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May 2015 Smoking in Life and in the Hereafter A Chinese Water Pipe

Smoking in Life and in the Hereafter:
A Chinese Water Pipe from Deadwood, SD

 

May 2015

By Francis Lukezic, Conservator, MAC Lab


 



From 2001 to 2004, the City of Deadwood carried out extensive archaeological excavations within a part of the city that was once home to Chinese immigrants during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. One of the more unusual artifacts discovered during the Chinatown excavations was a copper alloy metal Chinese water pipe, which was sent to the MAC Lab for conservation (Figure 1).


 


This type of pipe was used for smoking tobacco, opium, or a mix of the two (Leatherman 2007; Wylie and Fike 1993; Kennedy 1969). Although the pipe is currently in several pieces and soil and corrosion products partially obscure the surface, the object is actually quite decorative. The surface of the pipe’s box is adorned with an elaborate scene containing plants and the figure of a Chinese woman (Figure 2). The scene is framed by bands of floral patterns, with the uppermost band retaining a partially gilded surface.  Figure 3 is an example of a Chinese water pipe that is similar in shape and style to the one from the Deadwood Chinatown excavations and provides an overall view of how the pipe pieces would have been assembled during its working life.


The ornate water pipe was discovered at the lowermost level of a small pit, wrapped in a black colored Chinese vest with a brown fabric lining, with most components removed from the box and the pieces dented or damaged. There was also a bundle of two shirts, one black and one made of brown fabric. The vest and the black shirt have cut marks in the fabric. A second Chinese water pipe with no decoration, ceramic opium pipe bowl fragments, and fragments of an opium pipe smoking kit (glass lamp, metal tray, wood needle) were also located within or on top of the bundle of clothing. In this same layer of the pit, the wall was lined with partially burnt wood fragments and contained seeds from several types of fruit (such as watermelon, cherry, grape, plum, blackberries, raspberries), animal bones (cow, pig, sheep, chicken, turkey), two Chinese coins, and over 100 used matches.


During the excavation of Deadwood’s Chinatown, only two Chinese water pipes were found, implying they were greatly valued and likely belonged to an individual of high status (Leatherman 2007). But the significance of the water pipe increases even more when taken into account with the other artifacts and material found in the pit. This pit was identified as a ceremonial feature for a Chinese funerary ritual called the Shao Yi, or burning of the clothes (Leatherman 2007). The Shao Yi is performed by the family shortly after the individual dies to “symbolically feed the spirit, eliminate sources of death pollution, and transfer the spiritual essence of the deceased’s possessions to the afterlife” (Leatherman 2007: 35). In the ritual, the deceased’s personal belongings are deliberately damaged, placed in a small pit, and then burned. Food offerings are also placed in the pit to feed the deceased individual on their journey to the hereafter. The overall contents of the pit, with evidence of fire, presence of food items, and intentional damage to objects, are consistent with the unique Shao Yi ritual (Leatherman 2007).


As a result, the Chinese water pipe is not only a status symbol out on the western frontier, it physically demonstrates that the Chinese immigrants were engaging in traditional ceremonies from their homeland. The ancient Egyptian nobility were not the only people that wanted to have their possessions available to them in the afterlife.


 


 

References
Kennedy, Charles E.
1969 Chinese pipes for tobacco and opium. Antiques, Vol. XCV, No. 3.
Leatherman, Christopher
2007. Web resource:Chinese Mortuary Rituals in Deadwood, SD: An Archaeological Perspective. M.A. thesis, University of South Dakota.
South Dakota State Historical Society
2008 Deadwood Chinatown Excavation Site Report. South Dakota State Historical Society Archaeological Research Center.
Wylie, Jerry and Fike, Richard
1993 Chinese Opium Smoking Techniques and Paraphernalia. Hidden Heritage: Historical Archaeology of the Overseas Chinese. Amityville: Baywood Publishing Company.

Chinese Water-Pipe Smoking and the Risk of COPD

https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.13-1499Get rights and content

BACKGROUND

Studies show that the incidence of COPD has remained high in southwest China despite the 1976 National Stove Improvement Program for indoor air quality. Chinese water-pipe tobacco smoking (commonly referred to as water-pipe smoking), which is thought to be less harmful under the assumption that no charcoal is used and water filters tobacco smoke, is popular in China. We investigated whether Chinese water-pipe use and exposure are associated with the risk of COPD.

METHODS

This multicenter, cross-sectional study enrolled 1,238 individuals from 10 towns in the Fuyuan area, Yunnan Province, China. A matched design was used to estimate the impact of active and passive exposure to Chinese water-pipe smoking on COPD risk; multivariate analyses adjusted for other risk factors. We also collected the water from Chinese water pipes to assess the mutagenicity of its major components and simulated Chinese water-pipe smoke exposure fine particulate 2.5 (PM2.5) by using the High Volume Air Sampler and individuals’ sera to search for the potential protein biomarkers of COPD.

RESULTS

The increased risk of COPD was profound for Chinese water-pipe smokers (adjusted OR, 10.61; 95% CI, 6.89-16.34), Chinese water-pipe passive smokers (adjusted OR, 5.50; 95% CI, 3.61-8.38), cigarette smokers (adjusted OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 2.06-4.91), and cigarette passive smokers (adjusted OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.62-3.91) compared with never-smoking control subjects. Chinese water-pipe use aggravates lungs with more PM2.5 compared with cigarettes. ChemR23 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 may be potential protein biomarkers of COPD.

CONCLUSIONS

Chinese water-pipe smoking significantly increases the risk of COPD, including the risk to women who are exposed to the water-pipe smoke.

TRIAL REGISTRY

Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; No.: ChiCTR-CCH-12002235; URL: www.chictr.org/cn/

ABBREVIATIONS

CPS

cigarette passive smoker

CWPS

Chinese water-pipe passive smoker

CWS

Chinese water-pipe smoker

NS

healthy control subjects never smoker

NSIP

National Stove Improvement Program

PAH

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

PM2.5

fine particulate 2.5

TIMP-1

tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1

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Copyright © 2014 The American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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On Point Glass Fine China Small Water Pipe | City of Vapors

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Chinese water-pipe smoking and the risk of COPD


Background:

Studies show that the incidence of COPD has remained high in southwest China despite the 1976 National Stove Improvement Program for indoor air quality. Chinese water-pipe tobacco smoking (commonly referred to as water-pipe smoking), which is thought to be less harmful under the assumption that no charcoal is used and water filters tobacco smoke, is popular in China. We investigated whether Chinese water-pipe use and exposure are associated with the risk of COPD.


Methods:

This multicenter, cross-sectional study enrolled 1,238 individuals from 10 towns in the Fuyuan area, Yunnan Province, China. A matched design was used to estimate the impact of active and passive exposure to Chinese water-pipe smoking on COPD risk; multivariate analyses adjusted for other risk factors. We also collected the water from Chinese water pipes to assess the mutagenicity of its major components and simulated Chinese water-pipe smoke exposure fine particulate 2.5 (PM2.5) by using the High Volume Air Sampler and individuals’ sera to search for the potential protein biomarkers of COPD.


Results:

The increased risk of COPD was profound for Chinese water-pipe smokers (adjusted OR, 10.61; 95% CI, 6.89-16.34), Chinese water-pipe passive smokers (adjusted OR, 5.50; 95% CI, 3.61-8.38), cigarette smokers (adjusted OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 2.06-4.91), and cigarette passive smokers (adjusted OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.62-3.91) compared with never-smoking control subjects. Chinese water-pipe use aggravates lungs with more PM2. 5 compared with cigarettes. ChemR23 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 may be potential protein biomarkers of COPD.


Conclusions:

Chinese water-pipe smoking significantly increases the risk of COPD, including the risk to women who are exposed to the water-pipe smoke.


Trial registry:

Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; No.: ChiCTR-CCH-12002235; URL: www.chictr.org/cn/

Superb, Chinese Silver Water Pipe Flask

– scroll down to see further images –

This is the finest Chinese water pipe for tobacco that we have seen. It is made entirely of high-grade silver. Not made for export to the European market, but was made either for local use or perhaps for export to Indo-China, possibly to what is now Vietnam. It might also have been the product of Chinese silversmiths operating in Vietnam.

It is complete with silver tweezers, a silver hooked wick holder and a pipe bowl.

The double-skinned body has an outer skin of finely cut fretwork.

The base is marked with several Chinese ideograms. One reads ‘Chen Ying Ji’. This is either the maker’s or retailer’s name and is possibly of Cantonese origin suggesting that this piece has come from southern China, or from Vietnam where Cantonese is the main dialect of the ethnic Chinese community. The finial for the wick holder has been stamped with what appears to be an import or control mark, hitherto unidentified.

Such pipes were not used for opium, but for tobacco. The base was filled with water and the pipe worked by drawing the tobacco smoke down through the water before being drawn into the user’s mouth so that it was cleansed of ash and cooled. It essentially functioned in the same manner as a hookah used in the Middle East and Mughal India. Tobacco was imported into China in the 19th century but mostly it was grown locally in Shandong and Gansu provinces where it was grown after the Spanish had introduced tobacco to the nearby Philippines.

This is an excellent piece, in superb condition.

References

Chan, D.P.L., Chinese Export Silver: The Chan Collection, published in conjunction with the Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore, 2005.

Forbes, H.A.C. et al, Chinese Export Silver 1785-1885, Museum of the American China Trade, 1975.

Johnson, I., & M. Brooke, ‘The Chinese water pipe’, Arts of Asia, November-December 1977.

Marlowe, A.J., Chinese Export Silver, John Sparks, 1990.

Rapaport, B., ‘Tobacco pipe curiosities of the Orient’, Arts of Asia, January-February, 1997.

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• China: building water drainage plastic pipe market share by product material 2018

• China: building water drainage plastic pipe market share by product material 2018 | Statista

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Statista. (February 28, 2019). Share of plastic pipes for water drainage in buildings in China as of 2018, by product material [Graph]. In Statista. Retrieved December 07, 2021, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/977224/china-share-of-plastic-pipes-for-building-water-drainage-by-product-material/

Statista. “Share of plastic pipes for water drainage in buildings in China as of 2018, by product material.” Chart. February 28, 2019. Statista. Accessed December 07, 2021. https://www.statista.com/statistics/977224/china-share-of-plastic-pipes-for-building-water-drainage-by-product-material/

Statista. (2019). Share of plastic pipes for water drainage in buildings in China as of 2018, by product material. Statista. Statista Inc.. Accessed: December 07, 2021. https://www.statista.com/statistics/977224/china-share-of-plastic-pipes-for-building-water-drainage-by-product-material/

Statista. “Share of Plastic Pipes for Water Drainage in Buildings in China as of 2018, by Product Material.” Statista, Statista Inc., 28 Feb 2019, https://www.statista.com/statistics/977224/china-share-of-plastic-pipes-for-building-water-drainage-by-product-material/

Statista, Share of plastic pipes for water drainage in buildings in China as of 2018, by product material Statista, https://www. statista.com/statistics/977224/china-share-of-plastic-pipes-for-building-water-drainage-by-product-material/ (last visited December 07, 2021)

90,000 China is building a “great” water pipeline from Baikal, the authorities have transferred a part of Russia to China and now the turn has come to Baikal | New Khakassia

China solves its territorial and environmental problems at the expense of Russian Siberia. For how much did you buy friendship with the Middle Kingdom?

Presidents of Russia and China. photo from the site Yandex-pictures

Presidents of Russia and China. photo from Yandex-pictures

1. Territory

During his visit to China, President Vladimir Putin signed a document according to which part of Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island and the entire Tarabarov Island were transferred to China.In total, the PRC received 337 square kilometers of territory.

The islands Bolshoy Ussuriisky and Tarabarov are located near Khabarovsk and are located in the Amur floodplain opposite the mouth of the Ussuri River. Together with the small islands surrounding them, they form a rather compact floodplain massif, consisting of more than 50 islands, bounded from the north by the main channel of the Amur, and from the south by the Amur channel, in the western part (before the confluence with the Ussuri) bearing the name of Kazakevichev. Valuable fur-bearing species of animals, ungulates, upland and waterfowl live on the territory of the islands.reports the newspaper “Gazeta.ru”

As a result of the division of property, residents of Khabarovsk, who own land plots on the island, suffered. According to Far Eastern economists, the transfer of the islands of Bolshoy Ussuriysky and Tarabarov to the PRC overnight caused damage of $ 3 billion.

The territory of Russia was transferred to China free of charge, for nothing.

2.Water pipe.

In 2015, the construction of a Chinese plant on the shore of Lake Baikal began, but under pressure from the public, construction was stopped and, according to the latest data, the existing buildings were dismantled.

The Chinese side did not stop there and is building a grand water pipeline to pump Baikal water to the PRC.

On the map, the route where the water main will pass.

photos from the Yandex-pictures website

photos from the Yandex-pictures website

The water pipeline will become one of the largest in the world and will go from Lake Baikal to Western China and further to Beijing, according to China’s calculations, this water will be enough for 500 million people. Chinese.

“This project is very promising, and it should be implemented: it will help China solve the problem of water shortage,” Zhao Guoxing said. – RBC informs

The trade mark of the Chinese water from Baikal “Well of the Earth” has already been registered

According to the UN data, which are cited in the report, over the past 50 years, the water supply to the population of Central Asia has decreased by 3. 5 times. According to the calculations of the Global Water Initiative, by 2025 it may reach a critical figure of 1.7 cubic meters.m per person per year.

China ranks sixth in the world in terms of water reserves. But more than half of the river districts in the country’s seven largest river systems are polluted in one way or another, experts point out in the report. Of the 35 most important lakes in China, only 18 are considered clean, and water from 40% of sources is not suitable for drinking. The reason is the discharge of untreated industrial water by enterprises, as well as “extremely high air pollution and widespread contamination of the earth.” Water supplies are unevenly distributed: the largest deficit is in Beijing, Shanghai, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and key industrial provinces (Hebei, Shangji, Shandong, Hunan and Ninxia) .

Water scarcity is jeopardizing agricultural development in northern China and could lead to “serious consequences in the form of food shortages,” the report said. In the north of the country, the total shortage of fresh water is 70 billion cubic meters. m.

The project was transferred from paper to life, the length of the water supply system will be about 2 thousand km. The project cost is about $ 50 billion.

At the same time, small Russian factories located on the shores of Lake Baikal are already planning in 2021 to deliver the first batch of Baikal bottled water to China this summer, without waiting for the launch of the water supply system.One of the companies in the PRC became interested in it last year, but due to the coronavirus pandemic it was not possible to sign an agreement between the buyer and the seller, said Vladimir Manosyan, General Director of Baikal-Export LLC.

The Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation recognized the bottling of drinking water from Lake Baikal as environmentally friendly production.

photos from the Yandex-pictures website

photos from the Yandex-pictures website

photos from the Yandex-pictures website

photos from the Yandex-pictures website

One very important question arises to which the Russian authorities are in no hurry to give answers. What is so important that China has promised our officials that they make concessions to him in everything?

The Russian authorities are reluctant to share information about what is happening, claiming that everything will benefit the development of the Siberian region.

There is also a third delivery option, via railways and tank cars, and this is the simplest and fastest implementation option. But the pipe is uninterrupted.

The reaction of ordinary Russians in the social. networks, here are some comments:

  • China will complete the water intake.They do everything quickly. And to do it quickly, they will bring 500,000 workers to us. And as you know, the Chinese do not protect the environment, even at home. And there is no need to hope that they will protect our land. They will clutter up, dirty our land, and even pump out our water. I think Baikal is not bottomless! Where are we going to get fresh water ??? CANNOT BE ALLOWED China to take water from Baikal !!
  • Potikhara is sold for a pittance, the rulers, everything that can be stolen and sold, and so day after day, there are no people in their scheme, a kick-ass will come to Baikal, and there will be an ecological catastrophe
  • It remains to ruin the great and purest Lake Baikal. People are in trouble, because China has not done and will not do anything good for us, it only needs our space and resources, and if possible, bite and bite. I think these are far from friends.
  • The water bottling plant was closed, and they themselves were allowed to build a water pipeline in Chihara – the authorities are surprising, they definitely need to make a new restructuring to change the current government.
  • I believe that it is no secret for a thinking person that the country is now a developing dictatorship (not a republic), a raw material appendage of the world’s developed economies.Corrupt, thieves, closed economy will never be competitive. Therefore, in order to somehow maintain the standard of living of the population, which is striving to fall, the regime goes to any tricks. What else can we offer to the world market? Apart from resources, which is water, nothing!
  • Scientists and politicians foreshadow a war for water resources, and we don’t need to fight with us, we’ll give up everything ourselves.
  • Tap water is brought to Siberia under the brands of well-known brands and the authorities give the purest water to the Chinese, is that correct?

Important: Please consult a specialist.

by New Khakassia

Communists of Khakassia leave the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, disillusioned with the “leaders” Zyuganov and Konovalov

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photos from the Yandex-pictures website

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You cannot pump water from Baikal to China, this is barbarism – EADaily, March 14, 2019 – Politics News, Russian News

Why does the Baikal water pipeline to China threaten Russia’s national security? Where is the border between civilization and savagery? What prevents you from taking good care of the environment? Senator from the Trans-Baikal Territory, member of the Federation Council Committee on Defense and Security Bair Zhamsuev , who from 1997 to 2008 headed the Aginsky Buryat Autonomous Okrug, answers questions EADaily .

– Before our interview, a petition banning the construction of a plant for pumping water to China on Lake Baikal gained about 900 thousand subscribers. Maybe it’s time to listen to the people and stop this mess?

– I absolutely agree with you. Baikal is not just the largest lake in the world with the largest reserves of fresh water. This is a national heritage, a territory given to us by nature. We all love Baikal very much. This is one of the pearls of Russia.

It is understandable why the people reacted negatively to the construction of a water pumping plant, especially those people who live on Lake Baikal.I do not even want to go into the details of the project – whether Baikal will restore the water level or not, whether the project is economically profitable or not, whether it is right or wrong … In any case, we are talking about a barbaric method.

If such a huge number of people oppose, then their opinion must, of course, be heeded. The project should be scrapped, no matter how commercially viable it may seem. This would be correct from the point of view of a civil position, I do not want to use the word “patriotic”, but it would be conscientious and human.After all, Lake Baikal is sacred to local peoples.

– So Baikal is the center of power?

– Many legends are associated with Lake Baikal. The lake is considered the progenitor of the Buryat people who live in the Baikal and Transbaikal regions. People come to the Baikal island of Olkhon, pray, pay tribute. This is a sacred place for the Buryats. The spirit of sacredness is felt there.

– What political and environmental risks can be expected for the region if the plant is nevertheless built?

– The political outcome will be very negative.After all, the most active and not indifferent part of society, which is in the blogosphere, speaks out against. You need to conduct a dialogue with them, you should listen to people.

In recent years, Baikal has experienced a colossal anthropological burden. The problem of algae, which appeared “thanks” to human influence, is quite serious. If water is pumped out of Baikal on an industrial scale, the consequences will be catastrophic.

– Are pulp and paper mills still operating on Lake Baikal?

– Yes, there is one pulp and paper mill (PPM) there.At one time there was a great discussion about this. Remember, in 1969 the film “By the Lake” with the great Vasily Shukshin was released on Soviet screens. The film is built around the problem of preserving Lake Baikal, on the banks of which a large construction project has been unfolded. Through human relations, they show the virgin beauty of Lake Baikal, as well as the negative industrial impact of the construction on the lake, which is being led by Shukshin’s hero, the engineer Chernykh.

The pulp and paper mill has serious treatment facilities. However, they do not protect against pollution – the appearance of algae confirms this. This fact testifies to an environmental disaster. Baikal must be protected. After all, we have plenty of other places where you can build factories, factories and dig wells.

– Why haven’t we learned to protect nature?

– We are used to living in a big country where we have a lot of everything – forests, fields and rivers, as in that very song. And the countries that have to survive, they treat wildlife with trepidation. Life just taught them. For example, Japan, which has reached the highest level of urbanization.The Japanese really understand that nature is wealth. We thought that you can consume natural resources as much as you like and there will be no damage. It turned out that the damage was done.

Here is Chita in the Trans-Baikal Territory, which is considered the dirtiest city. Ecology is the fruit of human activity. There, on the shore of Lake Kenon, a thermal power station was installed, all the smoke flies to Chita in the wind rose. We have become hostages of our natural resources obtained from our ancestors. Whole generations must change their psychology.Life made Japan take care of nature. God forbid us to repeat this experience. We see the consequences of man-made accidents, a factor of industrial expansion.

– It turns out that we are dealing with a national security issue …

– Of course. I view any natural wealth through the prism of national security. At one time, for example, we considered the forest as an asset. If the forest is cut down by barbaric methods, then this is also a matter of national security.One hundred percent!

Let’s imagine for a moment that there will be no Baikal. The whole world will say: what kind of people are they who ruined what they inherited from nature. Everyone will condemn us. The Baltic countries are proud to have cleared their forests of debris. So we also need to take care of nature.

– By the way, about the forest. After all, round timber in the Far East is barbarously cut down and taken to China, isn’t it?

– One of the reasons that is little talked about is hopelessness. In the 1990s, we entered the “shock economy”, destroying the planned (socialist) economy.Since then, a huge number of enterprises have closed, people have lost their jobs, especially in the countryside. People rushed into the forest, which was superimposed on the opening of the border with China. They sold it cheaply in the PRC. This is how money was made.

Why is it hard to fight black loggers or just people who are engaged in felling? People are simply forced to do this, they often fall into the hands of careless businessmen, who are at the mercy of such a situation.

Deforestation is not only an economic problem, it has a strong social implication.People often act out of desperation.

– Are you saying that poaching is a product of social problems?

– Yes, this is the underlying reason. On the one hand, there are organized teams of lumberjacks, which often work under corruption schemes. On the other hand, there are people who almost drag a tree on themselves in order to sell it and get at least some penny. The authorities are trying to put things in order, but this always comes up against different “schemes”. There are also gaps in forestry legislation.

First, there is no owner in the forest. Someone makes decisions about sanitary felling, while others – about industrial felling. And there is no single owner in the forest. This is how loopholes appear for people who have any legal documents for felling. For example, in Soviet times there was a Leskhoz, which was responsible for everything. No one could enter without his permission – for any purpose.

Secondly, when there is a difficult economic situation in the regions, unemployment rises, when there are no sources of income and there is China.Nimble businessmen establish contacts and legally transport timber to the PRC.

Today, they plan to establish online monitoring of deforestation, so that information does not go to the archive, but flows into a single information center. The problem must be solved in a complex, together with social and economic aspects. Without a master, nothing will change in the forest.

– What prevents the creation of production facilities in the same Trans-Baikal Territory, so as not to export round timber, but to produce goods with added value?

– The sawmills are standing.Round timber is being processed. But in order to bring it to the level of production, it is necessary to organize sales. In China, the whole process has been established. You cross the border and find yourself in Manchuria, where there are dozens of processing plants that work not only for China, but for the whole of Southeast Asia.

There should be long-term investment projects. After all, the state only regulates, and private companies bring in investments. They are just in no hurry to invest. Apparently, this does not seem profitable for our domestic investments.

– From 1997 to 2008, you were the head of the administration of the Aginsky Buryat Autonomous Okrug, bordering China. How was the economic pressure of the PRC on the region expressed?

– China has flooded us with cheap light industry products. Yes, in the 1990s, she gave people the opportunity to survive – get dressed, put on shoes, prepare children for school. However, Chinese products ultimately destroyed the light industry of the Trans-Baikal Territory. It also destroyed fine-fleece sheep breeding.

– It is impossible to stop deindustrialization without massive state support from the center …

– Of course not. Therefore, President Vladimir Putin and set the necessary tasks in the May decree and in his message to the Federal Assembly. He also sees that there is a depopulation in the Far East, the outflow of the population continues. There are no large industrial enterprises where people could work. The standard of living in the Far East should be higher than the national average.

– Through what can this be achieved?

– Through economic preferences, the creation of priority development territories, “Far Eastern hectare”, the regime of the free port of Vladivostok.We need to create social infrastructure – kindergartens, schools, roads, hospitals, etc. Plus – subsidized tickets so that people can go to the Far East.

If the depopulation is not stopped, the situation will threaten the national security of Russia.

– Do the Chinese stay in the Far East?

– No, they only do business. There are also few people living in the north of China. Why should they come to us when they have quite comfortable conditions in the south and in the middle lane? True, there are also rare cases when they stay, get married, and undergo naturalization.However, as a rule, the Chinese prefer to remain citizens of their country. They don’t invest in big projects. They are interested in a small hotel or restaurant business, tree felling, including illegal …

– You have extensive management experience. What articles from your personal professional code can you share?

– The interests of people, their opinions should be at the forefront. It is most important. A manager should not be stewed in his own juice solely for the sake of performance targets.The main goal is the well-being of people. Power is respected only when people feel that it is working for them. And for this you need to constantly communicate with people. We must sit down openly and discuss specific projects with the people. Only in this way will the authorities receive the necessary authority.

– What is power for?

– Power – process management (smiles) . The authorities must deal with the socio-economic development of the territory and contribute to the growth of the well-being of the people.

Interviewed by Sarkis Tsaturyan

China is building a large-scale water pipeline from Lake Baikal to Beijing why they don’t tell us about it ?: whatiswhat1 – LiveJournal

We understand what’s what.

Greetings to everyone on my channel, I want to tell you about a project that few people know about, or rather, about the large-scale Chinese project to create a giant water pipeline due to a lack of fresh water.

This water pipeline will become one of the largest in the world and will go from Lake Baikal to Beijing, according to China’s calculations, this water will be enough for 500 million people, and here many questions immediately arise.

And who gave them the right to implement such a project? And in 2 it will threaten the further existence of Lake Baikal, as well as where is our government looking and what is doing?

Let’s start with the analysis, for a start, Baikal is the deepest lake in the world, as well as the largest supply of fresh water.

And the main problem at the moment is that they can just drink it, this is due to the fact that cooperation with China is becoming closer, thus, at the expense of our water, China will solve its problems.

Despite the fact that the project began to be transferred from paper to life, the length of the water supply system will be about 2 thousand km, if the project is nevertheless completed, it will be the largest water supply system in the world.

The next problem is the draining of Lake Baikal and what our government does and does not do to prevent it, and everything is very simple, since 2015, during difficult periods for the Russian economy, China has been cooperating and making investments, and to be precise, it looks like like buying Siberian resources.

Thus, in 2015, while leasing the territory of Lake Baikal, China already knew about the water pipeline project.

Thus, nothing interferes with the implementation of this project, and as Beijing states, this is beneficial to both states.

The Russian authorities are reluctant to share information about what is happening, claiming that everything will benefit and the development of the Siberian region.

From an economic point of view, this is very profitable, I do not argue, since to deliver water through such a water supply system you need a huge amount of energy, and this is money, and if from a technical point of view, then the water will travel for about 7 days, and there are many questions, but will it be as clean?

But China is also ready for a bad outcome by building a bottling plant right on the shore of the lake.

There is also a third delivery option, via railways and tank cars, and this is the simplest and fastest implementation option.

Thus, it becomes clear that our government has approved the sale of Baikal water, and as for me, this is not a very good option.

Thus, the question arises as to whether China will actually be able to complete its project or not.

I would also like to know your opinion on this topic ???

Please treat this with understanding!

Thank you all for your attention !!!

90,000 Chinese worker killed in water pipeline accident in Republic of Korea

(Source: Xinhua News Agency) 09:57.07/18/2013

The Chinese Embassy in the Republic of Korea confirmed on July 17 that 3 of the 6 workers who went missing on July 15 as a result of the accident during the laying of the southern section of the water pipeline on the Han River near Seoul are Chinese, the body of one of them was found on July 17 in the first half day.

Rescue teams of the Republic of Kazakhstan on July 17 in the morning found one of the bodies, which, according to confirmed information, turned out to be the body of a Chinese worker.He Ying, Consul General of the Chinese Embassy in RK, said that the embassy confirmed this information and expressed deep sympathy for the family members of the deceased, while urging the RK to make every possible effort to find the other two missing Chinese, as well as to properly deal with the consequences of the incident.

As reported by the South Korean media, there have been heavy rains in the center of the Republic of Kazakhstan recently, which led to a sharp rise in the water level in the Hangang River. On July 15, the water of this river overflowed its banks and flooded the place where the southern section of the aqueduct was laid on the Han River near Seoul, as a result of which 7 workers suffered disaster, 1 of them was rescued, but, unfortunately, then died, the remaining 6 – missing.3 of them are Chinese.

The Fire Department of the Republic of Kazakhstan on Wednesday morning sent 4 groups of underwater rescuers to carry out search and rescue operations. At 07:52 the body of a Chinese man was found, as mentioned above.

Seoul Mayor Park Won Sung arrived at the scene of the accident on July 17 in the morning. Expressing his condolences and sympathy to the family members of the deceased workers, he announced his intention to make every effort to eliminate the consequences of the accident, promising to develop the necessary countermeasures to avoid a recurrence of such accidents.

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(Editor : WuRina 、 Deng Jie)

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Bottled water – Vedomosti

The results of the September 8 IPO of the Chinese bottled water company Nongfu Spring surpassed the most daring expectations: demand for its securities was huge, by the end of the first day of trading, the share price managed to grow 1.5 times compared to the placement price, the company’s market capitalization amounted to about $ 48 billion.

The success of Nongfu Spring is largely due to the continuous growth in demand for bottled water: sales of bottled water in the world are growing by an average of 10% per year and in 2020 is expected to exceed $ 280 billion. tap water, people stubbornly prefer bottled water.

According to estimates by Beverage Marketing Corporation, more than 460 billion liters of bottled water are sold annually in the world. China ranks 1st in terms of sales (about 80 billion liters per year), the USA – 2nd (45 billion).Then there are hot countries where there have always been problems with drinking water: Mexico, Indonesia, Brazil, India, Thailand. And the top ten is closed by prosperous Europeans – Germany (12 billion), Italy (11 billion) and France (9 billion). Although everything is fine with running water there, the average Italian consumes about 190 liters of bottled water a year, a German – 150, a Frenchman – 145. But bottled water is on average 2000 times more expensive than tap water. Moreover, in many countries, milk, beer and even gasoline are cheaper than mineral water.Thus, according to the data of the public organization Food and Water Watch, in the USA 1 liter of bottled water is 3 times more expensive than 1 liter of milk and almost 4 times more expensive than gasoline.

The main motive for buying bottled water in all developed countries is that it is supposedly cleaner, more environmentally friendly and healthier than tap water. These ideas are actively introduced into the minds of consumers through numerous commercials, but this has nothing to do with reality: in the vast majority of cases, water from a bottle is no better than tap water, since tap water meets standards of purity and safety in all developed countries.Moreover, its quality is controlled by the state much more stringently than that sold in stores.

The fact that bottled water tastes better than tap water is also not true. In a study from the University of Vermont, only a third of tasters were able to tell the taste of tap water from bottled water. “It is wrong to believe that bottled water is cleaner, healthier, or safer than tap water,” Pacific Institute President Peter Gleick told Business Insider.”Bottled water is no better regulated, checked and controlled than tap water.” The environmental friendliness of the bottling business is also not so simple: in the United States alone, 2 million tons of plastic are annually spent on the production of bottles for drinking water, the production of which is spent on 64 million barrels. oil.

The main secret of bottled water producers is the profitability of their business. No one has ever published the exact data, but experts say that bottling water can be compared to drug trafficking in terms of profitability.This is hundreds and thousands of percent. The authors of the American documentary Flow: For Love of Water provide such an example. At the beginning of the 2000s, Nestle Waters acquired the right to extract water from sources in Michigan for 99 years, paying $ 70,000 for this, that is, it turns out, about $ 707 per year. And now he earns $ 1.8 million a day from bottling water.

Great Chinese water pipeline: why China needs water from Altai

Photo: elbasy.kz

“Soon we will solemnly celebrate the 30th anniversary of independence – the most sacred value of our society.Then, three decades ago, we consciously chose freedom and independence as the basis of our worldview and being. And if on the scale of human history such a period is comparable to the blink of an eye, then for an independent Kazakhstan entering the age of maturity and flourishing of forces, this is a great milestone and a new conquered height, “Nursultan Nazarbayev writes in his article published on the official website of the First President of the Republic Kazakhstan.

Only people who are strong in spirit and unity are able to accomplish this.

Our ancestors, in ancient times – the Saks and Huns, and then the heroic Turks, opposing the violent storms of severe eras, created powerful states in the Great Steppe. Despite the difficult times, when, due to fierce wars and irreconcilable hostility, many peoples left for other lands, scattered and shattered like stones crushed into sand, the Kazakhs preserved their original abode and their father’s yurt of the Turkic world.

Wise ancestors not only saved themselves from extinction, but passed on from generation to generation as an invaluable heritage, preserved their noble traditions, their creative, generous and freedom-loving spirit, their pure and expressive language, their beautiful and original music, art and literature.The roots, history and power of our country, where today representatives of many ethnic groups live together in peace and harmony, originate from the Great Steppe, and therefore being the sons and daughters of such a people is boundless happiness that befell every citizen of Kazakhstan.

At the turn of the century, which has absorbed the brightest events in the history of all mankind, along with the great trust placed in me, a huge responsibility fell on my shoulders – to lead our country. During the years of my leadership, I have spared no effort and time to justify the trust of the people.

On the eve of the glorious 30th anniversary of the founding of the Republic of Kazakhstan, whose citizens rallied under the banner of peace, unity and creative achievements, I considered it important to share with the people my thoughts about the lessons of our independence.

It is quite understandable that among the representatives of the scientific community, each in his own way defines the nature, essence and significance of our independence. But one thing remains an indisputable truth: Kazakhstan’s gaining independence is a natural result of the centuries-old selfless struggle of our ancestors for freedom and independence.And this is forever an integral property of the republic, recognized and enshrined in documents of international law.

On difficult roads on the way to independence, through the crucible of difficult hardships and trials, many ardent patriots sacrificed themselves. It is our duty to remember and honor them. That is why in the new times that have come, preserving peace and tranquility in our common Kazakhstani home, we did not allow conflicts and came to the holy of holies – independence – through self-control and patience, reason and sanity.

I was born in the midst of the twentieth century, which drowned millions of people in blood and brought innumerable troubles and hardships. In the First World War, the Kazakhs did not take a direct part, but in 1916, according to the infamous June decree of the tsar, they began to be forcibly recruited for rear work. The arbitrariness, cruelty and impunity of the colonial authorities overwhelmed the people’s patience, and in the areas of Karkara, Kastek, Samsa of the then Semirechensk region, national liberation uprisings broke out, in which my grandfathers also took part.

The Civil War that broke out then spread over the steppe like rivers of blood and brought our people just as great suffering. Two waves of terrible famine rolled in 1921-22 and 1930-32. The result of the reckless policy, which was a real disaster, was the death of half of the indigenous population of Kazakhstan. The people had just begun to come to their senses, when at the end of the 30s a new tragedy fell on their head – the bloody political repressions of Stalinism, which exterminated both the intellectual elite of the nation and thousands of ordinary citizens.

Although I myself was not an eyewitness to all these events, from the sad stories of my father and mother and their prayers read in an undertone for the peace of the heroes and victims of the struggle for freedom, I learned and absorbed that cruel truth of life for my whole future life. Sometimes I think, what kind of patient are our people ?! He put up with the irreconcilable, endured the unbearable. And even on the most painful days, when it was not known whether he would see tomorrow’s sunrise, he did not lose heart and did not lose hope for the future, resolutely resisted any difficulties and constantly moved forward.

When the bloodiest in the history of the planet, the Second World War, which became for us the Great Patriotic War, was raging, I was a child, but the pictures of those harsh days are still in front of my eyes. Men from our aul went to the front, and the mothers, sisters, wives and teenage children who remained behind their elders worked tirelessly: plowing the land, reaping bread to the last spikelet and completely living with the idea of ​​”Everything for the front! Everything for victory!” And if in my speeches I quite often refer to the topic of labor, perhaps this is in me speaks an echo of those difficult times that stole childhood from my peers.

Labor is a great force capable of rescuing a person from the most disastrous situation and directing him to a better life. I was convinced of this from an early age. That is why I never tire of repeating to young people: “Work hard, feed your family, serve the country: this will increase both your personal success and the well-being of the Fatherland.”

During the period of post-war revival and restoration of the national economy, when it was necessary to master virgin lands, melt metal and cook steel, I found myself in the midst of these matters.I happened to see both the advantages of the socialist system and its disadvantages. Moreover, as the course of history has shown, the result of a seventy-year stay in the Soviet Union turned out to be far from unambiguous.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the leader of Alash, Akhmet Baitursynov, stated: “Alhamdulilla, there are more than six million of us.” According to the official census of 1913 carried out in tsarist Russia, 5 million 597 thousand people lived in the then Steppe Territory, not including the Kazakhs of the Turkestan Territory.Therefore, we have no reason to question the veracity of A. Baitursynov’s words. And after about half a century, according to the results of the All-Union census of 1959, the number of Kazakhs living in Kazakhstan decreased to 2 million 787 thousand, making up only 30% of the population of the republic.

In 1989 I was elected to the post of the first leader of the republic. According to the results of the last general population census in the history of the USSR that year, the share of the indigenous population of Kazakhstan was only 40.1%.

Children of free Kazakhstan should know through what trials, sacrifices and hardships our path to independence lay: the national liberation uprising of 1916, the civil war, two waves of devastating famine, repression, the Great Patriotic War, mass migration during the development of virgin lands. This is necessary so that young people honor the past history and learn from it the right lessons. Therefore, I say: “Independence is the main shrine that we inherited at the cost of the blood of our ancestors.”

For thirty years, all my thoughts, worries and hopes were associated with the people in order to protect them from misfortunes and encroachments, delusions and confusion. Over the years, the country has become one of the 40 advanced states of the world. A new generation was brought up and brought up, having mastered the best achievements of world science and culture, a new capital was erected. In this I see the most important success and the greatest happiness.

But with all this, in the words of the wise Abai, at that turning point “we moved carefully, but stepped firmly.”Thanks to this, we are ahead of others in many areas and areas. Here I want to dive deeper into this topic and present to the public some information that has not been much discussed before.

In the 70s of the last century, a gigantic empire called the Soviet Union entered a difficult period in its history, later called the “era of stagnation.” It turned out that the scholastic ideology of communism and the Soviet economy based on strict and peremptory planning “from above” with its systematic additions led society into a hopeless dead end.

That the economy of the USSR during that notorious “stagnation” was in a deplorable state, I began to see with my own eyes at the end of the 70s, when I worked in leading positions in the Karaganda regional party committee. And in the 80s, when I happened to head the government of the Kazakh SSR, the scale of the situation became even more obvious.

The “perestroika” proclaimed by Mikhail Gorbachev did not help the country to get out of deep stagnation, very soon reborn into a “talking shop”, a fair of political advertising and a cacophony of populist slogans.The recklessly launched “turn”, undertaken without preparing an economic basis for reforms, only exacerbated the problems that had been accumulating over the years, bringing it to the extreme.

The 1st Congress of People’s Deputies, convened following the results of the first democratic elections in the USSR, was held in May-June 1989. At that time I was the chairman of the Council of Ministers of the republic.

In my speech from the rostrum of the Kremlin Palace of Congresses, I had to speak openly and truthfully about the critical situation in the economy of the giant Union: “… Being engaged in practical economic issues on duty, I can say that we do not have a reliable idea of ​​the situation in the country’s economy today.Judge for yourself: according to the USSR State Statistics Committee, production in the country has increased, and the shelves are empty. The plans are being fulfilled, and the state of the economy is deteriorating. Why? There are many “why’s” that have accumulated. It is necessary to finally determine the full depth of the crisis in the economy, to work out a clear way to overcome it.

The Twelfth Five-Year Plan was drawn up in the worst traditions of stagnation. ”

Of course, M. S. Gorbachev, who almost a day later spoke about “perestroika”, “renewal” and even “acceleration”, hardly liked the words that the five-year plan was planned out “in the worst traditions of stagnation.”It was clear from his reaction: he wanted me to quickly “round off” this topic. But a storm of approving applause from the audience did not allow him to stop me.

As the saying goes, who said A must say B. And then I told about the troubles that tormented Kazakhstan: “Departmental diktat led to the fact that our republic, which is rich in raw materials that are in high demand on the world market, found itself in a difficult situation in its social development and on the verge of an environmental crisis.Acting using the method of an elephant in a china shop, the ministries destroyed the Aral Sea. Ekibastuz covers the steppe with ash. Oil does not serve those who produce it. Livestock breeders’ lands have been alienated for various landfills, and there is no question of compensation. “

Having finished my speech, I looked into the hall towards our delegation and saw the face of G.V. Kolbin, who was then first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, turned white with indignation. Well, since it was about the fate of the people and the interests of the republic, I could not keep silent on the sidelines.

And in the next two years, when the Union began to self-destruct and finally diverge at the seams, the situation was even more dramatic.

The same year, 1989, was the height of the process of the “parade of sovereignties”, which began in the Baltics, continued in the Transcaucasus, and then covered all parts of the Soviet Union. Until the end of 1990, all 15 republics of the Union managed to proclaim their sovereignty, although apart from Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia, the other 12 republics were still part of the USSR.

No matter how hard Mikhail Gorbachev tried to fight for the preservation of the Union, it was already impossible to prevent the collapse of the USSR. On August 18-21, 1991, the notorious “GKChP putsch” took place, objectively demonstrating to the whole world the complete inconsistency and futility of the USSR’s top leadership in further governing the country. The logical and natural result was that during the period from August to December 1991, the republics remaining in the USSR made a decision to proclaim their independence.

Political passions were heating up, the confrontation between Yeltsin and Gorbachev was drawing to a close, the centralized leadership of the country, once built on iron discipline, crumbled like a castle in the sand. At this critical moment, even the slightest mistake made by Kazakhstan could turn into a tragedy.

There were plenty of opportunities here. In these conditions, it was extremely important to secure the mandate of popular confidence.On December 1, 1991, the first presidential elections in the history of the country took place, as a result of which more than 98% of voters supported my candidacy. It inspired me and gave me freedom of action.

Two days after the elections, on December 3, a large delegation of the European Parliament headed by M. Hoff arrived in Almaty, which invited me, as the elected president of the country, to pay an official visit to Brussels. And this also became a sign of great support and recognition at the international level.

So we entered the last, decisive stage of readiness for the declaration of independence. On December 8, at a meeting in Belorussian Belovezhie, Boris N. Yeltsin, L. M. Kravchuk and S. S. Shushkevich made a statement that “the USSR as a subject of international law and geopolitical reality is ceasing to exist.” I urgently flew to Moscow, where a meeting was planned with Yeltsin, Kravchuk and Shushkevich, which did not take place due to the absence of three guests.

After that, I held a press conference in Moscow for representatives of the Soviet and foreign media, at which I said that now “it is necessary to recognize the independence of all the republics that were part of the USSR and help them become members of the United Nations as soon as possible.”

On December 12-13, at the meeting of the heads of the republics of Kazakhstan and Central Asia, held in Ashgabat, having assessed the situation, we declared our readiness to become equal co-founders of the Commonwealth of Independent States. And now the long-awaited date has come – December 14, 1991, when the Constitutional Law “On the State Independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan” was introduced to the agenda of the VII session of the Supreme Soviet of the 12th convocation.

Developed with the participation of leading legal scholars, and underwent careful and early examination, this law seemed to be approved and passed immediately, without any delay.In addition, other republics have adopted similar laws long ago. But the circumstances did not turn out quite as we expected.

Although Vice-President E.M. Asanbaev took part in the session, I closely followed the hearings within the walls of the Supreme Soviet by means of communication from my office. I still remember how, even before the discussion of the draft law began, one deputy voiced a provocative stuffing: “From whom and from what are we going to declare ourselves independent? Are we not trying to create a Kazakh empire following the example of the Russian empire, which we have been abusing for 70 years?”

A little later, another deputy spoke in the same tone: “We are deciding the issue of proclaiming an independent state.Tomorrow morning, out of 17 million people, a good half – the Russian-speaking population – will end up in a foreign state … Comrades, you can’t do that. ”

And yet another “people’s choice” put the question like this: “Is the proposal that only a Kazakh can be the president of the Kazakh SSR or the Republic of Kazakhstan, an encroachment on civil equality in relation to me? ..” And this despite the fact that in The law stated in black and white that the president of the republic could be a person “who speaks the state language and the language of interethnic harmony,” as deputy S.Sartaev.

I deliberately for ethical reasons do not name their names, especially since time has already put everything in its place.

Of course, I knew what external forces were provoking such speakers and promising support for such “fearless” speeches. But I could not be mistaken, let alone succumb to provocations. Despite the lucid answers and weighty arguments put forward by the deputies of the Supreme Soviet in the person of such honored and authoritative statesmen, famous scientists, lawyers and writers as S.Zimanov, S. Sartaev, M. Kozybaev, U. Dzholdasbekov, A. Kekilbaev and others, for two days of debate on the bill, the deputies did not come to a consensus.

When the discussion finally came to a standstill, on December 16, in the afternoon, I arrived at the Supreme Council in order to explain to the deputies the essence of the current situation myself and to convey to them the main and such a simple idea that the entire people of Kazakhstan and the entire world community are waiting for their decision: “… This law must be adopted because we are the only ones left.Our conscience before the multinational people of Kazakhstan is clear. This is a serious law, every word of which will be read by everyone. This is my pre-election program, the quintessence of all the issues that we are going to solve. The main question is the question of state independence. It is not necessary to wedge in, add words that do not carry any load. It should be accepted, I think, by a qualified majority. I ask everyone to tune in to this. “

After these words, the opposing deputies calmed down and entered a constructive track, and the law was adopted by a majority of votes.Our long-awaited finest hour has come. The greatest event in national history has taken place. The independence gained in difficult circumstances is the result of premeditated intentions, thorough and impeccable preparation, great and tireless organizational work.

We gained independence peacefully, but the long road to it is abundantly watered with the blood of our ancestors. Independence came to us as a reward for that blood. I am writing about all this especially so that our youth, whom we bring up with great care and great hopes, grow up in a deep awareness of these values.

The declaration of independence did not go smoothly, but it was even more difficult to achieve its international recognition. Realizing the importance of this issue, I began to prepare for it ahead of time.

As a result of the negotiation process, which began through diplomatic channels a few months earlier, on the very next day after the declaration of independence, US Secretary of State J. Baker arrived in Almaty on an official visit. This was his second visit to Kazakhstan, so at that time we were already in friendly and trusting relations.As an official in charge of US foreign policy, J. Baker warmly congratulated me on my election to the presidency and on the proclamation of independence. Foreign journalists who arrived with him immediately disseminated this information in the media space of the United States and Western Europe.

Events, meanwhile, continued to develop rapidly. To preserve the economic partnership, on December 21, at a meeting with the participation of the presidents of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Moldova and Kazakhstan, an agreement was signed on the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States.The summit on the initiative of the Kazakh side was held in Almaty. This is how the CIS was born, and an answer was given to the question that worried the governments and peoples of many countries of the world: “In what direction is the fate of the former republics of the USSR changing, along which path and in whose zone of influence they will develop in the future?”

Thus, patiently and purposefully overcoming the narrow and thorny paths of timelessness, our independence made its own way.

From the first day of independence, we pursued a policy of long-term stability, civil peace, interethnic harmony and interfaith dialogue, which ensured sustainable growth and development for our country.After all, mutual respect and friendship were and will remain our property, which we must always cherish. As the Kazakh proverb says: “Success is where there is unity.”

Unfortunately, in a number of former Soviet republics, like us, who have embarked on the path of independence, negative processes began to take place. Hotbeds of war flared up in Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia. Transnistria broke away from Moldova. Tajikistan is dragged into the abyss of a civil war. A series of shocks that began in those years in our closest neighbor, brotherly Kyrgyzstan, not only disturbed the peace in this country, but also drained its economy, delaying further development for years.The current conflict in the south-east of Ukraine is also rooted in the turmoil that arose in the same nineties.

A united people are overgrown with wealth and good glory. The disunited people lose their strength and lose face. Over the past years, we have made many achievements that we can rightfully be proud of.

Since gaining independence, we have embarked on a deep political reform of our society. A little over a quarter of a century ago, we adopted the Basic Law, which serves as a solid foundation for all our accomplishments.Sifted through a sieve of open national discussion and approved by the will of all citizens, this document laid the foundation for the progressive growth and prosperity of our country.

I would like to note that despite all the variety of forms of democracy and economic structure existing in the world, there is no reference model among them that could be easily copied and immediately applied in our own practice. Therefore, having studied the historical experience of foreign countries and taking into account our own specifics, we have developed the Strategic Program “Kazakhstan-2030”.Having implemented it ahead of schedule, we offered the people the Strategic Program “Kazakhstan-2050”, and having enlisted his support, we got involved in its implementation. These two strategies reflect the essence of the course of national revival that we are charting, which authoritative world politicians and experts respectfully dubbed the “Kazakhstani way”.

Our people were born and nurtured by the Great Steppe. We inherited a huge territory from our ancestors. But the rights to it were not enshrined in international documents either in tsarist times or during the years of the existence of the USSR.

It was not an easy task to organize a constructive negotiation process along the entire perimeter of our borders with a length of 14 thousand kilometers. I must note that this was possible thanks to our two great neighbors – Russia and China, whose leadership from the first days supported our independence, as well as the process of clarifying our borders. Thus, the common border of Kazakhstan with the Russian Federation, which is about 7,500 kilometers, has become a belt of friendship and trust. Historical agreements were reached on 1,700 kilometers of the border with the PRC.This determined a constructive attitude towards border issues and all other neighboring countries.

We must always appreciate and remember with gratitude the support of Russia and President V.V. Putin, the leadership of China at that important moment in our history.

Having created in the course of the negotiations an atmosphere of mutual understanding and respect for the interests of the parties, we consistently concluded international treaties and finally determined our state border. Thus, in order to fulfill the sacred precepts of our ancestors, and at the same time save future generations from even greater difficulties, we untied all problematic knots and brought the work started to its logical end.

The question of land has always been a matter of life and death for our people. During the Soviet era, different parts of the Kazakh land were turned into military bases, laboratories and training grounds where dangerous experiments were carried out. At the Semipalatinsk test site alone, 456 nuclear and thermonuclear explosions were carried out. Of these, 116 were produced in the air, which turned out to be extremely disastrous for the population of the republic. According to the calculations of Kazakh scientists, the total power of the atomic bombs detonated on the territory of the Semipalatinsk test site was 2500 times higher than the power of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima.I closed this monstrous landfill on August 29, 1991.

At the time of gaining independence, 1216 nuclear warheads for intercontinental ballistic missiles were located on the territory of Kazakhstan. It was the fourth most powerful nuclear arsenal in the world.

Having voluntarily renounced nuclear weapons, we have become the leaders of global nuclear disarmament. This is the invaluable contribution of Kazakhstan to the strengthening of global peace and security.

In the early years, we did not have our own currency.Having thoroughly studied the world financial market, at the right time, we introduced our national currency, the tenge, into circulation.

The prudent cannot be taken by surprise, “says the wisdom of our ancestors. The people who think about their future wins. So that future generations are not constrained in funds, we have created the National Fund and the gold and foreign exchange reserve. During the pandemic, we were insured by these long-term savings.

Our lot has had the honor to carry out a project unprecedented in its scale and complexity in our history – to erect a new and beautiful capital in the very heart of Saryarka over the waters of the freely flowing Esil and to gather the progressive forces of society here.

The rapid development of the capital sets an example and powerful impulses for the modernization of other regions of the country. The third city with a population of over one million Shymkent has become a city of republican significance. The city of Turkestan, which has a two-thousand-year history, has transformed beyond recognition over the past two years and has become one of the most beautiful cities in Kazakhstan. I can say with firm confidence that the same bright future awaits other regions and large urban centers of our country.

Even at the beginning of gaining sovereignty, I understood that Kazakhstan needed economic modernization, renewal of infrastructure and a move away from dependence on raw materials.But only by the beginning of the third decade of independence, having accumulated resources and experience, we were able to carry out this difficult task.

We staked on the industrialization and development of our own industrial base. For this purpose, three Programs of industrial and innovative development have been adopted, 1,500 projects worth 9 trillion tenge have been introduced. Kazakhstan began to produce more than 500 types of products that were not previously produced – electric locomotives, buses, cars, railway cars, transformers and much more.

As you know, roads serve as transport arteries of the state. In just 10 years, we have built 14 thousand kilometers of automobile roads and 2.5 thousand kilometers of railways, reconstructed all major airports, sea and dry ports. As a result, Kazakhstan, which did not have access to the sea, received direct access to the European countries, the Persian Gulf, the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific oceans and became a transcontinental Eurasian transport bridge.

The people are the main wealth of our independent Motherland.All my energy, accumulated experience and ideas – all of this I devote to the cause of serving the people of Kazakhstan.

From the same motives, since the first day of independence, I have convened more than a million of our kandases – half-blood compatriots who, by the will of fate, found themselves scattered all over the world. There are many countries in the world where the entire population of the country does not exceed one million people. And we not only resettled such a number of shackles from abroad, but provided them with housing and work, educated their children.Therefore, we must not forget that this all-round support, which will continue in the future, became possible solely thanks to independence.

During these thirty years, the country has gone through many trials and made great strides. We have to conquer even more peaks, but there are also many possible tests ahead.

For two years now, the world has been gripped by anxiety the likes of which are hard to remember. The pandemic that broke out due to the coronavirus has significantly changed not only the world economy, but also the forms of organization of labor and production, priorities in the development of science and technology, and even the thinking and consciousness of people.First of all, the pandemic forced different states, regardless of their level of development, to converge and cooperate in the spheres of economy and technology. In these conditions, a new global economic paradigm has emerged.

Not so long ago, a large group of Nobel laureates at the Summit “Our Planet, Our Future” issued an Urgent Call to Action, in which the COVID-19 pandemic was identified as the greatest global shock since World War II, pointing out the need to work together to combat it.The address, in particular, emphasizes: “If transformational measures are not taken in this decade, then the future of mankind will face a colossal threat … The poorest and most marginalized segments of society remain the most vulnerable.”

This made me involuntarily recall my initiatives, announced almost 30 years ago, on October 5, 1992 from the rostrum of the United Nations. Even at that time, I proposed to establish an international fund to counter unforeseen threats and challenges, formed by voluntary contributions by countries of 1% of their defense budget.Let me clarify that then it was about the peacekeeping efforts of the UN, but, firstly, the very idea and the mechanism of collective interaction were important, and secondly, why is a pandemic not a war, if in different countries it kills hundreds and thousands of people every day? .

If such a fund had been created in those years, now there would be incomparably great opportunities to fight the coronavirus and its consequences in poor countries.

The pandemic pushed the world towards a new geopolitical transformation based on such factors as the activation of new alternative and, for the time being, latent forces and reserves, taking into account leading trends and predicting emerging threats and challenges.In the fight against the sudden onset of a pandemic, new technologies based on information and digital systems came to the rescue of people. The accompanying processes were radical and “explosive” changes in the labor market.

At one time, the Nobel Prize winner in economics Christopher Pissarides predicted that in the course of the fourth industrial revolution, robots will gradually replace people in the vast majority of professions.

Today this forecast is coming true more and more clearly.As a result of global technologization, already now in such industries as information technology, robotics, synthetic biology, bionics, nanotechnology, artificial intelligence, powerful revolutionary breakthroughs, hitherto inconceivable and unimaginable, are being observed. In the modern world, the need for such specialists as a bioengineer, a robotics engineer, a cybersecurity specialist, a neuromarketologist, a cosmobiologist, an urbanist-ecologist, a biopharmacologist, an agrocyberneticist, and a meteorological specialist is growing.

Several years ago we held EXPO-2017 and adopted a comprehensive program for the transition to a green economy.Now all over the world, various types of alternative energy are actively developing: the use of wind energy, solar energy, hydropower, bioenergy, geothermal energy. We, too, must not lag behind in this process.

To be at the forefront of new global trends, we created the Bolashak program and trained our youth in the best universities in the world. In conditions of a lack of funds, and this was in the difficult 90s of the last century, we paid for education, travel, accommodation for students.So during this time, more than 15 thousand specialists were trained for the country. I am sure that they all feel the care of their Motherland and will justify our hopes by serving the Motherland. Then a world-class university was created – Nazarbayev University, the Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools network, the Astana-Hub international technopark, designed to support startups in the field of information technology. Our youth must be at the forefront of such progressive global renewal.

Two and a half years ago, a senior official was replaced in the state.There were many who told me: “In accordance with the Constitution, there are no restrictions for your presidency. In the last elections, almost 98% of voters voted for you. Continue to work in this post.” But everything has its time and its own turn.

For three decades I was fortunate enough to meet many associates, raise many worthy cadres, and educate many students. Among them, I nominated Kassym-Zhomart Kemelevich Tokayev for the post of President – a true patriot, a high professional, my comrade-in-arms from the first years of independence, who has accumulated valuable experience when he was Minister of Foreign Affairs, Head of Government, Deputy Secretary General of the United Nations.In the elections, the overwhelming majority of our fellow citizens supported him. Thus, we have once again demonstrated to the whole world the unity of the people and the continuity of our policy.

Presidents will change, but our independence must remain eternal and inalienable. For this, every citizen of Kazakhstan is called upon to strengthen its foundations, increase its power, and preserve its good name. This is the whole essence of the majestic idea of ​​”Mangilik El”. The most important thing is that the country is safe and sound, and our children grow up under the sun of Freedom.Now these children, raised in love and affection, should think: “What can I give my native Kazakhstan?”

Thanks to our great and undeniable successes, we have convinced the doubters, converted the unbelievers and have grown into a worthy state, respected throughout the world.

Independence is like a bird of happiness: it sits on the hand only of those who cherish it, and dwells only where it is cherished. I firmly believe that the future of Kazakhstan – a country with a friendly and peaceful people, a strong economy, a stable political system, high prestige in the international arena – will be much more meaningful than yesterday and much brighter than today.

Let us be faithful to the life-giving source of our independence – heroism bequeathed to us by our ancestors in the struggle for national dignity. And we will confidently march forward, dear brothers!

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