The fingersmith letterpress: The Fingersmith Letterpress | People of Print

The Fingersmith Letterpress | People of Print

The Fingersmith Letterpress is a very good option whether you are looking to create your own business card, design a unique postcard for someone or find some sweet ideas for a wedding invitation. Featured in the shop are many art pieces of fine craftsmanship, The Fingersmith Letterpress is also keen to work on a range of bespoke projects including hand lettering, illustration and graphic design.

Founded by designer and image maker Jacqueline Goh, the studio is also equipped with Chinese and English printing types to assist both local and international customers. Their incredible calligraphic focus demonstrates an exceptional skill in typography. And with their colourful depiction of everyday lives and objects, no doubt The Fingersmith Letterpress is one of the most favoured destinations amongst letterpress maniacs.

http://thefingersmithletterpress.com/

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Anna Chayasatit

Author at People of Print
[email protected] com

Latest posts by Anna Chayasatit (see all)

  • Icinori – February 9, 2021
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The Fingersmith Letterpress was last modified: March 3rd, 2014 by Anna Chayasatit

Want to Express Your Feelings in a Snap? There’s a Postcard for That

Can you remember the last time you sat down and wrote someone a letter?

No? I can’t, either. And that makes me sad. 😔 Sometimes I feel like letter-writing has become a lost art.

The nice paper, the pretty pen, the gathering of one’s thoughts… you know how it can be a complete sensory experience.

But there’s still one way I manage to get and do all of these things (although it’s much quicker and straight to the point). It’s a fun alternative too.

I reach for a postcard. Or you can go for a greeting card, if you want. 😉

And when I think of unique cards, I look for those made by The Fingersmith Letterpress.

Cool, huh?

Run by Jacqueline Goh, the director and designer, The Fingersmith Letterpress is a letterpress printing studio in Singapore that specialises in hand-lettering and illustrations.

Jackie uses a paper guillotine, an Adana table top press, and a Heidelberg Windmill to create her intricate and quirky prints, greeting cards, postcards and accessories. ↓

Jackie with dog Sumo at their workspace

She also accepts and produces bespoke projects for companies, as well as wedding and event invitations.

Memories on print

Jackie has known the power of a letter and a card since she was little.

“I had a pen pal from London when I was 11, and I remember getting super excited receiving her letters. She sent me a penny and I sent her a one-cent coin,” she recalls.

And the thrill of receiving cards hasn’t diminished.

“That a person actually thought about you and took the time out of their busy lives to pen you something” is the best thing about it, Jackie adds.

“Also, I’m pretty old school, so I like receiving a physical piece of paper with their handwriting scribbled on it. It beats receiving bills in the mail.”

It does indeed. 😊

So what did she look for in a good and memorable card back then, and has this changed?

“I don’t think the card itself needs to be beautiful or anything,” she admits.

“A friend and I used to exchange the ugliest postcards we could find during our travels, and it always cracked me up receiving them.”

True, the “carefully chosen” card can make a difference – especially now that we live in unprecedented times with the pandemic, and doing things online seems like the way to go.

Imagine how you’d feel when you see a handcrafted card, with a handwritten and heartfelt message, in your mailbox… and soon. ❤️

“Receiving a handwritten card could help break the monotony of living in the online world,” Jackie points out.

“It’s always nice to slow it down a little and put pen to paper, instead of staring at your computer screen.

So take a break from those emails

And get out that pen and card right now. 😊

Although the design of your card can sometimes be the main draw, there are still some ways for us to make the card our own. Our words, for one, and their meaning, will make it stand out even more.

Jackie shares her tips for personalising your cards (so they will be remembered for a long time).

#1 Don’t be afraid to make mistakes

“I was eating a peanut butter sandwich while writing a card once, and a blob of peanut butter found its way onto the card. Instead of tearing the letter and re-writing it, I left the stain there, drew a little arrow and wrote, ‘Next time we meet, I’ll make you this yummy sandwich.’”

#2 Doodle

“Little doodles on the card are a great way to personalise it as well. Most of my doodles are usually inside jokes with the recipient. They are almost never masterpieces – but if they are silly and make the person reading it laugh, then that makes me really happy as well.

#3 Turn it into a surprise

“My best friend hid a birthday card in my iPad cover as I was not in town for my birthday. When I found it, I was super touched. Reading someone’s handwriting and being able to revisit that memory beats reading a text on my phone.”

Go ahead and show your gratitude 😉

Another tip

We can wonder about other card musts, do’s and don’ts, but the activity is actually meant to be simple.

“The best thing about writing a card is that there are no rules,” Jackie states.

“You can send a super tiny card or a ginormous one. Whatever it is, write something from your heart. When you put pen to paper, it makes you think harder about what you want to say and what that person means to you.”

Check out Jackie’s cards for more ideas. 😊

For more on Jackie and The Fingersmith Letterpress, go to their website, Facebook and Instagram.

สตูดิโอ Letterpress ในสวนหลังบ้านของศิลปินหญิงชาวสิงคโปร์ » a day magazine

เราพบกันเพราะหนังสือ

ขออนุญาตหยิบยืมชื่อหนังสือของครูต้อ บินหลา มาใช้เป็นคำนิยามสั้นๆ เกี่ยวกับจุดเริ่มต้นการผจญภัยครั้งนี้

ที่บอกว่าพบกันเพราะหนังสือ ก็เพราะว่าไม่กี่ชั่วโมงก่อนบินมาสิงคโปร์ เรามีโอกาสได้พบกับ แจ็กกี้-แจ็กเคอลีน โกห์ (Jackie-Jacqueline Goh) เจ้าของสตูดิโอ The Fingersmith Letterpress สตูดิโอทำงาน Letterpress ที่ตั้งรกรากอยู่บนเกาะเล็กๆ อย่างสิงคโปร์เป็นครั้งแรก
จากหนังสือ People of Print ของมาร์ครอย สมิท (Marcroy Smith) และแอนดี้ ครูก (Andy Cooke) โดยบังเอิญ

แต่ที่ไม่บังเอิญแน่นอน คือไม่กี่ชั่วโมงก่อนโบกมือลาเจ้า
Merlion กลับประเทศไทย เราตัดสินใจรวบรวมความกล้าออกเดินทางมาพบแจ็กกี้ตัวเป็นๆ
ที่สตูดิโอของเธอดูสักตั้ง

และเป็นโชคดีที่เธอใจดีเปิดสตูดิโอทำงานส่วนตัวในสวนหลังบ้านให้เราเข้าไปทำความรู้จักอย่างใกล้ชิด

จากความหลงใหล และหลงรักในกระบวนการพิมพ์แบบ Letterpress มาตั้งแต่สมัยเรียนมหาวิทยาลัย ด้วยเทคนิคที่มีความแมนวลและให้ผลลัพธ์ที่มีเสน่ห์เฉพาะตัวอย่างที่ดิจิทัลทำให้ไม่ได้ หลังเรียนจบจาก
LASALLE College of the Arts Singapore แจ็กกี้ตั้งใจเดินทางไปฝึกวิทยายุทธการพิมพ์เก่าแก่นี้ที่ออสเตรเลียกับช่างปลดเกษียณมือฉมังอยู่หลายเดือน
เมื่อกลับมาสิงคโปร์ ไฟในการเรียนก็ยังคงคุกรุ่น
และเธอไม่อยากให้มันมอดดับจึงเปลี่ยนพื้นที่ปลูกผักหลังบ้านให้กลายเป็นสตูดิโอทำงานเล็กๆ
ที่เธอสามารถขลุกอยู่ได้ทั้งวันไม่มีเบื่อ

“ยินดีที่ได้รู้จักนะ Klaus!” ฉันกล่าวทักทายคู่หูคู่สตูดิโอของแจ็กกี้ทันทีที่เธอเปิดผ้าคลุมร่างกายของ Klaus Heissler, Heidelberg
“Windmill” เครื่องพิมพ์ Letterpress เยอรมันรุ่นคลาสสิกจากยุค 60s ที่ถูกปลดเกษียณจากงานพิมพ์แผ่นไหว้เจ้า
ป่วยเหงาใช้การไม่ได้อยู่ในห้องเก็บของมืดๆ แจ็กกี้นำมาปัดฝุ่นให้
Klaus ทำหน้าที่ของตัวได้อีกครั้ง

ในแต่ละวันคู่หูวัยดึกเครื่องนี้ได้มีโอกาสร่วมสร้างผลงานการ์ด
Travelers Series ที่บันทึกเรื่องราวการผจญภัยในประเทศต่างๆ
ของแจ็กกี้ ถ่ายทอดเรื่องราวความรักความผูกพันขนาดยาวของคู่แต่งงานให้ครบจบลงตัวในการ์ดเดียว
ไปจนถึงการ์ดขอบคุณตลกๆ ที่ใช้ในโอกาสเพี้ยนซนตามอารมณ์ของ Jackie อย่างการ์ดขอบคุณเพื่อนคนที่คอยเอามือจับผมของเราไม่ให้เลอะในวันเมาแอ๋อ้วกแตกอ้วกแตน

นอกจาก
Klaus แล้ว แจ็กกี้ยังปลุกเพื่อนที่ตายแล้วให้คืนชีพมาไว้ในสตูดิโออีก
2 เครื่องด้วยกัน นั่นก็คือ Thelma
and Louis, Adana table top press เครื่องพิมพ์ตั้งโต๊ะแบบใช้มือโยก ที่เธอมักใช้ฝึกมือช่วงเรียนอยู่ที่
LASALLE College of the Arts Singapore และทำงานสเกลส่วนตัวหลังกลับจากฤดูกาลฝังตัวที่ออสเตรเลียเพื่อฝึกวิชากับช่าง
Letterpress รุ่นเก๋า
กับ Edward Slice Hands Senior, Guillotine เพื่อนซี้ขี้ตัดกระดาษให้ได้ไซส์ที่ต้องการ

แจ็กกี้พาเราย้อนเวลากลับไปสู่การพิมพ์ในยุคแรกของโลก ชวนเล่นสนุกกับเพื่อนซี้ทั้ง
3 ในห้อง โดยมี Sumo หมาน้อยน่ารักนอนหมอบอยู่ข้างๆ ไม่ไปไหน

เราเองก็มือซนเดินไปรื้อค้นดูลิ้นชักหยิบจับตัวพิมพ์ตะกั่วที่ใช้ในการเรียงพิมพ์ในสมัยก่อน
เครื่องไม้เครื่องมือช่างที่แจ็กกี้ใช้ซ่อมบำรุงเครื่องพิมพ์
เปิดพลิกสมุดบันทึกสีในแต่ละงานที่ไม่สามารถทดลองหรือวางแผนได้เป๊ะจากคอมพิวเตอร์ ก่อนขลุกอยู่กับลังไม้ที่บรรจุผลงานการ์ดไม่สนใจเวลาเช็กเอาต์โรงแรม
หรือเช็กอินสายการบินใดๆ

“พวกนี้เป็นงานที่ไม่ผ่านมาตรฐาน”แจ็กกี้สะกิดให้เราเงยหน้าจากลังไม้มาดูที่โต๊ะทำงานกลางห้อง มันเป็นกองผลงานโปสการ์ดที่พิมพ์เสียแต่เรามองไม่ออกว่าเสีย
ตัดเบี้ยวแต่เรามองไม่ออกว่าเบี้ยว สีเพี้ยนแต่เรามองไม่ออกว่าเพี้ยน

“คนได้รับเขาอาจไม่รู้ แต่เรารู้ อย่างกองนั้นคือการ์ดแต่งงานที่ต้องพิมพ์แจกร้อยใบ
เราก็จะเช็กจนเจอให้ได้ว่ามีใบไหนผิดเพี้ยนจากมาตรฐาน กดพิมพ์สีหนึ่งต่อหนึ่งครั้ง
สองสีก็สองครั้ง ยังไม่นับต้องกดพับการ์ดให้ครบทุกใบนะ (หัวเราะ)”

ถึง
Letterpress จะเป็นระบบการพิมพ์ที่สูบทั้งพลังแรง เวลา และต้องการสมาธิขั้นสูง
เพราะถ้าพลาดไปกระบวนการเดียวก็อาจต้องเริ่มใหม่ทั้งหมด แต่ก็ถือว่าคุ้มกับผลงานที่เป็นเอกลักษณ์เฉพาะตัว
ผิวสัมผัสที่เป็นร่องลึกลงน้อยๆ สีสันใหม่ๆ ที่อิงก์เจ็ตไม่สามารถให้ได้ และขั้นตอนที่ต้องอาศัยมือกับใจทำงานไปพร้อมกันเริ่มตั้งแต่ออกแบบเรื่องราว
ผสมสี ลงมือพิมพ์ ไปจนถึงขั้นตอนบรรจุซองสะอาดสะอ้านกับหม่าม้าที่ดู
Netflix ไปพลางใส่ซองใสไปพลางในขั้นตอนสุดท้าย

“อยู่กับเมืองมากๆ มันเบื่อนะ
แต่ก็ดีตรงที่เราเลยสนุกกับการได้หาอะไรทำระหว่างใช้ชีวิตอยู่ที่นี่ อย่าง Letterpress
มันเติมเต็มพลังชีวิตให้เรามาก และมันก็น่าจะตอบคำถามที่เราคุยกันว่าทำไมถึงเราถึงชอบงาน
Travelers Series มากสุด ก็เพราะมันทำให้เราได้ผจญภัยแล้วกลับมาก็ได้ทำอะไรที่ชอบด้วยนี่แหละ (หัวเราะ)” แจ็กกี้สารภาพด้วยรอยยิ้มระหว่างขับรถสีแดงคันเก่งออกจากสตูดิโอ มุ่งหน้าพาเราไปผจญภัยต่อในอาณาจักรหนังสือศิลปะของสิงคโปร์ก่อนแยกย้าย

บันทึกส่งท้าย

เมื่อ
3 ปีก่อนThe Finger Smith Letterpress ถูกค้นพบและจู่โจมโดยสองหนุ่มอังกฤษเจ้าของหนังสือ People of Print

สองหนุ่มคงไม่รู้สินะว่าความกล้าหาญของพวกเขาได้เป็นต้นเหตุให้สตูดิโอของแจ็กกี้ถูกจู่โจมอีกครั้งโดยสาวไทยที่แบกเป้เด๋อด๋ามาตายเอาดาบหน้าที่สิงคโปร์คนเดียวเมื่อไม่กี่สัปดาห์ก่อน

www. thefingersmithletterpress.com

TEDIOUS TENACITY – Obscured

Posted On 15.07.2020

AN ELEGANT PROTEST against mass-produced art, the classic printing technique, letterpress printing is making a revival in the arts scene, leaving one fine impression at a time. As with most art, crafting letterpress designs is a slow brew of conceptualisation, planning, drafting and execution. But it is especially arduous during the execution stage, as it is necessary to keep a close eye on the press to make sure that it feeds and releases papers smoothly.

Still, Jacqueline Goh of The Fingersmith Letterpress is gladly, pressing on. The 25-year-old design graduate from LASALLE College of the Arts started her letterpress printing business The Fingersmith Letterpress in November 2013, which now boasts a range of artisan-designed products like greeting cards, business cards, coasters, and even red packets. 

Letterpress printing, invented by Johannes Gutenburg about 600 years ago, was the predominant printing technique till the 1800s. A movable type, which commonly came in the forms of metal or wooden plates, would be locked into the printing machine and inked. As sheets of paper enter the machine, they would be pressed against the plates, thus getting imprinted.

True to the art, it’s all about going back to basics at every phase of the craft. Jacqueline hand-draws every lettering and illustration, combining tongue-in-cheek copies with quirky yet classy typography. 

LETTERPRESS PRINT MAKES ALMOST ANY DESIGN LOOK BEAUTIFUL BUT IT’S THE DESIGN THAT MAKES THE PRINT UNIQUE.

WE DON’T DESIGN FONTS, IT’S MORE OF FREESTYLE HAND LETTERING AND ILLUSTRATIONS. SO EVERYTHING WILL BE DRAWN ON PAPER FIRST (I’M OLD SCHOOL THAT WAY).

Jacqueline then polishes up her drawings on Adobe Illustrator, and takes about a week to complete the final layout.  After she is satisfied with her work, she sends the designs to be specially made onto a photopolymer plate.  Photopolymer plates are the modern successors of the wooden and metal ones used in traditional letterpress printing.

It then takes Jacqueline about one to two days to complete the printing on her trusty Heidelberg press. The second-hand machine was found abandoned in a print shop, and is fondly named Klaus after the American Dad! character known for its dark humour. It also aptly means “victory for the people” in German.

Sure enough, Jacqueline has seen the success of her labour. She was scouted to make 200 pieces of seed-paper cards for IKEA’s Earth Day campaign last year. But while she has proven her artisan dexterity, ideas don’t always come easy.

Hence, Jacqueline constantly looks out for interesting angles in the everyday things. 

SOMETIMES, IDEAS STRIKE ME LIKE A LIGHTNING BOLT, OTHER TIMES, I LET THEM MARINATE IN THE CORNER OF MY BRAIN.

FOR EXAMPLE, THE ‘OOPSIES’ ICE CREAM ILLUSTRATION. WHO WOULDN’T BE EXCITED ABOUT BUYING ICE CREAM? BUT HAVING THE ICE CREAM MAN DROP HIS LAST SCOOP OF ICE CREAM WOULD BRING THE EXCITEMENT TO ANOTHER LEVEL.

Despite the tedious process of letterpress production, it is precisely the need to connect with the craft at its every stage that captivates Jacqueline. She says, “The fact that I am constantly surrounded by ink and being able to craft with my hands drew me most. Also, I love the whole process of it, from drawing and conceptualization, to hand mixing the ink and working with my press.”

WHEN I PULL THE FINAL PRINT, AND WHEN THE LIGHT HITS ONTO THE PAPER AT A RIGHT ANGLE, I GET GOOSEBUMPS AND IT’S AN AWESOME FEELING.

Creative Capital: The witty BFFs behind the creative studio with the weird moniker

WHAT ARE YOUR OWN BACKGROUNDS? HOW DID YOU GET INTO ILLUSTRATION?

Jacqueline: My dad said I could study whatever I wanted only after I went to business school. So like the good daughter that I am, I did just that. After graduating from Ngee Ann Polytechnic, I went to Lasalle College of the Arts, got introduced to letterpress and started a letterpress printing studio after graduating in 2012.

Natalie: I studied architecture in the US and worked as an architect in NYC for a year before moving back to Singapore. During my final year of architecture school in 2013, I decided to do my thesis by hand and just kept drawing after that. I started with random thank-you cards for friends and professors, and kept it going as a side hustle for two years until it became my main hustle in 2015.

READ: Creative Capital: This American carpenter turns Singaporean wood into functional masterpieces

JACQUELINE, ARE YOU STILL RUNNING THE FINGERSMITH LETTERPRESS OR HAS 8EYEDSPUD BECOME YOUR CORE BUSINESS?

I’m super old school, so the idea of working with vintage printing presses really excited me. I’ve always enjoyed the slower process of working with my hands than staring at the screen. But even when I started The Fingersmith Letterpress, I knew I wanted to go beyond print and take on more creative and design focused work. When I got to do more illustration projects at 8EyedSpud – especially with a super-talented partner like Nat – it was like my dream came true. Drawing for a living? Sign me up!

WERE YOUR FAMILIES ENCOURAGING ABOUT THE CAREER PATHS YOU HAVE CHOSEN?

Jacqueline: It took a whole lot of convincing before my parents let me turn our garden shed into a printing studio. My mum wanted me to find a job and work for a company first but I told her to give me two years to try it out. When you have to prove your parents wrong, you know how hard you’ll work. Now, I’m thankful that she’s my biggest cheerleader.

Natalie: My parents were a little confused when I told them I was quitting my job to be an illustrator. They didn’t think such a job existed. They were like, “Huh? People pay you to draw things?” I’m pretty sure they imagined me sitting around in pajamas, doodling on my iPad, and mooching off them for the rest of my life.

But, to give them credit, once things started to pick up and they saw the work I was doing, they have been nothing but supportive. My mum’s Whatsapp profile picture is an illustration of her that I did!

WHAT ADVICE WOULD YOU GIVE IF A FAMILY FRIEND SAID THAT HIS CHILD WANTS TO BE A PROFESSIONAL ILLUSTRATOR?

Jacqueline: To the parents, support your kids. And I mean emotionally, not financially! Here’s a pro tip: Telling your kid you like their work is a little ego boost that goes a long way. To the kids, give your parents a reason to support you. If you really want to do it, give it your best shot. Don’t give them a reason to say “I told you so.”

Natalie: Couldn’t have said it better myself. At the end of the day, we all still yearn for our parents’ validation, and nothing beats a pat on the back from good ol’ mum and dad! Jackie and I always share our work-in-progress pieces with our folks. This gives them an idea of what we’re working on, the clients we have, and they get to see how our work evolves along the way. My dad is very creative and always gives good feedback, so we sometimes run designs past him for suggestions if we’re stuck on a project.

READ: Creative Capital: The Singapore production company that produces TV shows that air globally

WHAT COMPRISES THE MAJORITY OF YOUR WORK?

Natalie: Snacking and laughing at each other’s jokes. Just kidding. We started out with a lot of murals, which was really exciting. Prior to that, we were used to much smaller-scale work – Jackie with letterpress printing, and myself, personal portrait commissions.

We still create a lot of murals, but our work has also branched into more interactive/installation pieces. We recently did an exhibit and trail guide for kids at the Asian Civilisations Museum, and an interactive piece for Facebook’s Women’s Day event. We really love exploring new mediums and seeing how our illustrations can exist beyond two-dimensional drawings.

WHAT WAS THE FIRST PROJECT YOU GUYS DID TOGETHER AS 8EYEDSPUD?

Natalie: It was a self-initiated project called Business Casual, a series of double-sided prints that we created for fun. We never expected 8EyedSpud to become a real business, hence the nonsensical name. But once we started getting real clients, it was too late to change!

Jacqueline: I started selling some of these prints at the art fairs I usually did as The Fingersmith Letterpress and we actually sold a bunch. It was really fun working with another creative with the same sense of humour and I kept trying to find an excuse to work together more.

Things I Did in San Francisco Letterpress Postcard Paper Paper & Party Supplies hitechic.ir

Things I Did in San Francisco Letterpress Postcard. Inspired by our globetrotting obsession, the new Fingersmith Things I … travelers series features illustrations of the eats, sights and activities of our favorite places in the world; in the same ol Fingersmith quirkiness. Post card measures 14cm X 10cm. Inspired by our globetrotting obsession, the new Fingersmith “Things I …” traveler’s series features illustrations of the eats, sights and activities of our favorite places in the world; in the same ol’ Fingersmith quirkiness. 。Post card measures 14cm X 10cm。

Things I Did in San Francisco Letterpress Postcard

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Fingersmith by Sarah Waters

A tricky book to review, partly because it didn’t live up to my (possibly unfairly high) hopes and partly because I’m trying to write shorter, punchier reviews, but this was almost 600 pages long. I have failed…

Great Expectations

Waters is an award-winning historical novelist, who specialises in the Victorian period (and lesbian protagonists). This book was shortlisted for the Booker Prize and the Orange Prize and her PhD thesis even covers a key subject of this book.

I was expecting something like the wondrous sensuality of Michel Faber’s The Crimson Petal and the White, in terms of atmosphere, writing and to some extent, content: another “dirty Dickens”. Unfortunately, it fell short. It’s not a bad book, but nowhere near as rich or enjoyable as I’d hoped.

Literary Nods

I noticed quite a few echoes of classics, and I liked all but one of these little homages. That one though, is the main reason I gave this book only 3*.

A fingersmith is a pickpocket, and Oliver Twist is explicitly mentioned on the first page (and a couple of times thereafter). Unsurprising but harmless.

There are indirect allusions to Don Quixote, when it’s suggested that too much “literature” might trigger madness, and a librarian is “a curator of poisons”.

Jane Eyre is a clear inspiration, with a Mrs Rivers (not that there was, quite, one in JE), a magical-realist thread tugging, almost literally, at the heart of a separated lover, and a willful child who is treated rather as Aunt Reed treated Jane.

Aspects of the life of one character have eerie echoes of one in Great Expectations ((view spoiler)[raised in material comfort, but corrupted and deliberately inured to love (hide spoiler)]). Noticing this wasn’t really a spoiler, but it added to the feeling of familiarity, rather than originality.

There are quite a few ghost-story tropes, but only in a couple of chapters: fog, a mysterious candlelit figure at a window, clocks striking in a dilapidated house, nightmares… etc.

The fundamental problem for me was the numerous parallels to another classic, meaning that the plot of this held few surprises: (view spoiler)[The Woman in White. A young woman living in a large lonely house with an uncle who spends most of his time in the library; uncle’s dodgy friends; enticed away by her drawing teacher; the wrong woman locked in an asylum in an attempt to gain a legacy; Marian/Marianne; some big coincidences… (hide spoiler)]

Plenty of authors have successfully based their work on a well-loved tale, so I’m not sure why I had such a problem with this one. I think it’s that I didn’t enjoy it enough in general, coupled with the fact this could be classed as a mystery, so knowing the plot rather killed the mystery.

Three Sections, Two Narrators

The book is split into thirds. Part one (3*) is narrated by Susan, a girl of about fifteen, who has lived all her life with fingersmiths, in a household that is a slightly more benevolent version of Bill Sykes and Nancy’s establishment. Her storytelling style is necessarily rather plain. She overuses “pretty” as a modifier (“pretty precious”, “pretty good”) and sprinkles the odd bit of thieves’ slang, yet it didn’t conjure the right tone for me.

Part two (4*) is narrated by Maude, who is the same age, but living in a country house with her reclusive uncle. I really enjoyed this section, partly because her more descriptive and thoughtful voice was more engaging, but mainly because of the way this section repeatedly refuted so many of my assumptions and quibbles in part one, and raised questions about most of the others. Almost nothing is as it seemed. “Why should my uncle lie?”… “Why should he tell the truth?”

Part three (2*) was back to Susan. That in itself was predictable, and most of the plot was too.

Anyone struggling with part one who is tempted to skim it to get to part two really shouldn’t, otherwise the contrasts and contradictions will be lost on them.

SURPRISE!?

Several reviews mention the frequent and surprising plot twists. I didn’t really notice any until the end of part one, and once I realised the book whose plot it follows, most weren’t really surprises, though they certainly count as twists: so many lies and so much double-crossing and confusion. I can see why it can be exciting: love, betrayal, mistaken identity, wealth, madness, revenge, escape, transformation, murder… yet excitement eluded me.

Fingering

Waters is well known as a lesbian writer who often includes lesbian themes. That crops up here, but is not extensive enough to sway readers one way or the other when deciding whether to read it.

Fingers feature prominently though, mainly in part two. Maude always wears spotless gloves and her uncle has a big brass plaque on the library floor beyond which servants must not cross, lest their eyes damage the books. He says it’s in the shape of a pointing finger.

Erotica or Porn?

This book is neither, but it indirectly raises question about the distinction. “The flesh made word” was a neat (and maybe slightly heretical) definition. “Words… they seduce us in darkness and the mind clothes and fleshes them.”

Abuse

Some have suggested books should have trigger warnings. It can be tricky to do that without spoilers. There’s nothing graphic here, but abusive and manipulative relationships of various kinds are explored here. “I might pass for a girl in an allegory, Confidence Abused”.

One interesting angle is that (view spoiler)[the situation that would alarm modern social services is less damaging than the comfortable and outwardly respectable one (hide spoiler)].

There’s also the quotidian dishonesty of and betrayal by lifelong crooks, but that’s rather different.

Willing Suspension of Disbelief?

These factors contributed to why it didn’t feel Dickensian enough to me (it’s set in 1862). It seems mean-spirited to check these things out, but I did. If you’re fond of this book, or haven’t read it, skip this section.

(view spoiler)[Right from the start, the name Susan bothered me. It gnawed away at me. I was surprised to find it was not as uncommon as Maud(e), though it was far rarer than Anne or Margaret. My bad.

Another character is frequently seen smoking a cigarette (sometimes from a pack, sometimes he rolls his own). Again, that seemed noteworthy, and again I checked. This proved far less likely. Searching published documents of the period, Google Ngrams finds hardly any occurrences of the word at the time.

You can see the charts here: https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph… %3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2CSue%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Ccigarette%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2CMaud%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2CMaude%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2CMargaret%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2CAnne%3B%2Cc0. Ngrams is far from perfect, but it’s a handy resource. (hide spoiler)]

I was also distracted by a Chekhov’s Gun that never properly went off ((view spoiler)[Maude steals a razor blade, vandalises a book rather than slit her sleeping uncle’s throat, but doesn’t use it on subsequent occasions when it would have been really useful (hide spoiler)]) and Waters’ rather odd way of introducing direct speech:
She said,
Direct quote as new paragraph, following on from paragraph that ended with a comma.

Had I been enjoying it more, I would probably have been able to ignore these issues.

More positively, some of the things that seemed improbable in part one turned out to have vaguely plausible explanations in part two, and as with many Victorian novels, guilt is a major theme, though here the twist is that few have more than a passing acquaintance with it.

Overall, not a bad book, but nowhere near as enjoyable as I’d hoped. It was a page turner (though towards the end, I wanted to speed it up a bit), but it just didn’t speak to me – and I did listen.

If I’d never heard of it or the book it’s based on, I would probably have given 4*, but my enjoyment was only 3*.

• “Stitching dog skins onto stolen dogs, to make them seem handsomer breeds”. Not a crime I’d ever heard of!

• “Servants grow sentimental over the swells they work for, like dogs grow fond of bullies.”

• “How many stories does one man need?” The question relates to the uncle in his library, but it could be asked of many of the double and triple-crossing characters in the book.

• “The silence, that my uncle cultivates… as other men grow vines and flowering creepers.”

• “It is not the prospect of whipping that makes me meek. It is what I know of the cruelty of patience.”

• He “carries his daring, his confidence, close and gaudy about him, like swirls of colour or perfume.”

• “Even wax limbs must yield at last. to the heat of the hands that lift and place them.”

Job description of a hand-forged blacksmith revision 1 of 08/19/2021, a sample of filling out the form. “My business”

Limited Liability Company “Beta”
LLC “Beta”

Job description of a hand-forged blacksmith

No. 215-DI

1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.1. This Job Description defines the duties, rights and responsibilities of the Hand Forged Blacksmith Beta LLC.

1.2. A hand-forged blacksmith is appointed and dismissed by order of the General Director of Beta LLC on the proposal of the work manufacturer.

1. 3. The hand-forged blacksmith reports directly to the workmaker.

1.4. A person is appointed to the position of a hand-forged blacksmith, a person who has undergone professional training in vocational training programs for the professions of workers, retraining programs for workers, programs for improving the qualifications of workers, with at least six months of practical work experience as a hand-forged blacksmith.

1.5. A hand-forged blacksmith should know:
– the device of blower installations;
– forging properties of base metals;
– Methods for bending various spring sheets made of steel of various grades;
– rules and techniques for forging welding, dimensions of machining allowances and tolerances for forgings;
– Methods for calculating the mass of metal forgings;
– heating mode and forging temperature of various steel grades;
– forging properties of various metals and their purpose in the forging process;
– receptions and sequence of forging transitions;
– rules for shoeing horses, types of horseshoes;
– purpose and conditions of use of control and measuring instruments.

1.6. In his activities, the Hand Forged Blacksmith is guided by:
– local regulations of Beta LLC, including the Internal Labor Regulations;
– by orders (orders) of the General Director of Beta LLC and the immediate manager;
– rules on labor protection, safety, industrial sanitation and fire protection;
– by this Job Description.

1.7. During the temporary absence of the hand-forged blacksmith, his duties are assigned to an employee appointed by order of the General Director of Beta LLC.

2. JOB DUTIES

A hand forged blacksmith performs the following types of work:
2.1. Preparation of a blacksmith’s workplace for forging medium-complexity forgings with surface finishing:
– study of technological and design documentation;
– determination of the sequence of actions when forging forgings of simple and medium complexity;
– receiving rolled products from the warehouse and carrying out incoming control;
– removal of surface defects in rolled products before forging;
– cutting into billets of rolled products of a given profile of the required length and quantity;
– checking the operability and serviceability of the forge;
– selection and testing of the main tool for forging and surface finishing of forgings of medium complexity;
– selection and testing of auxiliary tools for forging and surface finishing of forgings of medium complexity;
– maintenance of the forge before starting work;
– checking the state of the workplace for compliance with safety requirements.

2.2. Forging of forgings of medium complexity with a fine surface finish and precise adherence to dimensions:
– chisel cutting of cold and hot rolled products of a given profile, required length and quantity;
– firing up the forge;
– heating metal in a forge, furnaces and heating devices for forging medium-complexity forgings;
– performance of forging operations of broaching, upsetting, piercing, twisting and bending of billets from long products;
– forging and surface finishing of forgings of medium complexity with exact adherence to dimensions;
– bending, pulling, flanging and upsetting of forgings of medium complexity of various configurations from sheet metal with a thickness of 5 to 8 mm according to drawings and templates;
– work as an assistant with a blacksmith of higher qualifications in forging and finishing surfaces of complex forgings;
– work as an assistant with a blacksmith of a higher qualification when bending spring leaves;
– straightening of stamped sheet metal forgings without necks in hot and cold condition with checking according to drawings and templates;
– forging metal welding;
– hot-running spring clamps on springs with up to ten sheets in a set, with straightening and checking along a square;
– manufacturing of tools required for blacksmithing;
– execution of finishing operations for forgings of medium complexity;
– detection of defects in forged forgings;
– elimination of defects in forged forgings;
– control of parameters and quality of forgings using control and measuring tools and fixtures.

2.3. Completion of finishing works after forging of medium difficulty forgings:
– cooling of medium difficulty forgings after forging;
– removal of scale from the surface of forgings of medium complexity;
– protection of the surface of forgings against corrosion;
– maintenance of the forge after forging;
– service of forging tools after forging;
– manual straightening of forgings of medium difficulty in the cold state with verification with exact adherence to the dimensions after cooling;
– execution of finishing operations for forgings of medium complexity in a cold state, observing the dimensions after cooling with an accuracy of 16 grade;
– detection of defects and rejects of forged forgings after cooling and cleaning;
– control of parameters and quality of forgings using control and measuring tools and fixtures.

3. RIGHTS

A hand-forged blacksmith has the right to:
3.1. Demand from his immediate supervisor and General Director of Beta LLC assistance in the performance of official duties and the exercise of rights.
3.2. To get acquainted with the draft decisions of the General Director of Beta LLC concerning the activities of the Hand-forged Blacksmith.
3.3. Submit proposals on their activities for consideration to their immediate supervisor, including raising questions about improving their work, improving the organizational and technical working conditions, increasing wages, paying overtime work in accordance with the legislation and regulations governing the remuneration system for employees of LLC ” Beta”.
3.4. Receive from the employees of Beta LLC the information necessary for the conduct of their activities.

4. RESPONSIBILITY

The hand-forged blacksmith is responsible for:
4.1. For non-fulfillment or improper fulfillment of their duties provided for by this job description – in accordance with the current labor legislation.
4.2. For other offenses committed during the period of conducting its activities (including those related to material damage and damage to the business reputation of Beta LLC) – in accordance with the current labor, civil, administrative and criminal legislation.

5. WORKING CONDITIONS

5.1. The working hours of the Hand-forged Blacksmith are determined in accordance with the Internal Labor Regulations established at Beta LLC.
5.2. The employer evaluates the efficiency of the hand-forged blacksmith in accordance with the Set of measures for evaluating the effectiveness, approved by the order of the General Director of Beta LLC.

The job description was developed in accordance with the Order of the General Director of Beta LLC No. 1-Pr dated 01.06.2012.

The job description was:

Head of HR department _________________________ E.V. Vasilyeva

Read the instructions:

________________ V.V. Korotkov

Lawyer _________________________ N.A. Pavlov

What is 3D printing in 2021

3D printing technology has changed the manufacturing process of everything around us.From toys and clothing to dentures, implants, etc.

The 3D printing process is also known as additive manufacturing. In simple terms, the computer program tells the printer where to lay the thin layers of material, which gradually turn into a solid object.

Types and processes of 3D printing technologies

The first mentions of 3D printing technology appeared in the late 1980s. They were called Rapid Prototyping Technologies. This name comes from a process that was conceived as a faster, more cost-effective method of prototyping in product development.The very first patent application for this technology was filed by Dr. Hideo Kodama in May 1980. But, unfortunately for the inventor, the full patent specification was not submitted until the one-year deadline after the filing of the application. Kodama used ultraviolet light to cure plastic and create an object using additive technology.

Years later, the American Scott Crumb developed the most common type of 3D printing today – FDM (Fused deposition modeling).This technology stands for fused deposition modeling. This type is characterized by the fact that the thermoplastic material is heated to a liquid state and squeezed out through the nozzle layer by layer.

Charles Hull, co-founder of 3D Systems, was one of the inventors of the 3D printing technology known as stereolithography. The technology is based on photochemical processes.

But Kodama, Crump, and Hull weren’t the only developers of 3D printing techniques.

WINBO 3D printer in Art-Up Design Studio

Some of the other types of 3D printing in use today are:

  • FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) is by far the most common method of producing thermoplastic parts and prototypes today. It is based on melting the filament in a nozzle with its subsequent laying in layers. It is also the most economical way of three-dimensional printing due to the availability of a wide range of thermoplastic materials with various technical characteristics, which allow generating functional parts of prototypes of mechanisms and volumetric cases, as well as any free spatial decorative forms.
  • SLA (Stereo Lithography Apparatus) is based on the layer-by-layer curing of a liquid photopolymer material under the influence of UV radiation. Can print objects in several colors and materials with different physical properties, including rubber-like parts. The high printing accuracy of this method makes it more expensive and not optimal for simple plastic structures.
  • DLP (Digital Light Processing) cures polymers using a light projector rather than an ultraviolet laser.This allows you to create a whole layer in one exposure, thus increasing the production speed.

Metals have their own 3D printing methods too. The type of technology is selected depending on the specifics of the object’s operation.

  • SLS (Selective Laser Sintering) is based on layer-by-layer sintering of polymer powder particles using laser radiation. The nylon powder melts into a tough, hard plastic. Due to the peculiarity of the technology, the surface of the part is not of ideal quality, but very functional for use in prototypes with hinges and latches.
  • SLM (Selective Laser Melting) is based on the layer-by-layer sintering of a metal powder under the action of a laser beam. Used in the manufacture of decorative details. Therefore, it is useful for medical and lightweight applications. It is often used in conjunction with traditional metal casting technology to create prototypes or finished products.
  • EBM (Electron Beam Melting) is based on layer-by-layer melting using an electron beam.Printing uses electromagnetic coils to overheat the metal powder in a vacuum.

How 3D Printing Works

3D printing is the process of overlaying layers of one another. Every object for 3D printing begins its life with a three-dimensional model in a computer program.

You can create your own design in programs such as Maya, Blender, ZBrush, CATIA, Solidworks. In addition, ready-made 3D models of parts can be downloaded from sites such as Thingiverse or CGTrader.

When you have a 3D model, obtained in one way or another, you “run” it through the program “slicer” (from the English word “to slice”), which converts the original 3D model in STL format into print layers. The resulting information is eventually converted into a special data format called G-code for further printing on a 3D printer.
Such programs usually come with the 3D printer, or they can be freely downloaded, for example, the Cura program.What these softwares have in common is that they generate thousands of lines of code for the layers. This code tells the printer how to print.

Then you need to set up your 3D printer, choose the print quality and the correct settings for the material. To start printing, you load your “cut” part into the printer via a USB stick, SD card, or send directly from your computer. And the printer begins a slow additive layering process.

Photo by Christian Reil from Pixabay

Materials used in 3D printing

The materials available for 3D printing have come a long way.Currently, there is a wide range of materials, various in terms of properties, types, and supplied states (powder, threads, granules, resins, etc. ).

Some materials are developed for specific areas of application to perform special tasks. For example, the medical sector, where special photopolymer resins (SLA 3D printing technology) are used, the properties of which make it possible to print implants, impressions, etc.

Some of the most commonly used materials:

  • Plastics.Sintering (SLS) typically uses polyamides or nylon, supplied in powder form. It is a strong, flexible and durable material. It is white, so it needs to be dyed before or after printing. The most common 3D printing technology today, FDM, uses ABS or PLA filaments. These plastics are available in a wide range of colors. Compared to PLA, ABS plastic has higher strength characteristics. But PLA is biodegradable, which is why it is as widespread as ABS.
  • Metals. More and more metals and metal composites are being used in industrial 3D printing. The most common of these are derivatives of aluminum and cobalt. Because of its strength characteristics, stainless steel is often used in powder form in 3D printing technologies such as sintering, melting, EBM. In the last couple of years, silver and gold have been added to the number of metals suitable for printing. This made it possible to significantly expand the possibilities of jewelry production.
  • Ceramics. A relatively new group of materials used in 3D printing. The peculiarity of printing with these materials is that the printed ceramic parts must go through the same processes as ceramic products made by traditional methods – firing and glazing.
  • Biomaterials. Currently, a large number of studies are being carried out aimed at studying the possibility of 3D printing from biomaterials for the needs of medicine. This includes printing human organs for transplantation, external tissues for replacing body parts.For this, leading institutes are examining living tissues.
  • Food. Over the past few years, there has been an increase in experimentation with extruders for food 3D printing. The most widespread is the printing with chocolate. There are 3D printers that use sugar, pasta, meat, dough.

Photo by mebner1 from Pixabay

What is 3D printing used for

If you can think of an item, then most likely you can print it.Kids toys, jewelry, phone cases and much more are already being 3D printed by enthusiasts. Someone uses 3D printing for fun. Fun designs already exist: a printed guitar, a loom, and an intricate sculpture made from a combination of laser-fused glass and nylon. 3D printing has already moved beyond its origins in plastic printing to use metal, rubber, wood, synthetic fabrics and ceramic resins. Functional 3D-printed human organs have yet to be created, but scientists say this is a matter of the near future.

Since additive manufacturing of complex objects is faster and cheaper than traditional molding and casting methods, it has found its way into industry and art. The possibilities of this technology are nearly limitless, but 3D printers are not ideal machines. Aside from all the positives, there are also reasons for concern.

Ethical Issues of 3D Printers

3D printers consume a lot of energy and throw ultra-light plastic particles into the air, which are then inhaled by humans. These emissions can be compared to a lit indoor cigarette.

While humanity is trying to reduce the use and consumption of plastic, 3D printers are another technology heavily dependent on it. This poses a problem for all ecosystems, in particular for the already suffering oceans with their floating islands of plastic.

A few years ago, the news of the first 3D printed firearm caused a stir in the media. The creation by an individual of a weapon that cannot be traced remains a challenge to modern security.

From a legal point of view, there is no clear answer to the question of who is responsible in the event of injury caused by a printed object. Indeed, in most cases, the developer of the 3D model, the manufacturer of the 3D printer and the one who printed it are different people or organizations. Determining responsibility for potential injury and death is a new challenge.

At the same time, the use of 3D printing technology in the medical field for printing fabrics raises a number of ethical and moral questions.These issues are akin to talking about stem cell research and gene editing that has been going on for decades.

On the other hand, we have a powerful tool in our hands that is changing the way we create and produce things. We do not yet fully understand what this means for our future.

Potential effect on the global economy

If 3D printing continues to develop at the same pace as it is now, then its use could potentially affect the global economy.Moving production and distribution from the current model to localized, custom-made manufacturing can reduce the imbalance between exporting and importing countries.

3D printing creates new industries and new professions. Professions related to the production of 3D printers or, for example, a job as a Rapid Prototyping Technician at the Cartier Jewelry House. New professional services are emerging such as material supply, printer operator, legal services in dispute resolution and intellectual property issues. With the development of 3D printing technology, the issue of “piracy” is becoming an urgent problem.

The impact of 3D printing on developing countries is a double-edged sword. A positive effect for these countries is the reduction in production costs through the use of recycled and other local materials. But the loss of manufacturing jobs could hit these economies hard, taking time to find a balance.

Where to use the 3D printer

Owning a 3D printer with the necessary software and materials can still be expensive for individual needs, which is why public 3D printers are becoming more common.

There are places like laboratories and 3D printing shops. You can send your design and pick up the finished part in a couple of days. Some companies, such as Art AP Design Studio, are also involved in 3D printing.

If you are a student or high school student, 3D printing services may be provided at your institution.

Printed products in the Art-Up Design Studio

Where can I learn to use the

3D printer
For those who already have an engineering degree, there are advanced training programs (Additional Education) from the Russian Academy of Crafts, designed for 36 or 72 academic hours.

In the course, in an accessible lecture form, questions of the theoretical and practical foundations of design, three-dimensional modeling, and design of plastic products are disclosed. It provides for the implementation of work and control works within the project tasks of the course and the final exam.

As a result of mastering the program, the student of the courses receives a certificate “Specialist in additive technologies”. Profession Code 02/15/09

If you are just taking your first steps, there are 144 academic hours of vocational training programs.

It is important to understand that the basic knowledge is obtained in practical training on real equipment. For example, you can get up-to-date skills using modern equipment in the SKOLKOVO Technopark at the production base of the Art Design Studio Center for Collective Use ART AP, which is the anchor partner of this educational program.

As a result of the training, the student of the course “Specialist in additive technologies” independently solves the following professional problems:

– modeling and design of plastic parts,
– the basics of aesthetics in the design of industrial products,
– features and types of equipment for 3D printing,
– preparation of a model for 3D printing,
– setting up and launching a 3D printer,
– features of printing from various materials,
– post-processing of 3D printing results,
– product assembly.

Investing in yourself is the most profitable and rewarding investment.

Nikita Pelevin, Alexey Kutyaev for the Russian Academy of Crafts
On the cover of the article Photo by ZMorph4D from Pixabay

90,000% d0% ba% d0% b0% d0% b6% d0% b4% d1% 8b% d0% b9% 20% d1% 87% d0% b5% d0% bb% d0% be% d0% b2% d0% b5% d0% ba% 20% d0% ba% d1% 83% d0% b7% d0% bd% d0% b5% d1% 86% 20% d1% 81% d0% b2% d0% be% d0% b5% d0% b3% d0% be% 20% d1% 81% d1% 87% d0% b0% d1% 81% d1% 82% d1% 8c% d1% 8f – from all languages ​​to all languages ​​

All yazykiRusskiyAngliyskiyIspanskiy────────Aynsky yazykAkanAlbanskiyAltayskiyArabskiyAragonskiyArmyanskiyArumynskiyAsturiyskiyAfrikaansBagoboBaskskiyBashkirskiyBelorusskiyBolgarskiyBuryatskiyValliyskiyVarayskiyVengerskiyVepsskiyVerhneluzhitskiyVetnamskiyGaityanskiyGrecheskiyGruzinskiyGuaraniGelskiyDatskiyDolganskiyDrevnerussky yazykIvritIdishIngushskiyIndoneziyskiyInupiakIrlandskiyIslandskiyItalyanskiyYorubaKazahskiyKarachaevskiyKatalanskiyKvenyaKechuaKirgizskiyKitayskiyKlingonskiyKomiKomiKoreyskiyKriKrymskotatarskiyKumykskiyKurdskiyKhmerskiyLatinskiyLatyshskiyLingalaLitovskiyLyuksemburgskiyMayyaMakedonskiyMalayskiyManchzhurskiyMaoriMariyskiyMikenskiyMokshanskiyMongolskiyNauatlNemetskiyNiderlandskiyNogayskiyNorvezhskiyOrokskiyOsetinskiyOsmanskiyPaliPapyamentoPendzhabskiyPersidskiyPolskiyPortugalskiyRumynsky, MoldavskiySanskritSevernosaamskiySerbskiySefardskiySilezskiySlovatskiySlovenskiySuahiliTagalskiyTadzhikskiyTayskiyTatarskiyTviTibetskiyTofalarskiyTuvinskiyTuretskiyTurkmenskiyUdmurdskiyUzbeksky UyghurUkrainianUrduUrumanFaroeseFinnishFrenchHindiCroatianChurch Slavic (Old Slavonic) CircassianCherokeeChechenCzechChuvashScheyenneSwedishShoorSumerianEvenkyElsassicErzyanEsperantoJapanese4000

All yazykiRusskiyAngliyskiyIspanskiy────────AymaraAynsky yazykAlbanskiyAltayskiyArabskiyArmyanskiyAfrikaansBaskskiyBashkirskiyBelorusskiyBolgarskiyVengerskiyVepsskiyVodskiyVetnamskiyGaityanskiyGalisiyskiyGrecheskiyGruzinskiyDatskiyDrevnerussky yazykIvritIdishIzhorskiyIngushskiyIndoneziyskiyIrlandskiyIslandskiyItalyanskiyYorubaKazahskiyKarachaevskiyKatalanskiyKvenyaKechuaKitayskiyKlingonskiyKoreyskiyKrymskotatarskiyKumykskiyKurdskiyKhmerskiyLatinskiyLatyshskiyLingalaLitovskiyLozhbanMayyaMakedonskiyMalayskiyMaltiyskiyMaoriMariyskiyMokshanskiyMongolskiyNemetskiyNiderlandskiyNorvezhskiyOsetinskiyPaliPapyamentoPendzhabskiyPersidskiyPolskiyPortugalskiyPushtuRumynsky, MoldavskiySerbskiySlovatskiySlovenskiySuahiliTagalskiyTadzhikskiyTayskiyTamilskiyTatarskiyTuretskiyTurkmenskiyUdmurdskiyUzbekskiyUygurskiyUkrainskiyUrduUrumskiyFarerskiyFinskiyFrantsuzskiyHindiHorvatskiyTserkovnoslavyansky (Old Church Slavonic) ChamorroCherokiChechenskiyCheshskiyChuvashskiyShvedskiyShorskiyEvenkiyskiyElzasskiyErzyanskiyEsperantoEstonskiyYakut skyjapanese

Oprion’s Field Notes – LJ

Personal design project “Lemon Slices”

Supplemented in the course of the investigation.

Materials on the case:
http://oprion.livejournal.com/30901.html – Poster
http://oprion.livejournal.com/32113.html – Poster turnover
http: //oprion.livejournal. com / 33875.html – Interpretation of poster circulation
http://oprion.livejournal.com/17470.html – Cover of “Lemon slices”
http://oprion.livejournal.com/15906.html – Surviving pages
http: / /oprion.livejournal.com/5005.html – Archival materials
http://oprion.livejournal.com/23140.html – Agafya’s letter

Additional materials:
http: // oprion.livejournal.com/17746.html – Family coat of arms of the Bogovyazovs.
http://oprion.livejournal.com/15429.html – Carin Curios monogram.
http://oprion.livejournal.com/16479.html – Photos of the Vienna hospital.
http://oprion.livejournal.com/48132.html – Stone mixture.
http://oprion.livejournal.com/48400.html – Stone mixture (part two).
http://oprion.livejournal.com/61582. html – Mosaic inscription.
http://oprion.livejournal.com/70304.html – Decoding of the Mosaic inscription.


Main sections:
Letterpress printing | Books | Zaum | Folklore | Humor | Puzzles | Oddities | Pillowface Press
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And since I already mentioned in the post about the Soviet string meter, here is the standard American version.

The Agate scale was used for typing 5.5 points in height (considered the smallest readable size).Agatom, in the newspapers, they collected statistical data, various legal nonsense.

About letterpress>

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Ideally, 72 points should be exactly an inch. However, in reality, only Adobe’s Postscript exactly coincides with the modern inch. Historical systems are walking (following the concept of an inch, and all kinds of confusion).The biggest difference is in Didot’s points. They also made up an inch of 72 parts (12 nonparels or 6 cicero), but their French, which was significantly longer than English.

The measurement is based on the modern inch = 25.4 mm, approved by the British Standards Institute in 1930.

About letterpress>

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For a long time the Soviet typometric ruler (string meter) represented an unsolved rebus for me.Finally I decided to figure out what these scales are.

It turned out to be quite simple. The result of the research is in the picture.

The American counterpart still seems to me more practical when typing manually. One scale for all occasions, comfortable neckline. Apparently a matter of habit.

About letterpress>

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It can be difficult to understand by ear all these round, squares, triple spacings, and what practical value they have when typing.Here, I sketched out a short diagram of the relationship between the running sizes in the American and our (Didot) systems.

Round space – a space element equal in height and width to the font size (6,8,12,18,24 ….)

Accordingly, a semicircular one for a font of 12 points will be a 6×12 bar, a triple one – 4×12, etc.

Practical example:

About letterpress>

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The idiot’s dream has come true. I did make an orthodox hand-made mold for casting fonts in the tradition of Gutenberg, Manucius, Fedorov, etc. etc.

At the same time, I filmed a short film about the whole process.

Comrades, let’s revive the casting of the charter, the Glagolitic alphabet, the ligature!

About letterpress>

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// Posted while waiting for the morning train and thinking about catching Pokémon

Ostracism or death

In traditional society, ostracism is perceived as a more severe punishment than death.A member is expelled from the communal body, loses not only its identity, but also its very essence. The traditional (tribal) person is not fully aware of himself as a person. He is an inseparable part of the circle dance of persons stretching from ancestors to descendants. Traditional time is cyclical. Death does not disturb the general course of things. The deceased continues to take part in community life, to visit the “Grandfathers” to help themselves at the common table. People turn to him for advice, ask for protection. His bones under the threshold of the house will strengthen the family nest, the warmth of the hands of grandchildren and great-grandchildren will be transmitted through the whitewashed wall of the stove, the hewn logs of the hut.Arriving at a cemetery grave from Iria, you can peck on carefully poured seeds, drink a mash covered with freshly baked bread. Finally, tired of the share of a revered ancestor, you can be reborn in your descendants, usually under the same name.

The personality of a traditional person is inextricably linked with the genus. To break this connection means for him to cease to exist at a much deeper level than in the case of a banal death.

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Principle of operation of the printing bed (base) .

And so, the camp stood on massive oak beds. Pillars rose up, to which the transverse beams were fixed with wedges.

Pressure tackle – consisted of a screw (pras) inserted into a hollow box (walnut) fixed to the pras with a metal disk (torus). A heavy plate (pian) was attached to the nut, on ropes and hooks. When moving down, the sharp end of the prasa (center plate) pressed the pian to the carpet (movable box on horizontal runners).

Two metal frames covered with parchment (tympanum and frashket) were attached to the ark. A sheet was put on the tympanum, and a frashket was pressed, leaving empty windows opposite the printed parts of the form.
Usually, a flat stone covered the bottom of the ark. By turning the wheel, the printer set in motion the belts that move the ark under the pian and back. The toothed rack (ladder) ensured the uniformity of the stroke.

The operator fixed the leaf on the tympanum with needles (graphek), lowered the frashket and tympanum, twisted the wheel, pulled the lever (cuckoo), squeezed, twisted, opened, removed the impression.

The work of the batyr was limited to filling the mold with paint using leather balls (matz). He had to make sure that the paint was evenly distributed. The unfinished section (bypass) and the broken (slaughter) were rejected (black sheets).

.|

Sources:

Biography of Arseniya Sukhanov
Sergei Belokurov
Univ. type., 1891

Questions of the history of natural science and technology
Institute of the history of natural science and technology (Academy of Sciences of the USSR)
Science, 1984

Ivan Fedorov, about 1510-1583
Evgeny Lvovich Nemirovsky
Publishing house “Science”, 1985

Book business
JSC Publishing group “Progress”, 1995

The common press
Elizabeth M. Harris, Clinton Sisson
D. R. Godine, 1978

Moxon’s Mechanick exercises: or, The doctrine of handyworks applied to the art of printing
Printed for Joseph Moxon on the Westside of Fleet-ditch, at the Sign of Atlas. 1683

Printing dryer>
About letterpress>

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On the occasion of the 400th anniversary of the death of William [our] Shakespeare, the Bodleian Library at Oxford University asked letterpress artists from around the world to send one example of a printed sonnet.

For my modest contribution, I chose sonnet # 85, translated by Marshak.

As recorded in 1609 Quarto edition

My toung-tide Muſe in manners holds her ſtill,

While comments of your praiſe, richly compil’d,

Reſerue their Character with goulden quill,

And precious phraſe by all the Muſes fil’d.

I thinke good thoughts, whilſt other write good wordes,

And like vnlettered clarke ſtill crie Amen,

To euery Himne that able ſpirit affords,

In poliſht form of well refined pen.

Hearing you praiſd, I ſay ’tis ſo,’ tis true,

And to the moſt of praiſe adde ſome-thing more,

But that is in my thought, whoſe loue to you

(Though words come hind -moſt) holds his ranke before.

Then others, for the breath of words reſpect,

Me for my dombe thoughts, ſpeaking in effect.

Printed in three colors, four passes, on cotton paper.

Modest stamp on the back.

For one thing, I had to glue / bind the folder.

Folder details.

# 154sonnets

= Comic PILLOWFACE Issues = –

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After a long downtime, the home-based Pillowface Press resumes its work. This weekend, drew / printed classic matchbox labels.”Happy Tooth” – excellent quality, pure white phosphorus!

Close-up label with a salty impression characteristic of that era.

Printed in two colors on a handcrafted Kelsey 5×8 Boston.

Phosphorus jaw is an occupational disease of those using (without proper precautions) white phosphorus in their work. Was the scourge of the 19th century match industry.

= Comic PILLOWFACE Issues = –

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Dmitry Vasyukov continues his wonderful series of films.

Happy people | Pomors

Next in line, Altai.

Section: Folk art

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Nekrasov, 1875
Song about “irrigation”

To the Committee “Encouragement
Agricultural Labor”
Make an irrigation experiment
Our arable lands and meadows

I suggested: two commissions equipped our land with
,
They gave money: “Sprinkle!”

I went abroad,
I cheated; then
Began sowing beetroot.
Time rushed, meanwhile,

My house became richer, more beautiful,
I myself get fat, every year.
Suddenly the request: “Is your irrigation successful
?”

“On closer observation, –
I answer to the committee, –
I find that there is no need for irrigation
In our region, there is no need,

Labor, moreover, is immensely expensive . ..” –
Agreed: “There is no need!”
And the deposit – forty thousand –
For feasible work

The Committee – not without the participation of
Good souls – withdrew from me,
And then – with tears of happiness
I watered my wife’s chest !….

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Layout and bound “Aleph” by Borges, in a single copy. As a gift to a friend.
Like this, you’ll blurt out something drunk …

Bookbinding >>

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I decided to revive the tradition of a cabinet portrait – photographs on a branded cardboard with an advertisement for the studio on the back.

At one time, in Europe “, miniature versions of such cards, known as” Carte de Visite “, were popular. Like photographic business cards. In my native latitudes, I met only full-scale copies, but small forms are more handy for us with the faithful Kelsey!

– = Comic PILLOWFACE Issues = –

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I tried myself in a new genre, drew a wedding invitation for a colleague from a former job.
Nothing like that.

Two colors, thermal printing. Initially, I wanted to print it myself (I agreed to draw for that), but then I got scared. Dear Kelsey will not squeeze out such a size, and brides are a nervous people, unmerciful to the flaws of the process. If Heidel, or at least the Pilot was at hand, would have taken a risk. Moreover, thermal printing is somewhat akin to traditional intaglio printing (more precisely, it was invented as a means of imitating it) that was once standard for wedding invitations and business cards of self-respecting sensual ladies and courageous gentlemen.

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Mastering Japanese binding style.

Baby Book # 1, Baby Book # 2

Binding Instructions:

In essence, such a book is a transitional stage from a scroll.
Rice paper was too translucent for 2-sided printing. The entire sheet was folded like an accordion, and covered with a protective cover.Covers were often quite soft, so that series of such books were additionally protected with cases-folders.

Other handicraft tips>

– = PILLOWFACE Comic Editions = –

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Come fly! The patented medicine of Dr. G., will help from any ailments, restore humoral balance, drive out miasms! An ancient Gypsy recipe, the latest achievements of Leipzig scientists, and forty degrees of the purest double-purified corn alcohol!

Dr.Gulkoff’s Restorative Tonic
Alleviates Ailments, Motorizes Members, Purifies Scents
80 Proof
Secret Gyptian Receipt

– = Comic PILLOWFACE Issues = –

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Meanwhile, in a safe house ….

Since the circulation was created in conditions of deep secrecy, in the absence of title fonts in Cyrillic, the title was printed as “I I C K P A”.Responsible comrades have added a slanting bar to all ink prints. Also, due to the lack of type, the page had to be reduced from ten thousand to one hundred characters. *

* V.I. 14, 1913), PSS v.23

<...> Kwelch had to “make room”: he was fenced off in the printing house by a thin wooden partition instead of the editorial room. In the corner was a very small writing table with a shelf of books above it and a chair.When the writer of these lines visited Quelch in this “editorial office,” there was no room for another chair.

– = Comic PILLOWFACE Issues = –

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While we drank, we talked about printing;

and while we printed, we talked drinking.

– John M. Howells

It has been a long time since I returned to the topic of printed tramps. The printing fraternity in general was famous for its fondness for the green serpent, but even among the knights of stone and roller, the wanderers were reputed to be drunks. It is not surprising that a special kind of drinking establishments occupied a very important place in their life.
Print Bars were the meeting point for editors, journalists and printers. There contracts were concluded, grief and joy were poured into whiskey.Most were located near large publishing houses, in the backyards of printing houses. Unlike ordinary pubs, work began in the early morning, giving the tired, after night shift, printers an opportunity to skip a couple before going into hibernation. Tramps usually also arrived in the morning and headed straight from the station into the cozy semi-darkness of the saloon.

Riding the Rods the classic method of arrival of tramps under the bottom of the boxcars

It was enough to put a string meter on the bar, and the tramp received a drink, a hot dinner, a place to stay on credit until better times.The owners of beer establishments were not afraid, the word of the wanderer was considered harder than the pastoral, and the debt to the owner was a saint. The bartender helped with temporary employment, he could take on the hassle of getting a salary, inform the foreman about the discomfort of an employee (who had taken over), and settle problems with the law.

The interior of a typical saloon of those years.

The drunken printer from the movie “The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance”

Printed bars briefly outlived the vagabonds themselves, and by the seventies of the twentieth (I can not accept the word of the past) centuries had gone into oblivion.

(Under the cut, my attempt to compile a list of old print bars (naturally fragmentary) Collapse)

Materials:

Adventures of a tramp printer, 1880-1890

By John Edward Hicks

Tramp Printers

By John M. Howells and Marion Dearman

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An absolutely magical dock.a film about the life of the taiga village “Bakhta”.

Part One – Spring

Part Two – Summer

Part Three – Autumn

Part Four – Winter

Section: Folk Art

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I have already tried to illustrate the mechanism of the manual Boston (the most famous models).
Now I will try to deal with one of the most beautiful and mobile American women – the Liberty machine (Produced by Degener & Weiler, a subsidiary of Liberty Machine Works since 1860). It seems something like this.

How does it work Bostonok “

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Photo of my small home printing house, with explanations and comments on the flicker >>

– = Issues of PILLOWFACE comic = –

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A couple more prints with the trademark mustachioed uncle and the Kelsey machine.See the entire collection and company history here. ”

These two prints, from the Kelsey catalog, 1878.
Special thanks to Stephen O. Saxe and Dr. David M. MacMillan for collecting and scanning this piece of printing history.

Letterpress>
History of Kelsey machines>

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Complete bookbinding set required for the job.

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For a long time I thought about how to present ex-libris in my portfolio. This trifle does not look loose. A book sign looks best on the flyleaf of a book, against a background of marbled or ornamented paper.

And so, I decided to glue a book consisting exclusively of various endpapers!

– = Comic PILLOWFACE Issues = –

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I tried to clarify my own head and understand the basic principles of our machine tools.

C&P Pilot (and clones)

Kelsey, Adana

Baltimorean (and numerous relatives)

Something like that.

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Now, along with orders, you can send an invoice (Billhead) with a register of work performed, as was customary in English and American prints of the 19th century.I typed by hand from frames, rulers, polytypes and a fan of little matching fonts according to the canons of that time. Old paper in tea.

It is curious that “Dr.” it means not the Doctor, but “Debtour” is the debtor, and does not refer to Ivan, but to the one who was inscribed before. Such an archaic form. “Mr. John Smith, to Ivan Gulkov, debtor, printer of trifles and books, owner of the Pillow-Snout trousers.”

I picked up the frame on Goose in the Sky Shipley foundry. Italics “Kaufmann Script” from the San Francisco Print Fair. In principle, I started everything to experience italics and typesetting frame.The tests were successful, the old ATF and today’s Skyline know their business *.

* By the way, type casting machines and many matrices near Skye were rescued from the ruins of the legendary American Type Founders.

Only good clerical handwriting remains to be worked out 🙂

– = Issues of PILLOWFACE comic = –

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A friend and colleague, Evgeny Perfilyev, asks to close up the stamp,
– So that it’s engineering, so that it’s monogrammed, so that it’s with a soul!

(FURTHER UNDER CATS turn back)
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When typing, filling the voids is often painstaking and time-consuming.
In general, up to seventy percent of the typesetter’s work remains invisible on the print.

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Originally posted by dobriifin at post And this story happened as follows:

On Thursday evening, I went with a friend, after work, to ride a skateboard on South Butovo Brooklyn.Well, on the way, getting hungry, we went to a pizzeria on Manhattan Beach. Who knows New York understand that Manhattan Beach is such an area of ​​the city that you will not see anything more interesting than rich people.

(Read more – many beeches and photos Collapse)

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The day after tomorrow, I’m flying into the hot Arizona desert, on the Goose.

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London in 1927 from Tim Sparke on Vimeo.

Just reading London Biography by Peter Ackroyd. Fits well.

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So that the apprentice Golem would not be bored in his box, he closed the bottom with something like a diorama.

Rapidograph, scissors, glue.

Unfortunately, the volume is poorly visible in the photo.
I will try to make a new one and replace it.

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In the mountain villages of Albania, Montenegro and Serbia, there is still a phenomenon of “Oath Maidens” – women who take on the male functions of the head of the family (along with wearing trousers, puffing a cigarette, and following the laws of blood feud).Taking an oath is a lifelong decision and does not have a reverse course. The main motives are the loss of the breadwinner in the family, the refusal of marriage (imposed by the community). In the eyes of fellow villagers, the oath-maker becomes an ordinary peasant, however, obliged to remain celibate. So no LGBT allusions, everything is decent.

They say in Serbia and Montenegro the tradition is practically dying out, and in Albanian villages there are at most a few hundred oaths living out their lonely age.However, it’s wonderful. ‘

Section: their customs >>
Section: volk >>

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Took to read the Gospel of Solovyov (holy-holy),
On the very first pages, I stumble upon a passage:

– I am flying to the country of victorious capitalism, which pleases them, but in economy class, which saddens me.I propose to revise the results of privatization right here and now by exchanging the portrait of the dead president for a raise.

“There were a lot of presidents,” the uncooked Aeroflot man remarked philosophically, “not all of us make us happy.

Franklin pleased. Thank you, comrade foreign president, for everything and for the special resemblance to Mikhail Lomonosov, which explains such a deep love for your images in our Motherland, and from me personally – for the opportunity to pamper yourself a little at the expense of the owners of Aeroflot

-Uh, the very same Benya-vodokhleb is certainly the founder’s father, but he didn’t seem to be asking for the presidency.

Probably not worth reading further.

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In connection with the holiday, I remembered my old post about “Partisan Truth”



1942
Location: Pos. Gury Trubchevsky district, Oryol region
Survey author: Veinirovich I.
SAOO, ed. xp. 8145

Editorial office of the printing house of the newspaper Partizanskaya Pravda.
In the foreground, editor of the newspaper N.P. Korotkov, printer I.A.Mosin, representative of the Oryol Regional Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks

V. ANDREEV on the left side of the Desna, just downstream. In Gurah, in a large wooden house, the “Headquarters of the united partisan detachments of the group of the western regions of the region” was located, as the association was now officially called.

<...>

It must be said that on May 23, 1942, the first issue of the newspaper “Partizanskaya Pravda” was published in deep enemy lines.A small newspaper, on two half-sheet pages, did not shine with its printing design. But she was published here, in the Bryansk forest, wrote about our partisan affairs, was a living witness of our successes.
I looked at Korotkov with interest. So this is what the person who makes our newspaper is like!
– Would you like to see the editorial office and print shop?
“With great interest,” I replied, and we went into the forest. The small hut, which was once occupied by a forester, housed both the editorial office and the printing house.

Young journalists Butov and the same Vasya Roslyakov, whom we met through Darnev’s stories, helped Korotkov in his editorial work.Young girls Nyura and Anya were typing the newspaper. The printing press was home-made, the type was not enough.
– First, we type one page, we print. Then we scatter the set, disassemble the font and start the second page. Ivan the First Printer was probably doing better, ”joked Korotkov.
But no matter how primitive the printing house was equipped, no matter how small the editorial staff was, our “Partizanskaya Pravda” appeared regularly and penetrated into the most distant partisan corners. She reported on the glorious deeds of the partisans, described the atrocities of the Nazis, informed about events at the fronts and abroad.
After the first two or three issues were published, letters were sent to the editorial office of the newspaper in a continuous stream, in which the partisans shared their experience, talked about their glorious deeds and thanked the workers of the newspaper for the information.
“From the mighty shoulders of Partizanskaya Pravda, I now see the whole world. Thank you, comrades,” wrote Andrei Bazderov from Vygonichi.
Our newspaper also played an important role in the decomposition of the rear of the enemy and his troops. <...>

Front line in the spring of the 42nd

CHAPTERS FROM THE STORY “THE PEOPLE’S WAR”

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Blacksmith and eo tools

Blacksmith and eo tools

THE FORMER AND HIS TOOLS

The blacksmith, no matter how great an artist he was, had to
his craft, remain a humble worker in order to be able to
to embody in iron, through hard and persistent work, their technical
possibilities, artistic flair and ideas.The art of blacksmithing is thus
it is craft iron processing as it is a highly specialized work
and closely and directly related to the material to be processed. Despite this,
it would be correct and respectful to call blacksmiths masters of art
forging,
precisely in connection with the fact that the blacksmith appeared as an artist in the possession of
complex, independently developed, exclusive technologies, and in order to
to emphasize the fact that this work requires skill and special
artistic talent.

One of the greatest traits of the craftsmen was the ability to work iron,
preserving the natural roughness of the material and the expressive imprint of the hammer.
Iron had to remain iron, processed by fire and hammer, which
only they were allowed to leave their seal on the finished product.

Panel “Art of the Blacksmith”,
Andrea Pisano (1270 – 1348).
Bell tower of Giotto, “Guilds”, Florence,
XIV century.Side length 40 cm.

“Iron must be treated like a woman: it seems unyielding and
strict, but add a little fire and it becomes soft like wax; when you
it seems that it refuses to obey, there is no need to get angry with it and beat
in anger; you need to find the right approach to him and cuddle him. ”
This tip
gave his students Alessandro Mazukotelli (Lodi 1865 – Milan 1938) the famous
Lombardy master of artistic forging, and for the most disobedient
added: “How do you handle iron with your sweetheart, do you understand?”

Blacksmiths worked in a style typical of their era, even if sometimes,
perhaps they returned over several centuries to the forms that have remained in the past. WITH
on the other hand, being masters who did not lack inventiveness,
they created products whose artistic expression was not always tied
to fashion, but was a manifestation of their own creative abilities. They were
are able to transform personal taste into the necessary work by their work
art.

Wrought iron anvils . Northern Italy, North-Eastern regions,
XVIII and
XVII centuries.
The left one consists of a rectangular frame with an eyelet; horn pyramidal square with
on one side, round conical on the other; protruding body; leg
steps, two brands of the manufacturer are visible in the upper part of the case. Its dimensions:
length 31 cm, height 21 cm, width 20 cm; dimensions of the right anvil: length 17 cm,
height 17 cm, width 16 cm.

Consideration of this phenomenon should lead us to think about the place
blacksmithing in art history and artistic appreciation of works from
wrought iron. By the way, about reflections, it would be worthwhile to conduct scientific research,
to find out why, both in epic legends and in folk tradition
blacksmiths often have the appearance of dwarfs or cripples; why is the same, with only
minor variations, the level of blacksmithing unites both the north and
south; why the names of the main artists, sculptors and architects have been preserved
every era, but nothing or almost nothing is known about most of the masters
artistic forging, even in cases where they succeeded in works
art of such high quality that recognized
artistic genres.

Unbelievable how much dedication was needed to complete this difficult
work; suffice it to recall, for example, that before about 1000 AD
blacksmiths had only a few manual equipment, such as:
forge, bellows, anvil, hammers, vice, pliers, sledgehammers, cutters, punches, wedges
and elementary files and saws for metal.

Gaston Bachelard (Bar sur Aub 1884 – Paris 1962), one of the finest
philosophers of our century said so about this great zeal: “With the help of a hammer
the art of fast movement is born, the beginning of impetuous forces, is born exactly
conscious will.The strength of the blacksmith is joyful, confident in its “useful
power “.

C
over the centuries, with new fashion requirements for the blacksmith, except for the actual blacksmith
affairs, I had to study the art of carving, metal inlay (notches),
engravings and even sculptures.

K
new tools were added to old tools, such as: a saw for metal, a scraper,
engraving cutter, polishing tool and stamping.

Forged iron forging vise. Lombardy (Lecco),
XIX
v. Supplied with spring and
bracket for mounting on a work surface; signed “Odobes” on the front and
the back of the jaws. Overall height 115 cm, jaw width 14
see

With introduction
hydraulic machines that propelled immense bellows and enormous
vertical hammers, the workshop changed its appearance, and the craftsmen were forced to
to strengthen specialization so much that the branches of the profession even received different
name: Magistri clavarii
(key cases of the master) and
Fabri ferrarii (iron smiths).

First direction
was engaged in the manufacture of keys (clavis), locks and related hardware
products;

Basic tools,
used by blacksmiths.

1) Hammers:

a) Impact surface;

b) Striker;

c) Stick.

2) Cutters, punches,
engraving tool;

3) Horn and bellows;

4) Pliers;

5) Shaped wedges or stamps;

6) Vice:

a) Fixed jaw;

b) Moving jaw;

c) Mounting bracket.

7) Files, dies, points for
markings, master keys and taps;

8) Anvil:

a) Round conical horn;

b) Peephole;

c) Table;

d) Square pyramidal horn;

f) Housing;

f) Leg;

g) Support.

The forge is the hearth in which the iron is heated; bellows are
a tool that supplies the flow of air necessary to fan a fire;
hammers of various shapes and sizes and anvil are needed for forging iron, along with
horn, they are the most common tools; wedges with mouths
different shapes (stamps), inserted into the eye of the anvil and used to
giving the metal various shapes.

Second – the production of blacksmiths required for
construction: door and other gratings, balconies, stairs, barriers …

To protect their own economic interests, protect their
ranks and progression of mastery, blacksmiths united in corporations and guilds.

Some inscriptions on ancient Roman monuments about the presence in
The Milan corporation of blacksmiths was already in those days; this proves that the early
The Middle Ages are the continuation of much more ancient corporations.

Even greats of the world
this
could not resist the charm and magic of this art. In each of them
eras, craft workshops were visited and were under the protection of kings, princes and
rulers who watched with pleasure this difficult and
hard work.In France, for example, Charles IX (1550 – 1574),
French king since 1560,
he himself was a fairly talented locksmith;

Louis XIII Bourbon (1601 – 1643)
devoted his time to artistic forging. In Nantes, King Stanislav I Leshchinsky (1677 – 1766),
former Polish king, who fled to France (1719), kept at court
own blacksmith Jean Lamour.

Louis XVI (1654 – 1793), who loved castles, was perhaps the first
a collector of keys, and made quality locks himself.

At
in the English court, the blacksmith had the honor of sitting at the table with the king and queen, at
in this he was treated like a high-ranking official.

V
Milan Galeazzo Visconti (1347 – 1402), Ruler of Milan from 1378 to 1395 and
his first Duke from 1395 to 1402, offered friendship and immunity
Simon de Currentibus, he did the same with Giovanni a few years earlier
Meravilla, nicknamed Anonymous.

Lorenzo I Medici, nicknamed the Magnificent (Florence 1449 – Coreggi 1492), often
attended the workshop of the grumbler Niccolo Grosso, nicknamed Caparra
(Deposit).

Such interest in art forging craftsmen from people
powerful, educated and subtle, was caused, of course, not by curiosity, but
the conviction that artistic forging was capable of creating real
masterpieces, real works of art, along with the so-called “elders”
kinds of arts.

90,000 Article on Tampopchat.

Pad printing.

Hello dear reader! We are always glad to welcome you on our pages! Enjoy your time of the day!

The article, as you might have guessed, is devoted to pad printing. But before we devote you to this matter –
let’s move on to the IX century (somewhere) for a while. It was in this century in China that the ancestor of modern
letterpress – woodcut printing. The molds for it were made of wooden planks.Only towards the middle
XI century a certain blacksmith Pi-sheng proposed to compose suggested to compose a printing plate from separate pieces of metal
with the image of signs. At the end of the XIV – beginning of the XV century, the method won recognition in Korea.
In the 15th century, printing equipment appeared in Europe, and later printing. The originators of this whole case
Johannes Gutenberg (Germany), Jan Koster (Holland) and Pamphilio Castaldi (Italy) are considered.

You probably already thought: “What does pad printing have to do with it?”And besides, there was no pad printing yet, but began to form
only prerequisites for the emergence of this special type of printing. And the direct ancestor of pad printing – intaglio printing, began to be applied closer to
the middle of the 15th century in Europe. The invention of pad printing is attributed to the Frenchman Decalsier. He used technology to apply images to watch dials.
Before that, hand painting was used in the watch industry – by the way, a rather laborious process … probably 🙂 But this technology had a very big disadvantage –
a fragile ink transfer instrument later called a “swab”.It consisted of a gelatinous mass, which lost its shape after several impressions,
therefore, pad printing did not find widespread use and was used quite rarely.

This is one of the first tamping machines.

Only in the early sixties of the last century (1960) the German engineer Wilfried Philip began to develop a repetitive tampon. After a series
After long experiments, he obtained a rubber tampon, and by the 65th year an analogue of modern tampons – a silicone tampon with long-term vulcanization.In the same year, he began to develop a mechanical machine for printing on watches. By 1971, an electromechanical
pad printing machine:

Principle.

The principle of pad printing is simple to the point of banality (if viewed from the side, of course). The whole scheme of work is signed in two
actions:

  • The tampon takes the paint from the mold (cliche)
  • The tampon goes to the product and makes an imprint on it!

At the same time, there are two doctor blade systems – open and, accordingly, closed.Here is a comparative
characteristics of these methods. The pictures show trays with clichés and systems.

Process
  • paint roller applied
  • the surplus is removed – with a doctor blade
  • swab takes an impression from the cliché
  • the process is repeated again
  • paint applied by cup
  • the surplus is removed – with a doctor blade
  • swab takes an impression from the cliché
  • the process is repeated again
  • Deficiencies
  • strong solvent fumes
  • more solvent consumption
  • less environmentally friendly
  • for large editions only
  • need long cliches
  • Picture size restrictions
  • Scope of application.

    On this issue, I think it is not worth emphasizing too much, but if you have not read our main page
    I repeat. Tampon printing is gaining momentum in the market of printing services in Ukraine.
    The technology is so simple and transparent that it is not difficult to learn – although real mastery comes
    only with experience. Pad printing is used in the 1st stage there:

  • where it is difficult to print with another type of printing (- the bottom of the cup)
  • replaces in most cases engraving, embossing and silk-screening and is cheaper than
  • where printing speed is needed (preparation less than 1 hour)
  • needs a high print speed (for example, we can print 16 – 20,000 audio cassettes a day !!!)
  • needs a release of not very expensive, but colorful advertising materials
  • The list above shows just the tip of the iceberg.In fact, pad printing is used and takes place in
    all printing plants, in various industries – printing on keyboards, disks, panels, counters, speedometers, microcircuits,
    toys, packages, bottles …

    Thank you for stopping by to see us. Come again. There will be a lot of interesting and educational things.

    C uv. edition of “Tampocenter” Eurostar ”


    Our main address is [email protected],
    and an additional one is tampo @ gala.net

    90,000 Fairy tale Dashing one-eyed. Russian folktale. Read online

    Russian folk tale

    There lived one blacksmith. “What,” he says, “I haven’t seen any grief. They say there is a dashing thing in the world; I’ll go look for myself dashingly. ” He took it and went, drank well and went to look dashingly. A tailor is approaching him. “Hello!” – “Hello!” – “Where are you going?” – “What, brother, everyone says: there is dashing in the world: I haven’t seen any dashing, I’m going to look.” – “Let’s go together. And I live well and have not seen dashing; let’s go look. “So they walked, walked, entered the forest, into a dense, dark one, found a small path, followed it – along a narrow path. They walked along this path, they saw: there was a big hut. Night; nowhere to go. “Here,” they say, “let’s go into this hut.” We entered; no one is there, empty, not good. They sat down and sit. Here comes a tall woman, thin, crooked, lonely. “A! – is talking. – I have guests. Hello”. – “Hello, grandma! We have come to spend the night with you. ” – “OK then; I will have something to eat! ” They got scared. So she went and brought a lot of firewood; I brought firewood, put it in the stove, and flooded it.She went up to them, took one, a tailor, and stabbed him, put it in the stove and put it away.

    The blacksmith sits and thinks: what to do, what to do? She took it and dined. The blacksmith looks into the stove and says: “Grandma, I am a blacksmith.” – “What can you do-forge?” – “Yes, I can do everything.” – “Bite my eye.” “Okay,” he says, “do you have a rope? You need to be tied, otherwise you will not give in; I would have forged your eye. ” She went and brought two ropes, one thinner and one thicker. So he tied her with one that was thinner.”Come on, grandma, turn around!” She turned and tore the rope. “Well,” he says, “no, grandma! This won’t do. ” He took a thick rope and with this rope he twisted it well. “Turn around, grandma!” So she turned – didn’t break. So he took the awl, fired it up, pointed it at her healthy one, took the ax and hit it with his butt on the awl. She turned around and broke the rope, and sat down on the threshold. “And, villain, now you will not leave me!” He sees that he is again dashing, sits, thinks: what to do? Then came the sheep from the field; she drove the sheep into her hut to spend the night.In from the blacksmith spent the night. In the morning she began to release sheep. He took a fur coat, turned it upside down, put it on his sleeves and crawled up to her like a lamb. She released everything one at a time; enough for the back, and throw it away. And he crawled; she grabbed him by the back and threw him out. She threw it out, he got up and said: “Goodbye, Dashing! I have suffered from you dashing; now you can’t do anything. ” She says: “Wait, you will still have enough, you have not left!”

    And the blacksmith went again into the forest along a narrow path. Looks: a hatchet with a gold handle in a tree; I wanted to take it for myself.So he took up this hatchet, his hand stuck to it. What to do? You can’t tear it off. He looked back: he was going to him dashingly and shouting: “You are a villain, and you did not leave!” The blacksmith took out a knife, he had it in his pocket, and let’s cut this hand off; cut it off and left. He came to his village and began to show his hand, which now he saw famously. “Here,” he says, “look at what it is: I,” he says, “have no hand, but I have completely eaten my comrade.” This is the end of the fairy tale.

    Retold: A. N. Afanasyev

    Page 1 || Page 2

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