New Use Classes Order 2020 Affecting Food Businesses
Changes to the Use Classes Order in England which may have significant effect on Restaurant & Takeaway businesses.
On July 2020, the Government introduced new planning reforms, which came into effect from 1st September 2020. This change to Town Centre Use Classes will provide greater flexibility for changes in uses (1987 Use Classes Order) without the need for planning permission with the aim being to support the high street resurgence.
From the 1st September 2020 a new use “Class E” will replace the following existing use classes:
- Class A1 – shops (retail units)
- Class A2 – financial and professional services;
- Class A3 – restaurants and cafes; and
- Class B1 – business.
This means, the above uses “will not need” to obtain planning permission for changes within this use class. An A1 use premises can be converted into an A3 premises without planning permission. However, to convert an A1 into A5 (hot food takeaways) will still require obtaining planning permission.
A4 (Pubs & Drink Establishments) and A5 (Hot Food Takeaways) fall under “Sui Generis”. They do not fall under any specific use class. A sui generis use may make it harder for takeaway operator clients to find premises given that any new tenant at the end of the term would need a change of use permission.
It is currently unclear whether a mixed restaurant and takeaway use (A3/A5) would now fall within the new E class or sui generis.
The “Three New Use Classes” are as follows:
Class E (Commercial, business and service) – including retail, restaurant, office, financial/professional services, indoor sports, medical and nursery uses along with “any other services which it is appropriate to provide in a commercial, business or service locality”;
Class F. 1 (Learning and non-residential institutions) – including non-residential educational uses, and use as a museum, art gallery, library, public hall, religious institution or law court; and
Class F.2 (Local community) – including use as a shop of no more than 280 sqm mostly selling essential goods, including food and at least 1 km from another similar shop, and use as a community hall, area for outdoor sport, swimming pool or skating rink.
Key points to be noted affecting restaurant and takeaway businesses:
Planning Permission Not Required:
- A1 Use (retail unit) to Restaurant
- A2 Use (financial & professional) to Restaurant
- B1 Use (business) to Restaurant
Planning Permission Required:
- A1 Use (retail unit) to Hot Food Takeaways (old A5)
- A1, A2 & B1 to Pubs and Drink Establishments
Sources: Lichfields & Knight Frank
Planning and consultancy services
Far East Kitchen Solutions has been a respected name with local councils, planning officers, environmental health departments, architects and builders throughout the UK for over 25 years. We’ve obtained vent/extract system, A3 and A5 planning consent permission for our clients in difficult areas, and also act as a specialist advisor to planning consultants and architects.
We can provide pre-purchase/pre-lease advise; our site surveys prevent you signing lengthy deals on buildings that are either unsuitable or very expensive to convert to Chinese restaurants and takeaways because of planning constraints, lack of space or undersized utilities. This information can enhance your negotiating position too.
Our factory can produce custom-sized tables to ensure the space is fully used, even if awkwardly shaped.
Please contact us to discuss your requirements
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Changes to the use classes order
Draft legislation has been published which makes a number of significant changes to the Town and Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1987 (UCO). The significance of the UCO is that uses can change within the same class without the need for planning permission.
The two main reasons for the changes are:
- to help the high street by allowing typical high street uses (such as shops, gyms, nurseries and offices) to merge or switch without planning permission; and
- to protect “community assets” (such as pubs, music venues and cinemas) by taking them out of the “classes” and making them “sui generis”, meaning that planning permission would be needed to change to a different use.
The changes only relate to England and so this article focuses on the law in England and not wales. The changes are due to come into effect on 1 September 2020.
Despite the focus on saving the high street, the new use classes are not restricted to the town centre. This means that they can apply to out of town retail and office parks.
What does the UCO do?
The UCO categorises uses into “classes” (see Appendix 1). Uses which fall within a particular class are allowed to change to another use within that class without the need for planning permission. For example, under the new rules, a shop will be able to change to an office and then to a gym and back again, without planning permission or any other planning approval.
The UCO also lists uses which do not sit in a class and therefore cannot change unless there is a permitted development right allowing it (see the Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) (England) Order 2015).
What are the new classes?
“Class E (Commercial, Business and Service)” is the new town centre use (see Appendix 1). This new class allows for a mix of retail, leisure and business uses to reflect changing retail and business models. It recognises that a building may be in a mix of uses at once (clothes shop and beauty salon) or be used for different uses at different times of the day (office and gym).
Some of the “community assets” have been put together in new Class F1 and Class F2 (see Appendix 1):
The “F1 (Learning and non-residential institutions)” class is for uses where there is generally wider public use such as:
- libraries; and
- art galleries.
The “F2 (Local community)” class groups together:
- community halls and meeting spaces;
- uses which provide for physical group activities such as swimming pools, skating rinks and areas for outdoor sports; and
- a small, local, shop like one you’d find in a rural community or a large residential development (see Appendix 1 for the specifics on this).
What about residential, general industrial and storage uses?
No change. The residential (C classes), General industrial (B2) and Storage and distribution (B8) use classes remain unchanged in practical terms.
What about pubs and takeaway uses?
Uses that previously fell in Classes A4 and A5 will become “sui generis” uses, meaning that they will be in their own, individual class and will require planning permission to change, unless permitted development rights exist. A full list of the other sui generis uses is at Appendix 1.
What does this mean in practice?
Planning Applications submitted before 1 September 2020 that cite the current use classes must continue to be decided by the council using the current (by then old) use classes after 1 September 2020, so there will be no obvious change there. However, applicants can probably expect more planning conditions restricting use if the council is not comfortable with the relaxing of the rules by government.
In order to change uses within a class, there must have been actual and lawful use. In terms of actual use, if planning permission for a creche is granted, the first use must be as a creche and not another Class E use, but after 1 September 2020 the use could change from creche to a different Class E use, such as a shop. In terms of lawful use, there may be situations where the lawful use has been established over time (continuous use for 10 years without enforcement action), rather than by a planning permission. An owner/occupier may be able to benefit from the wider Class E uses there is enough evidence of a lawful A1, A2, A3 or B1 use to secure a Certificate of Lawfulness.
For those with actual and lawful retail and business (A1, A2, A3 and B1) assets, the changes will mean more flexibility as the law makes it clear that they will automatically fall within Class E from 1 September 2020.
There has been some ambiguity as to whether the same is true for some of the D uses such as gyms and creches that are included in Class E. However, MHCLG has confirmed that they will also fall within Class E from 1 September 2020. This means that these uses will be able to change uses within the Class E (for example from shop to creche) without planning permission.
It is important that to check whether there are any planning conditions or planning obligations affecting the site which restrict the use. There may also be use restrictions in the lease or restrictive covenants which limit the practical application of Class E.
Owners and occupiers of pubs, wine bars, takeaways, cinemas, concert and dance halls and bingo halls will not benefit from the new law. These assets will be restricted by the “sui generis” label, which usually means they will need to secure planning permission to change the use.
What about permitted development rights?
PD rights can allow certain changes of use from a use in one class to a use in another (for example office to residential) without a formal planning permission. Note however, that some kind of council sign-off is usually required.
The changes to the UCO will not change the pd rights for another year (until 31 July 2021) to give people warning and because whole-scale changes to pd rights are expected before then.
How can we help?
The changes are due to take effect on 1 September 2020. If you are in the process of working up a planning application or are awaiting a decision, we can advise you on the effect of the new law. We can also assist with any queries as to actual and lawful use and securing Certificates of Lawfulness.
The changes will most likely affect any agreements that are conditional on planning and any existing investment/development strategy. Please contact Trevor, Claire or Kathryn who will be happy to help.
Planning Direct – Change of Use
Planning Direct has a wealth of experience in securing straightforward and complex Change of Use Planning Permissions. With decades of experience and a strong team of experts on board Planning Direct will quickly assess what you need to do to get the right use class for your site or building.
How do I get a Change of Use?
Applying for Planning Permission for a Change of Use is relatively straightforward and mostly simpler than making a new building application. It can, however, be problematic, (particularly where a premises has a current commercial or agricultural use class). Getting it right first time will save a lot of money and time.
Sometimes Change of Use can be dealt with through a prior approval process rather than a Planning Application. This process is used when (in theory) a Change of Use is permitted but the council needs to confirm this and other associated details. Planning Direct has considerable experience with this and can get you permission quickly. Local authorities can (through an Article 4 Direction) require Planning Permission in certain areas regardless of Permitted Development rights.
When might I be enforced against?
Your Local Planning Authority (LPA) monitors the implementation of Planning Permission, investigating cases of unauthorised development and taking necessary action. If you breach planning control regarding the use of your property, your LPA may choose to enforce against you. You may have inadvertently not gained planning permission, or a change in circumstance may mean that you no longer comply with the existing permission, either way, it is not uncommon for this to occur.
What are the time limits for the council to enforce against me?
In many cases, development is protected from enforcement if no action is taken by your LPA. This means if you have changed the use of your property without seeking permission you may still be protected. This protection is time sensitive with two deadlines, classified as follows
The change of use four year rule
Incidences where the four year rule prevents you from being enforced against include
- If your whole building, or part of your building has been used as a single residential dwelling for over four years
- If you built a structure to use for a particular purpose in excess of four years prior to the enforcement (for example you built a garage to be used as an office to run a business)
The change of use ten year rule
The ten year rule applies if
- The current land or building use has been upheld for over 10 years, for example – letting out a property as House of Multiple Occupancy, HMO (C4 Use Class), rather than a residential dwelling (C3)
- A limitation on planning permission or a relevant planning condition has not been complied with for over ten years.
Read more on Enforcement and the Change of Use Four Year rule | Change of Use ten year rule here
What is a ‘Use Class’
The Town and Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1987 (as amended) puts uses of land and buildings into various categories known as ‘Use Classes’.
Normally you will need Planning Permission to change from one use class to another. This is in order to control the use of buildings to ensure that sufficient buildings (to accommodate housing and employment, for example) are available and that these uses do not clash. Housing, for example, is normally not put within an industrial estate for obvious reasons.
There are many different use classes and permitted changes. Here are some of the most used class types.
- A1 Shops
- A2 Financial and professional services
- A3 Restaurants and cafés
- A4 Drinking establishments
- A5 Hot food takeaways
- B1 Business
- B2 General industrial
- B8 Storage or distribution
- B8 Storage or distribution
- C1 Hotels
- C2 Residential institutions
- C2A Secure Residential Institution
- C3 Dwellinghouses
- C4 Houses in multiple occupation
- D1 Non-residential institutions
In September 2020 the Government introduced changes to the planning system enabling premises to move freely between various ‘Town Centre’ uses. You may discover that there will be no need to apply for planning permission if you want to change your town centre premises from one use class to another. Click here to read more.
Click here for a full breakdown of each category
Common Changes of Use
A1 (Shop) to A3 (Restaurant)
This common Change of Use is permitted on a temporary basis for up to two years. Many clients however, choose to secure a permanent permission via a Change of Use Prior Approval before investing in the premises. This is relatively straightforward and need not be costly.
A1 (Shop) to A5 (Hot Food Take-way)
Hot Food Take-aways are considered by many local authorities to be a cause of traffic and anti-social behaviour. Some councils have policies preventing the spread of takeaways on health grounds. Hot Food Take-aways require planning permission for Change of Use from shops. These applications can be problematic and it is always important to get in touch with a Planning Consultant as early as possible to check whether your business will be allowed in the premises you have identified. Often clients will, at our suggestion and through Planning Direct, make a Change of Use Planning Application before signing a long lease. It can save £1,000s.
B1 / B8 (Business / Storage) to C3 (Dwellinghouse)
Since 2013 the conversion of B1/B8 commercial premises to a dwelling house is considered to be a permitted right. It does not therefore require a Change of Use Planning Application.
There are some exceptions but the B1 / B8 to C3 change of use can be obtained via a Prior Notification Application.
Agricultural building to C3 (Dwellinghouse) The Barn Conversion
Barn Conversions are permitted development. However, local authorities are generally very resistant to barn conversions. Read more from planning direct on barn conversions here: https://www.planningdirect.co.uk/planning/barn-conversions/
Please note that this is a guide only. It is for local planning authorities to determine, in the first instance (depending on the individual circumstances of each case) which use class a particular use falls into, and therefore what is a permitted change.
If you are thinking about negotiating a lease or buying a property for your business, check whether you need to obtain planning permission for your intended use, and, if so, your chances of getting it.
Contact us now about your planning problem and we’ll give initial advice completely free of charge (if you already own or lease the property): https://www.planningdirect.co.uk/contact-us/.
What our clients say about us:
Change of Use from B1 to D1
“Ipswich Vineyard Church is very grateful for all the help we have received from Andrew Cann at Planning Direct with our successful planning application for the change of use of a business premises to a place of worship here in Ipswich.
Andrew has shown both patience and perseverance; patience with us as a church and perseverance with the application process over the past six months.
Without the professionalism and unremitting optimism of Andrew we would not have succeeded in realising our plans and dream of having a home for our church for the next step in our growth and development. ”
Paul Finn, Pastor, Ipswich Vineyard Church.
Change of Use from holiday let to residential:
“We are delighted with the services provided by Planning Direct. We were looking for support on a controversial change of use application; to identify the appropriate people to speak with in the Planning Department and at the District and Parish Council and to ensure the application addressed the appropriate planning issues. Claire guided us very effectively though the submission process, followed up with the planners promptly and was invaluable in helping us to understand what we needed to do to address the questions we received. We were delighted to have our application approved in full at the Planning Committee Meeting.” Sarah Evans, Focus Cross.
Zoning: Districts Guide -Residence Districts
Moderate- and higher-density residence districts are generally found close to central and regional business districts and are usually mapped in proximity to mass transit. These areas are characterized by bulkier buildings, a greater range of building heights and less automobile ownership than lower-density areas. Like lower-density residence districts, however, the character of these neighborhoods varies widely. Some are defined entirely by rowhouses, others by low apartment houses or high-rise buildings and still others by a mixture of all building types.
Moderate- and higher-density residential districts are broadly characterized as either contextual or non-contextual.
Non-contextual districts are generally mapped where there is a diverse mix of building types and no predominant context. R6, R7-1, R7-2, R8, R9 and R10 are non-contextual districts. The bulk regulations for these districts, introduced in 1961, encourage the development of buildings without height limits set back from the street and surrounded by open space. The building form is a product of the “tower-in-the-park” vision of urban planning popular in the 1950s.
Height factor regulations
In R6 through R9 districts, the bulk regulations are known as height factor regulations, where the size of a building is determined by a complex set of rules involving the interrelationship between a range of height factors, floor area ratios and open space ratios. Instead of a single floor area ratio for each district, higher floor area ratios are allowed for tall buildings on lots where large areas of open space can be provided. Lower floor area ratios are allowed on smaller lots where less open space is possible. In general, the larger the size of the lot, the taller the building permitted.
In R10 districts there are no height factors or open space ratios. Each zoning lot, regardless of its size, has a floor area ratio of 10.0. Open space is controlled by a lot coverage requirement.
There are no height limits for non-contextual buildings in R6 through R10 non-contextual districts. Instead, a building is not allowed to penetrate a sky exposure plane, which slopes inwards from a specified base height above the street line. Therefore, the further a building is set back from the street line, the taller it can be.
Tower-on-a base regulations
In R9 and R10 districts, as well as commercial districts with an R9 or R10 residential district equivalent, developers may choose to build pursuant to tower regulations, which allow a building to penetrate a sky exposure plane. Buildings of great height are possible if built as towers. In response to concerns of excessive tower height in predominantly residential areas, tower-on-a-base regulations were introduced in 1994. All residential towers on wide streets in R9 and R10 districts, and C1 and C2 districts with an R9 or R10 residential district equivalent, must be built above a building base of between five and eight stories that is built at the street line. Special floor area rules ensure that the height of the towers does not exceed approximately 35 stories.
To encourage an alternative to both height factor buildings and tower buildings, the Quality Housing Program was introduced in the 1980’s and is allowed to be used as an option instead of height factor or tower regulations in any R6 through R10 non-contextual district. The Quality Housing bulk regulations allow higher lot coverage, and in many instances greater FAR in exchange for height limits that are often more compatible with the surrounding context.
Quality Housing regulations
Contextual districts are designed to maintain the scale and form of the city’s traditional moderate- and higher-density neighborhoods. These districts, which have an A, B, D or X letter suffix (R6A, R6B, R7A, R7B, R7D, R7X, R8A, R8B, R8X, R9A, R9D, R9X, R10A and R10X) are mapped where buildings of similar size and shape form a strong neighborhood context, or where redevelopment would create a uniform context. The bulk regulations for these districts are known as Quality Housing regulations.
Created in the 1980’s to promote high-quality housing harmonious with its neighbors, the Quality Housing Program was a response to concerns that height factor buildings were often out-of-scale with the surrounding neighborhood. The program assigns a single floor area ratio to each district, and includes bulk regulations that typically produce buildings that are shorter and have higher lot coverage than height factor buildings. Height limits, rules for the placement of the street wall of a building in relation to neighboring buildings, and rules governing the minimum and maximum height of a street wall are among the contextual regulations that promote the development of buildings that are compatible with their surroundings. Ground level setbacks in front of a building must be planted and parking spaces must be located in an underground garage or behind or to the side of a building – never in front of the building. Because less open space is available for parking, slightly less parking is required than for height factor developments.
The Quality Housing Program also establishes a set of rules that includes minimum apartment sizes, recreation space requirements and incentives for developers to provide amenities such as laundry rooms and daylight in corridors. All of the Quality Housing Program rules and regulations are mandatory in contextual R6 through R10 districts. Since the 1980’s, hundreds of areas throughout the city have been rezoned as contextual districts.
Optional Quality Housing Regulations in Non-Contextual Districts
In non-contextual R6 through R10 districts, developers may choose the optional Quality Housing Program instead of height factor or tower regulations. For example, on a wide street in an R6 district outside of Manhattan, a developer may choose to build under the optional R6 bulk regulations (which are the same as those for a contextual R6A district). In general, the regulations allow moderately larger but lower buildings set at or near the street line, with more apartments than might be achievable under non-contextual regulations, as a way of encouraging the mid-rise apartment buildings that reflect the traditional scale of many neighborhoods. Although higher lot coverage and, often, greater FAR can be achieved in exchange for height limits, sometimes height factor regulations may be preferable because the surrounding blocks do not have a consistent character or because the views attainable by a taller building outweigh the advantages of greater bulk. Developers must determine which of the two sets of regulations is more appropriate for any given site but cannot mix and match the two on the same zoning lot. The taller heights permitted for height factor buildings, for example, cannot be combined with the higher lot coverage permitted for Quality Housing buildings.
Other Zoning Districts: R7-3, R9-1, R10H
R7-3 and R9-1 districts, where special bulk, height and setback provisions apply, may be mapped only within waterfront areas and certain special purpose districts. R7-3 is mapped within the Special Hunters Point District and along the Williamsburg waterfront.
R10H, a district allowing transient hotels by special permit in addition to residential and community facility uses, is mapped only along Central Park South, and Fifth Avenue between East 59th and East 61st Streets in Manhattan.
Planning Use Classes Changes – Baldwin and Robinson
Given everything that has been going on recently, you would be forgiven for not noticing that new planning regulations were made on 20 July. However, these regulations are introducing significant changes to the current planning use classes from 1 September 2020 and are worth taking note.
The main changes are to revoke parts A and D and introducing a new class E. New Sui Generis uses are also being introduced. So, in practical terms, how will this affect you?
– If you operate a shop, your use would have fallen under Class A1. The regulations provide that this use will now fall under the new Class E (although note that it may fall under the new class F.2 if it is small, selling essential goods and there is no other similar shop nearby).
– If you operate a café or takeaway, your use would have fallen under Class A3 or A5 and this will also now fall under Class E.
– If you work in an office, your use would have fallen under Class B1 and this use will also now fall under Class E.
You don’t have to do anything on 1 September to change your use, this will happen automatically.
As you can see, the new Class E covers a huge amount more than was previously included within one use class. Is this is a good thing? Arguably, yes, it is because if you are thinking of diversifying your services to include another use within Class E, then you will not need to apply for planning permission to do so.
However, you may not be as pleased if you operate a pub which currently falls within Class A4 but which will become Sui Generis. A separate Sui Generis use is a pub which serves food and a further separate sui generis use is for hot food takeaway. As a general rule Sui Generis uses can’t be changed to any other use without an express planning permission and so there is likely to be more red tape involved with one of these uses going forward.
The rationale behind these changes is to allow greater flexibility so that the high street is better able to adapt to provide what consumers and businesses need. There have recently been unprecedented changes to working arrangements and access to shops as a result of Coronavirus, and many will be wondering if some of these changes are here to stay. This planning use class may be one tool to assist with the evolution of the high street use and flexible working arrangements going forward.
90,000 Parts of the Angara-A5 rocket will fall in the north of the Tomsk region
Dmitry Kandinsky / vtomske.ru
Roscosmos has scheduled the launch of the Angara-A5 launch vehicle on November 28. Some detached parts of the rocket will fall on the territory of the north of the Tomsk region.
Angara-A5 is a Russian heavy-class launch vehicle. Kerosene + liquid oxygen are used as fuel. The only launch of Angara-A5 to date took place in 2014. The upcoming test launch of the rocket will take place from the Plesetsk cosmodrome in the Arkhangelsk region.Currently, specialists are performing preparatory work.
Flight tests include six launches. During the launch on November 28, the rocket will have to put a maximum payload of 2.4 tons into geostationary orbit, as well as a mock-up of the spacecraft.
“According to information from the state corporation” Roscosmos “, the launch of the Angara-A5 rocket from the Plesetsk cosmodrome is planned on November 28 at 08:22 (Moscow time),” the Kolpashevsky district administration said in a statement.
The area of the fall of the separating parts of the launch vehicles is partially located on the territory of the Kargasoksky, Parabelsky, Kolpashevsky and Verkhneketsky districts of the Tomsk region.
“The territory of the region is bounded by an ellipse with axes of 160 x 50 kilometers, the center of the region is 65 kilometers north-west of Lake Tresh. The type of the separating parts of the launch vehicle: the second stage and the nose fairing flaps, ”the administration notes.
The fall and destruction of the launch vehicle fragments is accompanied by a bright glow.Local residents are asked not to visit this area during the fall of parts of the rocket.
If fragments are found, residents are asked to report this to the Department of Protection of the Population and Territory of the Tomsk Region by phone 8-983-340-03-24.
Pavel Plyukhin, Chairman of the Department’s Committee on Civil Defense and Emergencies, said that the areas of the fall of parts of carrier rockets on the territory of the Tomsk Region were determined by an agreement with the Ministry of Defense, concluded back in the 90s.
“During the launch of the rocket, I, representatives of Roscosmos and the search and rescue service will be on duty on the spot.Two days before the fall, we will check this entire area by helicopter so that there are no hunters or other people there. Although, according to the Department of Hunting, there should be no one in this place now. There are no settlements, settlements, gas pipelines, oil pipelines on this territory either. We will track the launch and fall of the rocket parts and try to find debris. On the spot we will make a decision on their removal, ”said Pavel Plyukhin.
Heavy rocket “Angara-A5” was launched from the Plesetsk cosmodrome
The first test launch of the new Russian heavy-class carrier rocket Angara-A5 was made from the Plesetsk cosmodrome.Russian President Vladimir Putin took part in the launch ceremony via videoconference, a source in the rocket and space industry told TASS.
“The launch of the carrier rocket took place at the estimated time (08:57 Moscow time) and took place normally,” the agency’s interlocutor said.
He specified that the heavy “Angara” with the Upper Stage “Briz-M” will put into the geostationary orbit the overall mass model of the payload weighing two tons.
It is planned that the rocket stages will fall in specially designated areas: the first – in the Komi Republic, the second and head fairing – in the Tomsk region, the third – in the Philippine Sea.
The flight of the launch vehicle will take 12 minutes, after which, at approximately 09:09 Moscow time, the head unit consisting of the Briz-M and a model will separate from the third stage of the Angara. The conventional satellite will be launched into the target orbit with the help of four starts of the main engine of the upper stage at about 18:00 Moscow time. At this time, the conditional separation of the satellite cargo model from the upper stage should be recorded. Then the model together with the “booster” will be transferred to the burial orbit.
“Angara” – a new generation of launch vehicles based on a universal rocket module with oxygen-kerosene engines.The family includes carriers from light to heavy classes with a carrying capacity from 1.5 to 25 tons.
Work on the “Hangara” has been going on since 1995. Flight tests of the family’s missiles began in the summer – on July 9, a light version of the Angara-1.2PP launch vehicle (first launch) was launched from Plesetsk for the first time. As previously reported, the Angara test program provides for ten launches, the first two – with mock-ups, the rest – with real spacecraft. The first launch of the heavy Angara with a real spacecraft is scheduled for 2016-2017, in 2016 it is planned to launch the Angara-1 light rocket for the second time.2 “.
Next year, the Center. Khrunicheva plans to build one heavy missile of the Angara family. It is not planned to produce such missiles in 2016-2017. From 2018 to 2020, the Center is expected to produce two heavy “Hangars” annually, in 2021-2022 – already four. In 2023, it is planned to produce six missiles, and in 2024-2025 – to enter the annual production of seven Angara-A5 carriers.
Space technology | SkyscraperCity
The beam has not been launched for 15 years
Arkon radar satellites: first details
Preparations have begun in Russia for the creation of a national group of Arkon Earth remote sensing radar satellites.VNIIEM became the general contractor for the creation of devices of a fundamentally new class for Russia.
As the Research and Development portal – R & D.CNews has already reported, Russia has begun working on a project to create its own grouping of ERS active space assets, which will allow obtaining radar images of meter resolution regardless of weather conditions, day and night. Today we present the first information about the likely performance characteristics of new vehicles – and the grouping as a whole.
According to the TOR of the open tender of Roscosmos, the grouping of a promising domestic radar space system should consist of two Arkon-2M vehicles with X-band radars with AFAR, providing round-the-clock and all-weather operation of the vehicles “in the interests of the socio-economic development of the Russian Federation, and also international cooperation “of the entire surface of the globe – from the North to the South Poles, inclusive.
The launch of the vehicles into orbit should be carried out by the Soyuz-2-1b LV with the Fregat-SB RB (the possibility of a group launch is being considered).There are no other restrictions on the spacecraft mass-dimensional characteristics.
The constellation should provide data transmission both directly to the ground complex and by means of a spacecraft to the Luch-5B and Luch-4 GSO.
The characteristics of the satellite onboard radar complex are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Arkon radar satellites: accuracy characteristics
It is assumed that two radar images of an object with matched and orthogonal polarizations of the received signal (format V / (V + H) and H (V + H)).
In basic modifications of all modes, it is required to implement any of the four possible combinations of polarization of the probing and received signal (V / H, H / H, V / V, H / V) or simultaneous reception of both polarization components of the reflected signal with any of the two possible polarizations of the probing radiation.
Polarization isolation of signals should not be less than 25 dB.
Synthesis of the radar image in all modes, except for highly detailed, is supposed to be carried out on board the satellite – the resulting image is much smaller in volume than the original one.
The transmission rate for direct transmission from the spacecraft to the Earth is not less than 256 Mbit / s (in the X-band).
The device should be able to survey the curvilinear mode in the narrow-band mode, as well as (in the experimental mode) – the so-called bistatic survey, in which the reception and processing of the reflected radiation from the satellite radar is carried out not by the satellite itself, but by other means.
Similar technologies for using satellite radiation have already been developed in Russia for the Glonass and GPS devices.
What are the accuracy characteristics of the devices of the Arkon-2M family?
In the detailed object mode of observation of the same scene in the process of joint processing of imagery data from adjacent orbit orbits of the spacecraft with a relative displacement of 1 to 5 km, the root-mean-square error must be ensured:
* determination of the relative height of the elements terrain: no more than 1-2 m with a step of 10-20 m;
* Measurements of the shifts of the elements of the scene relative to each other during the time elapsed between shots: no more than 15 mm.
The accuracy of the radar image alignment with the error (3σ) should not exceed:
* in the presence of benchmarks: 10… 30 m;
* in the absence of benchmarks: 30 … 90 m.
The accuracy of the vehicle’s orientation in space is no worse than 6-8 arc minutes, the stabilization accuracy is no worse than 10-3-10-4 deg / s.
Speed of programmed turns – up to 0.2 deg / s.
The spacecraft must provide information performance on a loop, corresponding to at least 25 minutes of operation of the on-board radar in the shooting mode (of which at least 12 minutes on the shadow part of the loop) and limited only by the resources of the on-board power supply system.
At the same time, the reliability resource of the onboard equipment, the throughput of the onboard means of transmitting information to the Earth, the capacity of the onboard storage device and the capabilities of the system for ensuring the thermal regime of the on-board radar should not introduce additional restrictions on the level of information performance of the on-board radar.
The duration of the reorientation of the antenna device to a new band, taking into account the required damping of the structure – no more than 3 minutes.
Control of spacecraft systems should be ensured in the entire range of normal and emergency situations, including automatic transition to standby mode in the event of emergency situations that cannot be eliminated by onboard means, with the sending of a corresponding signal.
An operational survey plan can be formed at least one day in advance, a long-term one – for a period of up to 3 months. The time for issuing an information product of a standard processing level is no more than two days.
Warranty period of active existence – 7 years with a probability of no-failure operation of at least 0.9.
“Arkon”: history and prospects
“Arkon” is a name well known to Russian specialists in the field of remote sensing. This time, however, a completely different company will be engaged in its development and creation.
The competition for the creation of the devices was won by VNIIEM, which is probably the leading domestic manufacturer of space remote sensing systems at the moment and in the foreseeable future. It is at VNIIEM that, in particular, the promising ERS device “Kanopus-V” and the Belarusian spacecraft are being created (the estimated launch date for both is April 2010).
According to information from VNIIEM, the vehicles will be developed on the basis of the well-tested sealed platform “Meteor”.
What is even more important, VNIIEM is not limited to the creation of only satellites, as is often the case in Russia.Initially, on the basis of the neogeographic approach, a fundamentally new network infrastructure for the country, but already well known from foreign analogs, is being created – the Neoglobus portal.
What is its meaning and purpose, what is the importance of a new approach?
Space Perspectives and Logic of Neogeography
As the quality, availability of remote sensing data and their efficiency increase, they are increasingly used not as an intermediate stage in the creation of geographical products – maps, but as a source directly used by consumers, documentary accurate, not mediated by cartographic or any other conventions of information about the general geographic or situational context of the area.
Comprehension of a new trend, which has long become an empirical fact, led to the understanding of the beginning of a fundamentally new stage in the development of geospatial methods – the principle of neogeography.
If, within the framework of the previous cartographic approach, the only way to work with geographic information was to project it onto some surface (maps, globe, etc.), neogeography implies the possibility of working with information about objects, phenomena and processes not in two-dimensional coordinate system of cartographic projections, but directly in geocentric coordinate systems, allowing them to be uniquely localized on the globe – but not necessarily on its surface.
The need for this is obvious: any efficient control is impossible without taking into account the third coordinate – the height. Time tracking is no less important – displaying the dynamics of processes in time.
The new approach allows, in an arbitrary way, depending on the nature of the tasks solved by the user, to change the angle of viewing the data, providing a true stereometric representation of the situation – its assessment, modeling, control and analysis. This is necessary both on a small scale, for example on the battlefield, and on a large scale, for example, to display the situation in near-earth space and the use of space assets.
However, the solution of these problems is impossible and inconceivable without the creation of environments that give the correct – metrically reliable, not taken out of the general context and informationally complete – representation of the area. The solution of this problem by means of cartography, with the help of conventionally mediated products, is impossible in principle. The only source of information about the current nature of the terrain can only be remote sensing data.
At the same time, obtaining images of the earth’s surface in the optical and infrared ranges is not always possible and is determined by the time of day and the state of the atmosphere, and sometimes by the nature of processes on the Earth’s surface.Ensuring guaranteed tracking of the Earth is possible only with the help of radar devices.