Stirling job shop: Finding a job | Student life

Jobs & Careers At Gleneagles

I’m only 18 years old and I’ve already found my dream job.  Coming to work is my happy time so I basically get paid to have fun and help other people have fun – how lucky am I?

At school, all my friends enjoyed staying indoors and playing the PlayStation and the Xbox, whereas I was always desperate to spend all day outside and have adventures.  I knew I wanted a career that would allow me to work outdoors because I would have hated sitting at a desk looking at a screen.

I stared working as a joiner as a Saturday job, and after school I got a job as a ‘fencer’, fixing deer fences around the countryside. But I really missed the interaction with people because it involved spending the whole day in the hills on my own.  It got to the point where I couldn’t build one more fence – it just wasn’t for me.

That was when the opportunity came up to join the Gleneagles team as a trainee all-terrain instructor, providing our junior guests with fantastic experiences in the mini Land Rovers and Argo Cats, and I grasped it with both hands!

After building up my skills and completing lots of training, I was offered the chance to expand my responsibilities and begin working with the animals.   Now I’m qualified to teach ferret lessons, gundog lessons, and fly a hawk by myself.  I love animals but, as one of nine siblings, my parents always refused to get me a pet because they said the house was already too busy with all of us children, so I can’t believe my luck that I’m now surrounded by animals all day!

It’s been a big learning curve, but I love the diversity in my role.  Every morning, we weigh the birds because they need to be hungry enough to fly.  If they’re too fat they won’t fly, but if they’re too hungry they won’t fly either, so we have to monitor them continually to keep them on target.  After that, I might head over to the clean out the kennels and give our dogs some exercise.

It’s hard work – you’re always on your feet, walking, talking, cleaning, preparing, planning and getting things ready for the next lesson – but I’m a real people person, so I love helping guests to enjoy themselves and I spend my day in awe of all these animals, learning about how they respond to commands and watching how they experience the world. They’re amazing! People always say never work with children and animals, but that’s the best bit about my job.

The range of roles and positions at Gleneagles is amazing.  You can start in any part of the business, but if you work hard and have an enthusiastic attitude, there are so many internal career opportunities to move in a different direction, whether that’s leisure, pursuits, guest relations, food and beverage, or culinary.  You meet people from all over the business, from all kinds of backgrounds and from all over the world. Everybody looks out for each other – we’re like one big family.  It genuinely is the Glorious Playground – for the people, for the guests and for our animals.

If someone had told me when I was at school that one day you’re going to get to work outside all day, with children, off-road vehicles and animals, I would have told them that that job doesn’t exist, but here I am living my dream and getting to do it!

FAQ


IS THE SIZING ON YOUR WEBSITE IN UK OR US SIZING? 
Footwear is shown in US sizes, US sizing is equivalent to NZ sizing – please choose your regular footwear size. Apparel is in NZ sizing. 

I HAVE A PHYSICAL GIFT CARD THAT I WOULD LIKE TO USE ONLINE. HOW DO I USE IT TO PLACE AN ORDER ONLINE?
Please email [email protected] the gift card number, pin number and value.  Once we receive this, we will issue you with an online credit.  Please note, your physical gift card will be redeemed and you will no longer be able to use this in store.

CAN I PAY FOR AN ITEM ONLINE, AND PICK IT UP AT MY LOCAL STIRLING SPORTS STORE?
Yes! We offer a Click and Collect option online. Please note that it may still be 1-3 business days before it’s ready to be collected if your chosen store doesn’t have the item in stock. In this case, we’ll need to get the item sent to your local store from another of our stores around the country.

I’VE FOUND AN ITEM I LIKE ONLINE, CAN YOU TELL ME IF MY LOCAL STORE HAS THIS IN STOCK?
You can use the ‘Find In Store’ button on the product page to check if your local store has that item in stock. We do recommend calling the store to double check they do have the item, in case of any stock inaccuracies.  You can find their information in Find your local store.

WHY IS THE PRICE ON THE WEBSITE DIFFERENT TO THE PRICE I SAW IN STORE?
Prices may occasionally vary between stores and online. Our stores are individually owned, therefore there may be store specific promotions or sales from time to time.


I RECENTLY PURCHASED SOMETHING ONLINE BUT IT IS NOW ON SALE, CAN I GET A REFUND?
We are frequently adjusting our prices in response to trends, events and stock levels. Unfortunately we are unable to give a refund on the difference if the item you ordered is now on sale. Don’t worry, we’ll have another sale or promotion soon so please keep an eye out online!


IN STORE PURCHASES
For any item purchased in store that you have an enquiry about, please contact the store you have purchased from directly. Because we are a franchised company, some policies in store may be different to Stirling Sports Online.

HOW DO I GO ABOUT APPLYING FOR A JOB WITH STIRLING SPORTS?
Employment is arranged by the owner of each store, please contact the store you are wanting to apply for directly to enquire about vacancies. Find your local store 

WHAT PAYMENT OPTIONS DO YOU ACCEPT?
We accept Afterpay and Laybuy, Mastercard, Visa, Amex, Online Banking and Online Eftpos.

SPONSORSHIP, DONATIONS AND QUOTES
For all sponsorship, donation and quote enquires, please contact your local store.  We are a franchised own company who love supporting our local communities.

HAVE A COMPLAINT TO MAKE?
If you would like to make a complaint, please email this through to us at [email protected]

 

 

 

Vacancy Search Results – B&M Retail Ltd


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TitleDate PostedLocation


Customer Service Supervisor – Larne

Salary:

Up to £9. 21 per hour


We are currently recruiting for a Customer Service Supervisor to join our team in Laharna Retail Park, Larne!
This is a permanent, part time role, working 12 hours a week and will require the flexibility to work shifts in the daytime, evenings and at weekends.
As a Customer Service Supervisor, you will support the Customer Service Manager in running the cash office and t…


Area Manager – Essex



Are you an established Area or Field Manager, with experience in a high turnover/big box/fast-paced retail brand? Are you looking for a fresh challenge in an ambitious business? If your answers are yes, then this could be your ideal role with one of the UK’s fastest growing retailers!
As an Area Manager in B&M, you will lead your stores in all areas of service excellence by delivering. ..


Replenishment Supervisor – Larne

Salary:

Up to £9.21 per hour


We are currently recruiting for a Replenishment Supervisor to join our team in Laharna Retail Park, Larne!
This is a permanent, part time role, working 20 hours a week and will require the flexibility to work shifts in the daytime, evenings and at weekends.


As a Replenishment Supervisor you will support the Replenishment Manager in ensuring the warehouse, fill lev…


HR Advisor


We have an exciting opportunity for a HR Advisor to join our People Team based at the Store Support Centre in Speke, Liverpool!
B&M Retail is one of the UK’s fastest growing retailers and with our ongoing expansion plans, there has never been a better time to join us! Our commitment to internal succession is something we’re extremely proud of. We’re a family run, make it fun business tha…


Customer Service Assistant – Newry

Salary:

National Minimum Wage


B&M Retail are currently recruiting for Customer Service Assistants to join the team in Newry! These are permanent, part-time positions, working 8 hours per week, in our Customer Service, Replenishment or Shop Floor departments.
We are one of the UK’s fastest growing retailers and, with our ongoing expansion plans, there’s never been a better time to join us! We offer amazing on the job …


Shop Floor Supervisor – Newry

Salary:

Up to £9. 21 per hour


We are currently looking for a Shop Floor Supervisor to join our team in Newry!
B&M Retail are one of the UK’s fastest growing retailers and with our ongoing expansion plans there has never been a better time to join us. We have a variety of exciting retail careers available & we offer fantastic on the job training. If you are looking to fast track your career, with B&M, the opportunities…


Customer Service Assistant – Larne

Salary:

National Minimum Wage


B&M Retail are currently recruiting for Customer Service Assistants to join the team in Laharna Retail Park, Larne! These are part-time positions, working either 12 or 20 hours per week, in our Customer Service, Replenishment or Shop Floor departments.
We are one of the UK’s fastest growing retailers and, with our ongoing expansion plans, there’s never been a better time to join us! …


DC Gatehouse Operative



B&M are looking for a Gatehouse Operative to be part of the Security Department in our Distribution Centre based in Bedford . The ideal candidate will have a good understanding of the Security industry and strong administrative skills. This is for a 48 hour contract, working 19:00-07:00 night shifts Friday-Monday . Overtime may be available so the ideal candidate will be fully flex…


Customer Service Assistant – Antrim

Salary:

National Minimum Wage


B&M Retail are currently recruiting for Customer Service Assistants to join the team in Junction One International Outlet Centre, Antrim! These are part-time positions, working 12 hours per week, in our Customer Service, Replenishment or Shop Floor departments.
We are one of the UK’s fastest growing retailers and, with our ongoing expansion plans, there’s never been a better time to join…


HGV Class 1 Shunter

Salary:

Up to £18.56 per hour


B&M Retail are looking for HGV Class 1 Drivers (C+E) to be part of the team at our Bedford site!
Peak earnings up to £18.56 per hour !!
Our new attractive rate of pay is £14.40 for Monday – Friday working, and £16.56 for weekend working, this incorporates an additional £10 per day Tax Free meal allowance – a benefit which is unique to B&M. All our drivers be…

Why this recession disproportionately affects women

Flexible work also needs to be available to and taken up by men. The multiple burdens that suppress women’s achievements won’t ease until men take on a greater share of domestic and caring responsibilities, and also become more likely to downsize or adjust their own hours when family circumstances change. But this is challenging in practice. Hegewisch points out that in a heterosexual couple, “if one person has to cut back… for care, it is likely to be the person who earns less in a couple, and that is more likely still to be the woman.” 

Some families can make it work, but a certain combination of advantages has to be in place. “We’re one of the really lucky ones,” says Hellen Stirling-Baker, who has just reopened her business, an ethical children’s shop in Sheffield, UK, called Small Stuff. During much of lockdown she had to move her shop from bricks-and-mortar to online, but sales haven’t suffered hugely. Crucially, she says, she and her husband have been equally dividing domestic tasks and care of their four-year-old son. As he works for a bank and has a more rigid schedule even though he’s working from home, he’s been taking on the evening shift of cooking dinner and caring for their son, as well as helping her reopen the shop.     

The period of temporary – though hectic – flexibility for the self-employed Stirling-Baker allowed her to reorient her business and buffer the unpredictability of her son’s new life. She’s now found a new location for Small Stuff that’s larger, allows for social distancing and comes with a rent-free period. It helped that she could compensate for her husband’s strict schedule by making her own hours, but that can’t continue once the shop is running normally. And the hard work is taking a toll. Stirling-Baker hasn’t been sleeping much, she acknowledges, and is focused on the crucial Christmas period for retail sales, while trying not to think too much on the uncertain period beyond that. 

Short-term solutions 

There are, of course, things that employers can do to incorporate flexibility and help ease the impact of the pandemic recession on women. Managers can set more realistic expectations and re-evaluate performance criteria – for instance, not criticising employees for working outside of core hours. This would help relieve the exhaustion that’s particularly affecting certain groups of women (although companies that are already crunched may find it hard to be generous). Only about half of North American workplaces surveyed by McKinsey and Lean In had communicated their productivity expectations during the pandemic, and just 37% had changed the performance review process. 

Employers can improve flexibility, communication and support to employees of all genders. Anita Bhatia, a deputy leader of UN Women, commented in the Women Leaders in Global Health Conference on 15 October: “The private sector has a huge role to play: to say that they will create flexible working conditions for women to come back and that they will not penalise women for stepping off the career track if they have to.”

90,000 remake of a fifties prescription – Autoreview

How do I buy a new car built to the exact specifications of 1950s racing cars? It couldn’t be simpler: you need to contact Lister Motor from Cambridge, where craftsmen, led by a couple of old-school engineers, make reproductions of the Lister, nicknamed Knobbly, that is, “bumpy” on the rigs of those years. And yes, you need to have a tight wallet: the most affordable Listers cost at least 410 thousand dollars, and the version of Stirling Moss presented the other day is estimated at 1.3 million dollars, that is, exactly one million pounds! What is that kind of money for?

First of all for the legend.It is believed that Brian Lister’s workshop built a total of 56 cars in 1953-1956. But in different races, these cars came to the podium a total of about two thousand times! And the name of the brand was made by the racer Archie Scott Brown, despite his congenital disability, who had a fantastic talent. And, alas, he died at the wheel of Lister in Spa-Francorchamp in 1958. The loss of a team leader and development costs with the help of renowned engineer Frank Kostin of a completely new car (which, moreover, did not live up to expectations) forced the owner to close the shop a year later.

Original 1950s Lister Knobbly

Jaguar XJS, modified by Lister (1985)

1993 Lister Storm

In the early eighties, with the permission of Brian Lister, the stamp was revived through the efforts of the Briton Lawrence Pierce. At the factory in Surrey, he first did a deep redesign of the two-door Jaguar XJS, and then brought his own car to the market – the Lister Storm.The large V12 7.0 coupe from the successful Jaguar XJR-9 sports prototype shone on the racetrack, winning the FIA ​​GT Championship. Along the way, Pierce, at the beginning of the new century, began to gradually make copies of the “lumpy” Listers – to take away bread from replicar manufacturers who collected caricatured Knobbly from scrap materials. However, the case also died out for Lawrence Pierce.

Once again they heard about the Lister brand three years ago: the insurance company Warranty Wise, represented by the owner and founder, Andrew Whittaker, bought out both Pierce’s business and George Lister Engineering, which retained the tooling, drawings and technology of the machines of the fifties.The united firm Lister Motor announced the project of a modern thousand-horsepower hypercar, but in reality it started building cars according to old specifications, which are considered not replicas, but a continuation of the original series.

The most famous version – Lister Knobbly Jaguar – was chosen as the basis for new cars. Although the Listers were also equipped with MG, Bristol, Coventry Climax and even Chevrolet engines, the 3.8-liter inline-six from Jaguar D-Type cars brought the brand the greatest fame.Fortunately, such engines can now be found on the market, and the British firm Crosthwaite & Gardner makes four-speed manual transmissions according to Jaguar specifications.

The “jubilee” batch of ten cars, released in 2013, sold briskly. Businessmen thought about new income and brought in the famous Formula 1 driver Sir Stirling Moss.Say, 86-year-old Moss recently unearthed the secret of the authentic Lister racing team, for which he raced several times. It turns out that Brian Lister made extensive use of lightweight magnesium alloy for the cars of his pilots, while third-party buyers got cars made of steel and aluminum. Therefore, the new limited edition Lister Knobbly Jaguar Stirling Moss will be built according to this recipe: body panels, oil pan, clutch and differential housings are made from magnesium. Thanks to this, the weight of the machine is only 841 kg.The modified 3.8 engine produces 341 hp. and 400 Nm, acceleration to 97 km / h in less than four seconds, and to 160 km / h in 9.9 seconds. The maximum speed is 296 km / h!

The new Lister Knobbly Jaguar Stirling Moss was presented by Sir Stirling Moss himself (right) and Lawrence Whittaker, son of the current owner of the company

The premiere of the car was recently held at the Royal Automobile Club (RAC), where the guests were assured that only ten copies would be produced: the construction of a “magnesium” car is too complicated and expensive.Because of this, the price (million pounds) is also high. However, it does include bonuses such as a silver plaque engraved with Sir Moss’s painting and car serial number, a racing suit, an extensive range of parts, a day of trekking, and a one-season admission to the historic cars competition for the Stirling Moss Cup. They say the first Lister Knobbly Jaguar Stirling Moss has already found a buyer.

PhysicsToys

I would like to share with you a little the creative atmosphere that reigns in my workshop, i.That is, how is the birth of all those models that I will then post on the site. I think this is a good idea and I will periodically update this page with new photos so that you can imagine how all this is done.

This is how the table looks like, on which everything is actually mounted, all sorts of parts are mixed with tools, in short, a complete mess, but otherwise it does not work

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And these are the main parts of the two high-temperature sterlings

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Now everything is closer

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It can be seen how the working piston sleeve is attached to the engine

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This is the front of the engine – the heating head made of copper tube.

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This is a similar engine, only slightly smaller

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It is also in disassembly, the displacer is visible inside

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And this is the graphite piston

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And this pair of nice radiators is still waiting to be assembled

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This is a bushing bracket with bearings

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Actually the flywheel itself on the axis

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90,000 Stirling Prize for the reconstruction of a feudal fortified estate

The creators of the Astley Castle (Astley Castle), built inside the walls of an ancient castle in Warwickshire, received the James Stirling (Stirling Prize) – the main architectural award in the UK from the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA).This was reported on the official website of the award. The award ceremony took place on September 26, 2013 at the Central Saint Martin College of Art and Design in London. The Stirling Prize has been awarded annually by the Royal Institute of British Architects since 1996 “for the best contribution to British architecture.” The award is named after the British architect James Stirling (1926-1992).

The presentation of the award did not cause a great response in the media, perhaps because the winner was not so much the building as the architectural approach itself.The theme of the 2013 Stirling Prize is renewal in different variations, from radical changes in typologically traditional buildings by local standards to the renovation of a dilapidated building of the middle of the last century. And the jury recognized the ruins of the burnt-down medieval fortified estate Astley Castle (Warwickshire) as the best work, reconstructed into a hotel with the preservation of an authentic look. The winning project was authored by Witherford Watson Mann Architects .

Astley Castle was built in the 11th century. In 1978, the dilapidated building was badly damaged by fire. The municipality did not have the funds to restore the listed building, and in 2012, the Landmark Trust, an organization dedicated to the preservation of historic buildings, announced a competition among architecture companies. The architects of the Witherford Watson Mann bureau entered a modern house inside the castle walls, leaving some of the halls without a roof and turning them into a kind of patio.

President of the Royal Institute of British Architects Stephen Hodder called Astley Estate “an exceptional example of how modern architecture can revive an ancient monument” .

The architects showed delicacy and courage at the same time: from some angles, the new building is almost invisible, although an independent meaning and witty logic can be read in it.The bedrooms and bathrooms are located on the ground floor, while the common areas are higher, offering views of the Tudor and King James ruins. The level of work is undoubtedly very high, but the intrigue persisted until the last minute: few believed that Stirling would be handed over for reconstruction.

“Astley is a remote place with rich historical connotations: a castle surrounded by a moat, a lake, a church and the ghosts of amusement gardens cluster around a range of low hills.After decades of decline and destruction, the project opened the private property to the public. The ruins of the castle have been preserved, becoming an organic part of the new home. Contemporary brick, concrete and wood structures are set right on top of medieval stonework, filling the ancient estate, while the wings of the Tudor and King James era house are preserved as outdoor spaces. Large gaps in the ruins of the castle walls were preserved, which made it possible to lighten the overall castle structure.The house is enlivened by rays of sunlight on the stone walls. Sitting at the dining table, you look at the walls of the 15th and 17th centuries from the building of the 12th and at the same time the 21st century – an architectural dialogue that has been going on through the centuries resembles a leisurely friendly conversation. ”

In addition to Astley Castle, the shortlisted for the award included the Chapel of Bishop Edward King in Oxford (Niall McLaughlin Architects), Park Hill residential building designed by Hawkins / Brown and Studio Egret West, the building of the University of Limerick Medical School in Ireland (Grafton Architects), residential Newhall Be complex (Alison Brooks Architects) and Giants Causeway Tourism Center (Heneghan Peng Architects).Below is a brief description, video and photos of these projects.

Chapel of Bishop Edward King, Oxford (Niall McLaughlin Architects)

Architectural Workshop: Niall McLaughlin Architects.

Client: Ripon College and Community of St John the Baptist.

Location: The chapel is located in the small village of Cuddesdon (southern Oxfordshire), about 10 miles from Oxford city center.

Small modern chapel built in Oxford by Niall McLaughlin Architects. The building of the chapel, intended for students of the theology department and the female monastic order, is simple and complex at the same time. Pure geometry connects volume with modernity, and the arrangement of the facade evokes a variety of historical associations. The narrow windows are quite predictable, but the texture of the creamy limestone masonry, manually broken into blocks, contrasted with the smoothly hewn stone, is emotional and spontaneous.

The prayer hall is separated from the transit area by wooden structures that form a lattice vault just below the level of the window strip, separated by narrow bindings. This, again, is an allusion, a clear hint of traditional naves and vaults. But, at the same time – a functional, aesthetic and even lyrical structure, refined in every sense of the word, but reliable. A metaphor for protection independent of wall thickness. The image of the intersection of worlds. Reflection of the simplicity behind the illusory complexity.

Park Hill residential building designed by Hawkins / Brown and Studio Egret West

Architectural Workshop: Hawkins / Brown with Studio Egret West.

Client: Urban Splash.

Location: east of downtown Sheffield, less than a mile from Sheffield train station.

Another reconstruction: the multi-storey building with the proud name Park Hill, built in the early 60s, was an example of brutal island architecture, but over the years it degraded as a dwelling.His reanimation was simultaneously carried out by two architectural workshops: Howkins / Brown and Studio Egret West. They retained the concept of “hanging streets”, broke some partitions inside, let light in through the large windows, and enclosed the building in a frame with colored inserts.

Now apartments and office space are selling or renting well, but the chances of architects in the competition were slim, if only because some loved the authentic building passionately, and some hated it no less passionately.

University of Limerick School of Medicine, Ireland (Grafton Architects)

Architectural Workshop: Grafton Architects.

Client: Plassey Campus Developments.

Location: 5 miles east of downtown Limerick, midwest Ireland.

The University of Limerick is a place where not only finances but also hopes have dwindled.Neither the townspeople nor the critics liked the previous attempts, so the designers at Graftone Architects had to act on the spoiled field and save every pound.

They themselves honestly admit that the building of a medical laboratory is a cube cut from the inside so that an interesting space is formed. It was successful: the play of light and shadow literally mesmerizes, the internal layout takes into account the specifics of the institution, as well as the customs and habits of modern students, and the gray limestone cladding distinguishes the educational building against the background of residential ones.They chose the products of a small factory for them, because the color and texture of the bricks naturally vary. The finishing touch is the concrete shed above the bus stop, with a staircase linking the street to the campus.

Residential complex Newhall Be (Alison Brooks Architects)

Architectural Workshop: Alison Brooks Architects.

Customer: Galliford Try Partnerships / Linden Homes Eastern.

Location: Harlow, in western Essex, bordering Hertfordshire. About 30 miles from London. Harlow became one of the “New Cities” rebuilt in the post-war period in the South-East of England (for the decentralization of London, planned after the massive bombing strikes by German aircraft in 1940-1941), and became one of the first cities in Great Britain, in which in the post-war time high-rise residential buildings were built.

The undisputed favorite of the race was the Newhall Be residential complex, located 30 miles from London, in Essex. To fully appreciate it, you need to be British or, at least, know the living habits of the islanders, who cannot imagine suburban housing without a public garden, which is proudly called a garden here. If it is not there, the developer will not sell anything, and the cost of the land prompts you to save on everything else.

Alison Brooks Architects came up with an innovative approach: half of the garden was transferred to a terraced roof, the vacant land was built up with additional houses, and the money was spent on large windows protected from prying eyes by means of a corner extension and other modernist improvements.From the point of view of propaganda, the practical and progressive solution of the houses was the ideal contender for the laureate, but the jury judged differently.

Giants Causeway Visitor Center (Heneghan Peng Architects)

Architectural workshop: heneghan peng architects.

Client: The National Trust.

Location: The Causeway of the Giants (Trail of the Giants) is a unique coastal area, representing about 40,000 interconnected basalt (less often andesite) columns formed as a result of an ancient volcanic eruption about 50-60 million years ago.Located in the north-east of Northern Ireland, about 3 km north of the city of Bushmills. The road, as well as the Causeway Coast on which it is located, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986, and a National Wildlife Refuge in 1987 by the Northern Ireland Department of the Environment.

A tourist center located near a unique natural phenomenon should be invisible, without drawing the attention of visitors to itself.It is necessary to meet the needs of tourists and includes the necessary shops, cafes and exhibition areas.

Heneghan Peng Architects did not hide the architecture in the landscape or separate them, they turned the complex into a piece of land art, extremely organic without direct mimicry. Niall McLaughlin Architects have enriched the interior of the church with a lyrical wood structure and the façade with hand-fractured limestone.




Partners

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Manufacturer and official partner of the largest suppliers of building structures: Schuco, Funke Gruppe, AGC. One of the leaders of the Russian market for the manufacture and installation of translucent fire protection structures.

AS-Project LLC

One of the leading design companies in Udmurtia and the Volga Federal District.AS-Project performs all types of design work and pre-design analysis of building plots.

Production of any products from natural and artificial stone. Including according to the customer’s sketches.

Stirling engine. Who is Robert Stirling? Our proposals for the improvement of the Stirling engine

Biography

Stirling was born at Clog Farm near Methven, Scotland.He was the third child in the family, and there were eight children in total. From his father he inherited an interest in the construction of technology, but studied theology and became a priest of the Scottish Church in Life Kirk in 1816.

In 1819 Stirling married Gina Rankin. They had seven children, two of them, Patrick Stirling and James Stirling, became steam locomotive engineers.

Stirling died in Galston, Scotland in 1878.

Scientific and technical activities

Heat engine

Stirling was very concerned about the injuries of workers working in his parish with steam engines.These engines often exploded due to the poor quality of the iron from which they were made. There was no more durable material in those years. Stirling decided to improve the design of the air engine in the hope that such an engine would be safer.

Stirling invented a device that he called a “heat economy” (now such a device is called a regenerator or heat exchanger). This device serves to increase the thermal efficiency of various processes.Stirling received a patent for a “heat-saving” engine in 1816. A Stirling engine cannot explode because it operates at a lower pressure than a steam engine and cannot cause scalding by steam. In 1818, he built the first practical version of his engine and used it in a pump to pump water out of a quarry.

The theoretical basis for the operation of the Stirling engine – the Stirling cycle – did not exist until the work of Sadi Carnot appeared. Carnot developed and published in 1825 a general theory of the operation of heat engines – the Carnot Cycle, from which the Stirling cycle is constructed in a similar way.

Subsequently, Stirling, together with his brother James, received several more patents for improving the air engine. And in 1840, James built a large air engine to drive all mechanisms in his foundry.

Optical instruments

While living in Kilmarnock, Stirling collaborated with another inventor, Thomas Morton, who provided Stirling with all his equipment and instruments for conducting experiments. They were both interested in astronomy.From Morton Stirling learned how to grind lenses, after which he invented a number of optical devices.

Bessemer process

In a letter dated 1876, Robert Stirling recognized the importance of Henry Bessemer’s new invention, the Bessemer steelmaking process, which made steam engines safer, which in turn threatened to make the air engine an anachronism. At the same time, he also expressed the hope that the new steel will improve the efficiency of its air engines.

See also

Categories:

  • Characters by alphabet
  • Scientists by alphabet
  • Born on October 25
  • Born in 1790
  • Died on June 6
  • Died in 1878
  • Inventors
  • Inventors

  • Inventors
  • Inventors

Wikimedia Foundation

2010

See what “Robert Stirling” is in other dictionaries:

    Robert – priest, creator of the “external” combustion engine (Stirling engine and Stirling cycle) (Scotland, 1816)). EdwART. Automotive Jargon Dictionary, 2009 … Automotive Dictionary

UDC 62
STIRLING ENGINE – FUTURE ENGINE
Kozhukhov Ivan Valerievich,
Shipitsyn Leonid Vladimirovich
Moderators: Natalya Borisovna Joakimanskaya, physics teacher
Ioakimansky Nikolay Nikolaevich, head of the circle of technical creativity
MBOU Solontsovskaya secondary school
Emelyanovsky district
Krasnoyarsk Territory
Objective of the project
A visual demonstration of the transformation of the internal energy of a gas
into mechanical energy and into electrical energy.Tasks:
1.Design and manufacture a Stirling engine
2. Show the ability of the Stirling engine to convert internal energy
fuel into mechanical and electrical.
What is a Stirling Engine?
Is it possible to get energy to charge a mobile phone from human heat
body or mugs of boiling water? Is it possible using the temperature difference between the well
water and atmospheric air, supply electricity to a country house?
The answer to all these questions is YES! CAN!
machines “_or, _ as_they_are_the_Stirling engines_.it
may
“styling-
We want to tell you about the most unusual, in our opinion, a converter of thermal and
mechanical energy. This type of engine was not invented in the nineteenth century by a physicist or
a mechanic, but a priest! The history of Stirling machines is incredible. They have passed the stage of recovery,
then they were forgotten, but survived the steam engines, internal combustion engines and
revived again in the twentieth century. Today, many engineers and
amateurs.It is worth noting that there is no universal method for calculating Stirling machines
until now, although almost two centuries have passed since their invention! The lion’s share of technical
solutions and calculation methods when creating prototypes of Stirling engines
automatically becomes the “know-how” of the development companies and is carefully hidden.Stirling engines cannot be found on the free market, like lawn mowers or autonomous
generators. At the same time, Stirlings are used as power plants in space
satellites are used as propulsion engines on modern submarines.
rover. There are no valves, camshafts in the engine design, there is no
ignition system in its usual form, no starter! Some designs have
self-starting effect.Any heat source is suitable for work: solar energy, manure, hay,
firewood, coal, oil, gas, a nuclear reactor – anything will do! And with this “omnivorous”
efficiency factor of “Stirling” is not inferior to indicators of internal engines
combustion. But that’s not all. Stirling machines are reversible. Those. supplying thermal energy,
we get mechanical, spinning the engine flywheel we generate cold. In general, miracles and
There are a lot of mysteries around the stirling machines. Interesting, isn’t it? If you want to know about
Stirlingach more – stay with us
Who is Robert Stirling?
Robert Stirling was born in the homeland of kilt and whiskey – in
Scotland,
v
1790
year.While studying at the university, the young pastor showed
considerable aptitude for engineering, and free time
dedicated to the development of a “safe” engine. While
steam engines were already actively exploited, but possessed
one unpleasant feature – due to low strength
become
at
them
often
exploded
boilers.
Stirling was looking for a solution to this problem. Since the choice
the materials for the cauldrons turned out to be small, Rev. Robert
just gave up steam and came up with a new type of engine for
air, but most importantly – introduced into the engine cycle
heat recovery.September 19, 1816 Stirling
appointed priest of the Church of Lay Kiri in Kilmarnock, and already
September 21 of the same year in Edinburgh (Scotland) he
patenting a device called an “economizer” or heat-saving device
(English patent No. 4081).
Today this device is called a regenerator or heat exchanger. Regenerator is the heart of all
modern Stirling machines. Later twice more: in 1827 and in 1840 Stirling patented
improved samples of their car. He stubbornly moves towards the goal – creation
“Safe engine”.And in 1845, with the help of his younger brother James and friend Thomas
Morton,
Stirling
reaches
result.
The 50 horsepower indicator machine is manufactured at a foundry in Denmark.
The apparatus was used at the mine to pump out water. He successfully worked for three years, but was
disassembled due to frequent failure. It wasn’t about the design – it’s perfect, and
migrated to modern types of Stirling machines without any significant changes. The problem was created
materials that do not have sufficient strength. The metal of the working cylinder could not stand
constant temperature and pressure drop.In his declining years, Robert Stirling in one of his
letters of 1876 emphasized the importance of Henry Bessemer’s invention – obtaining
high-strength steel. Stirling expressed the hope that this steel will open up prospects for its
“Cars in the air.” Throughout life, in his home workshop Stirling
designed and manufactured models of heat engines. Later, one of these models
used by Lord Kelvin for university lectures. Despite the stormy inventive
activities, Robert Stirling remained a pastor and continued to lead services.Died
inventor-priest June 6, 1878 in the Scottish town of Galston, in the East
Ayrshire. How did Stirling manage to invent an engine with the greatest possible
thermodynamic efficiency – remains a mystery. But, what this irrepressible Scot
in his 88 years he managed to live two lives – the life of a talented design engineer and
a priest is an indisputable fact. Stirlin was more than a hundred years ahead of his time. His
an outstanding invention was the impetus for a significant improvement in steam
machines, survived many technical innovations in engine building and is reborn again in our
days.Stirling engine today
The engine, proposed by Robert Stirling himself, had significant weight and dimensions
characteristics and low efficiency. Due to the complexity of the processes in such an engine associated with
continuous movement of pistons, the first simplified mathematical apparatus was developed
only in 1871 by the Prague professor G. Schmidt. The calculation method proposed by him
was based on the ideal model of the Stirling cycle and made it possible to create engines with an efficiency not
exceeding 15%. Only by 1953, the Dutch company Philips developed the first
highly efficient Stirling engines, superior in performance to engines
internal
combustion.World interest in this type of engine has since moved from the field of theoretical
constructions in the plane of practical implementation in a variety of areas. Abroad already
the production of Stirling engines has begun, the technical characteristics of which are already
superior to internal combustion engines and gas turbine installations. So, Stirling engines from Philips, STM Inc.,
Daimler Benz, Solo, United Stirling with power from 5 to 1200 kW have an effective efficiency of more than
42
%,
resource
more
40
thous.
h,
specific
mass_from_1.2_to_3.8_kg / kW.A project to create a solar power plant using an engine has started in the USA
Stirling as a direct converter of heat energy into mechanical energy. Chuck in the photo
Andraka (Chuck Andraka, left) and head of Stirling Energy Systems Bob Liden in the background
the first installation at the Sandia test center (photo from sandia.gov). Theoretical efficiency
Stirling may coincide with the physical limit determined by the temperature difference
heater and refrigerator, and in practice, you can get an efficiency of about 70% from styling.According to the calculations of the authors of the project, in theory, one solar styling farm, for which
would an area of ​​160 x 160 kilometers in the south of the United States, completely cover all the need
countries in electricity. To date, prototypes are successfully tested, but
the cost of each is still too high (more than 150 thousand US dollars), which slows down
mass adoption.
Sweden is also interested in similar developments. On the website of the company “Cleanergy” attention
visitors presented a new concept of a solar mini-power plant to obtain
electricity.Designed as a full-scale specimen with a solar concentrator on a mobile
fixed in focus by styling, and a separate cogeneration unit for obtaining
electricity and heat with a total capacity of 9 kW (however, it should be noted that out of 9 kW only
2kW – electricity, the rest 7kW – heat for space heating).
The most rapid development of Stirling engines occurs in the field of military technology.
Experimental and serial samples of Stirling units for non-nuclear
submarines.Here is an excerpt from an article by the Honored Inventor of the Russian Federation,
Academician of the Academy of Military Sciences, Doctor of Technical Sciences Kirillova N.G., dedicated to this issue:
“… The greatest results in the development of anaerobic installations were achieved by the Swedish concern
Kockums Submarin Systems, which built three A19-class “Gotland” class submarines based on
Stirling engines. The submarine is equipped with two V4-275R engines of 75 kW each.
Three Gotland class submarines were built by Kokums in 1992-1996.
The length of the submarines is 60.4 meters, the underwater displacement is 1599 tons.Crew – 27 people,
including 5 officers. Armament: 4 X 533 mm and 2 X 400 mm torpedo tubes. Speed
full submerged course – 20 knots. When using a Stirling engine, boats can
stay under water without recharging batteries for up to 20 days!
The most promising project of the Swedes is connected with the promising submarine “Viking”.
This name was not chosen by chance. Two more should be involved in the project.
Scandinavian countries – Norway and Denmark. Kokums, the Norwegian company Kongsberg and
Danish Odense Stolshipswaerft formed a consortium for practical work on
project.In total, it was planned to build 12 new generation submarines. According to leading
specialists, this would be the best submarine of the XXI century. It was planned to install on it
single
engine
Stirling
big
power
(roughly
800
kW).
The first, after the Swedes, the prospect of anaerobic installations based on engines
The Japanese understood Stirling …
2000-2001 at the shipbuilding shipyard “Kobe” by “Mitsubishi Jyukoge” were
work was carried out to equip the submarine “Assasio” with a closed-cycle power plant with
Stirling engine…. Sea trials were excellent. Therefore, since 2003
Japanese submarines of the “Oyashio” type began to be built with anaerobic installations based on engines
Stirling …
The Japanese introduced a new phrase “styling submarines” … It was for the new submarine with
a single engine by Mitsubichi created and passed successful bench tests
Stirling engine with a capacity of more than 600 kW. As a working fluid of the engine
used by
nitrogen.
And finally, the last of the world powers, the final choice for the type of anaerobic
the installations were made by the Americans.Their solution is unambiguous – Stirling engines.
In 2005, the US Navy leased a Swedish Gotland-class submarine equipped with
subsidiary
air independent
setting
Stirling … ”
As you can see, all developed countries are rapidly developing and implementing
Stirlings into serial production. And not surprisingly, with a power comparable to that of an internal combustion engine
Stirling motors have a high torque in almost all operating modes,
low noise, “omnivorous” in terms of fuel and can work in any conditions.NASA (US National Aerospace Agency) specialists have done
preliminary studies of the project of creating a habitable base on the Moon. As the main
an SP100 nuclear reactor with a thermal power of 2500 kW and 8 electric generators powered by engines
Stirling. The project provides a detailed technical description of the reactor plant,
design and thermal connection of Stirling engines, heat removal systems and
power distribution.Russia also showed interest in the Stirlings. In 1996 at JSC
“Machine-building plant” ARSENAL “, within the framework of the agreement with the State Enterprise GOKB” Prozhektor ”
work has begun on the topic “Research and development of generating sets based on multi-fuel
Stirling engines ”. But, unfortunately, work in this direction was suspended.
due to the lack of further funding for the project. Currently, Russia has accumulated
sufficient scientific potential to create highly efficient Stirling engines.
Significant results have been achieved at LLC “Innovation Research Center
Stirling Technologies.Experts have carried out theoretical and experimental
research for the development of new methods for calculating highly efficient Stirling engines.
The main areas of work are related to the use of Stirling engines in cogeneration
installations and systems for using the heat of waste gases, for example, in mini-CHP. V
As a result, development methods and prototypes of 3 kW motors were created.
Stirling machines in the field of cryogenic technology received no less powerful development.
Since Stirlings are reversible, many refrigeration machines without freon have been created on their basis.
– gas used in conventional refrigeration compressors.This advantage allowed
reduce the size of the cooling system and increase its performance. Refrigerated
machines operating on the reverse Stirling cycle are most efficient in the range
cryogenic temperatures (very low temperatures), in a higher temperature range
(low temperatures used in industry and in everyday life) are currently the main
Freon vapor compression refrigeration machines work in this way.
Cryogenic styling machines are increasingly used in radio electronic systems,
where powerful cooling is required, but there are no conditions for the use of standard
cooling methods (for example, thermocouples).Some firms, including such as
Malakar & Hughes Aircraft, USA (Malakar Labs Inc., Hughes Aircraft Co.)
sales of small (or even miniature) cryogenic machines. These companies, together with
North American Philips Inc.
specializing in the production of miniature coolers, consider their main
the purpose of the production of small cryogenic machines for the electronics industry, where they
are mainly used for powerful cooling of infrared detectors used in
various military and civilian purposes.Based on the article by Doctor of Technical Sciences Kirillova N.G. and books
G. Walker “Machines operating on the Stirling cycle”
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF STIRLINGS
Stirling cycle
In internal combustion engines (ICEs), the atomized fuel combines with an oxidizer like
usually with air, before the compression phase or after this phase, and the resulting combustible mixture gives
my
energy
in
time
short-term
phase
burning.
In a Stirlingaa engine, energy enters the engine and is removed from it through the cylinder walls
or a heat exchanger. Another significant difference between the internal engine
combustion and the Stirling engine is the absence of valves in the latter
valves, since the working
body
(gas)
constantly
located
v
cavities
engine.The Stirling cycle is based on sequential heating and cooling of gas (it is called
working fluid) in a closed volume.
volume The working fluid is heated in the hot part of the engine,
expands and performs useful work, after which it is distilled into the cold part
where it is cooled, compressed and fed back to the hot part of the engine. Cycle
repeats. The amount of the working fluid remains unchanged
unchanged, its temperature changes,
pressure and volume. The whole cycle is conventionally divided into four measures
tact.The convention is that
that there is no clear division into clock cycles in the cycle, the processes go one into the other. it
due to the absence of a valve mechanism in the design of Stirling engines
(Stirling engines with a valve mechanism are called Erickson engines). With one
hand, this fact greatly simplifies the design, on the other hand, it introduces complexity into
theory
calculation.
But
about
this
later.
Let’s consider the principle of operation using the example of gamma-stirling. This type is most often used in
modeling.The engine consists of two cylinders. The large cylinder is a heat exchanger. His
the task is to alternately warm up and cool the working fluid. For this one end of the cylinder
warmed up (in the diagram it is painted over in pink), the other end is cooled (in the diagram it is
painted in blue
color). Large piston made of heat-insulating material,
moves freely in the heat exchange cylinder (the gap between the walls of the cylinder and the piston
is 1-2 mm) and plays the role of a thermal valve that pushes the working fluid to
cold,
then
To
hot
butt end.The small cylinder is working.
working The piston is tightly fitted to the cylinder.
cylinder
Gamma Stirling. First measure
The first stroke is a compression stroke at a constant temperature of the working fluid:
The piston of the heat exchanger cylinder is near the bottom dead center (BDC) and remains
conditionally motionless
motionless. The gas is compressed by the working piston of the small cylinder.
cylinder Gas pressure
increases, and the temperature remains constant, since the heat of compression is removed through
cold end of the heat exchanger cylinder to the environment
PLEASE NOTE: Conditional immobility means a low height
movement of the piston when the crankshaft travels a distance near the upper or lower
dead center.Gamma Stirling. Second measure
The second cycle is a heating cycle at a constant volume:
the working piston of the working cylinder is located near the BDC and completely moves the cold
compressed gas into a heat exchange cylinder, the piston of which moves to top dead center
(TDC) and displaces the gas into the hot cavity. Since in this case the total internal volume
the engine cylinders remains constant, the working fluid heats up, the pressure rises and
reaches
maximum
values.
This is in theory. In practice, the pressure build-up occurs in parallel with the pushing out of the working piston.As a result, the pressure does not reach the theoretically calculated maximum. This fact also
explains the good efficiency. at low engine speeds. The working body warms up better and
the increase in pressure is approaching a maximum.
Gamma Stirling. Third measure
The third stroke is the expansion stroke at a constant gas temperature:
the piston of the heat exchange cylinder is near top dead center (TDC) and remains
conditionally motionless. The piston of the working cylinder under the action of gas pressure moves to
top dead center.The hot gas expands in the cavity of the working cylinder.
Useful work performed by the piston of the working cylinder through the crank
the mechanism is transferred to the motor shaft. At the same time, the pressure in the engine cylinders drops, and
the gas temperature in the hot cavity remains constant, since heat is supplied to it from
source
heat
across
hot
wall
cylinder.
In models of Stirling engines, where the heat exchange cylinder does not have a high quality
of the heater, the working fluid is not fully heated, but since the pressure in the gases
spreads evenly in all directions, its change also affects the worker
piston, forcing it to move and do work.Gama Stirling. Fourth measure
The fourth cycle is a cooling cycle with a constant volume:
the piston of the working cylinder is located near TDC and remains conditionally motionless. Piston
of the heat exchange cylinder moves to the BDC and moves the gas remaining in the hot part to
the cold part of the cylinder. Since in this case the total internal volume of the engine cylinders
remains constant
pressure
gas
v
them
continues
fall and
reaches
minimum_value.
In models containing a working fluid at atmospheric pressure, the fourth stroke is also
workers, since the pressure drops sharply and a short-term vacuum occurs.V
as a result, the working piston is forced into the cylinder, making an additional
work. Two of the four bars are workers!
“School Technology” for Stirlings
Everything that can be made without much effort in the physics classroom “school technology”. But not
think that this level is “below the baseboard.” It all depends on the tool you have.
The basic set looks like this: an awl, a sharp knife or blade, scissors from a good
steel, screwdriver, pliers, mini-discs, file set, soldering iron, electric drill and set
drilled in metal from 1 mm to 5 mm.At first glance, it is not rich. You are wrong. Let us list that
can be made with all this. Wired or compound composite crankshaft, bearings
slides, piston struts and connecting rods, cylinders and pistons to them with a diameter of up to 25-30 mm.,
sealed glands and rods for them. Now in large stores of household tools
you can purchase a device for engraving with a mass of attachments. Many people use it like
mini milling machine. If there is no such thing in your area, you can make or buy
vise for drilling with two degrees of horizontal movement.Coupled with vertical
clamp
for
drill
get
milling
machine…
Ultimately, it doesn’t matter what toolbox you have. The main thing is that there is a desire. AND
everything will work out!
Fig. 1 Our first Stirling gamma
Rice. 2 Gamma Stirling from a tin can
Rice. 3 High Temperature Stirling
Rice. 4 High Temperature Stirling with Generator
Fig. 5 Stirling heating
Rice. 6 A generator that is spun by Stirling. The generator rotor consists of two
disks. Each disc has 12 neodymium magnets that rotate around 9
star-connected coils
Rice.7 At maximum speed, the generator outputs up to 10 V DC.
The alternating three-phase current that the generator produces is rectified by a diode bridge
(visible to the right of the voltmeter)
Stirlings made in the physics classroom of Solontsovskaya secondary school.
Stirling’s thermodynamics.
In the 19th century, engineers wanted to create a safe alternative to steam engines.
time, the boilers of which often exploded due to high steam pressures and unsuitable
materials for their construction. A good alternative to steam engines appeared with the creation
Stirling engines
Stirling, who could convert any temperature difference into work.The basic principle of operation of the Stirling engine is constantly alternating
heating and cooling the working fluid in a closed cylinder.
e Usually in the role of a working body
air comes out, but hydrogen and helium are also used. In a number of experimental samples
freons were tested
freons, nitrogen dioxide, liquefied propane-butane
butane and water.
water In the latter case
water remains in a liquid state in all parts of the thermodynamic cycle. Feature
Stirling with a liquid working fluid is small size, high power density and
high working pressures
pressure.There is also a two-phase stirring fluid. He too
characterized by high power density, high working pressure.
pressure
It is known from thermodynamics that pressure, temperature and volume of an ideal gas are interrelated.
and follow the law, where:
P is the gas pressure;
V is the gas volume;
n is the number of moles of gas;
gas
R is the universal gas constant;
T is the gas temperature in Kelvin.
kelvin
This means that when the gas is heated, its volume increases, and when it is cooled
refrigeration –
decreases.It is this property of gases that underlies the operation of the Stirling engine.
Stirling
The Stirling engine uses the Stirling cycle, which thermodynamically
efficiency is not inferior to the Carnot cycle, and even has an advantage.
advantage The fact is that the cycle
Carnot consists of isotherms and adiabats that differ little from each other. Practical implementation
this cycle is not very promising.
unpromising Stirling cycle made it possible to obtain practically working
engine in acceptable dimensions
dimensions.
Pressure-volume diagram
volume “idealized
idealized
Stirling cycle
The Stirling cycle consists of four phases and is separated by two transitional phases: heating,
expansion, transition to a source of cold, cooling, contraction and transition to a source of heat.Thus, in the transition from a warm source to a cold source,
expansion and contraction of gas
gas in the cylinder. At the same time, the pressure changes, due to which
you can get useful work.
work Heating and cooling of the working fluid (sections 4 and 2)
produced by the recuperator. Ideally the amount of heat
heat given off
give
and selected
recuperator, equally
the same. Useful work is done only at the expense of isotherms, that is,
depends on the temperature difference between heater and cooler.Pros of Stirlings
– The efficiency of the Stirling engine can reach 65-70% efficiency from the Carnot cycle with modern
the level of design and manufacturing technology. In addition, the engine torque
almost independent of the crankshaft rotation speed. In internal combustion engines, opposite
maximum torque is achieved in a narrow speed range.
V
the engine design lacks a high-voltage ignition system, a valve system and,
accordingly, the camshaft. Competently designed and technologically advanced
the Stirling engine does not require adjustment and tuning during its entire service life.- In the internal combustion engine, the combustion of the fuel-air mixture in the engine cylinder is, in fact, an explosion with
the speed of propagation of the blast wave is 5-7 km / sec. This process produces monstrous peak
loads on connecting rods, crankshaft and bearings. Stirlings are free from this drawback.
– The engine will not be “naughty” due to loss of spark, clogged carburetor or
low battery charge, since it does not have these units. The concept of “engine stalled” is not
makes sense to the Stirlings. Stirling may stop if the load exceeds
calculated.Restart is carried out by turning the crankshaft flywheel once.
shaft. The simplicity of the design allows the Stirling to operate for a long time in an autonomous
mode.
– The Stirling engine can use any source of thermal energy, starting with firewood and
ending
nuclear
fuel!
– Fuel combustion occurs outside the internal volume of the engine (in contrast to the internal combustion engine), which
allows you to ensure uniform combustion of fuel and its complete afterburning (i.e.
the maximum energy contained in the fuel and minimization of the emission of toxic components).Cons of styling – Since fuel combustion occurs outside the engine, and heat dissipation
carried out through the walls of the radiator (recall that Stirlings have a closed volume)
dimensions
engine
increase.
– Another disadvantage is the consumption of materials. For the production of compact and powerful Stirling machines, heat-resistant steels are required that can withstand high operating pressures and at the same
time with low thermal conductivity. Conventional Stirling grease is not suitable for coking at high temperatures, therefore materials with low
coefficient_ of friction.- To obtain a high power density, Stirlings use
hydrogen or helium. Hydrogen is explosive, dissolves in metals at high temperatures,
forming metal hydrides – i.e. destroys engine cylinders. Plus, hydrogen, like helium
has a high penetrating power and seeps through the seals of the movable
parts of the engine, reducing the working pressure.
Used Books
1. Reader G., Hooper C. Stirling Engines: Translated from English. – M .: Mir, 1986.
2. Walker G.Machines operating on the Stirling cycle: Per. from English
Moscow: Energy, 19
3. Walker G. Stirling Engines: Translated from English. – M .:
Mechanical engineering, 1985.
4. Breusov V. Stirlings have been working in space for a long time. – Magazine
“Wheels” (article).
5. Stirling engines. Translated from English. Edited by V.M. Brodyansky.
Moscow: Mir, 1975
6. Stirling engines / [V.N. Danilichev, S.I. Efimov, V.A.
Call, etc.]; ed. M.G. Kruglova. – M .: “Engineering”,
1977.
7. “Engine with external heat supply”.
Patent No. 2105156 dated June 23, 1995, RF

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definition – STIRLING ROBERT

From Wikipedia – the free encyclopedia

Robert Stirling
Robert Stirling
File: Stirling.gif
Date of birth:
Place of birth:
Date of death:
Citizenship:
Known As:

Biography

Stirling was born at Clog Farm near Methven, Scotland. He was the third child in the family, and there were eight children in total. From his father he inherited an interest in the construction of technology, but studied theology and became a priest of the Scottish Church in Life Kirk in 1816.

In 1819 Stirling married Gina Rankin. They had seven children, two of them, Patrick Stirling and James Stirling, became steam locomotive engineers.

Stirling died in Galston, Scotland in 2010.

Scientific and technical activities

Heat engine

Stirling was very concerned about the injuries of workers working in his parish with steam engines. These engines often exploded due to the poor quality of the iron from which they were made.There was no more durable material in those years. Stirling decided to improve the design of the air engine in the hope that such an engine would be safer.

Stirling invented a device that he called a “heat economy” (now such a device is called a regenerator or heat exchanger). This device serves to increase the thermal efficiency of various processes. Stirling received a patent for a “heat-saving” engine in 1816. A Stirling engine cannot explode because it operates at a lower pressure than a steam engine and cannot cause scalding by steam.In 1818, he built the first practical version of his engine and used it in a pump to pump water out of a quarry.

The theoretical basis for the operation of the Stirling engine – the Stirling cycle – did not exist until the work of Sadi Carnot appeared. Carnot developed and published in 1825 a general theory of the operation of heat engines – the Carnot Cycle, from which the Stirling cycle is constructed in a similar way.

Subsequently, Stirling, together with his brother James, received several more patents for improving the air engine.And in 1840, James built a large air engine to drive all mechanisms in his foundry.

Optical instruments

While living in Kilmarnock, Stirling collaborated with another inventor, Thomas Morton, who provided Stirling with all his equipment and instruments for conducting experiments. They were both interested in astronomy. From Morton Stirling learned how to grind lenses, after which he invented a number of optical devices.

Bessemer process

In a letter dated 1876, Robert Stirling acknowledged the importance of Henry Bessemer’s new invention, the Bessemer steelmaking process, which made steam engines safer, which in turn threatened to make the air engine an anachronism.At the same time, he also expressed the hope that the new steel will improve the efficiency of its air engines.

Stirling engine can be a wonderful decoration for a desk

It is enough to light the spirit lamp, and it almost silently, with a slight rustle, spins up to operating speed

The young pastor had an outstanding engineering talent. While at university, Robert worked on an alternative to the steam engine. Legend has it that his goal was to reduce the risk to workers: steam engines often exploded due to poor quality parts.A week after his appointment at Kilmarnock, Robert applied for a patent for a “Heat Saving Device.” It was this that served as the heart of the machine that made Stirling’s name famous.

Although the power of steam has been known for over a hundred years, the theory of heat engines was in its infancy. Only in 1824, Sadi Carnot published his famous work “Reflections on the driving force of fire and on machines capable of developing this force”, where he made two important conclusions: firstly, the driving force of machines does not arise from absorbed heat, but from pumped over from hot body to cold, and secondly, the power of machines increases with an increase in the temperature difference between hot and cold bodies.These conclusions, in the form of the second law of thermodynamics, had a huge impact on the design of heat engines.

But in 1818, when, together with his friend Thomas Morton and younger brother James Stirling, he built the first machine to pump water from the quarry, which works without steam (with air as a working fluid), Carnot’s works did not yet exist. Nevertheless, Stirling quite intuitively built the engine with virtually the highest possible thermodynamic efficiency! Unlike the Carnot cycle, the working cycle of a Stirling machine consists of two isotherms (lines of constant temperature) and two isochors (lines of constant volume).In T-S (temperature-entropy) coordinates, it does not look rectangular at all. Then how is it possible to achieve the theoretical maximum efficiency? It’s all about the very patented “Device for saving heat”, or, as it is commonly called in modern technology, a regenerator.

A Stirling machine is an external combustion engine, it has no valves, and the working fluid remains gaseous and circulates in a closed volume. It can operate with very small temperature differences from any heat source – from gas burners to solar concentrators and even hand heat (the latter is loved by physics teachers during lectures on thermodynamics).The design of the machines is simple, the gas is under low pressure inside, so they are safer than steam engines. At low temperatures, the Stirling engine is even more efficient (as opposed to an internal combustion engine, an internal combustion engine). And it is almost silent, which can be critical in some cases (for example, when submarines move underwater).

These engines also have disadvantages. First, even with a sufficiently high theoretical and practical efficiency to realize high power, the engine must dissipate a large amount of heat, and this leads to an increase in size and the appearance of bulky cooling radiators.To increase the power, it is necessary to increase the temperature difference and the pressure of the working fluid, and this complicates the design. Unlike an internal combustion engine, it cannot “start” immediately – to start working, it needs to achieve a sufficient temperature difference between the hot and cold parts. However, this is typical for all types of external combustion engines, and the “stirring” starts much faster than, say, a steam engine. The power of a working Stirling engine is very difficult to quickly change, except perhaps by adding a working fluid (such solutions exist, but they lead to a more complex design).By the way, air is far from the most efficient working fluid. Due to its high thermal conductivity, heat capacity and low viscosity, hydrogen is much more efficient, but it tends to seep through the seals and is also flammable (helium is also quite often used as a working fluid).

Thus, if we do not need to often start and stop the car, as well as change its power, and at the same time we have a heat source, good cooling and unlimited size – there is hardly anything more suitable than a Stirling engine.

During the life of the inventor, the engine did not try very successfully to compete with steam engines. One of the fifty horsepower engines with an efficiency of about 10% (which exceeded that of steam engines), built by Robert and his younger brother James, worked for several years in a foundry in Dundee in the mid-1840s. Then the hot cylinder burst: then there were no heat-resistant steels, so it was problematic to create reliable and durable machine parts from soft iron.However, the same was true of steam engines. Perhaps that is why Robert Stirling, in one of his letters from 1876, especially noted the importance of Henry Bessemer’s invention – a process that made it possible to obtain not soft iron, but hard and strong steel, which makes steam engines much safer. Stirling expressed the hope that steel will give new life to his “machines in the air.” But he did not have time to see this – on June 6, 1878, the inventor died in the Scottish town of Galston in East Ayrshire.

At the beginning of the 20th century, internal combustion engines entered the scene, and Stirling machines seemed to forever remain in history. However, in the 1950s, interest in them arose again thanks to the Dutch company Philips, who created an efficient cryogenic machine based on the Stirling design (the Stirling engine can work as a heat pump, converting mechanical work and pumping heat from one body to another). Now both engines and Stirling refrigeration machines, implemented at the modern level, are produced by many large companies.They allow the use of any fuel (and in general any heat sources) and at the same time are more efficient (efficiency can reach almost 40-45%) and are much more environmentally friendly, quiet and reliable than an internal combustion engine.

robert robert stirling, robert de stirling

October 25, 1790 (1790-10-25)

This term has other meanings, see: Stirling and Sterling

Robert Stirling
(eng. Robert Stirling) (October 25, 1790, Clog Farm, Scotland – June 6, 1878, Galston, Scotland) – Scottish priest, inventor of the Stirling engine.

  • 1 Biography
  • 2 Scientific and technical activities
    • 2.1 Heat engine
    • 2.2 Optical instruments
    • 2.3 Bessemer process
  • 3 See also
  • 4 Notes
  • 5 References

Biography

Stirling was born at Clog Farm near Methven, Scotland. He was the third child in the family, and there were eight children in total. From his father he inherited an interest in the construction of technology, but studied theology and became a priest of the Scottish Church in Life Kirk in 1816.

Stirling married Gina Rankin in 1819. They had seven children, two of them, Patrick Stirling and James Stirling, became steam locomotive engineers.

Stirling died in Galston, Scotland in 1878.

Scientific and technical activities

Heat engine

Stirling was very concerned about the injuries of workers working in his parish with steam engines. These engines often exploded due to the poor quality of the metal they were made from.There was no more durable material in those years. Stirling decided to improve the design of the heat engine making it safer.

Stirling invented a device that he called a “heat economy” (now such a device is called a regenerator or heat exchanger). This device serves to increase the thermal efficiency of various processes. Stirling received a patent for a “heat-saving” engine in 1816. A Stirling engine cannot explode because it operates at a lower pressure than a steam engine and cannot cause scalding by steam.1818 he built the first practical version of his engine and used it in a pump to pump water out of a quarry.

The theoretical basis for the operation of the Stirling engine – the Stirling cycle – did not exist until the work of Sadi Carnot appeared. Carnot developed and published in 1825 a general theory of the operation of heat engines – the Carnot Cycle, from which the Stirling cycle is constructed in a similar way.

Subsequently, Stirling, together with his brother James, received several more patents for improving the air engine.And in 1840, James built a large air engine to drive all mechanisms in his foundry.

Optical instruments

While living in Kilmarnock, Stirling collaborated with another inventor, Thomas Morton, who provided Stirling with all his equipment and instruments for conducting experiments. They were both interested in astronomy. From Morton Stirling learned how to grind lenses, after which he invented a number of optical devices.

Bessemer process

In a letter dated 1876, Robert Stirling recognized the importance of Henry Bessemer’s new invention, the Bessemer steelmaking process, which made steam engines safer, which in turn threatened to make the air engine an anachronism.At the same time, he also expressed the hope that the new steel will improve the efficiency of its air engines.

See also

  • Stirling Engine
  • Stirling Cycle

Notes

References

stirling robert downey, stirling robert de, stirling robert redford, stirling robert rozhdestvensky

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