Staples near columbus circle: Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center

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Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center

There are 11 ways to get from Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center by plane, bus, train or car

Select an option below to see step-by-step directions and to compare ticket prices and travel times in Rome2rio’s travel planner.

New York JFK (JFK) to Los Angeles (LAX) flights

The flight time between New York JFK (JFK) and Los Angeles (LAX) is around 6h 40m and covers a distance of around 3974 km. This includes an average layover time of around 19 min. The fastest flight normally takes 5h 49m. Services are operated by Delta, JetBlue Airways, United Airlines and others. Typically 244 flights run weekly, although weekend and holiday schedules can vary so check in advance.

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Average flight journey times

Flight route information

Fastest flight journey time:

5h 49m

Cheapest price:

RUB 12164

Carbon emissions:

1315 kg CO2

First and last flights

First flight departs at:

06:00

Last flight departs at:

21:23

The schedules shown below are for the next available departures.

New York JFK (JFK) to Los Angeles (LAX) flight schedules

What is the cheapest way to get from Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center?

The cheapest way to get from Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center is to fly which costs RUB 7500 – RUB 26000 and takes 8h 54m.

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What is the fastest way to get from Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center?

The quickest way to get from Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center is to fly which costs RUB 11000 – RUB 32000 and takes 8h 49m.

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What is the distance between Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station and Staples Center?

The distance between Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station and Staples Center is 3941 km. The road distance is 4497 km.

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How do I travel from Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center without a car?

The best way to get from Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center without a car is to train which takes 2 days 17h and costs RUB 21000 – RUB 32000.

More details

How long does it take to get from Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center?

It takes approximately 8h 49m to get from Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center, including transfers.

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Train, bus or fly from Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center?

The best way to get from Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center is to fly which takes 8h 49m and costs RUB 11000 – RUB 32000. Alternatively, you can train, which costs RUB 21000 – RUB 32000 and takes 2 days 17h, you could also bus, which costs RUB 20000 – RUB 29000 and takes 2 days 21h.

Mode details

How long is the flight from Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center?

The quickest flight from New York JFK Airport to Los Angeles Airport is the direct flight which takes 5h 49m.

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Can I drive from Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center?

Yes, the driving distance between Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center is 4497 km. It takes approximately 44h 8m to drive from Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center.

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Which airlines fly from New York JFK Airport to Los Angeles Airport?

United Airlines, JetBlue Airways, Delta and American Airlines offer flights from New York JFK Airport to Los Angeles Airport.

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Where can I stay near Staples Center?

There are 1328+ hotels available in Staples Center. Prices start at RUB 7500 per night.

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What companies run services between Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station, NY, USA and Staples Center, CA, USA?

Delta, JetBlue Airways and two other airlines fly from Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center hourly. Alternatively, you can take a train from Lexington Avenue/59th Street Station to Staples Center via E 60 St/Lexington Av, W 32 St/7 Av, Ny Moynihan Train Hall At Penn Station, Chicago Union Station, Los Angeles, Arcadia St and Alameda St, and Flower St and 11 St W in around 2 days 17h.

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How to get to Staples in Queens by Bus, Subway or Train

Public Transportation to Staples in Queens

Wondering how to get to Staples in Queens, United States? Moovit helps you find the best way to get to Staples with step-by-step directions from the nearest public transit station.

Moovit provides free maps and live directions to help you navigate through your city. View schedules, routes, timetables, and find out how long does it take to get to Staples in real time.

Looking for the nearest stop or station to Staples? Check out this list of stops closest to your destination: Atlantic Av/75 St; 101 Av /75 St; 80 St; 75 St-Elderts Ln.

You can get to Staples by Bus, Subway or Train. These are the lines and routes that have stops nearby – Bus: Q24 Train: WEST HEMPSTEAD Subway: A

Want to see if there’s another route that gets you there at an earlier time? Moovit helps you find alternative routes or times. Get directions from and directions to Staples easily from the Moovit App or Website.

We make riding to Staples easy, which is why over 930 million users, including users in Queens, trust Moovit as the best app for public transit. You don’t need to download an individual bus app or train app, Moovit is your all-in-one transit app that helps you find the best bus time or train time available.

staples upper west side

Used 125 times. Shop Staples Canada for business essentials, back to school, electronics, office supplies, and more. 2248 Broadway. Related searches: Staples 2248 Broadway, New York, NY; Staples 2248 Broadway, New York, NY, 670 Columbus Avenue, Upper West Side, New York, Trader Joe’s Columbus Ave, Upper West Side, NY, Whole Foods Columbus Circle, New York, NY. Log in to leave a tip here. More… – – Retail Sales Print Associate. Staples in Upper West Side, New York, NY may have adapted working times during the holiday period. 5. Select from lines 2, 4, 5, 6, 6 Express, A, B, C, D, Q, R and 1. Membership offers special benefits for Staples Copy & Print Online Coupon Code just $99 per year: * Instantly watch thousands of movies and TV episodes * Borrow Kindle books * Get unlimited FREE two-day shipping (no minimum order size) Anonymous. Staples, 56th and Broadway. Kitchen Essentials. Staples is focused on our customer and our community. Through its world-class retail, online and delivery capabilities, Staples lets customers shop however and whenever they want, whether it’s in store, online or on mobile devices. The Staples store on 81st street and Broadway was one of 115 of the company’s stores targeted by hackers seeking customer credit card data, the company revealed on Friday. Staples Stores 3.5. Staples in Upper West Side, New York, NY may have adapted working times during the holiday period. Return to Nav. Saturday: 9:00 am–9:00 pm. Link to main website. There is currently a total number of 13 Staples locations open in New York, New York. Decor. We are open with health and safety measures and look forward to welcoming you. See reviews, photos, directions, phone numbers and more for Staples locations in Upper West Side, NY. Staples. Upper West Side. This 10-story building features 59 luxury rental units that embodies the charm of the pre-war architecture that characterizes the Upper West Side. New York, NY 10024. The train can be reached nearby at Grand Central Terminal Station (2.35 mi) and Penn Station (2.71 mi away). This is the Dover hydraulic elevator at Staples on the Upper West Side in NYC. Visit this Manhattan Staples® for office supplies & furniture, school supplies, printers, ink & toner, copy paper, computers, technology, and more. NY. Staples, Broadway. This store essentially provides service to patrons from the districts of North Bergen, Astoria, Cliffside Park, Long Island City, Weehawken, Fairview and West New York. Return to Nav. Vedi tutte le foto 40 scattate a Staples da 2.857 visitatori. Help center ; Manage subscriptions; Contact & FAQ. Desks & Furniture. First open hour Monday and Friday is for seniors and those with underlying health issues. Staples in Upper West Side, 2248 Broadway, New York, NY 10024, Store Hours, Phone number, Map, Latenight, Sunday hours, Address, Stationery Shops, Office Supplies If you found any discrepancies or mistakes in the street address or operating hours for Staples in Upper West Side, New York, NY, please use this form to report a problem. Sort: Popular; Recent; Larry April 17, 2014. There are a number of buses that regularly run to Amsterdam Avenue / 79Th Street, Broadway / 82Nd Street, 81St Street & Amsterdam Avenue and Broadway & West 82Nd Street. The most convenient way to travel here is via the Hudson–Bergen line. The number of chains in all three main zip codes in the neighborhood declined. All Stores. In the year 2021 these exceptions consist of Xmas Day, New Year’s, Easter Sunday or Columbus Day. To get additional details about seasonal store hours for Staples Upper West Side, New York, NY, go to the official website or phone the direct line at 2127129617. (212) 712-9617; 76 reviews of Staples “Amazing customer service! Bath Essentials . 212-712-9617. Skip to content. Line options include: M7, M11, M79, M86 and M104. Brand: Dover.DTR: 2.Comes to a bump. Today (Saturday), its working times are from 9:00 am to 9:00 pm. Been here 100+ times. A new report shows that the number of chain stores on the Upper West Side declined in 2020, with Covid-19 accelerating a shift that had started before the pandemic. Fast Free Delivery, Curbside Pickup, and Easy Returns. Visit your local Staples branch at 2248 Broadway, in the north area of New York, in Upper West Side (near to 79th St Station). Ride by light rail to Port Imperial Station (2.03 mi) or Bergenline Avenue Station (2.28 mi away). Find 1422 listings related to Staples in Upper West Side on YP.com. Visit this New York Staples® for office supplies & furniture, school supplies, printers, ink & toner, copy paper, computers, technology, and more. 75. ratings. Browse a wide selection of Appliances with 100% price match guarantee! The hackers deployed malware to the store and may have stolen customer data during the … Store hours: Monday–Friday: 7:00 am–9:00 pm. Please see this page for the specifics on Staples 2248 … Upper West Side New York, NY 10024. In the neighbourhood you might discover Riverside Park, Tecumseh Playground, The Urban Assembly School for Green Careers Garden, West 79th Street Boat Basin, Theodore Roosevelt Park and St. Agnes Library. 2.17 mi from the center of New York. This store is located within a 1 minute drive time from West End Ave, Lincoln Tunnel (Ny-495), West 83rd Street and Amsterdam Avenue; a 4 minute drive from Henry Hudson Parkway, Joe Dimaggio Highway (Ny-9A) or Exit 7 (12Th Avenue) of Ny-9A; or a 12 minute trip from Hillside Road and 12Th Avenue (Ny-9A). Staples. Skip to content. Explore les 40 photos prises à Staples par 2 860 visiteurs. Open mobile menu. Link to main website. Located on a picturesque tree-lined block in the historic Strivers Row, 357 West 139th Street is a Italian Renaissance style townhouse In 10023 the number of chains fell from 86 to 68. Help us keep the information as current as possible. I like the designs!!!! Lihat semua 40 foto yang diambil di Staples oleh 2.861 pengunjung. 6. In the year 2020 these exceptions consist of Xmas Day, New Year’s, Easter Sunday or Columbus Day. Staples. On Saturday, 12 pm–5 pm and closed on Sunday. Category: See reviews, photos, directions, phone numbers and more for Staples locations in Upper West Side, NY. Browse candles on sale, by desired features, or by customer ratings. 150 West 82nd Street is located on 82nd Street between Columbus and Amsterdam, just steps from Central Park on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. No, it’s not noise … 81st St. See Map | Subway Directions 212-712-9617 Send to Phone See other locations >> Reader Rating: Write a … 6. 2 / 10. Lines that run here are: Gladstone Branch, Harlem, Main, Montclair Boonton, Morristown, NH Branches, New Haven, North Jersey Coast, Northeast Corridor, Raritan Valley and Hudson. Post. Manhattan. On this page you can find all the information about Staples Upper West Side, New York, NY, including the working times, store address info and direct telephone. 57 W 57Th St Frnt 3. All Stores. Sunday: 10:00 am–7:00 pm. 5812 … Business hours for today (Friday) are 7:00 am to 9:00 pm. Tips 12; Photos 40; Staples. 12 Tips and reviews. New York, NY 10024 (Upper West Side area) +30 locations. Notes: Nice elevator for staples. 2248 Broadway; Store #0746. Open mobile menu. Posted on December 23, 2014 at 1:28 am by West Sider. Staples, Stationery Shops, Office Supplies. Staples can be found in an ideal position at 2248 Broadway, in the north area of New York, in Upper West Side (near to 79th St Station). ! Staples Upper West Side. VISIT US. You may also assist other patrons by voicing your feedback on Staples. 2248 Broadway, New York, NY 10024 40.784741-73.979126 nr. Save. First open hour Monday and Friday is for seniors and those with underlying health issues. Given the COVID-19 pandemic, call ahead to verify hours, and remember to practice social distancing . Alle 40 Fotos, die von 2.859 Besuchern bei Staples aufgenommen wurden, anzeigen. Shop Appliances from Staples.ca. Apple Upper West Side. Find 1379 listings related to Staples in Upper West Side on YP.com. Cartoleria / Negozio di forniture per ufficio in New York, NY Regular subway services run to 79th St Station (440 ft), 86th St Station (1690 ft) and 81st St Station (2220 ft away). If you are planning your journey, enter 2248 Broadway, New York, NY 10024 into your route planners. Staples makes it easy to make more happen with more products and more ways to shop. 2248 Broadway. The complete index of all Staples stores near New York, at this following page. Upper West Side, New York. Staples in Upper East Side, 1257 2nd Ave at 66th Street, New York, NY 10065, Store Hours, Phone number, Map, Latenight, Sunday hours, Address, Stationery Shops, Office Supplies NY. Share. We’re currently open for shopping by reserving a one-on-one session with a Specialist, pickup of online orders, and Genius Support by making an appointment. UPPER WEST SIDE STYLE. UPPER WEST SIDE STAPLES STORE TARGETED BY HACKERS. Note: Staples Upper West Side store hours are updated regularly, if you find any error please notify us. Find Upper West Side restaurants in the Manhattan area and other . Make restaurant reservations and read reviews. Stores will be open Monday–Friday, 10 am–6 pm (on Mondays and Fridays, opening early for seniors and those with underlying health issues from 9 am–10 am). To get additional details about seasonal store hours for Staples Upper West Side, New York, NY, go to the official website or phone the direct line at 2127129617. In 10024 it fell from 62 to 51. This store is delighted to serve patrons within the districts of North Bergen, Long Island City, Astoria, West New York, Cliffside Park, Weehawken and Fairview. Storage solutions. Staples is found in a convenient location close to the intersection of Broadway and West 81st Street, in Upper West Side, New York. 1755 Broadway; Store #5311. Midtown New York , NY 10019. New York. Home and office solutions available exclusively at our 81st and Broadway location. Those with underlying health issues 81st and Broadway location, die von 2.859 Besuchern bei aufgenommen. Products and more ways to shop and other to travel here is via the Hudson–Bergen line M11, M79 M86! … find Upper West Side for seniors and those with underlying health issues reviews of Staples “ Amazing customer!… Manage subscriptions ; Contact & FAQ and more for Staples locations in Upper Side. By customer ratings on December 23, 2014 is the Dover hydraulic elevator at Staples on the Upper Side. 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Staples – 1755 Broadway, New York, NY – Hours & Store Details Staples is located within easy reach at 1755 Broadway, in north New York, in Midtown ( near to 59th St – Columbus Circle Station ). The store provides service mainly to the locales of Hoboken, Long Island City, Weehawken, North Bergen, Astoria, West New York and Union City.

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Website. (212) 753-9640. 425 Park Ave. New York, NY 10022. From Business: So much more than office supplies! Find a growing product selection including cleaning and safety supplies, furniture, technology, paper, ink, electronics,…. 3. Staples. Office Equipment & Supplies Office Furniture & Equipment Printing Services.

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The store is an outstanding addition to the local businesses of Bronx, Long Island City, West New York, Fairview, Sunnyside, Astoria and Cliffside Park. If you plan to drop in today (Wednesday), its hours of business are from 7:00 am – 9:00 pm. This page will give you all the information you need on Staples Lexington Ave, New York, NY …

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STAPLES New York City. Facebook Twitter Situs web. Tips yang Dipilih. … I always forget it is there but is a decent store. Better than some others. Ms. Dee Bell. … Menunjukkan 28 dari 28 daftar di New York City area. Staples, Garment District. 442 5th Avenue, Manhattan…

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Who is Christopher Columbus? Even a schoolboy will answer this simple question. Of course, the navigator who discovered America and the New World for Europe. The answer is correct, but not complete. Christopher Columbus is the greatest entrepreneur, the creator of the most successful startup in the history of global business.

Medieval luxury market

Porcelain, tea and silk from China, cotton and pepper from India, precious stones from Sri Lanka, spices from the Moluccas, incense from the Middle East.The European luxury market in the Middle Ages was filled with mainly Asian goods. The trade routes through which these goods entered Europe have not changed for centuries. From China, the countries of Southeast Asia, from the islands of the Indian Ocean, goods went to India. From there to Arab and Persian merchants. In Europe, trade with the Middle East was controlled by the Italian republics – Venice and Genoa.

Intercontinental trade in goods for the rich has been profitable for all participants in this long chain.There was no room for newbies in this chain. At the end of the 15th century, this state of affairs did not suit the business circles of two young states – Spain and Portugal. The solution to the problem suggested itself – to find a new sea route to get to India, rich in spices and other expensive wonders, bypassing numerous intermediaries. What could be a new, safer, shorter and more profitable route? This was also obvious – bypassing Africa.

East through West

To solve new business problems, a new entrepreneur appeared who offered a non-standard solution.His name was Christopher Columbus. He described the business idea of ​​his startup as “buscar el Levante por el Poniente” (“seek the East through the West” – Spanish). The idea was insane and ingenious at the same time: to find a sea route to India, China, Japan, to the “Spice Islands” (the Moluccas in Indonesia), sailing into the unknown – across the Atlantic Ocean from the Canary Islands – to the West.

Let’s look at this business idea through the eyes of a potential investor with geographic knowledge of the late 15th century.The earth is a ball. Educated people know this theoretically – from the scientific works of Aristotle and Ptolemy, translated into Latin in the XII century. In practice, Fernand Magellan will prove this by making the first circumnavigation of the world much later, in the 16th century.

Sailing to the West and getting to Asia is possible. How far to swim? Nobody knows. There is no American continent for Europeans at all. There is no Pacific Ocean either. There is the Atlantic Ocean and the West. But how big is it? Does it have islands west of the Canary Islands, are there many such islands? Whether it is technically possible to cross the ocean on a sailing ship depends on the answers to these questions.

The distance from the Canary Islands to Japan is actually almost 20 thousand km. Too far. But Columbus, based on the book by Pierre d’Ailly “Picture of the World” (Imago Mundi), estimated the length of his route at only 3,700 km. In this version, the business plan looked realistic, but high-risk, and also requiring large financial investments. But if successful, it will be highly profitable.

Summary of Columbus

In order for potential investors to agree to invest a large amount in a startup, they had to be convinced not only of the profitability of the proposed enterprise, but also that they entrust their money to an experienced highly professional specialist.

Christopher Columbus worked on his resume all his life. Constantly refining, improving, slightly embellishing something, correcting something, hiding something. Here is what a heroic biography ended up.

Born in 1451 in the Most Serene Republic of Genoa. First went to sea at the age of 14.

We write in the resume: “many years of experience in navigation.”

1472 The captain of the ship, a participant in a combat operation. Genoa helped the Duke of Anjou Rene the Good in the fight for the crown of Naples.The Duke ordered Columbus to travel to Tunisia to capture the Fernandina galley. We quote Columbus: “My people were alarmed, they decided to stop the trip, return to Marseille, and take another ship and people with them. I saw that I could not break their will in any way, and pretended to agree with them. Moving the compass needle, I raised the sails in the evening. ” The task was completed.

Supplementing the resume: “organizational skills, communication skills, the ability to find non-standard solutions.

1476Service on the ship of Colombo Jr. (corsair in the service of the King of France). During a long bloody battle with the Venetian galleys at Cape San Vicente, the corsairs’ ship caught fire. The crew had to leave it. Columbus, grabbing a paddle floating in the water, swam 10 km and reached the Portuguese coast.

Another line for the questionnaire: “the ability to work in conditions of irregular working hours and severe stress. A good athlete is fencing, swimming. ”

1476-1485.Sailing on Portuguese merchant ships. England, Ireland, Ultima Thule (the northernmost land), the Portuguese outpost of Sao Jorge da Mina on the Gold Coast of Africa (modern Elmina, Ghana).

Here’s to you: “the experience of long voyage.”

1485 Moving to Spain out of fear of persecution by the King of Portugal, João II the Perfect.

To summarize: “relocation for reasons beyond my control.”

What else to add … “Good knowledge of mathematics and cosmography. Astrolabe and compass proficiency at the advanced level. ”

The details of this summary have passed from one biography of the great navigator to another for centuries. But they were not always confirmed by documents, and sometimes they even contradicted them.

The biggest confusion is with the length of service in the profession. The date of birth recognized by the overwhelming majority of historians is 1451. From the letter of Columbus to the nurse of the crown prince don Juan of Castile “I have been sailing the seas for 40 years …” (the letter is dated 1501) it appears that Christopher first went to sea at the age of ten.Fernando Columbus, in the biography of his father, “The Story of Admiral Don Cristobal Colon,” writes: “He confirmed that he was going to sea from the age of 14.” Bartolomé de las Casas, the author of the work “History of the Indies” and the published copy of Columbus’s logbook (the original has not survived), quotes the following words of the navigator, said in 1492: “I have been sailing for 23 years, without any significant interruptions. ” In this case, it turns out that Columbus first came out in 1469, at the age of 18.

What were the prices in Spain during the time of Isabella and Ferdinad

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In addition to these words, there are other documents.The decision of the court of Genoa of September 22, 1470 has been preserved. Dominico Columbus and his son Christopher were found guilty of non-payment of a debt to the cheese merchant Girolamo del Porto. To pay off this creditor, Christopher Columbus will remember, drawing up a will in 1506. In 1523, his son Diego will mention the unpaid debt in his will.

But the most interesting thing is that the court decision named the occupation of Christopher Columbus – wine trade. Two years later, another document, drawn up in the city of Savona, mentions another occupation of Christopher – the wool trade.If the young man was related to such an honorable craft as navigation, why is this not in the documents?

The combat mission in Tunisia is the most doubtful. The ship’s captain is a 21-year-old foreigner who is called a wool merchant by the notary of the city of Savona? And how did he manage to trick the crew with a compass? In an era when sailors used to navigate by the sun and the stars, no one noticed that the ship was sailing in the other direction?

The history of naval combat off the coast of Portugal is also not all right.It mixed the details of the two battles at Cape San Vicente. In 1476, the corsair Colombo Jr. attacked not the Venetian, but the Genoese ships. In 1485, another corsair, the Frenchman Guillaume Cazneuve, attacked the Venetian ships. France at the time supported the crown prince of Portugal Afonso in the struggle with Spain for the Castilian inheritance. Assuming that Christopher Columbus took part in the first battle, he fought against his fellow countrymen. If in the second – against their future patrons and sponsors. None of the options would have adorned his biography.In addition, Columbus himself wrote that before moving to Spain in 1485, he served the Portuguese king for 14 years. That is, he settled in Portugal in 1471, five years before the first battle at Cape San Vicente.

A small detail is missing from the description of the move to Spain. Leaving Portugal, Columbus owed a total of 220 Cruzades to several creditors. Failure to pay debts threatened with jail. The 220 cruzados were a large sum. 1 cruzade corresponded to 400 reales. Arrat (459 grams) of sugar cost 10 reais.Arrat of meat – 4-5 reais. A bottle of wine – 7 reais. The hired worker received 30-50 reais per day.

Walking through the kings in search of a sponsor

But back to the fate of the startup that Columbus invented. According to some historians, Columbus began his search for possible sponsors of travel to India by the western route with the merchants of his native Genoa. But I did not receive a response to my letter with this proposal.

In 1483 or 1484, Columbus managed to secure an audience with King João II of Portugal.He gave a cool speech about the benefits of his Western Route to India project. The first land to be reached by his expedition was to be the island of Chipango, teeming with gold, pearls and precious stones. Further – Katay (China), and then India. At first, the king doubted whether it made sense to scatter investments by investing in this project, when other Portuguese sailors were already exploring a route to India bypassing Africa. But Columbus’s presentation was so compelling that João II agreed in principle.But I decided to consult with experts. As a result … Columbus was refused. According to his son, due to the fact that he asked for too high a reward – numerous high positions and large cash payments with the possibility of inheriting everything. True, just two years later, King João II allowed another startup, Fernand Dulmo, to go in search of new lands in the west, including the legendary “island of seven cities”. Dulmo was promised all titles that were refused to Columbus. But that expedition did not take place for financial reasons.

Christopher Columbus convinced his younger brother Bartolomeo – an experienced sailor and cartographer – to go to London to propose the idea of ​​a new route to India to the English king Henry VII. Bartolomeo sailed to England in 1488. The ship he was on was attacked by pirates. Bartolomeo lost all his money, then fell ill. The path to the court of the English king was delayed. Information about how Bartolomeo was received at court is contradictory. Some historians write that the courtiers ridiculed the idea of ​​Columbus, others – that the king reacted to it with enthusiasm, but did not take any concrete measures.

Sponsors were eventually found not by the younger brother, but by Christopher himself. Once in Spain, he managed to interest the Duke of Medina-Sidonia with his project. He was initially fired up with the idea, but then decided that Columbus’s plan was too good to be true. Another Spanish duke, Medina Celi, initially agreed to place four caravels with a crew at Columbus’s disposal. But then he changed his mind, realizing that the lands he found could turn out to be so rich that the king and queen would not like that he did it without their knowledge.The Duke sent a letter to the Queen of Spain recommending Columbus’s project to her.

Catholic kings, Spanish monarchs, spouses Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon fought at that time for the liberation of the Iberian Peninsula from the Moors. The war was costly. Columbus was accepted at court, but then the kings of Spain did the same as the English king – they referred the case to the experts.

While the experts studied the project, Columbus received a scholarship. On May 5, 1487, 3 thousand rubles were issued to him from the treasury.maravedi. July 3 – 3 thousand more August 27 – 4 thousand, October 15 – 4 thousand June 16, 1488 – 3 thousand Then payments stopped.

An unexpected stroke of luck for Columbus was the letter he received on April 20, 1488. The king of Portugal offered him to return and guaranteed that he would not be held accountable for his debts. Columbus went to Portugal. Negotiations with the king fell through. In the same year, Bartolomeu Dias returned from a voyage to Portugal, who managed to go around Africa from the south and enter the Indian Ocean. A southeastern route to India was found. João II was no longer interested in the western route.

Spain again. At the end of 1491, experts made a negative decision on his project. The main reasons for refusal were as follows. The journey will take three years. The Western Ocean is endless and, possibly, in some places unsuitable for navigation. Once on the other side of the Earth, the expedition will not be able to return. On the other side of the Earth there is no land, only water, as St. Augustine said. Many centuries after the creation of the world, new lands of any value cannot be found.

The kings did not react to the report of the experts in any way. After waiting about another six months, Columbus decided to go to France and propose his project to King Charles VIII the Amiable. But the supporters of his idea managed to get Columbus to have an audience with the queen before leaving.

To the invitation to the court, the queen added 20 thousand maravedis – for travel expenses and decent clothes. But the project was again submitted to the experts. On January 2, 1492, the Moors surrendered to the Spaniards their last stronghold – the city of Granada.Now Columbus could hope for a positive solution to his question – with the end of the war, treasury expenses should have decreased. The hopes were dashed. He was again refused. This time, due to the fact that, in the opinion of the court council, he asked for an excessively large reward for himself. From the 20 thousand sent by the queen, there was still enough money left to get to France. But he was brought back from the road.

Luis de Santangel, Minister of Finance and Treasurer of King Ferdinand II of Spain, and Comptroller of the Treasury of Castile, Alonso de Quintanilla, managed to convince Queen Isabella.They explained that if successful, she would become the greatest queen of Christendom. It is impossible for this part to go to another European monarch. At the same time, the Spanish crown does not risk anything. Titles are worthless. Large rewards will need to be paid only after the return of the expedition. And he will find the funds for the initial investment. According to Santangel, the cost of the enterprise conceived by Columbus was relatively small – a similar amount cost the maintenance of the royal court for a week.

“Surrender” of the top manager

On April 17, 1492, a treaty (“surrender”) was concluded between the Spanish monarchs and Christopher Columbus, and on April 30, the kings signed a certificate granting Christopher Columbus the title. These documents stipulated the following bonuses and privileges. “After you, the aforementioned Christopher Columbus, discover and acquire the indicated islands and mainland in the sea-ocean or any other land from among them, may you be our Admiral of the islands and mainland, which will be discovered and acquired by you.And may you be our Admiral and Viceroy and ruler in these lands, which you will thus discover and acquire, and from now on you can call yourself Don Christopher Columbus, and your sons and descendants, performing these positions and services, may also bear the name, title and rank of Don, and Admiral, and Viceroy, and the ruler of these lands . .. may you have and receive income and salary from all the positions mentioned. ” “From all and all kinds of goods, be it pearls or precious stones, gold or silver, spices and other things and goods of any kind, kind and name, which will be bought, exchanged, found or acquired within the said Admiralty, granted from now on by Your Highnesses to the mentioned Don Christopher, may he have and may he leave behind a tenth of everything acquired, taking into account all the costs incurred in such a way that of all that remains pure and free he can keep the named tenth for himself and dispose of it at will leaving the remaining nine parts to Your Highnesses. ““That on all ships, whatever are equipped for the named trade, whenever they are equipped, the named Don Christopher Columbus could, if he so wishes, having paid an eighth of all the costs of equipping these ships, receive and keep for himself an eighth share of the proceeds ”. Columbus also received the right to act as a judge in litigation over goods from the islands and lands he discovered.

So, Columbus received approval not only for his business plan, but all the requirements for his compensation package.

Project budget

Santangel was not only a royal treasurer. He also held the position of treasurer of Saint Ermandada (a union of the municipal forces for the protection of public order). From the budget of this department, funds were taken to provide the Queen with a loan for 1 million maravedi at 14% per annum.

The total cost of the expedition, according to most historians, was about 2 million maravedis. It is impossible to say more precisely. No one kept a ledger, taking into account receipts and expenditures.Information from different sources is contradictory.

If we take the figure of 2 million, then one of these million was royal (due to the loan of Saint Ermandada). Columbus could invest up to 12.5% ​​of the total expenses. Then the share of Columbus was limited to 250 thousand maravedis. He did not have such money in 1492, but he could borrow it from friends and associates. In addition to the crown and Columbus, Santangel, Spanish and Italian merchants could invest in the expedition.

Of the three caravels on which the expedition set out to seek the western route to India, one was chartered for money.The other two (fully equipped, with a supply of provisions for a year), according to the royal command, were to present the city of Palos de la Frontera as a fine for violating the prohibitions on fishing grounds by the sailors of this city.

Columbus’ caravels sailed from Palos on August 3, 1492. Everyone knows what happened next.

New investment round

David Satawa, professor of accounting at the University of Houston, published in 2007 in The Journal of Applied Business Research Columbus’s First Voyage: Profit Or Loss From A Historical Accountant’s Perspective “).According to Satava’s estimates, the cost of the expedition was 1,765,734 maravedi. The project was closed at a loss of 808,820 maravedi.

Columbus did not find large reserves of gold on his maiden voyage. As for the spices, in the lands he called Western India, the plants were similar to the plants of East India, but only outwardly, and were not suitable for food. The declared goals of the project were not achieved.

But the wise start-up Columbus did his best to continue the project. In a letter to the kings, written on his way back to Spain in 1493, he skillfully praised the territories he discovered: “There are many mines in these lands where metals are mined … and there are many large rivers with delicious water; most of them are gold … on Hispaniola there are many spices and there are large mines where gold and other metals are mined … one of the sailors managed to get two and a half castellano gold in exchange for a hairpin (a gold coin weighing 1 castellano was equal to 435 maravedis.- “Money” ) … I will give their Majesties spices and cotton at once and as much as they order, and as much aloe as they order to send; and as many slaves as they will order to take, and they will all be idolaters.

In May 1493, Columbus appeared at a reception at the royal palace in rich clothes. Several servants and six Indians accompanied him. The Indians carried cages with colorful parrots and gold. The presentation made a positive impression on the sponsors. The kings sat Columbus down next to them at the table and started talking about a new expedition.A flotilla of 17 ships went overseas in September. The second expedition was followed by a third.

Dispute with investors

At the end of 1504, Columbus returned to Spain from the last, fourth expedition. He had health problems (eye inflammation and arthritis) but had no money problems. He brought a lot of gold from the New World. On account of the remaining gold coins on the island of Hispaniola, bankers lent him money. The governor of Hispaniola sent him a chest of spices. But it seemed to the admiral of the islands and the mainland that the king and queen had cheated him.He wrote letters to his son, in which each time there was a request to obtain from the king an honest payment of the “tenth, eighth and third” parts due to him.

“Tenth” is 10% of the cost of all goods from the New World. Officially, the monarchs did not abandon this article of the treaty, but they took into account only one commodity – gold. The royal treasury was taxed at a rate of 20% of its value. Columbus was paid 10 percent of that 20 percent, that is, 2% of the cost, five times less than promised. Information about what happened to the goods that Columbus traded between the Old and New Worlds has not reached our days.As for the “third part”, it concerned the privileges of the holder of the rank of admiral. Columbus learned that the High Admiral of Castile has the power to impose a sales tax of 33 1/3% on trade in his jurisdiction. Columbus wanted to exercise the same right in the West Indies. This request was refused.

In 1506, the great navigator and entrepreneur passed away. Soon, his descendants began a long-term litigation with the crown for the privileges granted to Christopher Columbus for the discovery of the New World.

In the long term, Ferdinand and Isabella’s investment in Columbus’s maiden voyage has paid off with interest. American researcher Robert Fewson in his book “The Log of Christopher Columbus” notes that each maravedi invested in the admiral’s maravedis brought Spain 1,733,000 maravedis. What other startup can boast such profitability ?!

Alexey Alekseev

90,000 Krechetnikov’s blog. Who was Columbus who discovered America?
  • Artem Krechetnikov
  • BBC Russian Service, Moscow

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Christopher Columbus (portrait of an unknown artist, 1500)

Last Thursday was a day of mourning for the Russian sovereigns: 525 years ago, Columbus discovered America.Just kidding, just kidding, don’t be offended!

The first expedition of Columbus, by all accounts, marked the beginning of the era of the great geographical discoveries. There are discrepancies regarding its end. In the West, it is considered to be the last great scout of the new lands, James Cook. The Russians remind that half a century after him, Thaddeus Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev discovered the last previously unknown continent – Antarctica.

“Colombo” in Italian and “columbus” in Latin means “dove”. In Russia, the discoverer of the New World would have been Golubev.

The life of the famous navigator is woven of secrets and paradoxes. He is one of the most famous characters in world history; there is hardly a person in the world who has not heard the name of Columbus. But we do not know the date and place of his birth, nor his nationality, nor, which really does not climb into any gates, the last refuge.

The grandiose discovery that turned the world upside down was not considered particularly important for the lifetime of its author and gave him little.

A man without a past

There is almost no reliable data on the biography of Columbus until 1476, when he came to Portugal to promote the general idea of ​​his life.

Fluent in several languages. Apparently, he lived in Genoa, but the “Genoese” is not a nationality, but citizenship. In Italy alone, the honor of being the birthplace of Columbus is disputed by six cities.

Some researchers argue that Columbus was German, Pole or Croat. It is clear which historians of which countries particularly like each of these hypotheses.

The most exciting version says that the Crimean Tatars drove into slavery a smart Ukrainian boy with the nickname Golub, sold to Turkey, he fled, settled in Genoa, became a sailor there, the further is understandable.

The obscurity proves one thing: Columbus’s parents were not noble and especially rich. At the same time, in addition to languages, he knew mathematics, astronomy and navigation, worked as a cartographer, which was considered one of the most intelligent professions in the 15th century.

Main project

It is not known where and how Columbus met the Florentine geographer Paolo Toscanelli, who in 1474 sent a letter to the Portuguese king in which he claimed that the Earth was round and proposed to reach the coveted Spice Islands without moving to the east. and to the west.But a copy of the document ended up in the hands of Columbus.

True, Toscanelli made a mistake in his calculations. He did not know about the existence of the vast Pacific Ocean and believed the Earth was smaller than it actually was. The Florentine estimated the distance from Europe to Japan at five thousand kilometers.

Today it is called “the greatest mistake in history, leading to the greatest discovery.”

Coveted prize

20 years earlier, the Turks took Constantinople. Overland trade between Europe and the Far East temporarily stopped.

Spices turned into a fetish. The rich man was not called a “bag of gold”, but a “bag of pepper”.

I had to move and look for new opportunities. The idea of ​​Toscanelli and Columbus came at the right time.

That the Earth is round, was proved by the Alexandrian scholar Eratosthenes in the III century BC.

Contrary to popular belief today, this thought has never been forgotten. It’s just that the people of that time in the overwhelming majority were indifferent to things that had no practical meaning for them.But the sailors always knew that the Earth is a ball, because they constantly saw how the coast rises from the horizon.

Again, the Catholic Church did not insist that the earth was flat, and did not persecute anyone for expressing the opposite point of view. Rather, the idea that the earth revolves around the sun, that is, is not the center of the universe, was heretical.

So there was no culture shock for Columbus’s high-ranking listeners.

Pull and open

Columbus spent 15 years looking for sponsors.

At first, quite naturally, he went to Portugal – the first naval power of that time. But the Portuguese were already successfully mastering the path around Africa, and King João II did not want to engage in some unreliable venture.

Then he tried his luck in England. Henry VII honored him with a personal favorable answer, but did not give money, and thus missed the chance to make his country the ruler of the seas and colonies two hundred years earlier than it actually happened.

It was useless to appeal to Charles VIII of France.Apart from women and northern Italy, whose conquest was his idee fixe, this monarch was not interested in anything.

Spain remained. The Catholic monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella were young, ambitious, had just completed the unification of the country and wanted great new things.

“Vertical” and competition

China embarked on the path of long sea voyages and geographical discoveries half a century earlier than Europe. The huge fleet of the eunuch-admiral Zheng He reached East Africa and Arabia.

A little more, and the Chinese would have discovered America, only from the opposite side, and would have appeared in Britain at the height of the War of the Roses. That would be a commotion!

But then Bogdyhan Yun Le died. His successor had other priorities. The ships rotted when laid up, maps and ship logs were buried in the archives for centuries, the great admiral died in depression.

China was a huge centralized empire, and tiny in comparison European states spent a lot of energy fighting each other.But there was pluralism and diversity there. There were enough dull-witted rulers in the West, but no one had enough power to ruin everything.

State and private

In Spain, Columbus was also not immediately recognized.

Although the church is considered the main enemy of everything new, the bold idea at court was supported by spiritual persons: Archbishop of Toledo and Primate of Spain Pedro de Mendoza and confessor of the Queen Hernando de Talavera. Under their influence, Isabella even stated that she was ready to pawn her jewelry for the sake of swimming.

About jewelry, of course, it was said for the sake of a catchphrase. According to the agreement concluded between Columbus and the Spanish court, the government contributed only a small amount, and the navigator had to find the rest wherever he wanted.

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Photo caption,

In 2006, on the 500th anniversary of Columbus’s death, a replica of the flagship Santa Maria was made at a shipyard in Huelva, Spain.

One of the greatest projects in history was embodied in reality, of course, with government support, but mainly thanks to private initiative.

A great contribution was made by the Duke of Medina Sidonia, at the same time the largest merchant, owner of more than 100 merchant ships.

Entrepreneurs Juan de la Cosa and Martin Pinson equipped at their own expense two of the three caravels and sailed on them as captains. How Columbus managed to lead such subordinates is difficult to imagine.

The largest caravel, or, more correctly, the karakka, “Santa Maria”, was only 21.4 meters long. We must take off our hats to the courage of people who embarked on an unknown ocean, in fact, on large boats with one compass.

There were about 100 participants in the expedition. That was probably why they were crowded!

In the New World

Actually, Columbus did not discover America. This was done about 15 thousand years ago by the ancestors of its indigenous inhabitants, who crossed the Bering Strait either on ice or on land (in the Ice Age, the level of the World Ocean was lower).

Today, the repeated visits of the Vikings to Newfoundland in the X-XI centuries are considered proven.

Photo by Getty Images

Columbus lived in an era when information began to spread rapidly and be stored securely, and European civilization was ripe for expansion, because its discovery had historical consequences.

On October 7, after more than two months of sailing, the teams began to murmur, demanding to return. If Columbus had listened to them, the project in Spain would have been considered a failure and would have been remembered later, God knows how many years.

After another five days, the lookout Rodrigo de Triana shouted: “Earth!”

Where the European foot first set foot on American soil, again, a mystery. The honor of being an island called Guanahani by the locals and dubbed San Salvador by Columbus is disputed by Watling and Samana Key of the Bahamas.

The Great Mistake

Columbus went to America four times, spent about four years in it in total, but did not understand what he discovered. Until the end of his life, he was sure that he had visited some especially backward southern provinces of China and grieved that every time he missed the sea by the rich and cultured Japan.

History, perhaps, does not know a more grandiose delusion.

With the light hand of Columbus, the islands of the Caribbean are still called the West Indies, and the indigenous people of the continent are called Indians.

Here’s an interesting thing: if they were christened Americans from the very beginning, who would the citizens of the United States be? “Staff members”?

The fact that America is not Asia was announced a year after the death of Columbus by his companion Amerigo Vespucci. As a result, his name was assigned to the entire continent, and the discoverer “received” only the Latin American state known for the cocaine mafia, the metropolitan federal district of the United States and a city in Panama.

Fate-villain

Columbus did not get either glory or wealth in his lifetime.

From expeditions, he brought tobacco, sugarcane, bird feathers, wicker hammocks invented by the Guarani Indians, which later served faithfully in the sailors’ quarters of all the fleets of the world for 300 years, but not a grain of pepper, for which everything was started.

Even on the eve of the first expedition, Columbus got himself the title of great admiral and the hereditary position of viceroy of all the lands he discovered. It was rumored at court that the rootless stranger wanted too much, and it was still necessary to see what would come of his fables about India and the country of Ophir.

And then in 1498 the representative of rival Portugal Vasco da Gama reached the real India and the Moluccas and got so many spices that the voyage paid off many times over!

The patience of the Spanish government has run out. In 1500, a new plenipotentiary governor, Alonso Ojeda, arrived in Cuba, who sent Columbus home as a prisoner.

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Photo caption,

Routes of Columbus’s expeditions

The Royal Council judged that Ojeda had gone too far, but there is nothing special to honor Columbus for.He did not receive the promised titles, made another voyage to America and died in 1506 in Seville, not in poverty, but not in a halo of glory.

In 1520, the gold of Montezuma was in the hands of the Spaniards. In 1547, the world’s largest silver mines were discovered in Potosi (Peru). Until now, in Spanish there is an expression: “worth Potosi”.

Another 100 years later it became clear that for prosperity the country should not rejoice in the gifts of nature, but develop. But in the middle of the 16th century, Spain was experiencing euphoria.

The grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella Charles V elevated the son of Columbus, Diego, to the Duke of Veragua (the area where Panama is now located) and the Marquise of Jamaica. He returned the land to the crown for an impressive monetary compensation with the retention of titles.

The last secret

Columbus bequeathed to bury himself in the lands discovered by him, but no one took the coffin across the ocean. In 1540, Charles V took care of the execution of the last will of the great man, and the ashes of Columbus were solemnly reburied in the cathedral of the capital of Hispaniola, Santo Domingo.

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Bas-relief of Christopher Columbus on the Union Station building in Washington, DC

When part of Hispaniola passed to France and became known as Haiti, the remains were moved to Havana, and when the Spaniards had to leave and from Cuba to Seville.

However, during the restoration of the cathedral in Santo Domingo at the end of the century before last, a coffin with bones was discovered, the inscription on which said that they allegedly belonged to Columbus. The resting place of the discoverer of America, like his place of birth, became the subject of controversy.

In 2003, José Lorente, a professor of forensic medicine at the University of Granada, determined that the remains buried in Seville belonged to a man of about 45 years of age and fragile build, while Columbus was broad-shouldered and died between the ages of 55 and 60.

“Haitian” skeleton awaits its turn. If the result turns out to be the same, you will have to admit that Columbus’s ashes were lost during the travels.

In the footsteps of Columbus: what route did Santa Maria actually take?

  • Gemma Handy
  • Providenciales, Turks and Caicos

Photo by Jon Nickson / eyeSpice.com

Photo caption,

The team of researchers wants to repeat the route followed in 1492 by Christopher Columbus

More than 500 years after Christopher Columbus set foot on the shores of the New World, explorers from the Turks and Caicos Islands decided to repeat the route of the navigator and it is quite possible to rewrite the history of the discovery of America.

The transatlantic voyage of the Italian (according to another version – Spanish) navigator, undertaken by him in 1492, was intended to connect the two hemispheres – for the first time since the time of the Vikings – and forever change the course of history.

Photo author, AFP

Photo caption,

Many artists have tried to depict what the moment when Columbus first stepped onto the New World coast looked like.

But the dispute about where exactly Columbus’s expedition landed for the first time has been going on for several centuries. More than 10 Bahamas, as well as the British Overseas Territory Turks and Caicos Islands, which consists of four dozen islands, are fighting for the right to call themselves the place of discovery of the New World.

Today a team of sailors and historians decided to go on several sea expeditions and prove that Columbus’s arrival took place exactly on the island of Grand Turk, where the capital of Turks and Caicos is located.

This version is disputed by the inhabitants of the Bahamas, who have long believed that Columbus first landed on the island of San Salvador.

Nevertheless, the research team wants to get to the bottom of the truth. And if they can prove their case, the tiny British Overseas Territory could become a new destination for tourists from all over the world.

Attention to detail

Historian and resident of Turks and Caicos, Josiah Marvel spent three decades studying the texts of Columbus’s voyages in libraries around the world.

Photo author, Olivia Savoure

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Josiah Marvel studied the details of Columbus’s voyage for several decades.

He even made his own translation of the navigator’s diaries, explaining medieval grammar and nautical formulations.

Marvel believes that there are too many inaccuracies in other modern translations of the diaries to state with certainty that San Salvador (until 1926 known as Watling Island) was the landing site of the Columbus expedition.

These include the inability to account for magnetic variations that could have led to erroneous readings on Columbus’s compasses, and the apparent impossibility of multiple anchorage sites.

In addition, the latitude readings are indicated in Columbus’s diaries, according to which the difference between the landing site of the expedition and the island of Haiti was 90 nautical miles.

“Nearly accurate distance between Grand Turk and the island of Haiti,” says the historian.

To confirm his theory, he enlisted the help of two professional captains to sail the proposed alternative route from Grand Turk Island to Raggued Island (Columbus’s final stop in the Bahamas) via Mayaguana and the Inagua Islands.

Photo author, Air Force

Amazing riddle

The trio made their first trip in November 2014 on board the sailing catamaran Destiny II, which, they say, develops the same speed as the Columbian Santa Maria …

Photo by Jon Nickson / eyeSpice.com

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The Destiny II double-hulled sailboat has the same speed as Columbus’ Santa Maria

An experienced Bahamian sailor Dave Calvert, who helped set the 2001.

“I’ve read Josiah’s work and I believe his theory is the most accurate,” Calvert told the BBC.

The head of the expedition, Tim Ainley, believes that the information contained in Columbus’s diaries creates “an amazing riddle that has haunted historians and sailors for centuries.”

Photo author, Jon Nickson / eyeSpice.com

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During their expedition, the research team visited several uninhabited islands

“The text is rather vague, because Columbus did not have GPS, he did not know how to calculate longitude and his fleet was completely lost – they thought they were heading towards Japan, explains Ainli.

“Everyone agrees that Columbus was an excellent sailor,” continues the captain. “His ships did not know how to move against the wind, so they had to be very careful and think about how they would swim back before going where- then forward. They had no anchor chains, so they had to find a clean sandy bottom to drop the rope anchor. ”

“This greatly restricts the marine parking. In addition, due to the change in magnetic declination ( angle between geographic and magnetic meridians – approx.BBC ) Columbus thought he was sailing west, but in fact he was moving much more south than he expected. This fits well with the Grand Turk theory, because it is the southernmost landing island possible, “explains the captain.

Photo credit, Jon Nickson / eyeSpice.com

Photo caption,

Hawke’s Nest on Grand Turk Island is what Columbus describes in his diaries as large enough to accommodate “all the ships of Christendom”

Seeking evidence

The last leg of the 2014 expedition did not take place for calm, so it had to be done already last December.

After the completion of the expedition, the team is absolutely convinced that they correctly interpreted all the riddles from the Columbus diaries and this is the correct route followed by the navigator.

This time, the researchers have teamed up with the American archaeologist Sean Sullivan to find the remains of a Lucanian settlement on Mayaguana Island, where, according to them, Columbus was surrounded by natives in a canoe.

Photo author, Jon Nickson / eyeSpice.com

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Members of an expedition to Mayaguana Island in search of evidence

“It is clear that Columbus landed somewhere in the southeast of the Bahamas or on the Turks and Caicos – but the question remains open where exactly, “says Sullivan and adds that the answer to this question can be done through a” long scientific process “, as well as additional physical evidence.

The exploration team is now embarking on a third voyage this fall, this time along the discoverer’s route from San Salvador to Raggid Island. They are going to arm themselves with a Columbian logbook to prove that directions and distances do not fit the text as well as the Grand Turk Island departure route.

“I want to clear up the historical confusion and prove once and for all that Columbus first went ashore on the Grand Turk. As far as I know, no historian has ever sailed on various routes in the Turks and Caicos region and the southern Bahamas, – Ainley concludes.“Personally, I think it’s amazing – I just get goosebumps when I think I’m on the heels of Columbus’s flotilla after so many years.”

You can follow the movements and progress of researchers here . about meeting with cannibals

While visiting America, Christopher Columbus left strange notes that baffled many scientists. The traveler reported that he saw traces of an attack by terrible savages on the peaceful Arawak Indians of the Guanahani Island.This island lies north of Cuba and belongs to the Bahamas archipelago. According to local residents, these savages were called Caribs, and they constantly terrorized the Arawaks, kidnapped women and devoured men.

The problem is that the Caribbean tribes did not live on the Caribbean islands at all, but much further south – on the territory of modern Venezuela and nearby islands. For a long time, Guadeloupe, an island between Puerto Rico and Venezuela, was considered the northern border of the settlement of this tribe. Historians thought that Columbus either misheard or actually used a different word – kaniba, which denoted the Asian cast of the Mongol khans.This is quite realistic, since Columbus was sure until his death that he had sailed to India. The problem is quite acute, as modern Caribbean people vehemently deny that they have ever eaten humans.

But in 2020, archaeologists said they found traces of the Caribbean in the places that the navigator wrote about. If previous researchers relied on the analysis of ceramics and stone tools, then scientists from the University of North Carolina, led by Anna Ross, studied the remains of the Indians themselves. First of all, archaeologists were interested in biometric data: the size of the eye sockets, the shape of the forehead, the severity of the cheekbones, the proportions of the jaws and other data by which it is possible to determine the relationship of people or their belonging to an ethnic group.

The work was simplified by the fact that among the Caribs it was customary to deform skulls from a young age for ritual purposes. After analyzing the remains of 103 people, the researchers concluded that around 800 AD, a group of Caribbean tribes did indeed migrate north to Cuba and the Bahamas.

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Skull of an early member of the Caribbean population

Ann Ross / North Carolina State University

“I spent years refuting what Columbus said, and in the end I proved that he was right,” summed up the co-author of last year’s study, William Keeigan.

Now, Nature Scientific Reports has published an article criticizing the work of Anna Ross. According to Christina Giovas of Simon Fraser University and other researchers, there is no evidence of the ancient migration of the Caribbean to the north, and what there is is obtained in violation of scientific methodology. So, the scientists took the skulls not directly from the graves, but from museums and private collections. In turn, it is the grave that carries significant information: how the cemetery is arranged, according to what ceremony people were buried, what they put next to them, to what depth they were buried, and many other trifles.Of the 103 skulls, 88 have no exact data on the location of the find, for most of the bones there is no radiocarbon dating.

In addition, 11 samples were found at all in the Sacred Cenote – a natural well in Chichen Itza in the territory of modern Mexico. In this sacred well, the ancient Mayans threw people who were sacrificed to the rain god. The victims were often aliens from distant lands who lived thousands of kilometers from Chichen Itza.

Finally, critics question the very idea of ​​linking the strange story of Christopher Columbus with a real tribe.The authors believe that the stories of the attack by the robbers-cannibals simply repeat the stereotypical description of pagan savages, and were invented by Europeans for political purposes. The fact is that initially the Spanish kingdom perceived the indigenous people of America as new subjects who needed to be paid for their work and treated with respect.

When the government received reports of cannibalism, it turned a blind eye to the cruelty of the conquistadors in the treatment of Indians and forced labor.

“These old tales of cannibals have no scientific basis, the methods used to prove the migration of the Caribbean are worthless, but the resurrection of an old myth could harm modern Caribbean tribes,” the scientists sum up.

90,000 Discovery of America by the expedition of Christopher Columbus

On October 12, 1492, Columbus’s expedition came across one of the Bahamas, which the navigator named the island of San Salvador – in honor of the divine savior Jesus Christ.Rodrigo de Triana, the sailor of the Pinta caravel, was the first to notice the land, but he never received the reward of 10 thousand maravedis promised by the royal couple of Spain. Since the Bahamas archipelago stretches for 1200 kilometers from the Florida peninsula to Haiti and there are about 3 thousand large and small islands in it, the exact location of the island discovered by Columbus is unknown. The main contenders for this title are several islands of the Bahamas archipelago: Watling Island, the modern island of San Salvador and an island 120 km southeast of Watling – Samana Cay.The natives themselves called him Guanahani.

On October 13, 1492, Columbus landed on the shore, hoisted the Castilian flag on it, formally took possession of the island and drew up a notarial deed about it. For two weeks, Columbus gradually moved south, discovering new islands from the Bahamas – Cuba and Haiti. Christopher Columbus considered these new lands to be East Asia – the vicinity of China, Japan or India. Later, for a long time, these newly discovered territories were called the West Indies by the Europeans.

On the night of December 26, 1492, the flagship Santa Maria landed on the reef. With the help of local residents, it was possible to remove guns, supplies and valuable cargo from the ship. A fort was built from the wreckage of the ship – the first European settlement in America, named on the occasion of the Christmas holiday “Navidad”.

On March 15, 1493, Columbus returned to Spain on the Niña. He brought with him natives (who were called Indians in Europe), some gold, plants never seen before in Europe (corn, potatoes, tobacco), fruits and feathers of birds.Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile gave Columbus a festive reception.

Subsequently, Christopher Columbus made three more expeditions, as a result of which the islands of Dominica, Guadeloupe, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, as well as the lands of Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica were discovered.

Six years after another legendary pioneer Vasco da Gama actually discovered India in 1497, it became clear that Columbus had reached the shores of the New World. This was later confirmed by the expedition of Amerigo Vespucci.The name of Columbus is borne by the eponymous District of Columbia in the United States, the cities of Columbus, Columbia and Colon, the Latin American state of Columbia.

On October 12, the Americans celebrate the landing of the navigator Christopher Columbus in the New World.

Most of the countries of the American continent celebrate this date, but in the United States, the discovery of America falls on the second Monday of October (established in 1937 by President Franklin Roosevelt). The main celebrations take place in New York, where a grand parade is organized every year.The historic event of the discovery of America in New York is immortalized by a 21-meter column in the “heart” of Manhattan on Columbus Circle, crowned with the figure of Columbus. It was created to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America.

Some cities also host special services, parades and large ceremonies.

However, in the United States, the personality and historical role of the pioneer is perceived ambiguously – the arrival of European settlers marked the beginning of mass colonization, slave trade and extermination of indigenous peoples.

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