Wine in a pill: Red Wine’s Health Benefits, Soon Available in a Pill

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A Red Wine Pill With Health Benefits Is Being Released

OK, I’ll admit it: I love red wine more than your average gal does.

Like, a lot more. In my opinion, red wine-drunk is the best kind of drunk you can be.

Don’t judge me. I know you secretly agree.

Why? Because while you’re indulging in a rich bottle of Merlot or Cabernet Sauvignon, your body is simultaneously thanking you for showering it with the glorious antioxidants and tannins that can help prevent heart disease.

The only disadvantage related to drinking red wine I can possibly find is the piercing hangover it causes the next day.

If you’ve ever fallen victim to the vicious cycle of drinking red wine for the health benefits and then suffering a pulsing headache the next day, I have good news for you.

Scientists are in the process of developing red wine pills that will give you the same health benefits of drinking red wine… without the hangover.

Yes, this means red wine will potentially be sold in pill form.

It won’t get you drunk, though. (Sorry.)

According to Fitness Magazine, a miracle compound called resveratrol is being praised for its benefits that relate to heart and cognitive health. A few other upsides to resveratrol allegedly include protection against cancer and increased endurance.

So, it’s basically a godsend.

Although this compound sounds like the answer to all our health problems, there’s a catch: If it’s purified, it’s broken down too quickly by our livers. So, its benefits aren’t properly executed.

This, my friends, is where the wine pill comes in.

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It’s been reported researchers from a biotech company in Florida called Jupiter Orphan Therapeutics are trying to combine resveratrol with the other health benefits of wine into one pill.

This process is said to prevent the compound from dissolving too quickly.

You’re probably asking yourself, “Why can’t I just drink a bunch of red wine like I always do, in order to reap the benefits of the almighty resveratrol?”

Well, that’s because it would take you 1,000 bottles of red wine to feel the benefits confirmed by research.

If you’d rather pop a wine pill to assure you’re indulging in the health benefits of red wine, I’d definitely wait until it’s released.

Apparently, studies are being done on a new type of resveratrol right now. But the pill could potentially be on shelves some time this year.

Honestly, I’ll probably keep drinking red wine because I like the taste of it too much. But all you health fanatics, stay tuned for the pill of the century.

Resveratrol Supplements: Side Effects and Benefits

Resveratrol is part of a group of compounds called polyphenols. They’re thought to act like antioxidants, protecting the body against damage that can put you at higher risk for things like cancer and heart disease.

It’s in the skin of red grapes, but you can also find it in peanuts, red wine, berries, and other foods and berries.

Manufacturers have tried to capitalize on its powers by selling resveratrol supplements. Most resveratrol capsules sold in the U.S. contain extracts from an Asian plant called Polygonum cuspidatum. Other resveratrol supplements are made from red wine or red grape extracts.

Ads touting these supplements on the Internet promise everything from weight loss to a healthier, longer life.

Do resveratrol supplements really deliver on those promises?

Benefits of Resveratrol

 

It’s gained a lot of attention for its reported anti-aging and disease-fighting powers. Researchers have long believed that substances in red wine might have health benefits. Beginning in the 1990s, experts began to focus on resveratrol, an antioxidant compound in red wine. Since then, some animal and lab studies have shown that resveratrol has promising antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects.

It’s important to note that while experts agree that it does have potential, there’s still not enough data to confirm how well it works. Resveratrol supplements have not been well-studied in people. We don’t really know what benefits and risks they might have. We also don’t know if resveratrol is necessarily more important than some of the other natural substances in wine.

Still, early research does suggest it might help protect you against:

Heart disease: It’s thought to help reduce inflammation, lower LDL or “bad” cholesterol, and make it more difficult for clots to form that can lead to a heart attack.

Cancer: It could limit the spread of cancer cells and start killing them.

Alzheimer’s: It may protect nerve cells from damage and fight the plaque buildup that can lead to the disease.

Diabetes: Resveratrol helps prevent insulin resistance, a condition in which the body becomes less sensitive to the blood sugar-lowering hormone insulin. The condition can lead to diabetes.

Researchers believe that resveratrol activates the SIRT1 gene. That gene is believed to protect the body against the effects of obesity and the diseases of aging.

Resveratrol and Red Wine

Some people wonder if they should drink more red wine because of the possible health benefits of resveratrol. But most experts and organizations like the American Heart Association still suggest limiting alcoholic drinks to one per day for women and two for men. Four ounces of red wine equals one drink. Other forms of alcohol do not have resveratrol.

Side Effects

So far, studies have not discovered any severe ones, even when resveratrol is taken in large doses. When you get resveratrol in the amount naturally found in foods, it is generally considered safe. It could cause a reaction in those who are allergic to grapes or wine.

People who have health conditions like bleeding disorders should not take resveratrol without talking to a doctor first.

If you take any medicines or other supplements regularly, talk to your health care provider before you start using resveratrol supplements. They could interact with medicines like blood thinners, blood pressure drugs, cancer treatments, MAOI antidepressants, antiviral and antifungal medicines, NSAID painkillers, and supplements like St. John’s wort, garlic, and ginkgo.

As with other supplements, the FDA doesn’t regulate resveratrol. That makes it hard for consumers to know exactly what they’re getting or whether the product is effective. There also isn’t any specific dosage recommendation, and how much you should take can vary from supplement to supplement.

The dosages in most resveratrol supplements are typically much lower than the amounts that research has shown to be helpful. Most supplements contain 250 to 500 milligrams. To get the dose used in some studies, people would have to consume 2 grams of resveratrol (2,000 milligrams) or more a day. Ask your doctor for advice.

The Bottom Line

Until more high-quality research is done, experts do not recommend resveratrol supplements for antiaging or disease prevention. Resveratrol supplements are also not recommended for children or for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.

BBC NEWS | Health | A glass of red wine in a pill




Many studies suggest a glass or two of red wine is good for health


Scientists in Italy are developing a pill that will have all of the health benefits of a glass of red wine.


The move follows a string of studies suggesting the tipple can protect against a range of conditions, including cancer and heart disease.


The evidence is so strong some hospitals in the UK prescribe red wine to heart attack patients.


The pill will contain all of the healthy ingredients of red wine without the alcohol, says New Scientist.


Researchers at the Pavese Pharma Biochemical Institute in Pavia say they can turn red wine into a pill by freeze-drying the ingredients.


“Freeze-drying and compacting the mix leaves a tablet with all the benefits of a glass of wine, say the inventors,” the magazine reports.


Nigel Denby of the British Dietetic Association said the pill could be of benefit to some people.











There is a lot of evidence that one or two glass of red wine a day can be beneficial







Nigel Denby,
British Dietetic Association



“Certainly there is a lot of evidence that one or two glass of red wine a day can be beneficial, particularly for heart disease,” he told BBC News Online.


“But obviously that has to remain in safe limits which for women is 14 units of alcohol a week and 21 units for men.”


“A pill may be something that could be useful for someone who chooses not to drink any alcohol or for people who cannot drink for medical reasons.


“However, as a general rule we advise people to stick to original foods instead of taking supplements.”

Alcoholism clues



Meanwhile, scientists in the United States believe they may have discovered why alcoholism appears to run in families.


Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis said they had found a gene that seems to put people more at risk of alcoholism.


However, writing in the journal Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research they said further studies are needed to find out how the gene, called GABRG3, works.


The researchers said it was unlikely that a single gene can cause someone to become dependent on alcohol.


“There is no gene that directly causes you to become alcoholic, but rather there are genes that alter your risk of becoming alcoholic,” said Dr Danielle Dick, who led the study.


The researchers based their findings on a study of 2,282 people from 260 families.


Dr David Ball of Action on Addiction welcomed the study.



“These findings support previous research linking GABA receptor genes to a greater risk of alcoholism,” he said.


“Finding the genes that predispose individuals to alcohol dependence will stimulate the development of better treatments for this condition and in the future it may be possible to tailor treatments to an individual on the basis of a genetic test.”


Xanax and Wine: Is It Safe?

Article at a Glance:

  • Combining Xanax and wine can be deadly.
  • Both substances are sedatives and have an enhanced sedative effect when taken together.
  • The alcohol concentration in wine is moderate and therefore will cause toxic effects in smaller doses when compared to beer.

While some people may combine the two and never experience any negative consequences, but there is a strong potential for this mix to be fatal, which is a risk that’s never worth taking.

Xanax and Wine: Is It Safe?

Many people may wonder if it is safe to drink wine with a Xanax prescription given the popularity of having a glass of wine with dinner or unwinding in the evening. At the surface, this might seem like a harmless practice, and unfortunately, statistics show that alcohol and benzodiazepines (like Xanax) are commonly mixed. A study in the Western Journal of Medicine found that among people requiring emergency room treatment for benzodiazepine abuse, 27.2% of these cases also involved alcohol.

There are serious risks involved with mixing these two substances.

The Risks of Combining Xanax with Wine

Determining whether it’s truly safe to combine Xanax and wine requires a conversation with a medical professional. Most experts recommend that people using benzodiazepines (benzos) cut out alcohol or use it minimally since alcohol increases the effects of benzos.

Alcohol, like Xanax, affects the GABA receptors, which is why alcohol has a sedative effect on the body. When people mix Xanax and wine, the sedative effects are stronger than when Xanax is used alone, so a person may have a difficult time concentrating and feel especially drowsy using these substances in combination. Therefore, it’s extremely dangerous to combine the two when driving, caring for young children, or performing tasks that require care or concentration.

Some people may risk combining a glass of wine here and there while taking an anti-anxiety medication, but the best practice is to avoid alcohol altogether, because the combination can be deadly, especially in high doses. In 2015, one study found that 26.1% of benzodiazepine-related deaths in a given year involved alcohol use. Some research also shows that when alcohol and benzodiazepines are mixed, and cause an overdose death, the levels of alcohol in a person’s system are lower than typically associated with fatalities from alcohol use alone.

Remember that both of these drugs have a sedative effect and can impair breathing, making the combination of the two potentially fatal. If you’ve been prescribed Xanax, it is important to have an honest conversation with your doctor about your alcohol use.

  • Sources

    MedlinePlus. “Alprazolam.” U.S. National Library of Medicine, September 15, 2017. Accessed June 13, 2020.

    Harvard Medical School. “Benzodiazepines (and the alternatives).” March 15, 2019. Accessed June 13, 2020.

    Bouvier, Benjamin; et al. “Prevalence and correlates of benzodiazepine use and misuse among young adults who use prescription opioids non-medically.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, February 2018. Accessed June 13, 2020.

    Ogbu, Uzor; et al. “Polysubstance Abuse: Alcohol, Opioids and Benzodiazepines Require Coordinated Engagement by Society, Patients, and Physicians.” Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, January 2015. Accessed June 13, 2020.

    McGraw-Hill Medical. “The effect of alcohol on neurotransmitters in the brain.” June 11, 2018. Accessed June 13, 2020.

    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. “Understanding the Dangers of Alcohol Overdose.” March 2020. Accessed June 13, 2020.

    U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “Xanax.” March 2011. Accessed June 13, 2020.

Medical Disclaimer: The Recovery Village aims to improve the quality of life for people struggling with a substance use or mental health disorder with fact-based content about the nature of behavioral health conditions, treatment options and their related outcomes. We publish material that is researched, cited, edited and reviewed by licensed medical professionals. The information we provide is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It should not be used in place of the advice of your physician or other qualified healthcare provider.

Wine, alcohol and pills: What future for the French Paradox?

Daniel E Osorio-Macías,1,2 Pamela Vásquez,3 Cristhian Carrasco,3 Bjorn Bergenstahl,1 J Mauricio Peñarrieta2 1Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Engineering LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 2School of Chemistry, Faculty of Pure and Natural Sciences, 3Institute of Research and Development of Chemical Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA), La Paz, Bolivia Abstract: Wine is an important beverage with a long tradition, and its moderate consumption may be considered beneficial for human health. Although there are many studies regarding phenolic compounds in wines, there is a lack of information about antioxidants and phenolic content in South American wines. In this study, 35 South American red wines from four different countries, vintages 2004–2013, purchased at retail stores in La Paz, Bolivia, were studied. Resveratrol content, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzotiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods, total phenolic content (TPH), total flavonoids (TF), and main saccharides were assessed using the well-established spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatography methods. The results ranged from 4 to 24 mmol/L for TAC determined by ABTS method and 14 to 43 mmol/L for TAC determined by FRAP method, 1600 to 3500 mg gallic acid equivalents/L for TPH, and 2 to 6 mmol catechin equivalents /L for TF. The resveratrol content ranged from 0.1 to 8 mg/L. Saccharides, glucose, and fructose content ranged from 0.4 to 10 g/L, 1.4 to 8.6 g/L, and 0.2 to 12 g/L, respectively. There was a high correlation among the different methods. The results showed that some wines growing at high altitude (>1500 meters above the sea level) have higher amounts of TAC and phenolic content, including resveratrol, while non-varietal wines showed the lowest values. It was also observed that the saccharose content in some wines was surprisingly high, suggesting saccharose dosing after fermentation. Keywords: ABTS, FRAP, high altitude, HPLC, PCA, Bolivia

Is it safe to mix sleeping pills and alcohol?

Forty-nine percent of adults with high stress levels report trouble sleeping, according to the American Psychological Association. Are you considering a sleep aid to help you nod off? That is fine if your doctor recommends it. But, if you are also using alcohol to help you unwind or cope, you could be playing with fire. Combining sleeping pills and alcohol is extremely dangerous, says Jeff Fortner, Pharm.D., an associate professor at Pacific University in Forest Grove, Oregon, and a member of SingleCare’s Medical Review Board. You absolutely should not do it.

And while some sleep aids carry higher levels of risk, the warning applies to all varieties, including Ambien (the most commonly prescribed sleep aid), Lunesta, and Sonata, as well as a new class of prescription sleep aids called orexin receptor antagonists (drugs in this class, which recently received FDA approval, include Belsomra). 

The risks of combining sleeping pills and alcohol

Alcohol and sleep aids are both central nervous system depressants, Dr. Fortner says. On their own, the drugs slow your respiratory rate. This is how the drugs help you relax and fall asleep. Mixing sleeping pills with alcohol can diminish your breathing to a dangerously low level—a potentially life-threatening scenario.

“CNS suppression [can] make someone stop breathing and die, so that would obviously be the worst outcome,” he says.

Michael Breus, Ph.D., a sleep medicine specialist in Los Angeles, calls it a multiplicative effect. “If you are taking a sleep aid and you have alcohol on board, it is like you tripled the dose [of the sleep aid],” he says.

Not only that, the combination is likely to make any sleep you do get relatively useless. That is because even though sleep aids help people sleep, they don’t necessarily help people get the deep, refreshing sleep the body needs. The addition of alcohol renders sleep quality even worse. 

“If you add alcohol on top of [a sleep aid], it makes you stay in a light sleep,” Breus explains.

Choosing between an Ambien and alcohol

What if you simply cannot fall asleep without the help of a sleep aid? The only safe solution, unfortunately, is to forgo that glass of wine.

“You can have a glass of wine or a sleeping pill, but not both,” Breus says. He recommends making a decision in advance and sticking to it. 

An important reminder—just like you should not drink and drive, you should never drive after taking a sleeping pill. For example, don’t take a sleeping pill before driving home, thinking it will take a while to kick in. Take the sleeping pill just before bed, when you have at least eight hours to sleep. 

How long should you wait to take a sleeping pill after drinking alcohol?

And Dr. Fortner warns that while everyone’s metabolism is different, the absolute minimum period of time between a drink and a sleep aid is six hours. Still, he urges people to avoid combining the two altogether—it isn’t worth the risk. 

What if you have a glass of wine, and inadvertently take a sleep aid later? Are you at imminent risk of a life-threatening drug-drug interaction? To make sure you are safe, the best approach is to a) stop drinking immediately and b) ask a friend or family member to help monitor any symptoms. Signs of a potential problem include excessive dizziness and drowsiness, fainting, difficulty breathing, and a slow heart rate.

And if something seems “off,” but you don’t know if it is a serious issue? Better to be safe than sorry. “If you are unsure what to do, call your doctor or pharmacist for help,” says Dr. Fortner. “If you think you are experiencing a life-threatening emergency, then call 911.”

What happens when you mix melatonin and alcohol?

Melatonin is a dietary supplement that many people view as a safer sleep aid than prescription pills. It’s a hormone that your body naturally produces to keep your sleep cycle, or circadian rhythm, consistent. Even though it’s available over-the-counter, it should not be mixed with alcohol. The combination can cause side effects like drowsiness, dizziness, anxiety, or increased blood pressure. Like sleeping pills, you should choose alcohol or melatonin—not both.

RELATED: Finding the right melatonin dosage

Work on your sleep habits

With all of this said, Breus says he encourages people to work toward getting good sleep without the use of sleep aids. It’s better overall for your health—and it also means you can have that glass of wine without worry. Sleep aids have their place, he says, and as a general rule, a three-month course of treatment under the supervision of a healthcare provider can get you on the right track. However, he doesn’t like to see patients become reliant on sleep aids—in part because they don’t promote that deep sleep everyone needs. Instead, he encourages people to improve their sleep habits through cognitive behavior therapy.

“Cognitive behavior therapy is more effective than sleeping pills, it lasts longer and has no side effects when mixed with alcohol,” he says.

READ NEXT: 23 ways to sleep better tonight

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90,000 Alcohol poisoning: preventive measures and first aid

Alcohol poisoning for many years occupies a leading place among household poisonings in terms of the absolute number of deaths. About 98% of deaths occur before the provision of medical care at the prehospital stage, and often without calling an ambulance.

Wine alcohol was first learned to get in the 6th – 7th century AD in the Arab countries, where it was called “al kegol”, which means intoxicating.

In Europe, already in the late Middle Ages, the production of alcohol became a branch of the food industry, the production and consumption of spirits significantly increased in the 18th – 19th centuries

The distribution of alcoholic beverages in Russia was facilitated by royal decrees. So Boris Godunov ordered to open everywhere “Tsar’s taverns” in which bread wine was sold, i.e. vodka. In this regard, drunkenness took on such proportions that in 1652 a special church council was created, which, at the suggestion of Patriarch Nikon, introduced restrictions on the sale of vodka.However, after 7 years, these restrictions were canceled by the royal charter.

At the beginning of this century, the organized fight against drunkenness often began to take on a categorical character in the form of a “Prohibition” law with a complete ban on the sale of alcoholic beverages (in the Scandinavian countries, the USA, Russia). However, these extreme measures did not justify themselves, tk. Against the background of a noticeable decrease in the total number of alcohol poisoning, the number of fatal poisonings has significantly increased due to the clandestine sale of homemade alcoholic beverages with high toxicity.

Acute alcohol poisoning is usually associated with the intake of ethyl alcohol or alcoholic beverages with an ethyl alcohol content of more than 12%.

Alcoholic drinks (beer, wine, vodka, etc.) contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol). Ethyl alcohol is also found in some medicines, antiseptics, disinfectants, lotions, colognes and perfumes.

Ethanol concentration in beverages and food:

– alcoholic distillates – 40-50%

– wine – 10-20%

– beer – 2-10%

– perfumery liquids – 40-60%.

According to the mechanism of action, ethanol slows down the brain, leading to loss of consciousness, impaired respiration and cardiovascular activity. Regular consumption of high doses of ethanol leads to chronic alcohol poisoning, manifested by the disruption of the functioning of many organs, primarily the brain, liver and heart.

Health hazard.

Acute chronic poisoning can seriously damage health and even lead to death. The effect of the dose of ethanol depends on the regularity of its ingestion.A low-drinker person can be strongly influenced by such an amount of alcohol that has little effect on a chronic alcoholic. For a child, only one sip of alcoholic beverages is a serious danger.

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Alcohol poisoning can cause serious complications .With hypertension or atherosclerosis, large doses of alcohol sometimes lead to cerebrovascular accident, stroke or myocardial infarction. The next day after drinking alcohol, there is a decrease in working capacity, impaired coordination and active attention, which leads to injuries.

Symptoms of acute poisoning.

– slurred speech

– Difficulty executing simple commands

– unsteady gait

– nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain

– sleepiness

– blurry vision or double vision

– loss of consciousness

– seizures

– low blood pressure

– lowered body temperature

– breathing disorder.

Chronic alcohol poisoning.

Prolonged alcohol abuse leads to the following consequences:

– loss of appetite

– weight loss

– disruption of the liver, kidneys, intestines

– memory violation

– trembling in the body

– deterioration of intellectual abilities

Actions to be taken in case of acute poisoning.

First aid: in case of respiratory arrest, ensure airway patency of the victim and perform artificial respiration (mouth-to-mouth).If the victim is unconscious or inhibited, it is necessary to put him on his side, monitor his breathing and call an ambulance.

Community care for alcohol poisoning victims

If the poisoning occurred less than an hour ago and the victim has clear consciousness, normal breathing, no seizures, no vomiting, it is necessary to give the victim a drink of water (up to 500 ml), induce vomiting, give activated charcoal inside in tablets up to 5 grams., And then give strong sweet tea or coffee to drink.Do not allow large amounts of fluids to be drunk at once, this can cause vomiting, which is sometimes dangerous.

It is necessary to provide assistance to the victim until he is taken to the hospital, and take adequate measures if he has:

– prolonged vomiting

– loss of consciousness

– urinary retention

– fever.

Do not give anything by mouth to the victim if he is unconscious, lethargic or has seizures! In this condition, airway aspiration can occur.

If the victim cannot swallow, do not force him to drink.

For unconscious patients, gastric lavage can only be performed by medical workers – the ambulance team. Before her arrival, the victim must be laid without a pillow, preferably on his stomach, his head turned to the side in order to avoid vomit from entering the respiratory tract with spontaneous vomiting.

Immediate hospitalization in the following situations:

– child injured

– signs of severe poisoning

– suspected poisoning with alcohol substitutes .

In order to avoid severe poisoning with alcohol surrogates, it is strictly forbidden to ingest any alcohol substitutes, unknown alcohols and medicines containing ethyl alcohol, homemade alcoholic drinks offered by random persons. You should never identify any drug by color or smell, this deceptive self-confidence can cost your life!

You should always remember a few simple tips: do not drink alcohol on an empty stomach, observe the measure, be sure to have a snack and choose only high-quality alcoholic drinks for your festive table.Happy New Year!

Doctor toxicologist

Prokhorovskaya Alexandra Georgievna

90,000 Items that can be carried in carry-on baggage and checked baggage. What is forbidden to carry on the plane

No one really knows what is still possible and what cannot be taken in hand luggage and luggage. Even if you fly often, some kind of lighter or hairspray can be confusing.

We went through the requirements of different airlines, spiced up with personal experience and are ready to tell you how to pack your suitcases so that everything is exactly according to the rules.

We understand that now is not the best time for travel. But in addition to regularly updating the chronicle of the coronavirus, we continue to inspire you through fascinating articles on flights to different parts of the world. And once the world opens its doors again, you will be more ready than ever.

Can I carry in carry-on and checked baggage:

Other useful things to know about carry-on and luggage:

⇾ Why were the scissors allowed in your carry-on baggage at one airport and taken away at another? Where do aviation security standards come from?

⇾ What to do at the airport if prohibited items are found in your possession

Lists of prohibited items in baggage and carry-on baggage differ from country to country and even from airline to airline.But don’t be alarmed: the principles are the same everywhere.

What sharp objects can be carried in carry-on and checked baggage

Item Carry-on baggage Luggage
Straight razor, double-sided blade Not allowed CAN
Plug More often it is not allowed, but may be allowed to be carried in hand luggage. CAN
Knitting needles More often not allowed, but may be allowed in carry-on baggage, especially plastic and wooden knitting needles. CAN
Office knife Not allowed CAN
Nippers and nail file, tweezers Some countries and airlines allow all this to be taken in hand luggage, while others take it away. It is safer to check in your luggage. CAN
Ice Ax Not allowed CAN
Sword, dagger, saber, cleaver, scimitar Not allowed Calmly check in your luggage if it looks like an obvious souvenir or if you have a certificate that these are household tools.
Multitool with blades Not allowed CAN
Knife It is sometimes allowed to take knives with blades up to 6 cm and knives with rounded ends in hand luggage, for example, for butter. CAN
Scissors with blades longer than 6 cm Not allowed CAN
Scissors with blades shorter than 6 cm Carry-on baggage may be permitted but more commonly prohibited, including scissors for children with rounded edges. CAN
Disposable razor, cartridge razor CAN CAN
Hunting knife Not allowed Transport in a carrying case. Notify the airline in advance that you are carrying a hunting knife, and show a hunting ticket with the entered knife number at the inspection.
Saw, including chain saw Not allowed CAN
Ax Not allowed CAN
Sewing needle Generally prohibited, but may be allowed in carry-on baggage. CAN
Corkscrew Not allowed CAN
Electric shaver CAN CAN

Is it possible to take liquids in luggage and carry-on luggage

Liquids, gels and aerosols can be carried in hand luggage if they are in containers of up to 100 ml and are in a transparent resealable 20 × 20 cm bag. One bag for each passenger.

How to properly carry liquids on an airplane:

  • Check in all liquids, gels and aerosols in bottles larger than 100 ml.Including shampoo and hair conditioner, shower gel, cream, toothpaste, deodorant, perfume, grandma’s sea buckthorn juice, hairspray and mosquito spray;
  • Pour cosmetics and other liquids and gels into containers up to 100 ml if you want to carry them with you during the flight;
  • Do not try to take a half-liter bottle with juice at the bottom in your hand luggage: the capacity should be within 100 ml;
  • Buy a ready-made set of matching containers in the right bag so you don’t have to look around your home;
  • Do not open branded bags with alcohol and perfume from duty-free before entering the city at the airport of arrival: then they will not be subject to restrictions on the volume of containers;
  • Take life-saving medications without restrictions, but be prepared to show a doctor’s note.

Is it allowed to carry equipment and gadgets on the plane

In short, you can. See the table for details.

Item Carry-on baggage Luggage
Camera, camcorder, laptop, tablet, smartphone, chargers for them You can. Take the chargers in your carry-on luggage along with gadgets so as not to be left unconnected if your luggage is suddenly delayed. CAN
Samsung Galaxy Note 7 Not allowed You can’t. Airlines fear it will explode in flight.
Tripod, Selfie Stick, Monopod Most of the time, you can easily carry a tripod and a selfie stick in your carry-on baggage. But occasionally they are asked to check in luggage. CAN
Toothbrush, including electric toothbrush CAN CAN
Blender No, because there are sharp parts in the blender. CAN
Multicooker Yes, if the multicooker fits into the dimensions of the carry-on baggage set by the airline. CAN
Hair dryer, iron and curling iron You can. Check with the airline for the gas cordless curling iron. You can. Most often, a wireless gas curling iron is allowed to be carried even in luggage, even in hand luggage, and spare cartridges for it are not allowed in any way.
Electronic Cigarette CAN You can’t. It is prohibited to smoke e-cigarettes during the flight. At the airport – it is possible in the smoking areas.

Can I take alcohol on an airplane

You can check in alcohol in your baggage if it is not stronger than 70%. Whether alcohol is allowed in your carry-on baggage depends on country laws and airline regulations. This is allowed in the United States. Russian laws are vaguely expressed. In any case, you cannot drink your alcohol on board the aircraft.You need a shot of courage – wait for the flight attendants to offer it or order from the menu if the flight is not alcohol-free.

In cases where alcohol is allowed in carry-on baggage, it must be in branded bottles of maximum 100 ml. Pack them together with other liquids in a 20 x 20 cm zip lock bag. Duty free alcohol can be taken in larger bottles, but they must be in the original sealed bag with a receipt.

How much alcohol you can take by plane depends on airport security and customs regulations. What is missed at pre-flight inspection, customs officers can turn off: their requirements are often more stringent. There are no general rules, customs are different in each country, so double-check the rules before flying.

You can easily check in 5 liters of wine in your luggage, but upon entering Russia, you will pay a fee of 20 euros for 2 of them. You can bring 16 liters of beer and 4 liters of non-sparkling wine to France, Italy and other EU countries without duties. You can also import 1 liter of alcohol with a strength of more than 22% or 2 liters of alcohol less than 22% free of charge into the EU countries.Drinks from the last two categories can be combined, the main thing is that the percentage for each of them does not exceed 100% in total. That is, you can legally and free of charge bring to Latvia half a liter of brandy (50% of the permitted amount of strong alcohol), 0.35 liters of Baileys (17.5% of the permitted amount of weak alcohol) and a set of three gift bottles of champagne for 0.2 liters each (30% of the limit for alcohol with a strength less than 22%). In total, 50% + 17.5% + 30% = 97.5% – they met the norm.

Item Carry-on baggage Luggage
Beer, cider, ale, wine and other alcohol up to 24% strength More often it is impossible.Many countries and airlines allow alcohol in hand luggage in 100 ml bottles, which are in a closed 20 × 20 cm bag.Alcohol from duty free can be taken in bottles larger than 100 ml if they are in a sealed bag with a receipt. You cannot drink your own alcohol on board. CAN
Liqueur, vodka, whiskey, brandy, grappa and other alcohol with a strength of 24-70% More often it is not allowed, but some airlines allow. You can.Maximum 5 liters per passenger in unopened branded bottles.
Father-in-law’s moonshine, medical alcohol and other alcohol with a strength greater than 70% Not allowed Not allowed

How to carry things, food and water for a child in carry-on luggage and baggage

Baby food is not subject to restrictions on the carriage of liquids and gels in carry-on baggage. This means that you can take in the cabin as much water, milk, formula and baby food for your baby (usually up to 2 years old) as needed for the duration of the flight.Even if the containers are more than 100 ml, you will not break anything.

Item Carry-on baggage Luggage
Baby food, milk formula, expressed breast milk, juice and water for a baby under 2 years old in containers larger than 100 ml You can – as much as required for the duration of the flight. CAN
Stroller You can.The stroller is most often allowed to be used before the boarding gate or before the gangway, where you will give it to the airline employees. They will return it at the gangway after exiting the plane or at the oversized baggage claim area at the airport. You can. If the stroller is not folding, it will most likely be asked to check it in. There are restrictions on the maximum weight of the stroller, for example, 20 kg. Another option is to check the chassis in luggage, and take the walking block or carrycot into the cabin. Check with the airline.
Child car seat More often you can.Most airlines even allow the use of a child car seat during flight if it is certified for aircraft (such as the Maxi-Cosi Pebble) and the child is flying in a separate seat. The chassis for the car seat is checked in luggage, or taken together with the car seat to the gate or to the gangway. CAN

Is it possible to carry work and musical instruments and sports equipment in hand luggage and baggage

Basic rule: if a piece is not sharp and fits in hand luggage in size, then it can be taken into the cabin.But there are exceptions, see the table.

Item Carry-on baggage Luggage
Guitar and other musical instruments Yes, if the instrument does not exceed the dimensions of your carry-on baggage. Compact instruments (violins, flutes) can be carried in hand luggage without any problems. The guitar is often asked to be checked in, but some airlines allow it in hand luggage even if the dimensions are exceeded. You can. Large instruments (cellos, guitars) are usually checked into luggage in a hard case or bought extra space for them in the cabin. Check the rules with the airline and be sure to agree on the transportation in advance. Learn more about transporting musical instruments by plane.
Surfboard Not allowed CAN
Drill, drills Not allowed CAN
Skates Not allowed CAN
Bow with Arrows Not allowed CAN
Screwdriver, pliers Not allowed CAN
Horns, skins and other hunting trophies Not allowed Check with the airline if it allows certain types of game trophies to be transported, how they should be packed and if a veterinary certificate is required.
Speargun Not allowed CAN
Skateboard More often it is not allowed, but some airlines allow to take a skateboard into the cabin. CAN
Trekking and ski poles Not allowed CAN
Fishing rod Ambiguous. Check with your airline to find out if you can carry a folding fishing rod and what is the maximum length (usually 120 cm). CAN
Football, basketball You can. Unlike other balls, these are usually allowed not to be deflated. CAN
Hoverboard, segway, gyro scooter, electric scooter and other means of transportation on lithium-ion batteries Not allowed Not allowed

In detail: How to carry oversized and non-standard luggage on the plane

Food on board: is it possible to carry food in hand luggage and baggage

Food and beverages are subject to the normal restrictions on liquids in carry-on baggage.Solid – you can. Liquid, soft and gelatinous – only in containers up to 100 ml. An exception is baby food.

Item Carry-on baggage Luggage
Water, juice Available in containers up to 100 ml. CAN
Yoghurt, jam, honey, jam, butter Available in containers up to 100 ml. CAN
Soft cheese like brie and camembert Available in containers up to 100 ml. CAN
Biscuits, nuts, dried fruits, apples, bananas, bread, sweets, hard cheese, sausage, sandwiches, salt, muesli bars CAN CAN
Empty bottle You can. If you wish to take water on the plane, fill a bottle from the drinking fountain before boarding when security is over. CAN
Dry ice to cool perishable food Can be no more than 2 kg per person. Ambiguous. Dry ice in baggage requires the consent of the carrier and special packaging. In any case, check the rules of transportation with the airline.

Which medicines can be carried in carry-on and checked baggage

Medicines are subject to restrictions on the carriage of liquids. You can take medicines in solid forms in your carry-on baggage. Liquids, ointments, gels, syrups, creams and aerosols are also possible, but in containers up to 100 ml, packed in one transparent bag measuring 20 × 20 cm.An exception is medications that are vital in flight, for example, for diabetics. Take them in containers of the right size, just grab a doctor’s note.

How to properly transport medicines in carry-on baggage:

  • Bring medicines in their original packaging;
  • Prescription drugs may require a prescription or a doctor’s note;
  • If you are taking a medicine that contains a narcotic or psychotropic substance, get a doctor’s prescription with the name of the remedy in Latin.Fly abroad – check the rules for importing into another country, and declare the medicine at the airport and go through the red corridor. Read more about the transportation of such funds abroad on the customs website;
  • Make sure medicines are not banned in another country like Corvalol in the USA.
Item Carry-on baggage Luggage
Medicines in solid form (tablets, granules, powders) CAN CAN
Aerosols, liquid and soft drugs (ointments, gels, syrups, mixtures) Available in containers up to 100 ml. You can. Liquid and soft medicines in containers larger than 100 ml must be checked in baggage (except for those vital during the flight).
Mercury thermometer in case More often it is impossible. In Russia, a mercury thermometer can be carried in hand luggage and cannot be carried in luggage. But the rules differ from airline to airline and from country to country. It’s easier to take an electronic thermometer. Not allowed
Crutches CAN CAN
Wheelchair Only folding strollers are allowed, for which there is enough space in the cabin (at the discretion of the airline). CAN
3% hydrogen peroxide Available in containers up to 100 ml. Not allowed
Injection Syringes More often it is impossible. They are allowed only if it is required during the flight (for example, by diabetic patients) and there is a doctor’s note. CAN
Eye drops Available in containers up to 100 ml. CAN
Insulin, insulin pump, syringes and syringe pens You can.Carriage in carry-on baggage may require a doctor’s certificate, although most of the time it is not asked for. CAN

More info: First aid kit when traveling. How to collect and transport safely across the border

How to properly transport weapons and ammunition by plane

If you want to transport weapons and ammunition by plane:

  • Check with the airline in advance and find out the packaging requirements;
  • In addition to your passport and ticket, take with you: 1) a permit to store and carry weapons, 2) if you are flying abroad – a permit to export weapons from Russia, 3) take a hunting ticket along with a hunting knife;
  • Arrive at the airport 2-3 hours before departure in order to be on time for everything;
  • If there is a security check at the airport entrance, tell them right away that you are carrying a weapon.Or inform about it at registration. You will be sent to airport security or a dedicated weapons room. Show the documents there and hand over the weapon, it will be sealed and taken to the plane you fly with. And you will be given a paper on which you will receive everything back at the airport of arrival;
  • Please note that gunpowder, live ammunition, gas cartridges and hunting capsules must not be transported on board.

Any simulated weapon, including a three-year-old’s toy pistol, is prohibited in carry-on baggage.Check them in your checked baggage.

How to carry flammable and other dangerous items on an airplane

Item Carry-on baggage Luggage
Spray paint can Not allowed Not allowed
Gasoline, diesel, alcohol, ethanol, acetone Not allowed Not allowed
Gasoline lighters like Zippo More often it is impossible.In some countries, you will be allowed to take one gasoline lighter on board. More often it is impossible. In some countries, one lighter may be allowed in the baggage, provided that it is packed according to the rules for the carriage of dangerous goods, that is, in an airtight container. But usually they are still prohibited.
Gas turbo lighter Not allowed Not allowed
Gas cylinder for tourist burner Not allowed Not allowed
Self Defense Gas Canister Not allowed Not allowed
Liquid and gas for refueling lighters Not allowed Not allowed
Lithium-ion batteries with a specific power of 100–160 Wh (professional photo and video cameras) Allowed – only inside equipment and with airline approval. Allowed – only inside equipment and with airline approval.
Lithium-ion batteries with power density greater than 100-160 Wh More often it is impossible. They are transported only as dangerous goods with all formalities. More often it is impossible. It is convenient to read more about the transportation of all types of lithium-ion batteries on the Aeroflot website.
Small lithium-ion batteries for phones, watches, laptops (up to 100 Wh) CAN Yes – only inside the equipment.
Regular matches (not hunting) You can – no more than one package per person. Not allowed
Disposable lighter You can – no more than one lighter per person. Some airlines (like Finnair) require the lighter to be in your pocket and not in your carry-on luggage. Not allowed
Gunpowder Not allowed Not allowed
Mercury, antifreeze, brake fluid Not allowed Not allowed
Fireworks, firecrackers, sparklers Not allowed Not allowed
Alkaline alkaline batteries (most common AA batteries, AAA CAN CAN

For a complete list of hazardous substances and items that cannot be transported on the plane, see the Order of the Ministry of Transport No. 104.

Where do aviation security standards come from?

There is no single document on aviation security that would be used by all airlines in the world. The rules are established by: 1) international organizations, 2) domestic laws, 3) airports and airlines.

Expand Details:

1) Almost all countries are members of ICAO, the International Civil Aviation Organization. It regulates everything related to flying, from the design of aircraft engines to the rules for transporting batteries.ICAO issues lengthy documents with standards , which all participating countries are required to comply with, and recommendations , which are good form to follow, but not necessary. There are other international organizations as well.

Occasionally, ICAO dispatches auditors to check if the standards are being followed by different countries. Take a look at the results page and make sure: only the most advanced fully comply with the requirements.

2) Countries have their own laws. In Russia, these are the Air Code, Federal Aviation Regulations and a bunch of smaller legal acts.In the European Union – Regulation No. 300/2008. They comply with international standards , but not all airports comply with them 100%, and recommendations are generally voluntary. Therefore, control and safety standards are different everywhere. In Ben-Gurion, they are inspected as before a stage, but in Edinburgh there is no inspection at all.

3) Airports and airlines can introduce their own rules. For example, in 2016, many were banned from flying with the exploding Samsung Galaxy Note 7, without waiting for an official ban from the authorities.

Do not be alarmed! Countries agreed on a lot of things. The lists of things that can and cannot be carried in hand luggage and luggage are more or less the same. Understand the principle and, just in case, check the list on the airline’s or airport’s website before flying. To get the necessary information from the Order of the Russian Federation No. 123-456-AB∞, you need to spend half a day on the Internet, and on the Aeroflot website, 5 minutes will be enough.

What to do if prohibited items are found in your or carry-on baggage

If the item is going to be confiscated, and it is dear to you, tell me about it.Most likely, there will be a way to save it.

Any airport in the world is full of passengers who have a ban in their checked and carry-on baggage. Corkscrews, knives, lighters, scissors – nothing special, but they will not be allowed on the plane with this, and you will not be able to check in some of the luggage. More often than not, such things are thrown away. But what if the knife is a grandfather’s inheritance, and the perfume is a wedding gift? With the right approach, nothing will be lost.

We are talking about forbidden but harmless things.Drugs, weapons without special permission, and other illegal items are another conversation that the police are getting involved in.

There are four options for when and where you can find prohibited items:

1) in baggage before check-in,
2) in baggage after check-in – that is, when you have already checked it in,
3) in carry-on baggage, when you can still return to check-in (on a domestic flight or internationally before passport control),
4) in carry-on baggage when you can no longer return to check-in (on an international flight after passport control).
Now let’s talk about each one.

1) If prohibited items are found in the luggage before check-in:

  • Give them to those who accompany you;
  • Put in your car if it is waiting for you in the parking lot;
  • Check in at the airport locker;
  • Mail anywhere. There is mail at many airports, including Pulkovo, Sheremetyevo and Domodedovo.

2) If prohibited items are found in the suitcase after check-in , then in most cases the security service will contact the airline, and it will contact you.What’s next:

  • You will be offered to pick up the item, return to registration (if possible) and choose any option from paragraph 1;
  • The thing is confiscated;
  • The item will be confiscated, but you will receive it on your way back. If the Segway or Zippo lighter is dear to you, explain it to the airline or security personnel. There is a chance that it will be kept at the airport until your return.

3) If prohibited items are found in carry-on baggage, when you can still return to check-in:

  • Check them in baggage;
  • Choose any option from step 1.

4) If prohibited items are found in your carry-on baggage when you can no longer return to check-in:

  • The thing is confiscated;
  • Explain to security that this item is valuable. There is a chance that it will be handed over to the airlines, who will take it on the plane and give it to you after the flight;
  • Occasionally airlines can check in your belongings themselves and you will receive them on the baggage carousel at the airport of arrival;
  • Seized items are often stored at the airport until the owners return.Just make sure that the thing was not just confiscated, but an act was drawn up according to which you can receive it.

Olga Minaeva, St. Petersburg: “Once I flew to friends in London and grabbed three bottles of wine. I didn’t know that they should be checked in as luggage. The wine was found during the inspection of hand luggage and they sent me to sort it out at the airline counter. I run to British Airways, and they say: “Leave it, pick it up on the way back.” I flew back late in the evening, the office is closed and everyone shrugs their shoulders.I was really upset, but then they called someone – and they take out my package, tightly sealed with tape. It was awfully nice, more than a hundred bucks after all! ”

These articles will help you prepare for your next trip:

We regularly monitor news about coronavirus and travel. Bookmark this page to stay informed about quarantine measures and the lifting of travel restrictions.

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90,000 beer and pressure pills

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The drug has a wide effect on the body and is effective at any stage of the disease. Immediately after administration, the patient becomes healthier, stronger and more active. The advantage of capsules is the low price, at which the drug is very affordable for people on a limited budget. The complex is odorless and does not cause side effects.

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7.Blood pressure lowering drugs. Hypertensive patients who try to control blood pressure with the help of drugs and at the same time do not deny themselves a glass or two, also risk falling victim to the incompatibility of drugs with alcohol. Doctors do not recommend combining quinapril, verapamil, doxazosin, prazosin, clonidine (Clofelin), losartan, amlodipine, lisinopril, enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide with alcohol. Pills for pressure with alcohol: their compatibility, and is it possible to drink medicine after alcohol and which drugs are strictly prohibited in this case? Are pressure pills compatible with alcohol?strong wine; beer. With hypertension, it is better to completely abandon alcohol. In extreme cases, you should limit yourself to a symbolic portion, otherwise there is a risk of a sharp jump in pressure and deterioration in general well-being. A person who takes pills for high blood pressure or to reduce it, according to the doctor, will not abuse alcohol. Most people wonder if it is possible to drink a small amount of alcohol while taking pills. A dangerous combination: medicine and alcohol. December 20, 2019. Alcohol is contraindicated in virtually any disease.And it’s not just that the ethanol it contains is toxic by itself. It interacts with the active ingredients of drugs, which can lead to dangerous side effects. Of course, not all drugs in combination with alcohol become dangerous. Medications for lowering blood pressure. With pressure drops, the body is very vulnerable. When combined with alcohol, these medications can cause weakness, dizziness, cardiac arrhythmias, and even fainting. Sedatives and hypnotics. Antihypertensive drugs (for high blood pressure) Drugs for hypertension have a pronounced vasodilator effect.Under the influence of ethyl alcohol, the vessels expand even more, and then sharply narrow. Such overloads do not pass without leaving a trace for the cardiovascular system. Diuretics Alcohol enhances the effect of diuretics, that is, it stimulates copious urination. A dangerous combination threatens dehydration, leaching of mineral salts (increases the risk of night cramps) and a drop in blood pressure to critical values. Alcohol lowers or increases blood pressure. To understand how alcohol still affects blood pressure (BP), you need to consider the problem from different angles.In an ordinary person who does not suffer from dependence and hypertension (HD), any alcohol-containing drink a few minutes after entering the stomach in a small dose leads to a slight decrease in blood pressure. This effect causes: Toxic effect of ethanol on the centers of the brain responsible for the regulation of the tone of arterial vessels. A kind of temporary paralysis (from 15 minutes to 2-3 hours) of the muscular walls of the arteries, arterioles and capillaries relaxes them and increases the intravascular lumen.More than 100 drugs interact with wine, beer, champagne and spirits, causing problems ranging from nausea and headaches to life-threatening conditions such as internal bleeding and difficulty breathing [1]. With some medications, even one sip can be dangerous. And you may need to abstain from alcohol the day before or after taking certain medications. Blood pressure medications. Diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide. Blood thinners.Effervescent drinks can be dangerous when taken with a film-coated tablet that prevents them from dissolving in the stomach. High blood pressure medications are incompatible with alcohol. So now, even on holidays, do not drink? + – Doctor Sergey Agapkin, the host of the program, answers. About the most important thing: – When prescribing a medicine, you need to ask the doctor about the specifics of taking it. The interaction of alcohol and drugs that lower blood pressure often gives an unpredictable result (tachycardia, a sharp decrease or increase in pressure, heart rhythm disturbances are possible).However, there are also alcohol-compatible antihypertensive drugs. The main thing for the patient is to discuss all the nuances with the doctor. A question to a cardiologist on a medical website is pressure and alcohol. I am a hypertensive person, every day I take 5/20 attento pills, my blood pressure is normal, after drinking alcohol the pressure rises to 140+, there have been cases when up to 170. Should I knock him down with operative drugs when the pressure is up to 150 ?. Hello Ruslan. The joint intake of alcohol and drugs for blood pressure is not recommended, as it can cause both an increase and an excessive decrease in pressure.There are different tactics: take the drug and alcohol, so that the interval between them is 12 hours; refusal to take the drug of continuous therapy on the day of alcohol intake and / or the next day. Most often these are the most terrible combinations: alcohol and pressure pills, sleeping pills, antidepressants and pain relievers. We will tell you what it threatens and how not to harm the body. Why is it dangerous? Study author Aaron White explains that many pills react with alcohol. Alcohol can decrease, increase, or cancel the effect of the drug.But this is not permissible for all medications: painkillers with strong drinks inhibit the brain and cause drowsiness. And innocent cold pills can cause kidney, liver or stomach problems.

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With the help of this drug, you can effectively help a person who needs complex medical treatment.The phyto-remedy allows you to quickly normalize blood pressure and protect the body from chronic diseases. Our company is the official distributor of the drug on the territory of the Russian Federation and guarantees fast delivery. We cooperate with the manufacturer directly and receive all batches first. Therefore, our customers can order goods online and pick them up by mail in just a few days. Due to organic components, the drug has no absolute contraindications, with the exception of individual intolerance to certain components.The complex differs from chemical tablets from a pharmacy in its naturalness and safety. Moreover, it can be bought even without a doctor’s prescription in one of hundreds of pharmacies throughout Moscow. The internal composition is tested and approved for free sale. That is why the drug is in demand among patients and those who cannot afford expensive treatment. The product is cheap to manufacture, and the company itself does not overstate the cost and sells the product with a minimal mark-up. You can clarify all the information on the medicine online on the official website or by phone with the manager of our store.

90,000 can I drink during and after treatment, side effects, after how long

A month ago I caught a cold – or rather, I thought so. The disease developed into something similar to bronchitis, and yesterday the doctor diagnosed pneumonia and prescribed antibiotics. But there is a problem: on the weekend my father’s birthday is 60 years. There will be a festive table and alcohol.

I have a question: how dangerous is it to combine alcohol and antibiotics and what will happen if you do drink so as not to offend your father and guests?

Alcohol does not affect the effectiveness of most antibiotics – drugs will fight disease-causing bacteria as effectively as if you were not drinking.However, some antibiotics interact with alcohol. This can lead to adverse reactions that would otherwise have been avoided.

What are antibiotics

Antibiotics are medicines that fight bacterial infections in humans and animals. These are bacterial poisons that act on the vulnerable points of microbes. As a result, the latter either die or lose the ability to grow and reproduce. Viruses do not have vulnerabilities characteristic of bacteria, so antibiotics do not work on them.

Like all medicines, antibiotics can cause side effects. The problem is that when taken together with some antibiotics, alcohol not only enhances unwanted reactions to the drug, but can also provoke new ones.

Why it is not recommended to mix antibiotics and alcohol – American Addiction Center

How alcohol affects the work of antibiotics

In addition to antibiotics, antidepressants, antihistamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, painkillers, anti-inflammatory drugs are not combined with alcohol.Even some herbal medicines can be harmful when taken with alcohol.

Alcohol and Drug Interactions – Alcohol and Health Research Journal PDF, 99 KB

Alcohol interacts with drugs in two ways.

Special proteins are responsible for neutralizing poisons – enzymes produced by the liver. If the liver receives not only an antibiotic, but also excess alcohol, the load on enzymes increases.As a result, they either do not have time to complete their work, or, conversely, do it too quickly. In the first case, the level of the antibiotic in the body increases, and this can lead to greater toxicity of the drug and side effects that could be avoided with an accurate dosage. And in the second case, the antibiotic is destroyed too quickly – before it has time to act.

Alcohol suppresses enzymes and increases antibiotic toxicity – International Drugs Database Drugs

Alcohol increases the side effects of the drug and provokes new ones. For example, metronidazole itself causes drowsiness and suppresses attention, and alcohol further enhances these effects. As a result, a person runs the risk of simply falling asleep at the festive table.

Alcohol and metronidazole – NHS

In addition, metronidazole in combination with alcohol gives additional side effects: it causes headache, nausea, abdominal pain and arrhythmia. No one knows why this happens: the interaction of this antibiotic with alcohol has not yet been sufficiently studied.

Apart from alcohol, antibiotics cannot be combined with other medications. These are anticoagulants such as warfarin, anticonvulsants such as phenytoin and phenobarbital, and pill antidiabetic drugs such as tolbutamide. Therefore, before you start taking antibiotics, you need to tell your doctor about all your diseases and medications that you are taking.

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Can I drink alcohol at the same time as antibiotics

It depends on what kind of antibiotic to take with alcohol and in what relationship a person is with alcohol.

Interaction of alcohol and antibiotics – journal “Antimicrobial drugs and chemotherapy” PDF, 536 KB

Erythromycin. Even small doses of alcohol speed up the work of liver enzymes, which are responsible for the processing of the drug. As a result, the medication may not work – additional doses will be required.

Ketoconazole and griseofulvin. If a person drinks alcohol on the same day as one of these medications, the risk of developing a disulfiram-like reaction will increase – this is the name for a condition similar to a very severe hangover.The person is nauseous and vomiting, his head is splitting, and some even have chest and abdominal pains.

Doxycycline. In people with chronic alcoholism, doxycycline accelerates the work of liver enzymes that are responsible for processing the drug. This is why alcohol addicts require higher dosages of this medication.

At the same time, not all antibiotics are equally poorly combined with alcohol. There are drugs that are relatively safe to take alcohol at the same time.Moderate doses of alcohol, i.e. no more than one standard drink per day for women and two for men, compatible:

  • with oral penicillins, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines;
  • some cephalosporins – cefdinir and cefpodoxime;
  • azithromycin;
  • with nitrofurantoin.

Standard Alcohol 14g Pure Ethanol – US National Institute of Alcohol Dependence and Alcoholism

How long after taking antibiotics can you drink alcohol

It is difficult to say which advice is more accurate.But perhaps it makes sense to wait at least two days.

So to drink or not to drink

Although some antibiotics are combined with moderate doses of alcohol, alcohol is not recommended for patients being treated for bacterial infections. Alcoholic drinks not only affect the functioning of liver enzymes, but also disrupt normal sleep – all this interferes with a full recovery.

Alcohol prevents people from getting enough sleep – Non-profit organization Sleep Foundation

Even if your doctor has prescribed an alcohol-compatible antibiotic, it’s safer not to drink, even in honor of the holiday.

Migraine provocateurs

People with migraines often report that their attacks are caused by some provoking factor (trigger).

A study involving 200 people with migraines showed that 90% of them know at least one provocateur of their own migraines. The most frequently cited were physical or emotional stress (77%), menstruation (72% of women), bright lights or flashes of light (65%) and harsh odors (61%) [1].

How do migraine triggers work?

According to modern concepts, the cause of migraine is the increased excitability of nerve cells (neurons).This is a hereditary feature of the brain. Neurons in people suffering from migraines are very sensitive to various external and internal influences. May be affected by:

  • change in hormone levels during the menstrual cycle,
  • stress
  • and, paradoxically, stress resolution,
  • sleep disturbance (both insufficient and excessive sleep),
  • alcohol,
  • bright light or flash light.

In response to a trigger, electrical activity in easily excitable nerve cells changes and a cascade of biochemical disorders is triggered that cause symptoms of a migraine attack [2].

What is important to know about migraine provocateurs (triggers)

  1. Sometimes “your” attack provocateur can cause it, sometimes not.
  2. A migraine attack requires a combination of two or more triggers.
  3. What is a trigger can also relieve a migraine attack (eg, caffeine).
  4. “Classic” migraine triggers: red wine, dark chocolate, stress – not all people with migraines provoke an attack.
  1. A few words about caffeine

Having heard from a doctor or acquaintances that caffeine can trigger an attack, many people with migraines completely refuse tea and coffee and look for a pill in horror after accidentally drinking a caffeine-containing drink.

Indeed, caffeine can trigger migraine attacks in some. But he can also take it off!

It works like this. During a migraine attack, the work of the gastrointestinal tract slows down. Taken tablets remain in the stomach, but must be absorbed in the intestines. Caffeine increases gastrointestinal motility and helps pain relievers be absorbed.

And caffeine also has a direct anti-migraine effect – therefore it is included in various combined pain relievers.But it is important to remember that these medications should not be overused, as excessive caffeine intake can make migraine attacks more frequent and worse [5].

Should I stop eating certain foods?

There is no scientific evidence that would confirm or deny the effectiveness of “anti-migraine” diets. People with migraines tend to notice which foods are causing their attacks and learn to avoid them. Foods that can trigger a migraine attack include red wine, beer, dark chocolate, hard cheeses, citrus fruits, nuts, foods containing preservatives, and fast food.

Hunger can also trigger migraines. Therefore, it is important to eat regularly and in a balanced way (eg following a Mediterranean diet). And it will be much more effective in preventing seizures than complex diets [4, 5].

Literature:

  1. Andress-Rothrock D., King W., Rothrock J. An analysis of migraine triggers in a clinic-based population. // Headache. – 2010. – v.50. – 1366-1370.
  2. Chakravarty A. “How triggers trigger acute migraine attacks: a hypothesis.” // Med Hypotheses. -2010. – v. 74. – p. 750-753
  3. Dodick D.W. Migraine triggers. // Headache. – 2009. – v.49. – p. 958-961
  4. Martin P.R. “Behavioral management of migraine headache triggers: learning to cope with triggers.” // Curr Pain Headache Rep. – 2010. – v.14. p. 221-227.
  5. Rothrock J.F. “The truth about triggers”. // Headache. – 2008. – v.48. – p. 499-500

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“Testosterone is a very insidious hormone”: an interview with an endocrinologist

We continue our series of meetings with prominent Russian doctors.Today – a detailed conversation about our endocrine system in general and the “beloved” male hormone testosterone in particular with the director of the Endocrinology Clinic of the First Moscow State Medical University named after Sechenov Valery Fadeev.

We know that endocrinology is about hormones, we often hear “check the thyroid gland”. On the other hand, many people have a rather poor idea of ​​how the activity of the thyroid gland is connected with the daily functioning of the body, in particular the male.

The difference between the functioning of the female and male endocrine systems is very large, despite the fact that the set of hormones in men and women is the same.The difference is in the amount and in the nature of the secretion. A significant part of hormones in the female body is produced cyclically, and in the male – tonically, that is, continuously, without monthly cyclicality. The hypothalamic-pituitary system of a person adjusts the appearance of a certain amount of testosterone during fetal development, from the moment of fertilization to the birth of a child, for such a “male” production of hormones.

About testosterone, which is of great interest to our readers, I will ask you in particular detail.But let’s start, if possible, with the basics – with the functions of the thyroid gland.

Thyroid hormones are the most ancient in origin, regulating the most basic functions of the cell. Moreover, each cell. More precisely, they regulate the processes of oxidation and oxygen consumption by the cell. Our body can be compared to a stove in which a fire burns. We put firewood there – what we eat. In order for the fire not to go out, oxygen is needed. There is a damper in the stove, and with its help we can make the flame stronger – by opening it wider, or we can extinguish it – we will leave a small crack, and the light will smolder.The function of thyroid hormones is to control the damper, more precisely – the intensity of oxidation, combustion, as a result of which heat is generated – the energy that every cell needs.

How did we know that hormones exist in our bodies?

Before the concept of “hormone” appeared, it was about the so-called humoral factors. Back in the XIV century, the Chinese associated secondary sexual characteristics with them: doctors of that time say that “the external manifestation of the power of the male seed is the beard”, “the beard has to do with the kidneys and testicles.”In the middle of the 19th century, the German professor Berthold conducted experiments: the rooster was castrated, as a result of which a regression of the secondary sex characteristic, the comb, took place. After that, the cockerels were injected with the extract of the removed testes, and the comb was restored. These were the first experiments related to testosterone. The very concept of “hormone” appeared later, at the beginning of the 20th century, and since then its interpretation has undergone numerous transformations.

Endocrinology emerged as a field of medicine that deals only with hormones?

Yes, classical endocrinology concerns seven anatomically distinguished endocrine glands: thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, pancreas, adrenal cortex, testes and ovaries, pineal gland.These are endocrine glands that secrete hormones. Actually, the name “endocrinology” is translated as “the science of what is secreted inside” – it studies the chemicals released by these glands into the blood and regulating the functions of many cells.

Tell us about the interaction of the nervous and endocrine systems.

Comparing the nervous system to the endocrine system is like comparing a telephone and a radio. The nervous system is a telephone: nerve wires that run from the brain and transmit information to a specific point.The hormonal gland produces information that is carried through the blood to very many – like a radio that broadcasts from one point, but everyone can hear it. That is, the impulse of the endocrine system is a speakerphone. In the event of a malfunction in the nervous system, only that which is activated by this nerve – one muscle – stops working: as if you interrupt the telephone wire, only the telephone will not work. And if the radio station breaks down, no one will hear the message. That is, the pathology of the endocrine system is polysystemic – it is the pathology of many structures at once.An example is hormones of the same thyroid gland, which act on almost all cells in our body. Everything in our cell is energy-dependent – all enzyme systems, all their functioning, since every cell has ATP, adenosine triphosphate is our battery. And the intensity of energy production in it is regulated by thyroid hormones.

Should a young man, who is not worried about anything, once prophylactically visit an endocrinologist?

In general, preventive medicine is a rather controversial thing.The concept “the more you examine, the better” that exists in the middle class is fundamentally wrong. In the modern world, unnecessary examinations can do no less harm than their absence, also because their interpretation is very difficult. On ultrasound, structures of one millimeter are visible in the thyroid gland. And they can make more noise without leading to any consequences. Preventive endocrinology can be discussed primarily in relation to blood sugar levels. If we are talking about an overweight man, it is advisable to control sugar from the age of 20-25 – at least once every few years.This should be done even if the parents were sick with diabetes or had cardiovascular pathology.

Diseases of the endocrine system are inherited?

Inclination is inherited. These are the so-called multifactorial diseases – there is some predisposition that may or may not be realized. If a person has a tendency to diabetes, but does not gain excess weight, he may not get sick. That is, environmental factors, in particular food, can contribute to the implementation of a genetic factor.Thirty years ago, we called type 2 diabetes age-related, and today it even occurs in children. Unfortunately, we see diabetes in 25-year-old obese patients all the time. By the way, it’s important to say that there is an obvious link between obesity and decreased testicular function. With severe obesity, testosterone levels decrease. The fact is that adipose tissue is a place for the exchange of sex hormones, with obesity in a man, the balance of estrogen and testosterone changes. This leads to suppression of the pituitary regulation of the testes and a decrease in testosterone production.

What do young men usually see an endocrinologist with?

In men aged 20–30 years, endocrine pathology occurs relatively infrequently – almost ten times less often than in women. But if a man at a young age develops, for example, Basedow’s disease, then it proceeds much more severely and with a worse prognosis. Why? It’s hard to say, there are no clearly proven explanations. But I will repeat once again – at a young age, the pathology of the thyroid gland in men is rare.The greatest problem is the decrease in its functions, which occurs in men after 40 years. The symptoms of this disorder are very nonspecific: we can talk about, let’s say, incomprehensibly poor health – a general breakdown, lethargy, fatigue, decreased muscle tone, potency, libido, erectile dysfunction, that is, some kind of nonspecificity that could potentially be a background or a plume of any disease. In a hospital sample, as we call it, if a patient comes to the doctor and there is a set of these factors without an obvious concomitant disease, and even more so if it is present, it is better to check the function of the thyroid gland.

What methods are used for this today?

Blood is taken from a vein and one indicator is determined – TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland. Its level allows you to more than accurately assess the work of the thyroid gland. Problems with this hormone are more common in women, but they are not uncommon for men either.

It turns out that from the point of view of the hormonal system, men are more protected by nature?

Yes, but they live on average twenty years less.In fact, a woman is protected by nature – and from the standpoint of the endocrine system too. She still bears the task of reproduction, while the biological significance of a man who has performed a copulative function is practically over.

If you remember the copulatory function, let’s talk about testosterone, which worries everyone so much.

Testosterone is a very interesting hormone, one might say insidious. The 21st century is in the yard, and there is still no understanding of how to accurately determine it – all methods have flaws.Measurement of hormone levels is carried out by immunometric methods, that is, using antibodies. Testosterone is a steroid hormone that is very small in structure; the size of the antibody is a certain number of times larger. That is, the testosterone figure is a very delicate matter. It must be able to interpret it depending on the situation, in combination with other hormones, with gonadotropins – hormones of the anterior pituitary gland. Therefore, the prevailing opinion that if you were given a huge amount of testosterone in the laboratory, then you are a superman, is wrong.In general, this is part of the myth that endocrinology is some kind of attachment to the hormonal laboratory: we sit here, send everyone to hormonal research, get numbers – and make a diagnosis. Absolute nonsense.

What is the main task of endocrinology?

It is a clinical discipline, like, say, cardiology. And the interpretation of laboratory tests is often at the last stage of our reasoning. The cardiologist also has an echocardiogram: it can be in perfect order, but the person has a whole bunch of problems.The same can be said about hormones: if the diagnosis could be made numerically, I would not be needed here. You can put a laboratory assistant in order to diagnose and write out prescriptions right on the form of hormonal research results.

Let’s trace the life of testosterone in the context of the maturation of the male body.

Let’s. We will omit puberty and early development – there are very complex, I would even say, ornate processes of the relationship between the hormones of the adrenal cortex and the testicles, which is hardly interesting to your readers.By the age of 20, indicators of testosterone production reach peak values, and from the age of 30, slowly, slowly, for everyone in different ways, but in general it is quite natural, they begin to decline. Testosterone is produced in the testicles, but it is a deep misconception to consider it a hormone created by nature only for an erection. Erectile function can be completely normal even with low testosterone, but libido, desire, libido – call it what you want – is likely to be reduced. Testosterone is an anabolic of the male body, it does almost everything that distinguishes a man from a woman, it contributes to the development of not only the reproductive system, but also the muscular system, the brain, and even the production of red blood cells.Without him, a man turns into a eunuch – a thin voice, lack of body hair, flabby muscular system, obesity, tummy. But at the age of your readers, testosterone deficiency is rare. If we take one hundred percent of men aged 20-30 years with erectile dysfunction, then, probably, 90-95 percent – this is a psychogenic problem. After all, erectile function has a lot of components, first of all, the brain, the system is very complex. And most often it fails with all sorts of violations: children’s fears, complexes, neuroses, personality disorders, relationships between partners, that’s all.And the real deficiency of testosterone, rather, looks towards the age of “50 plus”. And that’s where there is a lot of speculation on this topic.

Pharma intrigues?

Partly yes. In part – the lobby of those involved in erectile dysfunction is inflating this topic. Both abroad and we have “specialists” who are ready to sew a testosterone deficiency on literally everyone, blaming almost all male diseases for this deficiency, including obesity. Almost diabetes is treated with testosterone.After all, what is a deficit? The figure is below normal. And this concept is very relative, especially for hormones. The case when the word “norm” must be put in large quotation marks. There is no norm, there is a reference, but this concept is statistical: they took, relatively speaking, one hundred healthy men aged 20-30, looked at testosterone, deduced the average, removed the Gauss dome and got two numbers.

At the same time, there are characteristics of the population, racial, regional, age …

Just about, age-related.And here you can speculate indefinitely. Shifted the reading frame and said: “You have a deficit …”

“… take the pill.”

Yes, take the pill. There are not many studies that have examined testosterone prescription to older men, firstly, and secondly, they are not as long. Some of them had positive results, some – negative in terms of cardiovascular risk.

So artificially raising testosterone levels carries a risk of heart problems?

I cannot answer unequivocally.But research results in this sense are contradictory. There is a figure that clearly shows a testosterone deficiency, then its appointment has positive consequences. But if we take, as we call it, the “gray” zone, when someone considers this value to be a deficit, and someone does not, here this appointment most often does not lead to any results. After all, hormones are part of a large integral system inside a person. Man, unfortunately, is mortal, and so far no one can do anything about it. A person is aging, and all his systems, including the endocrine system, are aging, integrally adjusting to a particular age.And if you start at the age of 60 artificially with the help of pills to arrange yourself 18, you cause a conflict of systems. It is not for nothing that the Old Testament says: “No one puts new wine into old wineskins; otherwise the new wine will burst the wineskins, and it will run out of its own accord, and the wineskins will be lost. ” You see, a hormone is a systemically active active element. If you introduced testosterone into the systemic circulation, it had an effect not only on your penis: it had an effect on the brain, heart, blood vessels, liver – everything! This means that the consequences can also be systemic.

And unpredictable?

Well, if someone wants to experiment and is ready, as in “Egyptian Nights”, to get some kind of stroke for one sexual intercourse – this is his choice. But in any case, you should not do this at the age of 20-30. If at this age there are sexual problems – do not immediately sin on low testosterone. Yes, this happens, but extremely rarely, and then it is a serious violation. But often in such a situation they grab at the borderline results, when the appointment of testosterone is just a convenient way out for the doctor.

Why is such an appointment dangerous?

There is an aspect in which the male body is more gentle than the female – I’m talking about the production of sperm. Externally prescribing testosterone suppresses it. In general, if a person gets at least a severe runny nose with a fever, spermatogenesis will be suppressed for some time. Nature arranged it this way: a sick male should not fertilize females. You don’t even need a runny nose: let’s say a man is wrapped up at work, gets nervous, doesn’t get enough sleep at night – in this situation he will have low testosterone simply due to a general breakdown.Even at a young age. We experimented in our clinic: testosterone was monitored in patients with diabetes mellitus during hospitalization, and then – two weeks after it was in our hospital. First, the man slept well. Secondly, we have put in order some general indicators. And after two weeks his testosterone is already normal! A single definition of testosterone cannot be trusted at all. And when they begin to assess the spermogram in a man who is sick with some kind of chronic disease, uncompensated, this is also absurd.The first step is to cure him. Bring it to a normal state, and then evaluate the work of the reproductive system. Either he’s on a binge …

Here’s another interesting topic – alcohol and male hormonal levels. Does whiskey actually lower blood sugar?

Any ethanol, any ethyl alcohol potentially blocks the production of glucose by the liver, and can actually lower the sugar level for a while. But I don’t recommend treating diabetes with alcohol – it doesn’t matter if it’s whiskey, vodka or tequila.

But what about the cherished 40 milligrams a day, which are allowed even by cardiologists?

40 milligrams is possible – of course, provided that the person is ready to stop there. Alcohol is a universal tranquilizer, and in the modern world it also plays a positive role, helping a person in a state of chronic stress to relieve this stress. Chronic stress, by the way, also has a bad effect on sexual function. So no one is against small amounts of alcohol to relieve stress.But in large ones – it only does harm, disrupts erection and ejaculation. You are asking about the connection with thyroid function – alcohol does not directly affect it. And on sexual function – only negatively.

Are you talking about fertility?

Exactly. In chronic alcoholics, the work of the testicle is fundamentally impaired. Against the background of intoxication, testosterone production decreases and spermatogenesis is impaired, this has been proven. And if we are talking about fertility, today there are practically no drugs that affect spermatogenesis.This is such a delicate and complex process that we have not yet learned how to intervene in it. A woman can be stimulated to ovulate in order to receive an egg, but if a man’s spermatogenic epithelium is affected, there is no treatment.

What exactly negatively affects the function of this epithelium?

The epithelium produces sperm. And many factors influence this process, including your own testosterone. The cells that produce it in the testicle are close to each other and influence each other: Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, which form the spermatogenic epithelium, are linked in local regulation.Plus, the production of testosterone and the production of sperm in the testicle is influenced by pituitary hormones. So this epithelium is quite sensitive to toxic influences.

Anyone, not just alcohol?

Of course. Here’s a simple example: let’s say, God forbid, if we are talking about malignant tumors for which chemotherapy is prescribed, practically the first thing that suffers is the spermatogenic epithelium. Because the dividing cells are killed.So, sperm cryopreservation is recommended for young patients before prescribing anticancer chemotherapy.

Let’s continue our endocrinological educational program. What is important to know about the work of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus?

We are talking, rather, about the work of the hypothalamic-pituitary system. The nuclei of the hypothalamus are the nuclei of the nervous system that produce humoral factors. These are, as a rule, very small molecules, consisting of several amino acids, which enter the pituitary gland through very short vessels and stimulate the production of pituitary hormones there.The pituitary gland is such a conductor, a key regulatory structure of many elements of the endocrine system. This means that sexual function, the work of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, the production of prolactin, the production of growth hormone and a number of other factors depend on it.

Including metabolism?

You know, endocrinologists fall into a stupor a little when they hear the expression “metabolic disorder” or, say, “hormonal background”. Human life is metabolism, and everything is involved in it, including eyes, teeth, hair, ears and nails.

Let’s not fall into a stupor, let’s return to the hypothalamus.

The hypothalamus carries out the relationship between the nervous and endocrine systems. These systems are interconnected, they function together. But, returning to the beginning of the conversation, the nervous systems are fast regulation, like a phone call: an impulse came, and the muscles instantly contracted. The humoral system, which includes the production of hormones, is a slower basal regulation that carries out fundamental life processes.Here we must remember the evolution, the development of the animal world: it all started not with the nerves, but with the fact that there was some kind of plasma in which certain substances circulated.

I feel here echoes of an old interdisciplinary controversy …

No no. The nervous system is, of course, also important. We just talked a lot today, for example, about fertility, about sexual function. This is not a simple muscle contraction, this is a complex process extended over time, which is regulated precisely by the relationship of hormones.The nerve cannot extend from the brain to the testicle and contribute to the production of sperm, you know? That would be too cool. And the hypothalamus is just responsible for the integrative interaction of neural influences.

How does the male endocrine system react to physical activity and the fuel that artificially feeds these loads? I’m talking about sports nutrition.

If you are already over 30, then, probably, you go to the gym for health, and not in order to turn yourself into a closet of muscles and seduce girls.At the age of 18, of course, you can think that a woman needs your muscle mass, but in principle this is absolute stupidity and in 99% of cases it will not work. If you set yourself the task of seducing as many women as possible, you need to spend more effort on developing your brain. And in the gym – to think about blood vessels, muscles and some kind of harmony. Now to the question of sports nutrition and energy. I have a very negative attitude towards them. I don’t want to scare anyone, but I had to witness lethal myocardial dystrophy while taking a large number of energy drinks.As for hormones and, in particular, the same testosterone, unfortunately, I am afraid that you and I will not be able to break the stereotypes that have developed in these gyms. We cannot explain that self-indulgence with testosterone will lead to the fact that by the time such a guy meets his only one, he will have nothing left of the spermatogenic epithelium. I myself visit a fitness club and often witness young people’s conversations on, let’s say, medical topics. What I hear is not just wild – I don’t even have enough words to describe it: “Now I am on androgens, then I dry myself, then I add triiodothyronine …” very high intellectual bar.

What – what does he add?

Triiodothyronine is a thyroid hormone. And then, with the air of an absolute expert, but with errors in basic concepts, such a person begins to give recommendations to another person. In this case, we are talking about very serious hormonal drugs … A real freak show, and with a risk to health. As for the consumption of large amounts of proteins, this is primarily non-physiological, it is a large burden on the kidneys.I have a lot of patients from former serious athletes and those who served in the special forces. With their physical exertion, taking some drugs and special food is not fun, not a way to seduce a girl, but part of the hardest work with hyperloads. So, as a rule, these people have a whole bunch of endocrine and cardiovascular diseases. With age, many of them acquire obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus.

Please tell us about anti-aging endocrinology, about the fashionable age-related hormone therapy.

Due to the development of the anti-aging industry in recent years, most professional endocrinological associations were forced to publish regulatory documents on hormone therapy: clinical guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency. Our professional position is unambiguous: hormone therapy is indicated only and exclusively in a situation of hormone deficiency. But there is a powerful anti-aging lobby, non-professional paramedical and other marginal associations.I attended their conferences: from the point of view of professional clinicians and endocrinologists, what happens there sometimes looks wild. Pampering in our sphere, as, indeed, in any, ends badly. Growth hormone, for example, which people indulge in for rejuvenation, is a growth factor, cells multiply from it, which means that we can easily grow a tumor for ourselves. The danger is that the anti-aging industry is in an uncontrolled field: they don’t need statistics, they don’t need prospective research, they live outside of medical ideology.

That is, starting to rejuvenate with hormone therapy is, in general, a serious risk.

You need to rejuvenate when you are young. Our regulatory system is structured too complex so that by introducing one or another element into it, it would be possible to start some processes in the opposite direction. Today we have listed the classic hormones, and in addition to them there are two hundred more, and they all participate in the work of the body. “Hormone”, by the way, does not come from the word “harmony”, as many think, but from the word hormao – “put into action.”And all these actions should be, let’s say, proportional to each other. I repeat: the hormone acts on a lot of structures at once, it enters the systemic circulation and reaches all cells. We have identified one of its functions, but there are a dozen more that we do not know about. For example, a nerve has one function – the innervation of muscles, and a hormone is something more complex. From time to time, one of its effects pops up, and it begins: “This is the hormone of this and that.” Almost every hormone was called the hormone of youth at one time.There are episodes of their popularity: testosterone, prolactin, thyroxine are popular here. Then suddenly dehydroepiandrosterone is declared the hormone of youth – this is an adrenal androgen: at one time in the USA it could be bought at any pharmacy without any prescription.

In general, what should a young man do in order to preserve his endocrine system?

To begin with, surprisingly, remember a simple thing: salt must be with iodine.When your wife or girlfriend goes to the store, ask her not to spend money on various Japanese and Himalayan frills, but to buy our domestic salt, where “iodized” is written on the pack. Its effectiveness is absolutely proven – it solves the problem of iodine deficiency, prevents the development of goiter and brings many more benefits. This is even more important for women, but men also need to make sure that enough iodine is supplied to the body. This is about the thyroid gland. As for diabetes mellitus, it is clear that the disease is associated with a hereditary predisposition, but we must remember about its direct connection with excess weight: the stomach not only interferes with tying shoelaces, but also affects our general condition and cardiovascular system.Next is the sexual function. A man is given a spermatogenic epithelium, one for life, and must be protected. The quality of sperm at 20 and at 60 is very different: it reflects everything that befalls us – from the head and nerves to the environment, not to mention any intoxications, especially chronic ones. So, as you can see, I cannot recommend anything that goes beyond the concept of a healthy lifestyle, although this term smacks of something archaic. You need physical activity, and it is highly desirable – without the use of various stimulants.When you’re twenty, it seems like you can stuff any nasty stuff into yourself. But a dozen or two years pass, and we understand that life is not endless. And just then the results of all our youthful experiments fall on us … Do you humble servant know how much he studied until he began to inject something into the patient’s body? To prescribe the hormone, I graduated from six years of university, two years of residency, graduate school, defended several dissertations, and believe me, I still check, double-check and weigh everything. I never prescribe hormones at the first visit of a patient, I suggest that they be examined in dynamics, and only then do I make a decision.And when boys begin to play around with hormones in fitness clubs, it’s wildness. In my opinion, a certain deficiency is manifested here, male complexes that are trying to compensate by pumping muscles. So in this sense, I would recommend first thinking about what’s going on with your head, and not with testosterone.


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