hole.

    2. Fire-well

    It is convenient to put any utensils on this fire right on top – a frying pan, a kettle, a saucepan, and so on. Also, the pluses include a directional flame and a slow speed of burning out of the fire. The downside is the need to prepare logs of approximately the same diameter and length.

    The assembly is carried out as follows:

    • We put the blocks on top of each other in the form of a log house.The area of ​​the fire and its height vary based on the tasks.
    • In the center of this log house (well), we kindle a fire from brushwood and chips, or other flammable material.
    • If necessary, the top of this log house can be covered with logs in the form of a flat roof.

    Safety rules or how to put out a fire

    Here I probably won’t say anything new, everyone knows that the fire is filled with water. But there are situations when the water supply is limited, and the fire needs to be extinguished.

    If there is no way to fill the fire with water, you need to wait until it completely burns out. Yes, of course, this is the time, but the forest and its inhabitants are much more important than your time.

    As a second option, the fire can be buried in earth. Just be careful – the ground, not the forest floor. It is better to take the earth at a depth of 30 centimeters, since up to this value, the soil still contains organic matter, due to which the fire can re-ignite.

    TIP!

    To make it easier to light a fire, especially in damp weather, we borrow cotton cosmetic pads – sponges – from our “other half” in advance at home. We melt a wax candle in a water bath and soak our (now they are already ours) sponges in this wax. After they dry, we get a wonderful long-lasting and poorly extinguishing kindling, which is capable of burning even in a light rain.

    Regards everyone,

    sharpener Alexey Tarasov.

    How to light a fire: 10 unusual ways

    You never know what surprises life will bring you. Therefore, you should be prepared for anything. We present to your attention the post of Boris Zak – a lover of travel, trail running and running in general (who, by the way, has already told us about his participation in the German WiBoLT marathon). Today Boris will tell you about 10 ways to light a fire. Some of them will seem useful to you, and some will surely surprise you. 🙂

    A bit of theory.What is fire?

    Fire is the main phase of the combustion process, which is accompanied by the release of light and heat. A fire can occur for various reasons: heat, chemical reaction, exposure to electricity.

    So, to start a fire, we need combustible materials, oxygen and high temperature.

    Method 1. We light a fire with a condom

    A condom is a truly unique thing, I think that all travelers have long appreciated this multipurpose item.So, take a transparent condom and fill it with water.

    We light a fire with a condom

    We use it as a lens, focus the beam on the prepared dry grass or paper, a little patience, and now the smoke appears.

    We use a condom as a lens

    Method 2. A can from under Pepsi

    We polish the bottom of the can and use it as a reflector. We direct the beam onto a sheet of paper or dry grass.

    The bottom of the can is an excellent reflector

    Method 3. Photo frame and cling film

    Take the photo frame and wrap it with cling film.

    Frame wrapped in cling film

    Place the frame on the stand and pour water.

    Gently pouring water

    That’s it, the fire-starting installation is ready.

    Done!

    Method 4. Steel wool and mobile phone battery

    Steel wool is an interlacing of very thin steel fibers, in appearance it resembles ordinary cotton wool from a pharmacy. The steel itself is 98% iron and 2% carbon, the proportions may vary depending on the type of steel. We prepare a “nest” from dry leaves and grass, put cotton into it and run the battery contacts several times over the cotton.

    We light a fire with steel wool and a battery

    Method 5. Battery and foil from chewing gum

    Finger battery and foil from gum

    Cut off a strip of foil, fold it in half and sharpen the fold with scissors.

    We apply the ends of the strip to the poles of the battery, and the main thing here is not to burn your fingers.

    Take care of your fingers!

    The same manipulations, only clearer, are presented in the video.

    Method 6. An interesting but expensive way to start a fire using goods from IKEA

    Method 7.Ice

    This method requires patience. You will not only light a fire, but also keep warm. We take a piece of ice and with light movements of a knife give it a shape into the lenses. Then we polish the lens surface with our hands.

    Smooth ice works like a lens

    Well, every child knows how to light a fire with a lens.

    Method 8. Chemical reaction

    Sodium is a silvery-white metal, plastic, even soft (easily cut with a knife), a fresh cut of sodium shines in air and is easily oxidized to sodium oxide.To protect against oxygen in the air, sodium metal is stored under a layer of kerosene.

    Sodium reacts very violently with water: a piece of sodium placed in water floats, melts due to the heat released, turning into a white ball that quickly moves in different directions on the surface of the water; the reaction proceeds with the release of hydrogen, which can ignite. This experiment is also called “dancing fire”.

    Sodium + water

    Method 9. Flame

    With the help of flint, sparks are struck.The tool is compact, lightweight and can be used in any weather. You can find a large assortment of fires on the Internet. Which one you get doesn’t matter, the main thing is to learn how to use this gadget correctly.

    Striking sparks is not difficult, you just need to prepare a good tinder. To do this, use a dry, flammable material.

    Method 10. Fire Piston

    This pneumatic lighter was invented sometime in 1770. It works on the same principle as a diesel engine.Under strong compression, the air in the cylinder heats up to temperatures above 300 ° C, which ignites the tinder at the end of the piston.

    Fire Piston

    It takes a strong blow to reach high temperatures.

    Museum of entertaining science for children LabyrinthUm

    The LabyrinthUm Museum of Entertaining Sciences is a unique interactive museum for children in St. Petersburg, which successfully uses a new approach – interactive technologies in the exposition and programs.

    Positioning itself as an educational and entertainment center, LabyrinthUm presents a unique exposition – an interactive space filled with amazing mechanisms and technical devices that demonstrate the laws of physics, chemistry and biology.

    Interactive Science Museums – What Are They?

    LabyrinthUm is a worthy presentation of new interactive museums: it is the only children’s science museum in St. Petersburg, in which exhibits can be activated independently, following the detailed instructions.

    In total, our interactive children’s center includes more than 170 exhibits. Become part of the electricity chain? Light a fire in the palm of your hand? Touch the lightning? For the guests of the children’s museum of entertaining science “LabyrinthUm” nothing is impossible!

    Our Science and Entertainment Center offers:

    • unusual interactive tours;
    • unique sites for experiments and experiments;
    • awesome interactive educational and entertainment programs for children and guests of all ages.

    Science has never been this fun!

    Museum of Interactive Sciences, or entertaining science for children

    Interactive museums for children in St. Petersburg are no longer news, but scientific interactive entertainment for children is of particular interest today.

    How to explain to the kid the action of the law of universal gravitation and the force of Archimedes? How to instill in a student a love of natural sciences? “LabyrinthUm” is a real science center for children, all educational activities in the children’s science museum are carried out in a playful way by professional guides, making the process of acquiring new knowledge an interesting and exciting experience even for the smallest.

    In addition, the children’s science museum “LabyrinthUm” holds outdoor events – birthdays, theme parties, graduations, etc., offering original scenarios and unusual entertainment.

    Scientific entertainment center for children implements new opportunities for learning!

    90,000 In what ways did the ancient people make fire?

    These discoveries and the accumulated experience were an important prerequisite for the transition, after tens and hundreds of millennia, to the next stage of the development of fire, to its artificial production.It is likely that the Zhoukoudian Sinanthropes, like the people of Verteshsölös, were at the stage of using accidentally obtained fire. The great rarity of the remnants of fire that have come down from that era and the extreme primitiveness of technology do not allow us to assume that a person then already knew how to make fire by friction or carving. The exceptional unevenness of familiarity with fire among different groups of people right up to the very end of the Acheulean era probably reflects precisely the stage of using fire, when people still did not know how to get it, and, having received it, in some cases they easily lost it.

    Of all the tribes of the Earth, only one Andamans back in the 19th century. were at the stage of maintaining and using fire, although in other respects their technology and economy were better developed than even those of the people of the late Paleolithic era. The Andamans did not know how to artificially produce fire. The fire constantly burned in their villages and huts, and when they left the village, they took smoldering brands wrapped in leaves with them if the weather was damp. At the same time, in the village, under some shelter, a log was left, which smoldered for several days and from which it was possible to fan the flame upon returning.

    In order to answer the questions, what were the most ancient methods of artificial fire making that could arise at the end of the Acheulean era, it is necessary to consider, based on ethnographic sources, the methods of making fire that existed among the primitive tribes of the 19th century.

    There are five such ways:

    scraping fire (fire plow), cutting fire (fire saw), drilling fire (fire drill with a number of varieties), cutting fire, producing fire with compressed air (fire pump).

    Scraping the fire is one of the simplest, but at the same time less common methods. It was done with a wooden stick, which was driven by pressing firmly over a wooden plank lying on the ground. The scraping resulted in fine shavings or wood powder. Due to the friction of wood against wood, heat arose; shavings or wood powder would heat up and then smolder. They were attached to flammable tinder and fanned the fire.This method was fast, but at the same time required a lot of effort from those using it. Charles Darwin in his diary of his trip on the ship “Beagle” describes the making of fire in this way by the inhabitants of the island of Tahiti. Darwin points out that the fire was triggered in a few seconds. When he himself tried to get it in this way, it turned out to be a very difficult task; however, he managed to get his way and lit the sawdust. Fire scraping had a fairly limited spread. Most of all it was used on the islands of Polynesia.Occasionally, this method was found among the Papuans, Australians, Tasmanians and some of the primitive tribes of India and Central Africa; but drilling of fire prevailed everywhere.

    Fire saw resembled a fire plow, but the wooden plank was sawn or scraped not along its fibers, but across. Sawing also produced wood powder, which began to smolder. Fire sawing was common among Australians and was known in New Guinea, the Philippine Islands, Indonesia, and parts of India and West Africa.Sometimes the tree was sawn not with a knife made of hard wood, but with a flexible plant cord.

    The most common method of making fire is drilling . This method in the XVIII-XIX centuries. was widespread among the culturally backward tribes of Asia, Africa, America and Australia. In the form of vestiges associated with the cult, it remained in Europe until the end of the 19th century. A fire drill consisted of a wooden stick, which was used to drill a wooden stick or plank lying on the ground.As a result of drilling, a smoking and smoldering wood powder appeared very quickly in the recess on the lower plank, which poured out onto the tinder and swelled into a flame. The simplest fire drill was rotated by the palms of both hands. A significant improvement was the attachment to it of a stop on top and a belt that wraps around the drill. The belt was alternately pulled at both ends, causing the drill to rotate. If the ends of the belt were tied to the ends of a wooden or bone bow, then an improved drill appeared – a bow drill.Finally, further improvement of the fire drill consisted in the advent of the drill. While the simplest fire drill was still very widespread among the most primitive tribes until recently, a sophisticated drill with a belt and a bow was found only among tribes with relatively advanced technology, which were, as a rule, at the stage of the Neolithic and the age of metals.

    Carving fire can be done by hitting a stone on a stone, hitting a stone on a piece of iron ore (pyrite, otherwise – pyrite) and, finally, by hitting iron on flint.The impact produces sparks that fall on the tinder and ignite it.

    The first method was hardly noted among the primitive tribes. Only in a small hunting and gatherer tribe of South America – the Guayacs, fire was produced by striking each other of two nodules of fine-grained quartzite. One of the tribes of African pygmies also carved fire by hitting flint on flint. In the past, in some places in Russia, Central Asia, Transcaucasia, Iran and India, the population, who stood at a high level of economic and cultural development, also sometimes struck fire in this way.Slightly wider spread was also the carving of fire by striking a flint on a piece of iron ore. This method was described among the Ainu, Eskimos, some tribes of North American Indians and among the fire-dwellers. It also existed among the ancient Greeks and Romans. Carving fire by striking iron on flint is already a well-developed technique.

    Producing fire by compressing air (firing pump) is a rather perfect, but not widely used method. It was used in some places in India and Indonesia.

    Direct evidence of the methods of making fire that existed at different stages of the Paleolithic, and the remains of the shells used in this case, of course, are extremely insignificant, and sometimes very controversial. In this regard, the Mousterian site Salzgitter-Lebenstedt (Lower Saxony, FRG) is of considerable interest. Its cultural layer, examined in 1952, belongs to the Early Wurm and has a radiocarbon date of 48,300 ± 2000 years ago [Grahmann, Muller-Beck, 1967]. It contained flint tools, animal bones (mammoth, reindeer, etc.) and pollen of plants, indicating a very cold climate and tundra landscape, as well as, which is especially important for us now, remnants of the real tinder . We are talking about the arboreal mushroom Polyporus (Fomes) fomentarius brought to the site; this type of mushroom in dried form was widely used as tinder until the 19th century. and even got the name “tinder fungus”. At the Mesolithic site of Star Carr in England, the remains of such a fungus were found along with pieces of pyrite. We should also mention the Krapina Mousterian cave in Yugoslavia, near Zagreb, dating back to a somewhat earlier Riss-Wurm time.Her excavations in 1895-1905. delivered stone tools, traces of fires, faunal remains and a large number of broken bones of Neanderthals, possibly testifying to cannibalism that existed among certain groups of Paleolithic people. Among the stone tools, a spindle-shaped stick of beech wood was found, rounded and burnt at one end; its initial length reached about 35 cm. The researcher of the cave D. Goryanovich-Kramberger, like a number of other scientists, suggested that it was a fire drill [Ozegovic, 1958].However, this interpretation cannot be considered indisputable. Finally, at some Paleolithic and Mesolithic sites in Europe, pieces of iron ore (pyrite) were found, probably associated with the carving of fire. The oldest such find was made by A. Leroy-Guran in the Mousterian cultural layer of the Hyena cave in Arsy-sur-Cure (France).

    Until relatively recently, it was generally accepted that fire was originally produced by rubbing wood. Very small distribution among the primitive tribes of the XIX century.carving fire testifies against the recognition of the great antiquity of this method. The relatively late appearance of the carving of fire is also evidenced by the fact that many peoples who until recently produced fire exclusively by carving, nevertheless retained as a relic associated with the cult the making of fire by rubbing wood against wood. “Long after people became aware of other methods of obtaining fire, any sacred fire among most peoples had to be obtained by friction. Even to this day, in most European countries there is a popular belief that a miraculous fire (for example, we Germans have a fire for spells against the wind on animals) can be ignited only with the help of friction.Thus, even in our time, the grateful memory of the first great victory of man over nature continues to live semi-consciously in popular superstition, in the remnants of pagan-mythological memories of the most educated peoples of the world “(F. Engels Dialectics of Nature. – Marx K.- , Engels F. Soch., T, 20, p. 430). It is characteristic that while similar beliefs, rituals, legends, testifying to the originality of making fire by friction, are common among many different tribes and peoples of the Earth, they are opposed only by a single fact noted by ethnographic science : one primitive tribe of South American Indians mines fire by friction, while the term for making fire in his language comes from the words “cutting by blow”. Obviously, in this tribe, the carving of fire preceded the production of it by friction. But this is the rarest exception.

    It can be assumed that the production of fire by rubbing wood against wood appeared precisely in the late Acheulian time, at the boundary between Acheulean and Mousterian. Probably the most ancient and primitive technique was scraping the fire with a fire plow (the interpretation of the find at Krapina is controversial). It is characteristic that this method existed in the 19th century. among the Tasmanians and Australians, and the fact that some Australian tribes who made fire by drilling are described in legends as making fire by scraping.

    In the ancient Paleolithic, wood could be processed both with stone tools and with knives and scrapers from harder wood species. As a result of such cutting, sawing and scraping of wood, a person noticed the emerging smoke, smell, heat, smoldering, and then the ignition of shavings and sawdust. It is possible that shavings and sawdust were specially made for the preservation and transfer of fire, and in the process of their manufacture, a person went to the artificial production of fire.

    Fire sawing may also have arisen from woodworking techniques in the Mousterian era.

    These two methods of making fire are probably the oldest. Their appearance was prepared both by the development of woodworking technology and by the previous stage of using and saving fire obtained during forest fires or volcanic eruptions. The weakly smoldering shavings and sawdust formed during the processing of wood could be blown into a flame only with a good tinder. And tinder is the most important achievement of the level of use and fire conservation.

    Drilling of bone and, in some cases, also of stone, is widespread in the Late Paleolithic. Drilling in wood undoubtedly existed; therefore, a fire drill in its simplest form could have appeared, which is set in motion by the palms of the hand. The appearance of the bow drill belongs to the later eras.

    And what about the burning of the fire? Finds of pieces of pyrite at the Late Paleolithic sites and, in one case, even in the Mousterian cultural layer, suggest the spread of this method in the Late Paleolithic, and perhaps even in the Mousterian epoch.English Paleolithic explorer K . P. Oakley [Oakley, 1961b] in a number of his works, published in the 50-60s., Develops the idea that the striking of fire preceded the production of it with the help of friction. The same position was put forward by BF Porshnev [1955], backing it up with experiments in striking fire by striking flint on flint. Subsequently, on a wider scale, experiments on artificially producing fire in various ways were staged by S. A. Semenov. He notes that it was not possible to obtain fire by striking stone on stone, although a wide variety of rocks of flint, quartzite, and quartz were used.The spark was struck very easily, but it did not even ignite the manganese cotton wool used by Piston to fire. Somewhat better results were experiments in making fire by striking flint on pyrite. There were several cases of ignition of cotton wool slightly impregnated with a solution of potassium permanganate [Semenov, 1968].

    Thus, the question remains open: could Paleolithic man strike fire by chipping flint tools. On the other hand, K.P. Oakley and B.F. Porshnev were unable to refute such facts as the very small spread of fire-cutting (especially fire-cutting by hitting flint on flint) among the primitive tribes of the 19th century.simultaneously with a very wide spread among them of making fire by friction, as well as the preservation of the latter in the form of a cult relic among the peoples who carved fire.

    Apparently, the problem of the development of fire and the most ancient methods of artificial production of it does not have an unambiguous solution. At different times, different groups of ancient Paleolithic people gradually mastered fire and worked out ways to get it. Judging by archaeological finds, already from the beginning of the Late Paleolithic, and perhaps from the Mousterian era, along with the dominant production of fire by friction, in some cases it was practiced to carve it by hitting flint on pyrite.Perhaps the predominance of one method or another was associated with the surrounding natural conditions, with the climate, air humidity, the presence of suitable types of wood, as well as pieces of pyrite.

    Boriskovsky P.I. The most ancient past of mankind. M., Publishing house “Science”, 1980, p. 83-87.

    New Design Waterproof Housing for Ignite Fire Hdx

    Newly designed waterproof housing for lighting the fire HDX

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    1.Open the case in the lower right part by pressing with your fingernail or other tool
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