World Trade Center – World’s Tallest Towers
The World Trade Center was more than its signature twin towers: it was a complex of seven buildings on 16-acres, constructed and operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). The towers, One and Two World Trade Center, rose at the heart of the complex, each climbing more than 100 feet higher than the silver mast of the Empire State Building.
Construction of a world trade facility had been under consideration since the end of WWII. In the late 1950s the Port Authority took interest in the project and in 1962 fixed its site on the west side of Lower Manhattan on a superblock bounded by Vesey, Liberty, Church and West Streets. Architect Minoru Yamasaki was selected to design the project; architects Emery Roth & Sons handled production work, and, at the request of Yamasaki, the firm of Worthington, Skilling, Helle and Jackson served as engineers.
The Port Authority envisioned a project with a total of 10 million square feet of office space. To achieve this, Yamasaki considered more than a hundred different building configurations before settling on the concept of twin towers and three lower-rise structures. Designed to be very tall to maximize the area of the plaza, the towers were initially to rise to only 80-90 stories. Only later was it decided to construct them as the world’s tallest buildings, following a suggestion said to have originated with the Port Authority’s public relations staff.
Yamasaki and engineers John Skilling and Les Robertson worked closely, and the relationship between the towers’ design and structure was clear. Faced with the difficulties of building to unprecedented heights, the engineers employed an innovative structural model: a rigid “hollow tube” of closely spaced steel columns with floor trusses extended across to a central core. The columns, finished with a silver-colored aluminum alloy, were 18 3/4″ wide and set only 22″ apart, making the towers appear from afar to have no windows at all.
Also unique to the engineering design were its core and elevator system. The twin towers were the first supertall buildings designed without any masonry. Worried that the intense air pressure created by the buildingsÃ¢ high speed elevators might buckle conventional shafts, engineers designed a solution using a drywall system fixed to the reinforced steel core. For the elevators, to serve 110 stories with a traditional configuration would have required half the area of the lower stories be used for shaftways. Otis Elevators developed an express and local system, whereby passengers would change at “sky lobbies” on the 44th and 78th floors, halving the number of shaftways.
Construction began in 1966 and cost an estimated $1.5 billion. One World Trade Center was ready for its first tenants in late 1970, though the upper stories were not completed until 1972; Two World Trade Center was finished in 1973. Excavation to bedrock 70 feet below produced the material for the Battery Park City landfill project in the Hudson River. When complete, the Center met with mixed reviews, but at 1,368 and 1,362 feet and 110 stories each, the twin towers were the world’s tallest, and largest, buildings until the Sears Tower surpassed them both in 1974.
History & Facts – Willis Tower
DOING OUR PART TO SAVE THE PLANET
At Willis Tower, we are continuously expanding our eco-conscious efforts and investigating harnessing solar energy, constructing additional green roof space, and more. Believe sustainability matters? We do, too. We have already cut the building’s original energy consumption by a third.
Who knew that the true color of the Willis Tower was green? The Willis Tower is not only an innovator in promoting green practices among its tenants, but also stands as a leader among American skyscrapers in increasing energy and water efficiency and reducing waste.
Over the past 20 years, the Tower has reduced annual electricity consumption by 34% by installing enhanced lighting systems and controls and adopting special conservation practices. The building saves 10 million gallons of water each year, or the equivalent of 156,448 full bathtubs, by relying on reduced water-flow fixtures. These innovations are spurring the building to look into certification as a LEED (Leader in Energy and Environmental Design) certified building and explore renewable energy resources, such as solar and wind power and even “green roofs” covered with vegetation. Can you imagine a thriving garden high in the sky?
Willis Tower has accomplished the following in the greening of the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere:
- Reduced annual electricity consumption by 34 percent in the last 20 years.
- As part of the building’s recycling program, tenants recently recycled over 2,103 tons of paper, aluminum, glass, & plastic and construction waste annually.
- Saving more than 10 million gallons of water annually, the equivalent of 156,448 bathtubs.
- Recycled more than 16 tons of electronics over one year.
- Implemented tenant bike riding programs that provide indoor bicycle parking, showers, changing rooms, complimentary loaner bikes, helmets and locks.
- Offered parking discount incentives to tenants driving hybrid vehicles.
- Reduced water consumption by installing low-flow fixtures.
- Initiated a window replacement program to improve insulation.
- Improved energy efficiency through enhanced lighting systems and ontrols, higher efficiency motors and management practices.
- Implemented green cleaning and maintenance programs that reduce the use of harmful chemicals.
- Transitioned to a team cleaning approach; new staffing procedure will reduce the amount of lights on at night for energy savings
Willis Tower has also has earned the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) ENERGY STAR certification, which signifies that the building performs in the top 25 percent of similar facilities nationwide for energy efficiency and meets strict energy efficiency performance levels set by the EPA. The Willis Tower will be the largest office building ever to receive ENERGY STAR certification, and the third-largest building overall.
World Trade Center History
Magnificent buildings graced skyline
by David Johnson and Shmuel Ross
The twin towers of the World Trade Center were more than just buildings. They were proof of New York’s belief in itself. Built at a time when New York’s future seemed uncertain, the towers restored confidence and helped bring a halt to the decline of lower Manhattan. Brash, glitzy, and grand, they quickly became symbols of New York.
The World Trade Center was conceived in the early 1960s by the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Development Association to revitalize the seedy radio row dominated by electronic stores. Chase Manhattan Bank chairman David Rockefeller, founder of the development association, and his brother, New York governor Nelson Rockefeller, pushed hard for the project, insisting it would benefit the entire city.
In 1962, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began plans to build the center. Minoru Yamasaki and Associates of Michigan was hired as architect. Eventually, Yamasaki decided on two huge towers. Critics charged that a modern monolith would rob New York of character, ruin the skyline, disrupt television reception, and strain city services. However, the project was approved and construction began in 1966.
In order to create the 16-acre World Trade Center site, five streets were closed off and 164 buildings were demolished. Construction required the excavation of more than 1.2 million cubic yards of earth, which was used to create 23.5 acres of land along the Hudson River, now part of Battery Park City in lower Manhattan. During peak construction periods, 3,500 people worked at the site. A total of 10,000 people worked on the towers; 60 died during its construction.
The north tower was opened in Dec. 1970 and the south tower in Jan. 1972; they were dedicated in April 1973. They were the world’s tallest buildings for only a short time, since the Sears Tower in Chicago was completed in May 1973. However, the towers were ranked as the fifth and sixth tallest buildings in the world at the time of their destruction on Sept. 11, 2001.
Four smaller buildings and a hotel, all built nearby around a central landscaped plaza, completed the complex. The mall at the World Trade Center, which was located immediately below the plaza, was the largest shopping mall in lower Manhattan. The six basements housed two subway stations and a stop on the PATH trains to New Jersey.
Some 50,000 people worked in the buildings, while another 200,000 visited or passed through each day. The complex had its own zip code, 10048.
In 1993 terrorists drove a truck packed with 1,100 lbs of explosives into the basement parking garage at the World Trade Center. Despite the size of the blast?it left a crater 22 ft wide and five stories deep?only six people were killed and 1,000 injured. The towers were repaired, cleaned, and reopened in less than a month.
In 2002, separate design contests were held for rebuilding the World Trade Center site and creating a memorial for the victims of the attacks. The first round of finalists for the site, unveiled in July 2002, were widely criticized as being too boring and having too much of an emphasis on office space, leading to a new round of finalists in December.
In February 2003, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, which was established by Governor Pataki to coordinate the various agencies and advisory committees involved in the rebuilding efforts, chose architect Daniel Libeskind’s design for rebuilding the 16-acre site of the former World Trade Center. The design included a hanging garden, a memorial, a cultural center, and Freedom Tower, which would be a symbolic 1,776 feet tall from the ground to the top of its spire.
In July 2003, David Childs was brought in as the new lead architect of Freedom Tower, although Libeskind remained in charge of designing the site in general. The two had different visions for the tower; a design combining the approaches of both architects was unveiled in December 2003. It would include wind turbines in its spire, designed to generate as much as 20% of the building’s power.
On July 4, 2004, New York governor Pataki, New Jersey governor McGreevey, and New York City mayor Bloomberg laid the cornerstone for the Freedom Tower. The skyscraper, estimated to cost $1.5 billion, is expected to be ready for its first occupants by late 2008, while construction on the site in general was expected to last through 2015.
Just as construction was beginning, security concerns were raised, leading to a complete redesign of the tower. The new plans were released on June 29, 2005. The tower is to be moved further back from the street?and will have a cubic base the same size as each of the Twin Towers. The wind turbines have been eliminated. The design recalls that of the old buildings, while adding its own twists: starting with the square base, the tower’s design moves to triangular forms, creating an octagon in the middle, and culminates in a square at the top, rotated 45 degrees from the base. A spire will rise a bit more than 400 feet beyond that, to retain the planned total height of 1,776 feet.
Steady progress has been made on Freedom Tower since construction began in April 2006. The 2.6 million square foot building will house office space, an observation deck, restaurants, and broadcast facilities. Freedom Tower is now scheduled to open in 2011.
Design for World Trade Center Memorial Selected
The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation announced in January 2004 that architects Michael Arad and Peter Walker had won a competition to design the memorial to the people who died at the World Trade Center. There had been more than 5,000 entries in the competition.
The memorial, Reflecting Absence, would honor those who died at the World Trade Center in terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and February 26, 1993.
Reflecting Absence, which will be built where the Twin Towers once stood, includes two shallow pools surrounded by leafy trees. The names of the victims would be etched in walls around the pools.
“In its powerful, yet simple articulation of the footprints of the Twin Towers, Reflecting Absence has made the gaping voids left by the towers’ destruction the primary symbol of loss,” said Vartan Gregorian, who chaired the jury that chose the winner.
Plans for a new memorial on the site of One World Trade Center were redesigned in June 2006 to address security concerns, budgetary issues, and input from the victims’ families. The central features?including the two pools fed by waterfalls?will be retained. The names of those killed in the attacks will be moved to the surrounding plaza, above ground.
Work began on the foundation in 2006 and was completed in fall 2007. Construction of the first structural framework began in 2007. The slurry wall, which held back the Hudson River during the September 11th attacks, will be accessible for visitors to view from the memorial. So far $300 million of the $350 million fundraising goal has been raised. The opening of the World Trade Center Memorial is expected for September 11, 2009. Completion of the Museum is expected in 2010.
World Trade Center Transportation Hub
The Port Authority Trans-Hudson Transportation Hub (PATH) is expected to bring beauty and transport efficiency to Manhattan. PATH was designed by architect Santiago Calatrava to accommodate 250,000 pedestrians per day, which is the projected number of pedestrians for 2025. One of the innovative features of the design is that natural light will reach 60 feet below street level. The Federal Transit Administration has given the 800,000 square foot project $1.92 billion toward its $2 billion projected cost. In September 2007 construction on PATH began.
The Office Towers
Five World Trade Center office towers will be a large part of the redevelopment of downtown Manhattan and transform New York City’s skyline. They will provide over 10 million square feet of office space. Construction is expected to be complete by 2012.
Performing Arts Center
A 1,000 seat performing arts center will be located just 60 feet from One World Trade Center on Fulton and Greenwich streets. Frank Gehry will make designs for the project, which is expected to cost $500 million. The modern dance Joyce Theater will be featured at the Performing Arts Center as well as the Tribecca Film Festival each spring. Construction on the center will start in 2010 or 2011.
5 Important 9/11 Facts – What You’ve Forgotten About September 11
On September 11, 2001, the history of the United States changed forever when the Islamic extremist group al Qaeda hijacked four American aircrafts and steered thousands of innocent people toward their death.
I remember exactly where I was when the Twin Towers came crashing down in New York City. I was in my first grade classroom in Pennsylvania when an announcement came on the loud speaker, encouraging teachers to turn on the television and pause all lessons. Then, everyone watched the news in horror until my parents came to take me home.
Because I was only five at the time, I wasn’t entirely sure what had happened. I knew that the adults were scared and I saw flames on my TV screen, but it took years for me to actually comprehend the impact of 9/11. The attacks didn’t just cut thousands of lives short, they completely altered the way the U.S. handles security, terrorism, foreign affairs, immigration, and war, not to mention that it left us trillions of dollars in debt.
I would go on to learn about 9/11 in history books, and now, 18 years later, I’m writing about it to make sure that no one forgets about the brave souls who lost their lives on that tragic day. Here are five facts about September 11, 2001, that you may not have known:
1. Only 60 percent of WTC victims have been identified to this day.
The attacks that took place on 9/11 add up to deadliest domestic terrorist attack that has ever taken place on modern American soil, with the total deaths reaching 2,977 (not including the 19 terrorists).
At the World Trade Center (WTC) in Lower Manhattan, 2,753 people died after American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 crashed into the Twin Towers. According to CNN, only 1,644, or 60 percent, of those 2,753 victims have been identified as of July 2019. Not only does the death toll include innocent workers of the north and south towers, but it also includes NYC firefighters, police officers, and passersby.
Mario TamaGetty Images
Another flight, American Airlines Flight 77, crashed into the pentagon, killing 184 people. A fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, went down near Shanksville, PA, resulting in 40 deaths of crew members and passengers.
2. The time between the first attack and the collapse of both World Trade Center towers is 102 minutes.
Though it seemed like a lifetime between the time of the first attack and the collapse of the Twin Towers, everything took place within two hours.
American Airlines Flight 11 traveling from Boston to Los Angeles struck the first tower in New York City at approximately 8:46 a.m. ET. 17 minutes later, United Airlines Flight 175 also scheduled to travel from Boston to Los Angeles hit the south tower in New York City.
Robert GirouxGetty Images
At 9:37 a.m. ET, American Airlines Flight 77 heading to Los Angeles from Dulles, Virginia pummeled into the Pentagon Building in Washington D.C. And 22 minutes later at 9:59 a.m. ET, the south tower collapsed in just 10 seconds.
Directly after at 10:03 a.m. ET, United Airlines Flight 93 that was set to travel from Newark, New Jersey to San Francisco, CA crashed in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. Finally at 10:28 a.m. ET, the north tower of WTC collapsed.
3. The immediate economic impact of 9/11 totals at least $3.3 trillion.
Physical damage, the 2001 recession, the War on Terror, medical funding, insurance, and the U.S. debt crisis bring the total economic impact of the September 11 attacks well beyond a trillion dollars.
To start, the New York Comptrollers Officers calculated the cost of physical damage to $55 billion in 2002, with the collapsing World Trade buildings alone costing $8 billion. About $24 billion would cover expected income of lives lost, and office supplies, subway repairs, and damaged automobiles racked up to $11 billion. The city would spend $6 billion fixing other damaged buildings and cleaning up the surrounding area, and another $5 billion to treat injuries.
BETH A. KEISERGetty Images
The stock market closed for four days following the attacks—the first time since The Great Depression—and prices dropped dramatically. The airline industry lost $5 billion, leading former President George W. Bush to issue $15 billion in federal loans. Though the U.S. was already in a recession as of March 2001, the aftermath of 9/11 made it worse, and unemployment rose drastically until 2003.
The biggest driver in U.S. spending post-September 11? War. On September 20, 2001, Bush called for a War on Terror. Bush sent armed forces to Afghanistan in search of founder of al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden and his army. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) claimed that Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, was aiding al-Qaeda.
JIM WATSONGetty Images
Following Bush’s two presidential terms, the U.S. spent $1.164 trillion on war funding and related costs. Former President Barrack Obama spent $807 billion on war during his time in office, and President Donald Trump budgeted to spend $156 billion, bringing the approximate total cost of the War on Terror to $2.126 trillion.
4. It took 3.1 million hours of labor to clean up 1.8 million tons of debris at Ground Zero.
“Ground Zero” refers to the place in New York City where the north and south World Trade buildings collapsed. The collapsed towers left a gaping hole that anyone could visit. In the direct aftermath of the attacks, first responders rescued those who were trapped in the rubble.
By September 12, 2011, responders had a new heartbreaking mission of then searching for human remains to later identify bodies and notify loved ones. As you can imagine, working around Ground Zero was very dangerous. Some firefighters wrote their names on their arms in case they were crushed during cleanup. Toxic debris has also made thousands sick, including many men who developed breast cancer (this only happens in one percent of all men).
Anthony CorreiaGetty Images
According to CNN, ground zero wasn’t officially cleaned up until May 30, 2002. It took approximately 3.1 million hours of work to clean up an estimated 1.8 million tons of debris. In 2011, former governor of New York George Pataki signed the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 (named after an NYPD officer who died after working at Ground Zero) to provide compensation and medical aid to Ground Zero workers.
5. One World Trade Center is the tallest building in America, and one of the safest in the world.
On March 5, 2002, former governor Pataki and mayor Michael Bloomberg announced that plans for a memorial were in the works. After a competition that allowed the public to submit design ideas, construction commenced in 2006.
One World Trade Center, also known as Freedom Tower, was completed in 2014 and stands high and proud as the tallest building in the U.S. at 1,792 feet to tip. One world Trade Center is home to office buildings, an observatory, a 9/11 Memorial, and a 9/11 Museum.
Toshi SasakiGetty Images
With high-strength concrete, reinforcement steel bars, fireproofing, and an additional staircase for first responders, the WTC is one of the safest buildings in the world. The tower’s observatory deck begins at 1,362 feet with a glass parapet that extends to 1,368 feet, which was the exact height of the Twin Towers.
Outside of the building at the 9/11 Memorial is the Survivor Tree, which lived through the September 11 attacks and symbolizes rebirth.
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Science and Engineering Reveal the Facts of 9/11
The morning of September 11, 2001, in New York City was bright and clear, offering no portent of horror and tragedy until two fully loaded passenger jets were deliberately crashed into the World Trade Center’s twin towers. Less than two hours after the first impact, both towers had collapsed in monstrous heaps of twisted metal and toxic fumes. Despite conspiratorial theories on how the towers fell, science and engineering offer the best evidence for how this disaster occurred; they also offers key lessons on how to avoid such a catastrophe in the future.
It was a sight so unprecedented, so traumatic and terrifying, you’ll never get it out of your mind. The World Trade Center’s iconic towers – at 1,368 feet, the tallest buildings in the world at that time – had been set aflame by the impact of two passenger jets deliberately flown into them. Fewer than two hours after the first impact, the South Tower, and then the North Tower, each began to collapse into itself. What followed next seemed incomprehensible: The towers appeared to disintegrate, a floor at a time, till all that was left were two smoking piles of rubble crushed and “pancaked” onto their former footprints.
Lower Manhattan, New York City, September 11, 2001
Nightmarish images of the impacts, the fires and collapses, and the tragic loss of life on 9/11 shocked us then, and continue to haunt us even today. We seek answers in the face of the unknown, and grasp for reasons to explain the great mystery of how this could occur.
Naturally, the catastrophic failure of the buildings’ superstructures raised urgent questions: Why did the towers collapse? Why did they fall so quickly? And why did the destruction appear to be so orderly? Clearly, the explosive force of two airliners – each laden with more than 9,000 gallons of jet fuel – slamming into the buildings set a chain of forces into motion. But what other answers lay hidden beneath the rubble?
Science vs. Conspiracy in the Search for Reasons
In the absence of a definitive explanation, conspiracy theories began to arise, eventually coalescing into the so-called “9-11 Truthers” movement, which asserts with righteous certainty that the destruction of World Trade Center Buildings 1 and 2 – and of the 46-story Building 7, which disintegrated into a flaming cloud of smoke several hours later – were intentionally preset “controlled demolitions. ”
For more rational explanations, we can turn to scientists and engineers, who examine the same set of facts and propose comprehensive, real-world explanations for how the disaster could have occurred, rather than relying on a specious blend of conjecture and speculation. And in the search for answers we will focus not only on the twin towers but feature as well the destruction of Building 7, the “outlier” in the events of the day.
How the World Trade Center and Its Towers Were Constructed
When plans for the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan were first announced in 1964, novel ideas about engineering and construction were the subject of much discussion. The project was so innovative, in fact, that it required government approval of various code variances.
First off, rather than the standard means of constructing a skyscraper with massive structural columns distributed throughout the building’s core, the towers were designed using a distinctive “perimeter tube” construction that moved the buildings’ support to 244 lightweight but high-strength, load-bearing steel columns distributed along the outside of each structure.
Construction blueprint of the World Trade Center, North Tower
To support the interior floors of the 110-story buildings, architectural engineers utilized an “egg crate” construction style with poured-concrete floors supported without interior columns. Instead, the floors were connected to the outer supports by means of enormous trusses under each floor connecting the core to the perimeter.
Building tenants thereby had access to approximately an acre of uninterrupted space per floor without the more common interior support columns – it was a virtually unprecedented option in a skyscraper of that era. These design elements also gave the building stability and previously unknown lightness. In fact, 95 percent of the buildings’ volume was simply open space; structural materials composed only 5 percent of the buildings’ mass.
Transferring the weight-bearing duties to the 244 peripheral columns offered two especially important advantages:
- The building’s support was extremely redundant in that many columns existed to transfer load-bearing duties should one or more supports be compromised; and
- The design made the structures resilient; the towers were designed to be able to absorb shocks – even the shock of an airplane impact – and not crack or crumble.
As we all know, however, these design elements were not capable of withstanding the impact of Boeing 767 aircraft, fully loaded with passengers, cargo, and highly combustible fuel. To dig further, we’ll now examine how the specific design of the towers both helped and (temporarily) delayed their own implosion.
The Two Simple Causes of the Towers’ Collapse
Ironically, it was the towers’ resilient design that caused their shocking and rapid demise. The combination of trusses securing otherwise freestanding floors and peripheral structural “tubes” proved unable to withstand the effects of the enormously powerful impacts that sheared apart structural columns, followed by the massive and exceedingly hot fires that spread above and below the impact sites. These two events – the damage caused by the planes crashing into the buildings, and the subsequent fires sparked by the explosion of jet fuel – deserve greater scrutiny.
First, consider the use of loaded passenger jets as projectiles. We witnessed what happened when the second plane crashed into the South Tower: It blasted through the outer skin of the building with virtually no visible resistance and disappeared into the center of the tower. This caused damage to all the load-bearing columns it crashed into and increased stress on all the remaining intact columns.
Beyond shifting the support for both buildings onto just a fraction of their intact columns, the impacts dislodged fireproofing that had been designed to protect the towers’ steel structure. They also dislodged fire-resistant drywall installed to protect against fires spreading within the buildings. Losing both protections exposed steel to the possibility of losing its tensile strength in a fire.
Two major studies of the events at the World Trade Center were completed in the years following 9/11. One was done by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and published in 2002. A separate study on the towers’ structural failure was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and published in 2005. (In 2017, NIST published a report specifically on Building 7.)
So first, there was the structural damage; and second, there were the fireballs caused by the explosion of jet fuel, nearly 10,000 gallons of it in each tower. The rapidly spreading flames engulfed numerous floors immediately, which caused the contents of those floors to explode and be immolated in the rapidly spreading conflagration.
Ground Zero, Where the Towers Fell
Steel is resistant to fires, but there are limits. Since the fires are estimated to have burned at up to 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit (1,100 degrees Celsius), they exceeded the upper limits of steel’s ability to withstand extremes in heat. In a situation of this nature, steel doesn’t actually melt; it does, however, lose its tensile strength and becomes susceptible to distortion of its shape.
Once the inferno began to consume everything around it, and the steel columns began to become weak and misshapen, the trusses that supported each of the floors began to fail. The initial impact to the towers sliced numerous structural columns, causing the upper floors to begin to separate from the lower floors. With just a little time – less than an hour for the South Tower, less than two for the North Tower – the floors started pancaking, one atop another, as their supports gave way.
From then, it just looked like the towers began to collapse into themselves. And the inexorable, crushing process was visible for all to see.
What of Building 7?
Building 7, also known as WTC 7, was a 47-story structure dwarfed by the towers in the World Trade Center. It seems to have been a special case in that it fell, too, but it wasn’t directly attacked. And it collapsed hours after the iconic twin towers were already down.
The demise of WTC 7 came to be regarded as especially suspicious by Truthers. Add to that the fact that the CIA was revealed to have been a secret tenant of the building, and conspiracy-minded folks had a field day. To them, this was the “smoking gun” that revealed that the collapse was actually pre-planned and deliberately imploded. And if one building’s destruction was suspicious, then so were the fates of all the buildings.
Unfortunately for the conspiracy-mongers, NIST’s evidence-based report on Building 7 (published in 2017) showed that Building 7 fell for many of the same reasons that the towers did. First, massive amounts of flaming wreckage from the two towers were pushed out in their collapse and landed, like shrapnel, on the WTC 7, causing extreme damage by fire.
The flames spread rapidly throughout the building, engulfing its structure, weakening and causing a thermal expansion of the structural supports of the building. In the words of Popular Mechanics, however, “Even without structural damage, WTC 7 would have collapsed from fires.”
Lessons Learned: Avoiding a Similar Tragedy
The series of attacks on 9/11 – two in New York City, one at the Pentagon, and another ending in a field in Pennsylvania – was a watershed event for the United States, and caused a refocusing of the nation’s energies and the re-prioritization of security against future terror attacks.
Among the key areas affected by these cultural and policy shifts have been building codes and standards, and the strengthening and safeguarding of very tall structures against a similar act of terrorism. The 2005 NIST report on the WTC attacks contained 30 recommendations on revising building codes and improving other aspects of construction and building security.
The NIST recommendations were then taken up by the International Code Council (ICC), which develops building safety codes and standards. The ICC accepted most of NIST’s recommendations and made numerous code changes and improvements in areas that included:
- New elevator systems, both for emergency personnel and for building occupants’ evacuations.
- Additional stairways for high-rises.
- Substantially improved fire resistance and fireproofing
- Stronger elevator shafts.
- Enhanced building emergency communications systems.
An example incorporating added layers of security is the Freedom Tower, the 1,776-foot skyscraper that was constructed on the site of the World Trade Center. Opened in November 2014, this building is clearly designed to rebuff bombers from the sky as well as on the ground.
The Freedom Tower
It sits on a 185-foot concrete pedestal, above which rises a solid concrete core that, unlike the perimeter tube construction of the fallen WTC towers, strengthens the center and stabilizes and protects the building’s interior. Special security elements have been added as well, including wider stairs for exiting the building and a special reserved stairway and elevator for emergency personnel.
Despite our best efforts, future attacks are possible. Our best defense (excluding, of course, diplomacy and both hard and soft power) is to employ engineering innovations and advanced building construction techniques for strategic safety. Resorting to rhetorical excess, political posturing, and paranoid fantasies offers no value at all.
What is a World Trade Center? – WTC Harrisburg
More than a building or an organization, a World Trade Center brings together businesses involved in international trade from around the globe.
World Trade Center Harrisburg is a member of the World Trade Centers Association. The World Trade Centers Association, headquartered in New York City, is the umbrella organization for over 330 World Trade Centers in more than 100 countries. The Association stands outside politics across national boundaries, in service to those who develop and facilitate international trade.
Our members may utilize the services and facilities of all World Trade Centers throughout the globe. These worldwide privileges include meeting and club facilities, trade information and education services, exhibit space, access to temporary office space, videoconferencing facilities, secretarial and translation services.
Many associate a World Trade Center with a building, but not all licensed World Trade Centers actually have a real estate component. Since our inception, we have only concentrated on the delivery of trade assistance services and global trade promotion and we never have had a physical building. However in 2014, our Board of Directors started a “Building Committee” to search for potential opportunities in the southcentral Pennsylvania area. Historically, we have partnered with other non-profit organizations who generously provide office or meeting space for us and for many years we were co-located with MANTEC, which still generously provides an outreach office for us in York.
In 2016 we were introduced to John D. Moran, President and CEO of Moran Industries, Inc., a premier warehousing and logistics company based in Watsontown Pennsylvania. Moran Industries had recently purchased the former Capital View Commerce Center, an uncompleted building in Harrisburg, with plans to finish the building. We were able to “trade” the branded World Trade Center Harrisburg name for an office suite in the building and now Harrisburg has the first World Trade Center building located within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
What is the difference between the WTO and the WTCA?
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is located in Geneva, Switzerland. It is the only international organization that deals with the global regulations of trade between nations. Some of the functions of the WTO are to liberalize trade, provide a forum for governments to negotiate trade agreements, and settle trade disputes. The WTO acts as a governing collective and decisions are made by the entire membership, typically by consensus. The WTO’s members consist of over 140 countries and account for over 90% of world trade.
A World Trade Center is an apolitical organization that can be located in any country. It supplies businesses with access to international trade services and facilities and seeks to simplify and stimulate trade by bringing together the offices of government and industry that serve and carry on trade. Although WTC’s vary from country to country, they are all connected as a part of the World Trade Center Association (WTCA).The Association’s motto is “Peace and Stability Through Trade” and its primary mission is to support the international trade and business objectives of the region it serves. The WTCA has more than 330 members in over 100 countries representing 750,000+ businesses.
World Trade Center Association
World Trade Organization
New York City, USA
330 Facilities in nearly 100 Countries
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9/11: NYC History for Kids
The United States suffered one of its darkest days on Sept. 11, 2001, when 19 members of an Islamic terrorist group called al-Qaida hijacked four commercial planes. The hijacked planes were then used as weapons by crashing them into buildings with unsuspecting people inside. Two of the planes were used to strike the Twin Towers at the World Trade Center in NYC, while another was used against the Pentagon in Virginia. A final plane crashed in Pennsylvania after several brave passengers made an effort to take control of the plane from the hijackers. There has been speculation about where the final plane was headed, but the location has never been confirmed.
Four separate planes were hijacked leaving from three different airports. Two flights were from Boston, one from Washington, D.C., and one from Newark, New Jersey. The two flights from Boston were the first to reach their targets. American Airlines Flight 11 struck the North Tower of the World Trade Center at 8:46 a.m. Many people thought this first crash was a tragic accident; no one could imagine what was still to come. Seventeen minutes later, at 9:03 a.m., the second Boston flight, United Airlines Flight 175, struck the South Tower. It was becoming clear that this was no accident. The United States was being attacked.
At 9:37 a.m., the third plane reached its target. American Airlines Flight 77 from Washington, D.C., struck the western side of the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. The fourth flight, United Airlines Flight 93 from Newark, New Jersey, never reached its intended target. Passengers on board had been told about the other attacks, and they soon realized their plane was also a part of the terrorists’ plan. Following a vote, the passengers decided to attempt to take the plane back from the hijackers. After a six-minute fight for control of the plane, Flight 93 crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
The Collapse of the Twin Towers
Following the two plane collisions, the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center burned. While rescue workers and others worked to remove people from the buildings, the super-hot flames, fed by the airplane fuel, damaged the steel structures keeping the towers standing. All four planes were originally on trips cross-country, and they were chosen because they would have the most fuel on board. At 9:59 a.m., 56 minutes after it was struck, the South Tower collapsed. Twenty-nine minutes later, at 10:28 a.m., the North Tower also collapsed.
Almost 3,000 people lost their lives as a result of the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001. All 265 people on the four flights were killed, including the 19 hijackers. In and around the World Trade Center, 2,606 people were killed. The Pentagon attack killed another 125 people.
Heroes of 9/11
In the face of extreme danger, many brave men and women gave their lives to save others. Firefighters, police officers, and other first-responders rushed into the buildings to try to help people escape, and everyday people, office workers in the Twin Towers, also worked to help their coworkers get out. Of the emergency personnel, 343 NYC firefighters were killed, along with 72 police officers and 55 members of the military. Their sacrifices helped save countless lives that day. The passengers aboard United Airlines Flight 93 chose to fight back against the hijackers, knowing they would probably not make it off the plane alive. It will never be known how many innocent people they saved through their act of heroism.
Following the attacks, President George W. Bush started what would be called the War on Terror, which involved retaliatory attacks on the Taliban in Afghanistan, who had sheltered Osama bin Laden. For several years, bin Laden, the leader of al-Qaida, was the United States’ number one target. In 2011, after a search lasting nearly 10 years, bin Laden was finally found and killed by U.S. Navy forces in Pakistan.
The people of New York City suffered through the dust and debris at Ground Zero, the name given to the World Trade Center attack site. Rescue workers and construction crews suffered lingering health effects from clearing the materials that had been used in constructing the buildings in the 1970s.
Today, there are memorial sites for each of the locations where people lost their lives that day. The 9/11 Memorial and Museum is located in and around the space formerly occupied by the Twin Towers. The National 9/11 Pentagon Memorial in Virginia is located near where Flight 77 struck the building, and the Flight 93 National Memorial is located at the site where Flight 93 crashed.
11 Facts About 9/11: Learn the basics about the 9/11 attacks on this page.
What Happened on 9/11? It can be hard to understand what happened on Sept. 11, 2001, but this guide can help sort it out.
9/11 Facts: Find an explanation of the 9/11 attacks as well as worksheets teachers can download on this page.
Sept. 11 Fast Facts: CNN has a quick rundown of the facts about 9/11 here.
Sept. 11 Attacks: For people alive at the time, 9/11 is part of their memory, but for those who weren’t alive then, an encyclopedia can be a good place to learn more.
Remembering 9/11, 17 Years Later: This page looks back at what happened and remembers the victims.
9/11 Terror Attacks: Find some quick facts about the people, places, and events involved in the 9/11 attacks.
9/11 Timeline: The History Channel has a timeline of Sept. 11, 2001, showing what happened that morning.
Seven Incredible Stories of Heroism on 9/11: During and after the attacks, many people, both first-responders and regular citizens, were heroes.
The 9/11 Terrorist Attacks: This page from the BBC gives background on the attacks as well as explaining what happened.
Sept. 11, 2001, Facts: Find facts and figures about the 9/11 attacks here.
What Was 9/11?: This article does a good job of explaining what happened during and after the 9/11 attacks.
What Was it Like? Answers to Children’s Questions About 9/11: It can be hard to imagine what it was like to be in New York City on Sept. 11, 2001. One woman, who was 12 years old when the attacks happened, wrote a book about her experiences, and she answers some questions she’s gotten from kids on this page.
What it Was Like to Watch the 9/11 Attacks From Your Classroom Window: A lot of people tried to put their feelings and experiences into words after 9/11. One result was a book, a series of monologues about what that day was like for students. An excerpt is on this page.
9/11 FAQ: The 9/11 Memorial & Museum has a good page here that answers questions about the attacks.
90,000 Fatal day in human history: what happened on September 11, 2001
“They seemed to be eternal”: how the Twin Towers collapsed in the USA
During the terrorist attack in New York, September 11, 2001
Jeff Christensen / Reuters
A series of the largest terrorist attacks in the history of mankind took place 18 years ago – September 11, 2001.On that day, the whole world froze in front of TV screens broadcasting a terrorist attack on the buildings of the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. The tragedy claimed the lives of 2,977 people – they were citizens of 92 states. Gazeta.Ru in a historical online broadcast broadcast the events of the day, which divided the history of the United States, and the whole world into “before” and “after”.
This is where Gazeta.Ru ends the online broadcast of the tragic events of September 11, 2001.Take care of yourself and your loved ones, see you soon!
Since 2002, September 11 in the United States has been marked in the American calendars as Patriot Day. Since 2009, this date has also been designated a nationwide Day of Service and Remembrance.
In 2011, the World Trade Center Memorial was built on the site of destroyed buildings in New York: it is represented in the form of two square fountain pools located right in the foundations of the former twin towers.The names of the victims of the terrorist attacks are carved on bronze slabs at the base of the parapets of the structures.
On the eve of the 15th anniversary of the attacks, the Washington Sociology Center conducted a survey that found that over 90% of respondents have a strong memory of where they were and what they were doing when news of the attack on the World Trade Center reached them.
In addition, almost half of Americans do not feel safe and believe that the ability of terrorists to conduct a new major attack on US soil is only increasing every year.
Tenet also tried to convince the public that thanks to his actions, “major attacks planned by Al-Qaeda (an organization banned in Russia)” (banned on the territory of the Russian Federation) in 1999 and 2000 were prevented. ” However, he could not give any details on the special operations.
The CIA also cites an overly harsh reaction from Tenet himself to the publication of this report, which he called “nonsense” and “error.”
“Your analysis unfairly and inaccurately shows my actions, as well as the heroic work of the men and women of the intelligence department. It is simply unfair to judge my work without having a complete understanding of all the facts. I did everything I could to report, warn and take measures to prevent terrorist attacks, ”the former CIA director said in 2005.
In particular, the document states that Tenet recognized the need for a “comprehensive and interdepartmental plan” to combat “Al-Qaeda (an organization banned in Russia)” (banned on the territory of the Russian Federation).However, he did nothing for this. “It bears full responsibility for the fact that such a strategic plan has never been created, despite its clear position,” the document says.
The CIA’s oversight service also prepared a report on the 2001 tragedy, which criticized the director of Central Intelligence and the head of the US CIA, George Tenet, who held this post from 1997 to 2004.
Gazeta.Ru publishes the last words of passengers caught in four passenger planes destined to serve as a weapon in the hands of Arab terrorists.You can listen to the words that convey the full depth of fear and despair in the face of an impending tragedy, you can here.
“This date completely changed life in the United States and its largest metropolis, dispelled the idea of a safe world in which Americans live,” stressed Joe Daniels, director of the National 9/11 Memorial and Museum.
Aftermath of the terrorist attack in New York, September 11, 2001
Peter Morgan / Reuters
All these manifestations of “arrogance of power” provoked rejection and protests both in America itself and abroad. According to international polls, anti-American sentiment was growing in the world.
Domestic and foreign policy propaganda in the United States has also intensified. America has shown particular disregard for the norms of international law by creating a concentration camp at its military base in Guantanamo, Cuba – a kind of legal vacuum – to contain and process people captured during anti-terrorist operations in Afghanistan and other places.
The prisoners of this “zone” are essentially not US prisoners of war and do not have any official legal status. In this regard, the authorities came to the possibility of keeping them behind bars almost indefinitely.
The atmosphere in the country was gradually heating up – the States were more like a besieged fortress. Denunciation was encouraged, but at the same time leaks of official information and, in general, any deviation from the “patriotic consensus” were punished. One could lose a job for one admission of the terrorists’ courage.
Following the events of September 11, 2001, the Republican administration of George W. Bush declared a “war on terror.” In this regard, Congress adopted a whole package of “emergency” laws, which, among other things, significantly expanded the powers of the intelligence services. Now they have the opportunity to conduct “interrogation with bias”, bordering on torture, as well as closely monitor not only foreigners, but also the citizens of the country.
In addition, the United States increasingly closed borders, tightened immigration and visa regimes.
During the terrorist attack in New York, September 11, 2001
Jeff Christensen / Reuters
However, Saudi Arabia responded by appealing to a federal court in Manhattan with a demand to dismiss 25 claims, since the plaintiffs have no evidence of Riyadh’s involvement in the 9/11 attack.
Later, dozens of insurance companies also went to court with claims against two banks in Saudi Arabia, as well as firms associated with the family of Osama bin Laden.The total amount of the claim was more than $ 4 billion.
In September 2016, the US Congress passed legislation allowing the heirs of 9/11 victims to sue Saudi Arabia, since most of the terrorists were citizens of that country. A month later, the first lawsuit was filed by an American woman who lost her husband during a terrorist attack.
In the spring of 2017, the rest of the victims’ relatives also filed a class action lawsuit.
Aftermath of the terrorist attack in New York, September 11, 2001
Peter Morgan / Reuters
In particular, in May 2012, at the Guantanamo base, a trial began over the ideological mastermind and the main organizer of the terrorist attacks, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who was detained in 2003 in Pakistan. He still has not been sentenced.
In 2002 and 2003, police arrested six more people suspected of involvement in the attacks. After several years in CIA prisons, they were taken to a camp at an American base in Guantanamo, Cuba.Charges were brought against five of the suspects only in May 2011. To date, hearings on the 2001 terrorist attacks are ongoing.
Later, the identities of all the suicide bombers were identified – they turned out to be citizens of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Lebanon. At the same time, the men were in the United States legally. The leader of Al-Qaeda (an organization banned in Russia) Osama bin Laden also released a video message in which he admitted that he directly supervised the actions of 19 terrorists.
On May 2, 2011, in northwestern Pakistan, he was eliminated by the US intelligence services.
White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card informs US President (January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009) George W. Bush of the second plane crashing into the World Trade Center tower
Win McNamee / Reuters
In November 2002, a special independent commission was established in the United States to investigate the 9/11 attacks. Two years later, experts published the final report on the investigation into the circumstances of the tragedy – in total, it took 600 pages.
The exact figure of the damage caused by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks is still unknown. In September 2006 – five years after the tragedy – the head of the White House, George W. Bush, announced that the lowest estimate was $ 500 billion.
Those who survived September 11, 2001 in the United States will never be able to erase the events of those days from their memory.
“It seemed inconceivable that the towers could collapse. If you are an American, grew up here, and even if you are a foreigner who watched films about the United States, then they were a symbol for you, something like the Taj Mahal or even something more. They seemed to be eternal ”, – emphasizes Jonathan Wachtel.
The men spent almost 20 hours under the rubble – firefighters only reached McLaughlin on the morning of September 12. In the hospital, the doctors practically signed for their own impotence – the injuries of the injured sergeant were too serious.Later, John was put into a coma for 6 weeks and had about 30 surgeries, including skin grafts on his legs. After several years of therapy, he was still able to return to normal life.
John McLaughlin was the last to be pulled from the rubble of the collapsed World Trade Center.
Aftermath of the terrorist attack in New York, September 11, 2001
Peter Morgan / Reuters
Sergeant John McLaughlin was at the scene of the tragedy of his own free will – having learned about the incident, he went to help. They were on the basement floor of the WTC complex when the South Tower collapsed. The police were under the rubble.
“At first I thought I was dead. I didn’t feel anything: I didn’t see, I didn’t smell, I didn’t hear. There was a ringing silence all around, ”recalls John McLaughlin.
Rescuers were also in mortal danger – many of them risked their lives to get people out.
“Looking back over my left shoulder, I managed to see a huge cloud of dust and a piece of falling concrete. The debris flew straight in my direction, from the side it looked as if a block of ice was falling on you, breaking off from a glacier. I froze, anticipating the end, and then I saw a fire engine. I decided to hide under it, not having the slightest certainty that it would save me. I just wanted to escape the rubble and acted unconsciously, ”says Police Sergeant Dennis Frederick. He later learned that many of his colleagues died when a building collapsed on another staircase.
The lucky ones were also among those who were in the Pentagon on the fateful day. One of them turned out to be John Yates, the security manager.
“The room was just black, and everything I touched burned my hands. I crawled on all fours and realized that I was moving in the right direction when it got brighter. Once in the yard, I realized that I was badly burned, because I looked at my hands and saw how the skin was peeling off them. I remember sitting on the grass and the doctor cutting off my clothes.At the time of the explosion, five people were standing next to me. Only I survived, ”the man recalls.
The people in the South Tower made their way up the flights of stairs, completely heaped up with chunks of concrete, exploding soda cans and broken pipes.
“I could only hear people coughing and moaning. One of the women suffered from asthma and had to stop to catch her breath. The lady with the cut arm was walking with difficulty, her leg was bleeding. Stepping on the floor, every time she left a bloody imprint.I tried to contain my panic, and my inner voice told me: “Calm down” , – says an employee of the company Euro Brokers, located within the walls of the south tower. She and all her companions managed to get out into the street.
On the 40th floor, Michael and his colleagues, who were going downstairs, met firefighters. They advised to keep moving. Having overcome the level of the 20th floor, Wright got to the site of the South Tower, where he realized the seriousness of what was happening: there were corpses everywhere, dozens of bodies.
The building began to collapse when Wright and his colleagues were at the escalator at one of the exits of the building. The air was instantly blackened by clouds of dust. Michael was led outside by a firefighter who knew the way through the surviving bookstore building.
Rescuers carry a man injured in a terrorist attack in New York, September 11, 2001
Shannon Stapleton / Reuters
“The idea of the unreality of what was happening helped to keep calm on the stairs, it seemed that the building could not collapse. When we crossed several floors, we relaxed a bit. We knew that something bad had happened, but when the fire was thirty floors higher, it no longer worries so much, ”Wright recalls.
However, there were also those who managed to survive. So, 30-year-old Michael Wright at the time of the terrorist attack was on the 81st floor of the North Tower of the World Trade Center.According to the man, at some point the building shook – he looked out of the toilet and saw the fire. There was also a huge crack along the floor of the corridor, the hall near the elevator was completely destroyed, there was smoke everywhere.
The victims of terrorist attacks were 2977 people : 246 passengers and aircraft crew members, 2606 people – in New York, in the buildings of the World Trade Center and on the ground, 125 – in the Pentagon building. Citizens of the United States and 91 other states were killed.
The rescue operations also killed 341 firefighters and 2 paramedics, 60 police officers and eight ambulance personnel.
On the day of the tragedy, Alexander Bratersky was in New York, now he is a political columnist for Gazeta.Ru. He witnessed what was happening in the city during these terrible hours. “On September 11, 2001, I was in the United States as part of the accompanying group Tatu, which received an MTV award on September 9,” says Alexander Bratersky. – Early in the morning I was on the subway when, together with other passengers, I saw a fire in one of the skyscrapers. We were dropped out of the carriage – we learned from the police that the plane had crashed into the tower.We immediately thought it was a terrorist act. I rushed to call on a street payphone to go on the air of Nashe Radio, where I was then working. ”
The Gazeta.Ru columnist recalls that panic reigned around. “Many cried, the police shouted ‘North!’, Urging people to go to New Jersey in organized transport. Hearing that I speak Russian, a girl grabbed my hand – she was confused. It turned out that the girl came from Ukraine. She was crying, so I took her to a cafe: there were people sitting in complete silence and watching on TV how the towers were falling. “
When asked about the number of victims, New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani replies: “More than you can bear.” At the same time, the mayor of Washington declares a state of emergency – the National Guard arrives in the city.
Mayor of New York (1994-2001) Rudolph Giuliani
Mike Segar / Reuters
American Airlines confirms the loss of two planes. Within an hour, United Airlines also reported the loss of two of its airliners.
The media reported on the cancellation of the mayoral elections in New York due to the tragic events.
According to CNN, mass evacuations have begun in Washington DC and New York. A few minutes later, the mayor of New York also orders the evacuation of Lower Manhattan.
“I saw bloody people coming out of the towers. It was like a movie. Everything seemed somehow unreal. I distinctly remember the firefighters who went inside with their equipment, as before that they looked up and shook their heads. Probably, many of them died later, ”says eyewitness to the events, Fox News producer Jonathan Wachtel.
A man who lost relatives during the terrorist attack in New York, September 11, 2001
Shannon Stapleton / Reuters
The North Tower of the World Trade Center is completely destroyed – 1 hour 41 minutes have passed since Flight 11 hit it. No one on the upper floors survives. The Marriott Hotel, whose building was located between two towers, was also completely destroyed. The destruction of the second tower, like the first, was shown live.
As the head of state, George W. Bush, later noted, he perceived the third attack as a declaration of war.Immediately after that, he flew out of Florida.
“It became clear in my head: what happened with the first plane could still be an accident, with the second – definitely an attack, but with the third – already a declaration of war,” the president wrote in his memoirs.
A wing of the Pentagon building collapses.
United Airlines flight 93 drops 129 kilometers southeast of Pittsburgh in Somerset County, Pennsylvania. Presumably his target was the Capitol Building or the White House.However, the passengers of the liner intervened in the matter – having received reports of two other hijacked planes, they forcibly tried to regain control of the board. Realizing that they could not withstand the pressure of people, the terrorists sent the liner into the ground.
The south tower of the World Trade Center is completely destroyed. 55 minutes have passed since Flight 175 hit it. Lower Manhattan is completely covered by huge clouds of dust.
The riot of passengers on flight 93 begins. According to the testimony of the crew of the plane flying by, the liner “flaps its wings” – at this time, a struggle between passengers and hijackers takes place in the cockpit.
The FAA Command Center is requesting aviation administration headquarters to intervene militarily with Flight 93. However, the FAA has not made a decision until the plane crashes.
Flight 77 crashes into the west wing of the Pentagon building, causing a massive fire. This wing of the Pentagon is undergoing renovations, so most of the offices are empty. All 64 people on board and 125 people in the building are killed.
Aftermath of the terrorist attack on the Pentagon buildings, September 11, 2001
Larry Downing / Reuters
Following reports that Flight 77 was deployed towards Washington, the Secret Service decided to evacuate the Vice President from the White House.
Fred Eichler, unconscious after the explosion, opens his eyes from the light of a flashlight. A firefighter climbed onto the floor – he managed to save the people found, but he himself later died. When Fred got out into the street, he called his wife and heard her voice: “Run, run, run!” He ran – in a few minutes the North Tower collapsed.
The hijackers begin storming the cockpit of Flight 93 and seize control of the plane. Dispatchers in Cleveland receive a radio broadcast from the liner: “Sit in your seats. We have a bomb. ”
Flight 93 receives a text warning from a United Airlines dispatcher: “Beware of cockpit intrusion – two planes crashed into the World Trade Center.”
The Federal Aviation Administration prohibits departures from all aircraft bound for or through New York, Boston and Washington.The ban applies to the entire country.
US President George W. Bush was caught in a terrorist attack in Florida. He is in a school in Sarasota for a reading lesson. The head of state reads “Baby Goat” to the children, but the lesson is interrupted.
As the president was already sitting in the classroom, the chief of staff, Andy Card, approached him and whispered in his ear that another plane had crashed into a second building. “America has been attacked,” Chief of Staff Andy Card says in the president’s ear.
White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card informs US President (January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009) George W. Bush of the second plane crashing into the World Trade Center tower
Win McNamee / Reuters
At about 959 km / h, Flight 175 crashes into the south side of the South Tower of the World Trade Center between floors 78 and 85. Parts of the aircraft pierce the building and fly out from the east and north sides, some of them crashing to the ground six blocks from the building. Interruptions begin in the work of television stations, as studios, transmitters and antenna equipment were located on the south tower.
Terrorist attack on September 11, 2001
Flight 175 heads to New York. One of the passengers, Peter Henson, was able to reach his father from the board:
“Everything is bad, father. The flight attendants are injured. They (the hijackers) seem to have knives and gas. They say they have a bomb. The situation on the plane is very bad. Passengers are in a panic, some feel bad. The plane makes sudden movements. I don’t think the pilot is flying the plane. I think we are going down. I think we’re heading to Chicago or somewhere else and crash into a building. “The call is interrupted by a woman’s scream.
Terrorists hijack Flight 77. The plane’s responder shuts down and is out of radar. Invisible to dispatchers, the liner turns east. After that, flight 77 continues to fly towards Washington for another 36 minutes, without being displayed anywhere.
The United Airlines office in San Francisco is contacted by the flight attendant of Flight 175. According to him, the plane was hijacked, both pilots were killed, the flight attendant was injured.In addition, the kidnappers took control of the plane.
At least 100 people (in some sources the figure is 250 people), caught in a terrorist attack on the upper floors, I jump out of the windows. Much of the floor on one of the floors in the north tower collapsed, leading people to think the building might collapse.
One man – firefighter Daniel Sur, who was standing on the ground – is killed when a man who has jumped out of a window falls right on him.
At approximately 790 km / h, Flight 11 crashes into the north tower of the World Trade Center between the 93rd and 99th floors. The plane almost entirely goes inside the building, pierces the building to the middle and cuts all three stairwells, filling them with debris. 90 022 80 tons of aviation kerosene, mixed with the remains of the aircraft and the debris of the building, create a huge fire.
Aftermath of the terrorist attack in New York, September 11, 2001
Ray Stubblebine / Reuters
Insurance agent Fred Eichler, 54, walked into his office on the 83rd floor of the North Tower of the World Trade Center and at that time went to the restroom, where he met colleagues and stopped for a chat. As they talk, they see a plane rushing straight towards them. Just a few minutes later, the men were abruptly thrown away by a blast wave for several tens of meters.
American Airlines office in Boston received a call from flight attendant Amy Sweeney on Flight 11.
“Something is wrong. We are sinking rapidly. I see water. I see buildings. We’re going very, very low. We’re flying too low. ” After a few seconds, she says slowly, “Oh my God.” The call is interrupted by loud, persistent noise.
Flight 175 is hijacked. The flight attendant contacted the United Airlines office in San Francisco: he said that both pilots were killed, the flight attendant was injured, and the kidnappers were probably flying the plane.
A United Airlines Boeing 757 departs from Newark International Airport. The 37 passengers on Flight 93 head to San Francisco after a 40-minute delay. There are four hijackers aboard.
Boston Center contacts Otis Air Force Base of the US National Guard and reports the hijacking of Flight 11.A few minutes later, the dispatcher also received a message from the pilot of Flight 175, who had previously taken off from Logan: the crew saw the hijacked flight 16 km from their side.
“… We heard a strange transmission at the moment when we were leaving Boston. Someone could be heard pressing the microphone button and saying, “Everyone stays where they are,” the pilots reported.
Flight 11’s radio is turned off, but the aircraft remains on surveillance radar screens as a marker without additional information.It then makes a 100-degree turn south and heads straight for New York.
Suddenly a radio transmission breaks through to the controllers: “We have several planes. Be quiet and everything will be fine. We are going back to the airport. ” These words are addressed to the people on the plane – the terrorist simply confused the buttons.
Another American Airlines Boeing 757 departs from Washington Dulles International Airport for Los Angeles. Flight 77 has 58 passengers and six crew members. And again, five hijackers aboard.
Betty Ong, a flight attendant on Flight 11, calls the American Airlines office on the board.
“The cockpit is not responding, someone is injured in business class, I think they used tear gas, we cannot breathe, I don’t know, it looks like we are captured,” the girl says, adding that two stewardesses.
Aftermath of the terrorist attack in New York, September 12, 2001
United Airlines Flight 175, another fully fueled Boeing 767, also departs Logan Airport towards Los Angeles. Onboard there are 56 passengers and nine crew members. And five hijackers.
Flight 11 makes the last contact with the Boston air traffic control center. Within a few minutes, the flight ceases to follow the instructions of the dispatcher and does not gain the required altitude of 10.7 thousand meters.
American Airlines flight 11 (Boeing 767) departs with a 14-minute delay. All five hijackers are on board among other passengers.
Five terrorists are boarding the plane – their faces have not yet evoked any negative emotions in the rest of the passengers. The first of the five to enter the plane are Mohammed Atta, along with Abdulaziz al-Omari.
Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Justice
American Airlines Flight 11 is preparing to take off at Boston’s Logan Airport. According to the schedule, he should fly to Los Angeles. There are 86 passengers on board.
On September 4, 2001, the national security advisers of the George W. Bush administration approved a draft version of the plan to combat “Al-Qaeda (an organization banned in Russia)” (banned on the territory of the Russian Federation).The plan was to be presented on September 10. But the President of the United States was away – and did not see him.
In the Memorandum, the US President was reminded that since 1997, Osama bin Laden has openly spoken about his intention to strike the United States. Moreover, in 1997 and 1998, he said on television that his supporters were ready to follow the example of Ramzi Yousef, who in 1993 left a truck filled with explosives in the underground garage of one of the World Trade Center towers.Then six people died and about a thousand were injured.
On August 6, 2001, US President George W. Bush received the famous memorandum entitled “Bin Laden intends to strike the United States.” In 2004, its text was published.
Due to the arrest of Moussaoui – on September 11, documents were being prepared for his deportation to France, of which he was a citizen – one of the four Al-Qaeda terrorist brigades (the organization is banned in Russia) turned out to be understaffed, it had four people instead of five.After the terrorist attack, the special services became interested in Moussaoui’s past. In December 2001, Moussaoui was charged in connection with the 9/11 attacks.
In May 2006, Zacarias Moussaoui was sentenced to life imprisonment – he is being held in a high security prison in Florence, Colorado.
In August 2001, Zacarias Moussaoui enrolled at a flight school in Minneapolis, Minnesota, who will soon carry out a terrorist attack. Soon, the school authorities turned to the FBI – they were concerned that the student was only interested in how to raise and land the plane, not paying due attention to the basics of aviation.In addition, it looked suspicious that he had given a large sum of cash for the training.
The FBI interviewed instructor Moussaoui, his roommate, and then Moussaoui himself. He was detained for violating immigration laws.
The Minnaepolis FBI department launched an investigation, but the headquarters did not believe that there was sufficient reason to suspect Moussaoui of preparing a terrorist attack.
During the terrorist attack on the Pentagon building, September 11, 2001
Larry Downing / Reuters
In October 2000, terrorists in Yemen attacked the American destroyer Cole, which was refueling in the Yemeni port of Aden. They sent a boat filled with explosives driven by two suicide bombers to the ship. The attack killed 17 people. 39 were injured. Khalid Al-Mihdar and Navad Al-Azmi were suspected of organizing the attack.
In January 2000, Khalid Al-Mihdar and Nawad Al-Azmi will fly to Los Angeles. After that, they will travel to San Diego to meet with another CIA object of interest.
In early 2000, the CIA learned that Khalid Al-Mikhdar flew to Kuala Lumpur to meet with members of Al-Qaeda (an organization banned in Russia) (banned in the Russian Federation). The man was suspected of being involved in the activities of the organization. Intelligence knew that he had a multiple entry visa to enter the United States. He would later become one of the pilots who flew American Airlines Flight 77 to the Pentagon.
Then, in December 1999, American border guards detained a man named Ahmed Ressam while trying to enter the United States from Canada. He tried to inject a large amount of chemical agents in a car intended for the manufacture of explosives. Later, the investigation showed that it should have been used to orchestrate an explosion at the Los Angeles airport.
In December 1999, the CIA intercepted the terrorists’ telephone conversations in Yemen – they were discussing a large meeting of the organization’s members, which was to take place in Malaysia.
In 1999, a study on the sociology and psychology of terrorism was published in the United States by the Federal Research Center of the Library of Congress. It said that “Al-Qaeda (an organization banned in Russia)” (banned on the territory of the Russian Federation) “poses the most serious terrorist threat to the security interests of the United States.”
The authors of the study warned: the organization may commit a terrorist attack, which will consist in the fact that planes filled with explosives will be sent to the Pentagon, the headquarters of the CIA or the White House. ”
By the end of 1998, American intelligence collected data that Al-Qaeda (an organization banned in Russia) (banned in the Russian Federation) was planning to commit terrorist acts in the United States, but they were vague and inaccurate.Nothing was known about the exact time and place of the attack. By the summer of 2001, fears were at their peak.
As early as October 1998, the US Federal Aviation Administration called on airlines and airports to increase their vigilance. This was a natural reaction to the threats Osama bin Laden made against the Americans after their attempts to destroy the organization’s bases in Afghanistan and Sudan.
In August 1998, American citizens became victims of terrorist attacks for which Al-Qaeda (an organization banned in Russia) (banned in the Russian Federation) claimed responsibility, when powerful explosions thundered at the US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, killing 224 people …
The key role in planning this action was played by Khalid Sheikh Mohammad and Ramzi Yousef, who led the operations of Al-Qaeda (banned on the territory of the Russian Federation). In 1996, Khalid Sheikh Mohammad was indicted as one of the accomplices of the Bojinka project, but he managed to avoid trial by hiding from law enforcement agencies. Murad confessed to the US authorities that he took part in the preparation of this operation and told about it in detail. On September 5, 1996, Abdul Hakim Murad and Ramzi Yousef and Wael Khan Mein Shah, who were defendants in the same case, were found guilty on all counts of conspiracy related to Operation Bojinka.
In 1995, Abdul Hakim Murad, a commercial airline pilot who was a member of the banned Jemaah Islamiya, was arrested in Manila. He was taken during a raid, during which chemicals and other means that are used to make explosives were seized from him. It was transferred to the United States – Murad was accused of conspiracy to simultaneously detonate 12 United States commercial airliners in the air, the project was codenamed “Bojinka”.You can read about all this today on the website of the UN Security Council.
The chain of events that led to the worst terrorist attack in US history was launched in 1988, when Osama bin Laden, the son of Saudi billionaire Mohammad bin Awad bin Laden, founded the terrorist organization Al Qaeda (an organization banned in Russia), banned in Russia. Russia.
Osama bin Laden (1998)
Meanwhile, the Kremlin’s website has a message dated September 10, 2001 about a telephone conversation between Putin and Bush. It is noted that during the conversation, held at the initiative of the United States, preparations for the APEC summit and future Russian-American summit talks were discussed.
At the same time, both presidents expressed satisfaction with the intensity of contacts in the military-political sphere, the economy and other areas, the archives said.
Two days earlier, Russian President Vladimir Putin had contacted Bush. He warned him about the impending terrorist attacks, information about which was received by Russian intelligence. It was about terrorist actions “which have been preparing for a long time and originating from Afghanistan.” Former CIA analyst George Beebe wrote about this in his book.
During the terrorist attack in New York, September 11, 2001
Brad Rickerby / Reuters
In the morning, US President George W. Bush traditionally opened the Bible and then went for a run. After breakfast, he had a meeting scheduled at the Primary School. Emma Booker based in Sarasota, Florida. There he was going to discuss a new education reform.
On September 11, 2001, a mayoral election was to take place in New York. “It was a beautiful day. It was warm, but not hot, the sky was clear. I remember looking up at the sky and thinking, “What a beauty!” It all happened out of the blue, ”recalled Fox News producer Jonathan Wachtel.
Good afternoon, dear readers! Today, the whole world recalls with bated breath the tragedy of September 11, 2001 – on that day, the al-Qaeda terrorist organization (banned in the Russian Federation) hijacked four passenger planes and sent them to the towers of the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon.
According to experts, the target was also the White House or the Capitol, but the liner with the terrorists failed to reach them.Gazeta.Ru tells what happened on that terrible day, which claimed the lives of almost three thousand citizens of 92 states.
During the terrorist attack in New York, September 11, 2001
Str Old / Reuters
New records appeared
90,000 News: 10 Facts About the World Trade Center – Expert
September 11, 2001 is not only the date of the largest terrorist attack in the history of mankind, which claimed thousands of lives and entailed global changes in the world order, but also the day of the destruction of a unique architectural monument.It is no coincidence that the terrorists targeted the Twin Towers: few buildings are as important to American society. Nevertheless, the history of the creation of the World Trade Center (WTC) is much less known than the history of its death.
- Architect of the Twin Towers Minoru Yamasaki (1912–1986) was born in Seattle to a poor immigrant family. In all his projects, the strongest influence of the Gothic is felt. Yamasaki explained his addiction to narrow lancet windows by fear of heights.
- The project of two identical twin towers devoid of any decorations is considered a masterpiece of postmodernism and a reference expression of its attitude to the world (seriality, non-distinction between the copy and the original, etc.). Nevertheless, Yamasaki demonstrated not only a mastery of form and the ability to express zeitgeist, but also an excellent knowledge of European traditions. In particular – the architecture of the Tuscan city of San Gimignano, famous for its square medieval towers.
- The difference in height between the two towers (the first, North, was two meters higher than the second, South) is not due to conceptual, but technical considerations: the administration of the New York port (the legal owner of the territory of the complex) demanded that the ceilings on the 43rd and The 67th floors of the first tower, given over to her needs, were a meter higher than the rest.
- Despite the undoubted architectural merits and technical novelty, Yamasaki’s project caused a lot of criticism from professional architects and urban planners. They pointed out that 110-storey parallelepipeds protruding “waist-high” from the rest of the building knock down the scale, give a toy look to other impressive buildings, and in addition, violate the natural proportions of Manhattan, which looks like a mountain with a peak in the area of 40th streets. , that is, exactly where the Empire State Building was built.
- By the time the WTC complex was erected (1970-1973), Downtown New York was in deep crisis. So, despite the proud name, for the first decade more than half of the office premises of the complex were rented not by international corporations, but were occupied by city administration institutions. Only in the early 80s did the situation begin to improve. This repeated the history of the Empire State Building: it was built during the Great Depression and for the first five years stood half empty, bringing the owner income only through excursions to the observation deck.
- The WTC Towers repeated the fate of the pre-war super-skyscraper in one more respect: immediately after they were erected, they were in the hands of a giant monkey. King Kong climbed the Empire State Building in the 1933 film, and the WTC in its 1976 remake. By the time King Kong was created in 2005, the WTC site known as Ground Zero was a construction site, so director Peter Jackson had to move the action back to 1933 and force King Kong to climb the Empire State Building again.
- The revival of Lower Manhattan in the 80s was largely associated with the construction of Battery Park city – a quarter of expensive residential buildings with a well-maintained infrastructure (green courtyards, esplanades) on the site of former abandoned piers that stretched along the Hudson from the foothills of the WTC (on this site the World Financial Center was later erected) to the southern tip of Manhattan Island (where from the beginning of the 19th century there is a fort with an artillery battery, which gave the name to the quarter).The piers were filled with earth from the pits under the WTC and the fragments of demolished buildings of the 19th century, which were placed in their place.
- The cause of the fall of the Twin Towers was not a blow, but a fire. The burning kerosene from the aircraft tanks melted the aluminum tubes of the outer supporting frame, and therefore the towers did not collapse on their side, but folded under their own weight like a house of cards. By a strange architectonic whim, on September 11, 2001, only the seven buildings that were part of the WTC complex were destroyed. Other buildings, in particular the fragile glass complex of the World Financial Center, which stood close to the WTC, practically did not suffer.The only exception is the St. Nicholas Orthodox Greek Church of 1832, which stood next to the South Tower and was completely destroyed by its rubble.
- Projects for the construction of a memorial to the dead and a commercial rear site at Ground Zero have been discussed, negotiated and revised many times. This was due to the need to reconcile the opposite wishes of the interested parties – developers who demanded full compensation for the lost square feet; relatives of the victims who insisted that the “footprints” of the towers, the so-called footprints, remain undeveloped; the city authorities, whose obligatory condition was the restoration of the damaged street grid and underground transport network, as well as the police, which put forward very stringent requirements for security and “terrorism resistance”.Although a groundbreaking project by architect Daniel Libeskind won the open competition, developer Larry Silverstein chose a much more traditional design by high-rise architecture firm SOM, called the Freedom Tower, as the architectural dominant.
- “Freedom Tower” in the plan repeats the twin towers – a square with a side of 60 meters. It has 80 floors, thanks to the non-residential technical superstructure, its height repeats the height of the destroyed towers – 415 meters. And the total height of the structure together with the antenna is 540 meters.This exactly corresponds to the height of the Ostankino TV tower. But the developers started from a completely different coincidence: 540 meters is 1776 feet, and 1776 is the year of the proclamation of US independence. The new complex should have been built by 2011 and fully populated by 2013.
90,000 Eleven Facts About The Nightmare on Elm Street – Popcorn
Robert Englund is 70 years old today.IMDb lists him in 153 roles, but the whole world, first of all, knows him as a cult movie lover in a dirty red and green sweater, the owner of an unforgettable face and gloves with blades. On this occasion – some interesting facts about the film.
“One, two, Freddie is following you! Three, four, better close your door! Five, six, grab your cross! Seven, eight, stay up late!
Nine, ten, never sleep again. ”
Creator Freddy – Wes Craven Tolds What He Invented
character based on stories that were published in the magazine “Los Angeles
Times “.They told about a series of mysterious deaths that occurred during
sleep. And before that, all the victims were haunted by nightmares. They were the children of refugees
from Cambodia who came to the United States with their parents. In their homeland
brutalized Pol Pot, who in four years of his reign destroyed
several million citizens of the country. Children could not sleep, they dreamed of “red
Khmer “. Despite the treatment and excellent food, they were dying of starvation.
And the name Kruger was given in honor of the bully who treated the future
screenwriter when he was young.
According to the original plan of Wes Craven, the maniac should have
get an even more repulsive appearance. He was not supposed to have
lips and parts of the scalp, and the whole face will be strewn with abscesses. To make us sleep more
worse, apparently. The idea was buried by make-up artist David Miller, he convinced the author,
so that the character will be unconvincing and like a doll.And despite this
simplification, it took up to four hours to apply makeup.
At first, Craven wanted to give the role of Kruger to someone
extra or stuntman, but after several test runs, he still invited
for the role of a professional actor, a graduate of two acting schools of drama
art. Robert Englund’s serious training came in handy.Working on
Thus, he studied classic tapes such as Werner Herzog’s Nosferatu and his own school experiences. An unsociable boy studied with him, who, like
fantasized Inglund, could grow into someone like Freddy.
And Kraven also invented the killer’s glove. He studied
primitive fears of people and read that they were afraid of teeth and claws.And then he saw his cat tear the upholstery of the sofa with its claws. It all came together. By the way, in the very first scene with Kruger, where he assembles the glove on the machine, it was not Englund who starred, but visual effects specialist Charles Belardinelli, only he knew how to assemble it. The original glove “starred” in the first two films
franchise, and then was lost. Surely lies at someone’s house, warms the soul
the very fact of owning a cult piece.
Young and wonderful actors auditioned for the role of the main character’s guy: Brad Pitt, Charlie Sheen, Kiefer Sutherland, C. Thomas Howell, Nicolas Cage and John Cusack.Another contender was Jackie Earl Haley (Rorschach
in Guardians), who came to audition with his friend Johnny Depp. So Depp
got his very first movie role.
And Jackie Earl Haley played Freddy Krueger 25 years later, in the remake.
The murder of the first victim – Tina – was filmed in a rotating
room. There, then, they filmed Depp’s transformation into a bloody fountain, on which
it took more than a thousand liters of fake blood.
One of the most famous scenes in the film, the bathroom, was filmed in the pavilion where the tank was placed.And they put the main character and a member in it
The franchise might not have happened. Because the movie was supposed to
will end with a total happy ending, the main character wakes up and realizes that
it was just a dream. But the producer of the film convinced Craven to finish
film so that there is a window for the sequels. And the director himself still says that if it were his will, everyone would be alive.
The film was shot at the New Line Cinema studio, which released only one picture before “The Nightmare on Elm Street” – “Alone in the Dark”.The film was
it was greeted more than coolly, and the studio was threatened with bankruptcy. But phenomenal
the success of Nightmare saved her. And this is great, because for 32 years at the studio there have been
a huge number of great films have been shot. For example, the trilogy “The Lord of the Rings” and “The Hobbit”.
So more “Nightmares” for the glory of all kinds of movies!
Based on materials: geexfiles.com
Found a mistake? Select the fragment and press Ctrl + Enter.
Terrorist attack on September 11, 2001 – what you need to know about the Twin Towers
Read more about the iconic skyscrapers in the following article.
World Trade Center was designed by Japanese architect Minoru Yamasaki in Lower Manhattan, New York. The architect came up with the project of the Center back in 1962. Buildings were officially opened on April 4, 1973.
Learn more: The tragedy of September 11 in the USA: what was the worst terrorist attack in the history of mankind
Complex consisted of 7 buildings, architectural dominant of which were two twin towers, 110 floors each .The northern tower was slightly higher behind the southern one – 417 m against 415 m (527.9 and 510 meters – with towers and antennas on the roof).
The construction process of the twins was quite complicated and already during the construction the project was corrected several times.
Engineers faced problems one after another. At first, in the place where the twin towers were supposed to be located, they did not find a footstone, but only artificial alluvial soil. Another obstacle was the Underground Railroad station in New Jersey, which was located nearby and transported hundreds of thousands of city residents every day.It would be economically disadvantageous to simply close it during construction.
Project of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center / Photo: Getty images
According to official data, there were 90,745 11 projects of twin towers and was one of the first implemented. For a long time after the opening and completion of construction, the towers were the tallest structures in the world.
3 facts about the buildings of the twin towers:
• 90,745,200 thousand tons of rolled steel were spent on the frames of the buildings;
• electrical network cables with a total capacity of 890,745,0 thousand kilowatts, stretched 4,828 kilometers 90,746, which is slightly less than the distance from New York to Alaska;
• the facades were made in the form of steel frames – the structure was earthquake resistant and able to withstand wind pressure;
See also: People jumped out of windows: creepy photos of the September 11 tragedy in the United States
Terrorist attack on February 26, 1993
The September 11 tragedy was preceded by another terrorist attack on the territory of WTC on February 26, 1993.
A truck with 680 kg of explosive drove into the center. A native of Kuwait, Ramzi Yosef, was at the wheel. According to his plan, the explosion would have topple one tower onto another and lead to significant human casualties.
An explosion occurred in the underground garage of the North Tower. As a result of the blast wave, a hole with a diameter of 30 meters was formed through 5 underground floors.
As a result of the 90,745 attack, 6 people 90,746 were killed, 50 thousand visitors to the Center complained of breathing problems due to lack of oxygen.
For a long time, the twin towers were the tallest structures in the world / Photo: Getty images
At 8:46 local time On September 11, 2001, al-Qaeda terrorists sent a hijacked plane American Airlines to the North Tower between floors 93 and 99.
After 17 minutes (at 9:03 am) the second aircraft hijacked by terrorists crashed into the South Tower between the 77th and 85th floors.
At 9:59 am , the South Tower collapsed due to a fire that damaged the steel elements of the structure.At 10:28, after a fire that lasted for almost 1.5 hours, the North Tower collapsed.
To the subject: 5 strongest American poems about the September 11 tragedy
During the September 11 terrorist attack, the Twin Towers collapsed completely. Another building in the complex, which housed the Marriott Hotel, was buried under the rubble of the towers.
4 other buildings of the complex survived, but they were declared unsuitable for renovation and were subsequently completely demolished. As a result of the September 11 terrorist attack, 2752 death certificates were issued .
Terrorist attack on September 11, 2001: watch the video
On November 3, 2014, on the site of the former World Trade Center, the Freedom Tower (World Trade Center 1) was opened
Memorial at the site of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York
How the memorial complex looked like on the site of the World Trade Center 10 years after the bloody terrorist attack on September 11, 2001 – see the photo.
Find out also: Why New York wants to completely ban the construction of glass skyscrapers
A rescuer from the Twin Towers blames the US government for everything
September 11 is a fateful day for American history.Lifeguard John Phil spoke about the work at the site of the collapse of the Twin Towers of the World Center, which is located in New York. The man admitted that he almost lost his life. He told about the conditions under which it was necessary to eliminate the consequences of the terrorist attack, as well as how the athlete was turned into a disabled person with post-traumatic syndrome for five days.
John Phil told RIA Novosti that he was at the scene on the night of September 11-12. According to him, the picture of what he saw was forever imprinted in his memory, since no person is programmed to see such a scale of destruction.
Phil worked on the rubble for only five days, he noted that the work went around the clock. The rescuer said he was injured – about 8,000 pounds of steel (about 3.6 tons) crushed his left foot. Subsequently, Phil spent 11 weeks in the hospital, underwent many operations. The man developed gangrene, due to which part of his foot was amputated.
John Phil said that before the tragic incident he had no health problems. The man considered himself an excellent athlete, he never had difficulty breathing.After the events of September 11, the rescuer suffered post-traumatic stress disorder. Every day he expects that he may develop cancer associated with this incident. Also, the man cries daily.
Phil shared that while working on the ruins of the Twin Towers, all rescuers had the same symptoms – everyone was coughing, everyone had a sore throat, and a runny nose. According to the man, poisons penetrated through the mouth, nose, skin, which made people sick. Those who dismantled the rubble did not have special protection.
The man noted that he considers the federal government, city authorities, state authorities, as well as everyone who was then in power and knew that the people involved in the rubble would get sick, guilty of the tragic incident. “Shame on their heads – they live with it for the rest of their lives,” – said John Phil.
According to the man, the authorities knew about the health risks posed by the debris – they were full of asbestos. Everyone was aware that the people involved in clearing the rubble were sick, but they were silent about it and claimed that everything was fiction.
John Phil shared that he eventually received compensation from the US government, but will always be angry that it took so long and that it will never be enough to help everyone.
Currently, the man heads the fund to support the liquidators of the consequences of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack. Phil notes that he was lucky as he survived. He noted that people taking part in those events continue to die.
On the morning of September 11, 2001, two passenger planes hijacked by terrorists crashed into the Twin Towers.As a result, the buildings were completely destroyed. Another aircraft crashed into the west wing of the Department of Defense building in Washington. The fourth liner fell and crashed near the city of Pittsburgh. According to official figures, 2,753 people died in New York then.
From time to time, information appears in the local media about the next deceased people who took part in the analysis of the rubble at the scene.
90,000 Cooling towers. History of appearance and other interesting facts about cooling towers
HISTORY OF APPEARANCE OF COOLING TOWER
Russian scientists made a significant contribution to the development of the theory and practice of gradient construction in Russia – Farvorskiy B.S., Yampolsky T.S., Berman L.D., Averkiev A.G., Arefiev Yu.I., Ponomarenko V.S. other.
Cooling towers in the Netherlands, 1918
Improvement in the design of cooling towers is associated with the desire to maximize the heat exchange area, both due to the area of the cooling tower and the volume of the fill, and due to the complexity of the design and increase in the efficiency of the blocks. This process has been going on for many years and further growth of the heat exchange area with the use of the sprinkler is not expected due to the achievement of the theoretical limit of the surface of the sprinkler.
WHAT WAS BEFORE THE COOLER?
At the beginning of the 20th century, the evaporation method was used to extract salt.
Evaporation is a chemical-technological treatment for the separation of various types of solvents from a solution. This method was also used to concentrate a solution, or crystallize various solutes. The evaporation method is actively used in chemistry today.
Hyperboloid towers were used to evaporate the brine. This is the origin of the name cooling tower, which is translated from German gradieren means “to thicken the brine”.
WHAT IT ALL STARTED WITH
The history of refrigeration units as we know them today dates back to 1918. Then professor of mechanical engineering Frederik van Iterson, who also served as director of state mines in the Netherlands, built the world’s first hyperboloid tower. She was in the city of Heerlen in the south of Holland. In the same year, Frederick patented his invention. At that time, the tower was very efficient and technologically advanced.
Before the invention of Frederick van Iterson, cooling towers did not have permanent shapes.They were round in shape, the so-called hiberboloid, or rectangular. The structures were located both separately from the buildings and on their roofs. But, despite the method of placement, the principle of their work was similar and was based on evaporation.
Subsequently, these evaporation towers were used for liquid cooling in various enterprises.
COOLING TOWERS IN THE HISTORY OF WORLD WAR II
There is another important historical fact in the history of cooling units. It happened during the 2nd World War in Great Britain.In this country, cooling towers were used to protect power plants from theoretical German military strikes. Cooling towers, as well as objects located close to power plants, were camouflaged as ordinary local settlements. Various drawings were applied to the walls, improvising houses or nature (trees and other vegetation). This made it possible to achieve camouflage of strategically important objects and be invisible to the enemy.
The rest of the water cooling towers were used only for peaceful purposes.For this they serve to this day.
COOLING TOWER RECORDS
During the entire existence and operation of cooling towers, a large number of different water cooling units have been built. Initially, they were built in the form of a hyperboloid (tower cooling towers), but now fan cooling towers are more common.
Let’s talk about the most interesting cooling towers that have been built around the world and are currently in use.
The largest cooling tower in terms of capacity was erected in Germany, at the Isar 1 nuclear power plant, 14 km from the city of Landshut, in the province of lower Bavaria.It was named after the Isar River, next to which it is located. Its height is 165m, diameter is 153m, and its maximum capacity is 216,000 m3 / h.
Largest cooling tower, Germany
Tallest cooling tower built in India in 2012. It is located near the Indian district of Rajasthan at the Kalisind Thermal Power Plant. The height of this cooling tower is 202 meters. But there is one more tower of the same 202 meters.It was built at the same CHPP, but only at the second power unit. These are the twin towers.
Let’s talk about cooling tower records in Russia.
Let’s start with the highest one. It was built in 2012 and is located at Novovoronezh NPP-2. The cooling tower is used to cool the liquid in the first power unit. The height of the tower is 172.5 m.
In the near future, it is planned to build a higher tower cooling tower in Russia at Kursk NPP-2. Its height according to the project is 179 meters.
The construction of ventilated cooling towers also has its own small records. One of these record holders was built in 2012 at TPP 11, which belongs to the Irkutskenergo branch. The size of one section is 18 by 18 meters, correspondingly, the irrigation area of the cooling tower section is 324 m.
COOLING TOWER IN FINE ARTS
This section will start with the largest cooling tower that has been involved in the visual arts. It was built in Germany, its height is 131 meters.Its main highlight is the drawing, which is applied to the entire surface of the cooling tower. It is visible at a distance of over 20 kilometers. The Swiss painter Christoph Ries has drawn the world’s largest map of the world. The drawing was entered in the Guinness Book of Records.
The following painted cooling towers are located in South Africa, in the suburbs of Johannesburg.
They were decorated before the 2010 FIFA World Cup held there.The theme of these images tells about the ethnic traditions of the indigenous population. And some championship sponsors have turned the cooling units into huge advertising towers.
Thus, the national bank FNB (First National Bank) placed its logo on one of the cooling towers.
And the world famous carbonated drinks company The Coca-Cola Company painted the freestanding cooling tower in the corporate colors of the company.
The following stunning images are located in France.On the cooling tower, located at the Tignes hydroelectric power station, a magnificent drawing of the ancient Greek hero Hercules is painted. The author of this art is the French artist Jean-Marie Pierret.
In 1991, the owners of one of the largest nuclear power plants in France, Cruas, invited Jean-Marie to paint their cooling tower. Eight professional industrial climbers were involved in the work. To achieve the goal, they needed more than 4 thousand liters of paint and took almost 8 thousand hours.The work continued for 14 years and the image titled “Aquarius” was fully completed in 2005.
In Russia there are also cooling towers with drawings on their surface.
Here is one of them:
It is located in Chelyabinsk, at CHPP-2. The coloring of the cooling tower corresponds to the corporate colors of the Fortum company. Since the station belongs to this concern, the colors are also matched to their corporate style.
The capital of our Motherland, Moscow, also did not stand aside.At TPP No. 23, located in the Metrogorodok area, 3 tower cooling towers have been built. There are no advertisements on them, no portraits of anyone, the drawings are not timed to any events, but they still look amazing.
But the most touching drawings of tower cooling towers are made by children in St. Petersburg. There was held a creative competition, timed to coincide with the Power Engineer’s Day, called “Paint the cooling towers of a nuclear power plant.” The organizers of the competition were shocked by the number of works – children under 15 years old sent over 300 drawings.Let’s hope that the best works will eventually be realized and our country will be replenished with new large-scale works of art.
ABANDONED COOLING TOWERS
Abandoned cooling towers are a new way of entertainment.
In our time, a significant number of extreme sports and entertainment have appeared, such as paintball, skydiving, surfing, bungee jumping, rock climbing and many others. But few people know that abandoned cooling towers are also used in extreme entertainment.
In St. Petersburg, lovers of jumping from a height on a rope, the so-called rope jumpers, have chosen one of the unexploited cooling towers for their fun.
INTERESTING FACTS FROM COOLING TOWER HISTORY
Originally, cooling towers were used to thicken brine before evaporation in salt mines. They are wooden structures up to 15 meters high. Branches of trees were used as a sprinkler, along which brine was flowing down.Due to the large area, the water evaporated, as a result of which the brine became more saturated. You can read more about the history of cooling towers in this article.
These cooling towers are now being used as inhalers. The air around such cooling towers is saturated with the smallest drops of saline solution containing iodine and other useful microelements. Inhalation of such air and being near the cooling tower has a beneficial effect on the human respiratory system, the musculoskeletal system, and heals skin diseases.
Alexander Blok wrote about salt cooling towers in his poem:
The same lake surface,
Salt dripping from the cooling towers is still dripping.
Now that you are old and peaceful,
What are you worrying about again?
Or the young genius of the first passion
Still not apart from the soul,
And you are forever betrothed
That old, unforgettable shadow?
You call – she will come:
An important profile will flash, as before,
And a voice, smoothly drawn out,
Experienced words whisper.
Choose a fan cooling tower
Answer 5 questions and get a TKP of a fan cooling tower for your production and a guaranteed discount
Author: NPO Agrostroyservis
Date of publication: 25.04.2018
90,000 September 11: terrorist attack or provocation of special services
Fifteen years ago, the United States was subjected to the most destructive terrorist attack in history
Photo: EAST NEWS
Founder of the terrorist organization “Al-Qaeda” (banned in Russia) Osama bin Laden in his video from On October 29, 2004, he announced his involvement in the incident.
Photo: EAST NEWS
9/11 – this is how the catastrophes of September 11, 2001 are called in the American tradition. The largest terrorist attack in history claimed nearly three thousand lives. The investigation by the official commission lasted from 2002 to 2004, with 28 pages of the report classified until now. All sorts of speculation began almost immediately: they say, in fact, the twin towers were blown up by the American special services …
1. The siloviki knew a lot. Or all?
So, the militants of the al-Qaeda organization, banned in many countries, legally arrived in the United States and hijacked four passenger planes.Two of which were sent to the towers of the World Trade Center (WTC), one to the building of the Pentagon (US Department of Defense), and another, making strange maneuvers, crashed in Pennsylvania. Further investigation showed that the CIA had long known about the involvement of many of these people in terrorism, but did not pass the information to the border service, so that the jihadists entered the New World without hindrance.
The founder of the terrorist organization “Al-Qaeda” (banned in the Russian Federation) Osama bin Laden in his video dated October 29, 2004, announced his involvement in the incident.
Photo: EAST NEWS
And less than a month after the tragedy, on October 7, 2001, the Americans invaded Afghanistan to “punish the terrorists.” In March 2003, they entered Iraq, also explaining this by the need for protection from an “external threat” – this time in the form of the never-found “chemical weapon of Saddam Hussein.” NATO contingents remain in both countries to this day, but the chaos in the Middle East has only intensified, and terrorist attacks are still raging around the world … But over these 16 years, the Pentagon has spent almost $ 6 trillion on military needs, a considerable part of which has gone through the pockets of loved ones to the military-industrial complex of the “Washington hawks” (the very ones who now support Hillary Clinton in the struggle for the presidency).So, according to the conspiracy theorists, the American security officials really could have had a motive to prepare a terrorist attack, or at least not to interfere with it.
The main argument of the theory of “controlled demolition” is the videos themselves with the burning towers, where it is clearly seen that the “twins” are crumbling, settling inward with the speed of free fall, as if someone had “cut down” all the supporting structures at once.
The World Trade Center building in flames.
In 2009, an international group of researchers published in the scientific journal “Open Chemical Physics” an article on the results of chemical analysis of the debris of the WTC, where fragments of termite, a combustible substance capable of burning steel, were identified. As you know, its melting temperature is about 1500 degrees, while the combustion temperature of aviation fuel under normal conditions is only about 1000 degrees …
At the same time, the report of the official commission does not even claim that the metal structures have melted.According to officials, the cause of the collapse was “the weakening of the steel frame of the building during the fire, combined with damage caused by the impact of aircraft.” True, for some reason the 9/11 Commission did not conduct its own analysis of the same wreckage for the presence of any explosives.
3. An underground nuclear explosion?
This “conspiracy theory” is based on the legend that in the 60s, when the WTC was created, the New York authorities gave permission to build only if the developer, along with the project, also proposed a satisfactory way to demolish the building, which might be required in the future for needs of the city.And since there was no experience in dismantling skyscrapers then (and even now), the architects supposedly foresaw the possibility of destroying each tower with the help of an underground explosion of a small nuclear bomb planted exactly under the building.
September 2016, a relative of a terrorist attack victim mourns her loss at a memorial site in New York.
And 40 years later, the American special services, according to the conspiracy lovers, did just that, as if they detonated a portable warhead at a depth of 50-100 meters under the World Trade Center.By the way, in the first hours after 9/11, officials and the media called the site of the tragedy “ground zero”. One of the meanings of this English term is “the epicenter of a nuclear explosion” … This theory is opposed by the absence of obvious signs of radiation pollution.
Two powerful searchlights have been piercing the night sky on the site of the Twin Towers for several years now.
4. Who damaged the Pentagon building?
According to the official version, the jihadists sent the third plane to the building of the US Department of Defense.But six months later, French political activist Thierry Meyssan wrote the book “9/11: A Monstrous Deception.” Where he turned to the facts: the length of the Boeing-757 is 50 meters, the wingspan is 38 meters. And the width of the hole in the wall of the Pentagon is 20 meters, despite the fact that the collision occurred at an angle. How is this possible? According to Meyssan, in fact, the US military hit its own headquarters with a guided missile. The fuselage of the alleged Boeing after the fire disappeared to no one knows where (except for the small debris scattered in front of the Pentagon).
Destruction of the Pentagon building after it was rammed by one of the airliners hijacked by terrorists.
Photo: EAST NEWS
The weak point of this version is the testimony of witnesses who personally observed the fall of the ill-fated flight, as well as fragments of the bodies of passengers and the “black boxes” of the airliner found at the crash site.
5. Was the fourth airliner shot down by the US Air Force?
A Boeing 757 en route from Newark to San Francisco was among the hijacked airliners.Threatening with dummy weapons, the terrorists sat at the controls and turned the ship, wishing to ram the White House or the Capitol. The passengers, together with the crew members, tried to recapture the plane – this became known from the phone calls from the board. A struggle broke out in the cockpit, but a miracle, as in Hollywood films, did not happen: the Boeing, having lost control, collapsed.
However, independent researchers drew attention to the large area of debris dispersion: heavy engine parts were found three miles, and light fragments of luggage were found eight miles from the main crash site.Perhaps the ship began to fall apart in the air – for example, after being hit by an air-to-air missile from a US Air Force fighter. At that time, the WTC towers were already on fire, so, according to the conspiracy theorists, the military chose to destroy the captured aircraft with 44 passengers, rather than allow another “air ram” with much greater casualties. And “the calls of passengers to their relatives”, they say, are falsified.
September 11, 2001. A moment later, the second plane will crash into the twin tower of the World Trade Center.
Photo: EAST NEWS
The weakness of this theory is that the flight recorder data has been preserved, according to which the passengers actually attacked the jihadists, and the calls were made on the onboard satellite phone.
“America acutely felt its vulnerability”
Gevorg Mirzayan, political scientist-Americanist, associate professor of the Department of Political Science of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation:
Americans historically considered their country to be such a “big island”, invulnerable external invasion.Therefore, the September attacks came as a grave shock to the nation. After that, the pendulum naturally swung in the other direction – and Washington began to conduct its foreign policy excessively tough. An equally drastic “tightening of the screws” followed in internal affairs: in October 2001, the so-called “Patriot Act” was adopted, a federal law that significantly expanded the rights of special services to electronically monitor and monitor citizens.