Staples in west springfield: Staples Locations in Massachusetts West Springfield


Staples Locations in Massachusetts West Springfield

You are on the page of Staples Massachusetts West Springfield where all the information is available about the contact, phone, addresses and services.

In this store of Staples you can find out the price range of the all products which you can see online or in-store.

Address :

Riverdale Plaza
1129 Riverdale Road, West Springfield, Massachusetts, USA

Postal Code : 01089
Opening Hours :

Monday – Friday: 8:00 am – 9:00 pm Saturday: 9:00 am – 9:00 pm Sunday: 10:00 am – 6:00 pm

Phone : 4137390026
Fax : 4137399835

All stores might not offer the same variety but they mostly have the typical range of products that would be available at any store of Staples.

Staples is among the biggest brands that retail best electronics, stationery and office supplies in the whole country.

Since, I advice you to have a rough look at the product range before you go shopping for electronics or professional office supplies.

Staples has also savings on product ranges randomly and anytime we can come across with this type offers on their website.

We’ll also focus on these deals and coupons you might print or use on the internet sites.

From technology range of Staples you can see:

Apple; contains offers of iPad, iPod and iPhone accessories in general and you can see products related to Mac accessories.

Cell Phones; you can see price range for smart phones, accessory range suitable with them.

Many more aisle of Staples which you can find at Staples Locations Massachusetts West Springfield are actually available in the range of products.

Staples Massachusetts West Springfield Features

  • Mobile Phones
  • Full-service UPS® Shipping
  • Buy online.Pickup in store
  • Technology Services
  • Computer Workstation
  • Ship to Store
  • Copy & Print Services
  • UPS® Prepaid Drop-off
  • Mobile Printing

Home > Staples Store Locator > Massachusetts > West Springfield

Staples – West Springfield, MA

Getting Here – Riverdale Road, West Springfield

Staples can be found in an ideal space near the intersection of Riverdale Street and Myron Street, in West Springfield, Massachusetts, at Riverdale Center (TM).

By car

1 minute drive time from Riverdale Street (US-5), Exit 13A of I-91, Bradford Drive and Border Way; a 4 minute drive from Center Street, Morgan Road and Exit 1B;1A of I-391; or a 9 minute trip from Main Street and Cabot Street (Ma-116).

For GPS units please enter the address: 1129 Riverdale Road, West Springfield, MA 01089.

By bus

If you’re arriving by bus, the best way is to get off at Riverdale Shops 2 or Riverdale / Pvt.

By streetcar

If you’re arriving by streetcar, you’ll be dropped at Springfield Union Station (2.65 mi away). The Lake Shore Limited, New Haven–Springfield Shuttle, Northeast Regional, Vermonter and Hartford lines run here.

On foot

Within a short walk you may discover Land Along Connecticut R, Wisniowski Park, Wason Avenue Park, Bullens Park, Lower Pioneer Valley Educational Collaborative – Career and Technical Education Center, Ashley Cemetery, The Hand Center of Western Massachusetts Dr. Jeffrey WInt, The Commons Park and Patrick E. Bowe School.

Staples Locations Nearby West Springfield, MA

Staples currently owns 1 store in West Springfield, Massachusetts.

Browse the following link for an entire listing of Staples stores near West Springfield.

Christmas, Easter, Thanksgiving 2021

Please note: over U.S. public holidays the times for Staples in West Springfield, MA may vary from daily times shown above. For the duration of 2021 these changes pertain to Christmas Day, Boxing Day, Easter or Thanksgiving Day. The quickest way to get additional info about holiday working hours for Staples West Springfield, MA is to visit the official site, or call the customer line at 4137390026.

Riverdale Center (TM)

When visiting Staples, don’t forget to check out the additional high quality stores at Riverdale Center (TM).

Write a Review, Report a Problem

We are always striving to deliver you with the most current information. If you find mistakes in the place of business info or working times for Staples in West Springfield, MA, please utilize this form to report a problem. Write your thoughts on Staples in the box below.

Staples Jobs – Jobs in West Springfield, MA

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  • Retail Sales Technology Associate job in West Springfield, MA | Staples


    Staples is focused on our customer and our community, while empowering you to learn, grow and deliver.

    As a Technology Sales Associate, you will be collaborative and inclusive in helping our customers while being part of a fun, team-oriented retail culture. You’ll provide exceptional customer service and have our customer’s needs in mind while helping them find a total technology solution both in-store and through the kiosk. Your passion for “tech” will be show in your extensive knowledge of technology products, offerings, and technical services.

    Get great perks.

    • Flexible part time hours and generous paid time off; hiring immediately

    • Compensation based on qualifications and experience. Staples reserves the right to pay more or less.

    • Associate store discount and more perks (discounts on mobile plans and other retailers, etc.)

    • 401(k) plan with a company match, dental and vision insurance, and many more benefits

    Schedule an interview immediately.

    • After applying, engage in a brief conversation via text or e-mail (typically same day) to schedule an interview. We’ll let you know if you’re not eligible. In-person interviews are at the store location

    Play an active role in helping both your store and your customer win.

    • Create a positive, inviting environment for customers as you learn their tech needs

    • Stay current on new technologies, products and services to offer a total solution

    • Respond quickly and resourcefully to customer requests and concerns on the sales floor

    • Ensure the Tech department achieves key metrics, including profitable sales

    • Be flexible on various responsibilities (i.e. cashier, merchandising, other duties as assigned)


    Essential skills and experience:

    • Able to work a flexible schedule (including nights and/or weekends)
    • Customer service experience demonstrating the ability to engage and speak to customers and understand their needs
    • Collaborate and work with other team members
    • Ability to lift/move materials in the 10-50 pound range, climb ladders, stand and walk continuously
    • Staples does not sponsor applicants for work visas for this position

    Preferred skills and experience:

    • Previous experience in a retail environment with technology sales and services

    Click to learn more about the employee benefits, programs and perks offered at Staples.

    Staples is an Equal Opportunity Employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, protected veteran status, disability, or any other basis protected by federal, state, or local law.

    Prosecutor: Springfield woman was kicked, punched, stabbed during dispute with cousin and 2 other friends

    SPRINGFIELD — A Springfield woman was kicked, punched and stabbed during a dispute with her cousin and two other female friends, a prosecutor said.

    The defendants — Kendall Staples, 24, of Springfield, and Sarah Marshall, 25, and Dametria Rouse, 29, both of West Springfield — pleaded not guilty Monday in Springfield District Court to aggravated assault and battery and assault and battery with a dangerous weapon (shod foot.)

    Staples also denied one count of assault and battery with a dangerous weapon (a knife).

    On Saturday night, the defendants invited the victim to Staples’ apartment in Sixteen Acres and began punching and kicking her once she arrived, Assistant District Attorney Cary Szafranski said. When the victim fell to the floor, the assault continued before Staples eventually took a knife from the kitchen drawer and slashed the victim several times on the back.

    “They basically ambushed her,” the prosecutor said, adding the suspects believed the victim was having an affair with Staples’ boyfriend.

    When the beating ended, the victim was pushed out the door without her coat or shoes. She flagged down a motorist, and was taken to Mercy Medical Center with “blood and injuries all over her body,” the prosecutor said.

    Springfield police, after interviewing the victim at the emergency room, went to Staples’ apartment and arrested the three women, Szafranski said.

    She asked for $10,000 bail for each defendant, citing the injuries suffered by the victim and the potential jail terms the defendants face if convicted.

    She also asked Judge Michael Ripps to revoke Rouse’s bail in a pending assault case and to order all three defendants to have no contact with the victim.

    Defense lawyers called the bail request excessive and challenged the credibility of the alleged victim, a 25-year-old Springfield resident.

    The woman has a history of drug abuse and psychiatric disturbances and has worked as a prostitute, attorneys Brandon Freeman and William Higgins said.

    All four women were friends and had been hanging out for hours in Staples’ apartment. Eventually, an argument erupted and the victim punched Rouse, according to Freeman, who represented Rouse during the hearing.

    The two women engaged briefly in “mutual combat,” but the victim suffered no injuries and appeared healthy before leaving the house after midnight, Freeman said. Whatever happened next, “my client had nothing to do with,” Freeman said.

    Higgins, representing Marshall, said she is the victim’s cousin and attempted to break up the fight. “She didn’t hurt her cousin. She said she would never hurt her cousin,” Higgins said.

    Marshall has three children, no criminal record and a back injury that would prevent her from fighting anyone, according to Higgins, who asked for Marshall’s release on personal surety rather than cash bail.

    The judge set $2,500 cash bail for Marshall and $5,000 cash for Rouse. He also revoked Rouse’s release in the open assault case, effectively jailing her for 90 days.

    Staples was arraigned separately and released on $10,000 bail, the same figure she posted at police headquarters following her arrest.

    The judge ordered all three defendants to stay away from the victim and continued the case for a pretrial hearing on Feb. 21.

    Staples, 751 W Sproul Rd, Springfield, PA 19064, USA

    Staples® Locations in Springfield, PA –

    Find nearby Staples® locations in Springfield, Pennsylvania. Select the closest Staples for your store’s hours and contact information. … (610) 328-9239 (610)
    Staples, 751 W Sproul Rd in Springfield, PA 19064 |

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    Staples® Sproul Road, Springfield, PA | Store Details

    (610) 328-9239 (610)

    328-9239. Fax (610) 328-9251 (610) 328-9251. … Staples is the world’s largest office products company and a trusted source for office solutions …
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    Office supply store Staples from Springfield mit 4137390026 | Score Telefonnummer: 2

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    Residence Inn West Springfield, Chicopee

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    90,000 History of Springfield, Massachusetts

    Aspect of History

    Springfield, Massachusetts , was founded in 1636 as Agave Plantation , in honor of a nearby Algonquian Native American village. It was the northernmost settlement in the Connecticut colony. However, four years later, the settlement left Connecticut, later joining forces with the coastal Massachusetts Bay colony.The city changed its name to Springfield and changed the political boundaries between what would later become New England states. History of Springfield, Massachusetts springs in large part from its favorable geography, located on a bluff on the Connecticut River’s confluence with three tributaries. It was the Native American crossroads of two major trade routes: Boston-to-Albany and New York-to-Montreal. Springfield is also located on one of the most fertile soils in the northeastern United States.

    Springfield thrived as a trading post and agricultural center at the expense of the indigenous people. For several decades, most of the Aghavam residents were confined to the palisade of the fort on Long Hill. During King Philip’s War of 1675, the British tried to pacify their indigenous neighbors by fomenting a web of hostility that resulted in a massive attack on the city of Springfield that destroyed much of the city. Its prosperity waned over the next hundred years, but in 1777 the leaders of the Revolutionary War made it the National Arsenal for the storage of weapons, and in 1795 it began producing muskets.Until 1968, the Armory produced small arms. Its first American muskets (1794) were followed by the famous Springfield rifle and the revolutionary M1 Garand and M14. The Springfield Armory has attracted generations of skilled workers to the city, making it the US a longtime center for precision manufacturing (compared to Silicon Valley in the Industrial Revolution). The practical seizure of the Armory during the Sheiss Rebellion in 1787 was one of the challenges that prompted the U.S. Constitutional Convention later that year.

    Innovations from the 19th and 20th centuries include the first American English dictionary (1805, Noah Webster), the first use of replacement parts and an assembly line in production (1819, Thomas Blanchard), the first American horseless car (1825, again Thomas Blanchard). ), vulcanized rubber (1844, Charles Goodyear), the first American gasoline car (1893, Duryea Brothers), the first American motorcycle company (1901, “Indian”), an early commercial radio station (1921)., WBZ) and the most famous, third most popular sport in the world is basketball (1891, Dr. James Naismith).

    17th century

    Indigenous people

    It is difficult to estimate the origin of human habitation in the Connecticut River Valley, but there are physical signs that are at least 9,000 years old. The Pokumtak tradition describes the creation of Lake Hitchcock at Deerfield by giant beavers, possibly the action of a glacier that retreated at least 12,000 years ago. Various locations point to millennia of fishing, gardening, beaver hunting and burial. Excavations over the past 150 years have taken many human remains from old graves and sent them to the collections of institutions such as UMASS Amherst. The passage of the Native American Burial and Repatriation Act in 1990 mandated museums throughout Western Massachusetts and the country to repatriate these remains to indigenous peoples, an ongoing process.

    The region was inhabited by several Algonca-speaking Indian communities, culturally related, but differing in the geographical names that they assigned to their communities: Agawam (lowland), Woronco (roundabout), Nonotuck (in the middle of the river).), Pokumtak (narrow, fast river) and Sokoki (separate from their neighbors). The modern city of Springfield was inhabited by the Agave Indians. Agaves, like other groups, belong to the larger cultural category of the Alongka Indians.

    In 1634, Dutch traders provoked a devastating smallpox epidemic among the indigenous people of the region. Massachusetts Governor Bradford writes that in Windsor (the site of a Dutch trading post) “out of 1,000 [Indians], 150 of them died.” With so many dead “rotting above the ground for lack of burial,” British colonists were encouraged by the attempt to significantly settle the region.

    Colonial Settlement

    The First Church of Christ in Springfield’s Court Square was the 20th ward to meet in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1637, its first meetinghouse was built in 1645 and the current building was built in 1819. The text of the 1636 treaty between William Pynchon and 13 tribesmen on the land of the settlement on the Aghavam plantation, later known as Springfield, was later copied by the hand of Elizur Holyoke.

    Puritan fur trader William Pynchon was the first settler in Roxbury, Massachusetts, magistrate and later assistant treasurer of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.In 1635, he commissioned a reconnaissance expedition led by John Cable and John Woodcock to find the most suitable location in the Connecticut River Valley for the dual purposes of agriculture and trade. The expedition traveled either along the Inland Bay Trail from Boston to Albany via Springfield, or, equally likely, along the coast and north of the Connecticut estuary. It ended at Aghavam, where the Westfield River meets the Connecticut River, across the Connecticut River from present-day Springfield, the northernmost settlement on the Great River at the time.The region’s numerous rivers and geological history have shown that its soils are among the best for agriculture in the northeast.

    Cable and Woodcock found the village of Aghavam Pokomtuk (or possibly Nipmuk) on the west bank of the Connecticut River. The land near the river was cleared of trees by Indian burns and covered in nutrient-rich river silt from both floods and glacial Lake Hitchcock. South of the Westfield River, Cable and Woodcock built a prefab house in present-day Aghavam, Massachusetts (in present-day Pinchon Point).

    On May 15, 1636, Pynchon led a settlement expedition led by the Connecticut colony, which included Henry Smith (Pynchon’s son-in-law), Jehu Burr, William Blake, Matthew Mitchell, Edmund Wood, Thomas Ufford, John Cable, and an Indian translator from Massachusetts named Ahton. Pynchon probably never learned the Algonquian language, so the help of Aboriginal translators is crucial in exploring the land and communicating with its native people. Dutch and Plymouth colonists jumped across the “Great River” north to Windsor, Connecticut in an attempt to found the northernmost village to gain the greatest access to the region’s raw materials.Pynchon has chosen a location north of Anfield Falls, the first location on the Connecticut River, where all travelers must stop to climb the 32-foot (9.8m) waterfall and then reload their cargo from ocean-going ships onto smaller skiers. By founding Springfield, Pynchon positioned himself as the northernmost trader on the Connecticut River. Near Anfield Falls, he built a warehouse for storing goods awaiting dispatch, which is still called the “Warehouse”, located in East Windsor, Connecticut.

    In 1636, Pynchon’s party acquired land on both sides of the Connecticut River from 18 tribesmen who lived in the fort’s palisade at what is now Longhill Street in Springfield. The price paid was 18 hoes, 18 fathoms of wampum, 18 coats, 18 axes, and 18 knives. Ahon was a signatory, witness, and likely negotiator in the case. The Indians retained foraging and hunting rights, as well as rights to their existing farmland, and were entitled to compensation if English cattle ruined their corn crop.As with many Indian affairs, it is questionable whether the Indians who signed the document had the political authority to sign on behalf of their tribes.

    In 1636, the English settlement was named Agavam Plantation and was administered by the Connecticut Colony, as opposed to the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

    Depart Connecticut to Massachusetts

    In 1640 and 1641, two events occurred that forever changed the political boundaries of the Connecticut River Valley.From its founding until then, Springfield was administered by Connecticut along with three other Connecticut settlements: Wethersfield, Hartford, and Windsor. In the spring of 1640 grain was scarce, and livestock in the Connecticut colony was starving to death. The nearby settlements of Windsor and Hartford in the Connecticut River Valley (then called “Newtown”) gave William Pynchon the right to buy corn for all three English settlements. If the natives did not sell the corn at market prices, Pynchon had the right to offer more money.The natives refused to sell corn at market prices and then refused to sell it at prices that Pynchon considered “reasonable.” Pynchon refused to buy it, believing that it was better not to advertise the weakness of the English colonists, and also wishing to keep the market value stable.

    The leading citizens of what would become Hartford were furious that Pynchon had not bought the grain. With the consent of Windsor and Wethersfield, the three southern settlements of the Connecticut colony commissioned the famous Native American conqueror, Captain John Mason, to travel to Springfield with “money in one hand and sword in the other” to purchase grain for their settlements.Arriving at what would become Springfield, Mason threatened the Pokumtuk with war if they did not sell the corn at “reasonable prices.” The Pokumtuk capitulated and eventually sold corn to the colonists; however, Mason’s brutal approach led to a deepening of the natives’ distrust of the English. Before leaving, Mason also publicly rebuked Pynchon, accusing Pynchon of harsh trading practices and forcing Pynchon to trade only with him because they were afraid of him. (The three settlements of the southern Connecticut colony were surrounded by tribes other than Springfield, that is, by more warlike Pequots and Mohegans.)

    Finally, in 1640, Pynchon and the Aghavam planters voted to secede from the other river cities, seceding from the jurisdiction of the Connecticut colony. Seeking to capitalize on Springfield’s escape, the Massachusetts Bay Colony decided to re-establish its jurisdiction over lands bordering the Connecticut River, including the Agaves.

    Tensions between Springfield and Connecticut escalated in the last clash in 1640. Hartford kept a fort at the mouth of the Connecticut River in Old Saybrook for protection from various tribes and the New Holland colony.After Springfield sided with the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Connecticut demanded that Springfield’s boats pay a toll when passing the fort at Old Saybrook (which at the time was run not by the Connecticut colony, but by the short-lived Saybrook colony). Pynchon would have agreed if Springfield had an office at the fort in Saybrook; however Connecticut refused to allow Springfield to be present at the fort, and so Pynchon ordered his boats to refuse to pay the Connecticut toll.When the Massachusetts Bay Colony heard of this controversy, it sided with Pynchon and immediately drafted a resolution requiring Connecticut ships to pay a toll upon entering Boston Harbor. Connecticut, which at the time was heavily dependent on trade with Boston, immediately removed the tax from Springfield.

    When the dust finally settled, Pynchon was appointed magistrate of Aghavam to the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and in honor of its importance, the settlement was renamed Springfield after his birthplace in England.For decades, Springfield, which then included present-day Westfield, was the westernmost settlement in Massachusetts.

    In 1642, a certain boundary was drawn in the Massachusetts Bay, one of the first on the territory of modern America. Led by Nathaniel Woodward and Solomon Safery, the group exited through the border crossing on the old Bissell ferry at Windsor, north of present-day Windsor city center, and entered a line near what is now US Highway 44.After the publication of the results, this line was of immense benefit to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The towns of Suffield, Anfield, Somers, Stafford and Granby were transferred to the jurisdiction of the Springfield lands. Connecticut protested the result, stating that they did not even walk, but sailed a boat from the Charles River, around Cape Cod, and approached Anfield Falls. This led to one of the longest-running border disputes in American history.

    Early “firsts”

    Image of the burning of copies of William Pynchon’s forbidden book Our Deserved Redemption , which the Massachusetts Bay Colony deemed blasphemous.

    In 1645, 46 years before the Salem Witch Trials, Springfield first faced America’s accusations of witchcraft when Mary (Bliss) Parsons, wife of Cornet Joseph Parsons, accused a widow named Marshfield, who had moved from Windsor to Springfield, of witchcraft – a crime … it is punishable by death. For this, Mary Parsons was found guilty of libel. In 1651, Mary Parsons was accused of witchcraft and the murder of her own child. In turn, Mary Parsons accused her own husband, Hugh Parsons, of witchcraft.At America’s first witchcraft trial, both Mary and Hugh Parsons were found not guilty of witchcraft for lack of conclusive evidence. However, Mary was found guilty of murdering her own child, but died in prison in 1651 before her death sentence was carried out.

    William Pynchon was the first commercial meat packer in the New World. In 1641 he began to export barrels of salted pork; however, in 1650, he became famous for writing the first forbidden book of the New World, The Deserved Price of Our Redemption .In 1649, Pynchon took the time to write a book, which was published in London in 1650. Several returned to the Massachusetts Bay Colony and its capital, Boston, who reacted to Pynchon with anger rather than support. For his criticism of Massachusetts’ Calvinist Puritanism, Pynchon was accused of heresy and his book was burned on the Boston Common website. Only 4 known copies have survived. By the statement of the Massachusetts General Court of Justice in 1650 “The Deserved Price of Our Redemption” became the first forbidden book in the New World.In 1651, Pynchon was convicted of heresy in Boston – at the same Massachusetts General Court hearing where Springfielder Mary Parsons was sentenced to death. Preparing to lose all of his land holdings – the largest in the Connecticut River Valley – William Pynchon transferred the property to his son John and returned to England in 1652 with his friend the Reverend Moxon.

    William’s son John Pynchon and his brother-in-law Elizur Holyoke quickly took over leadership roles in the settlement. They began to shift Springfield from the dwindling fur trade to agriculture.In 1655, John Pynchon organized the first cattle corral in America, driving the herd from Springfield to Boston along the old Bay Pat trail.

    The purchase of large tracts of land from the Indians continued throughout the 17th century, expanding Springfield and forming other colonial cities in other parts of the Connecticut Valley. Westfield was the westernmost settlement of the Massachusetts Bay Colony until 1725, and Springfield was, as it is today, the colony’s most populous and important western settlement.Over the decades and centuries, parts of Springfield have been divided to form neighboring cities; however, for centuries Springfield has remained the most populous and most important city in the region.

    Due to inaccuracy in the survey of colonial borders, Springfield became embroiled in a border dispute between the Massachusetts Bay Colony and the Connecticut Colony, which was not resolved until 1803-1804. (See the article on the history of the Massachusetts-Connecticut border). As a result, some land originally administered by Springfield, including William Pynchon’s warehouse, is now administered by Connecticut.

    Trade and encroachment

    Over the next several decades, the indigenous people experienced a difficult relationship with European settlers. The fur trade was at the heart of their economic interaction, a lucrative business that determined many other political decisions. White settlers traded wampum, cloth and metal for furs, as well as fruits and vegetables. Due to the seasonal nature of the goods provided by the indigenous people, compared to the constant availability of English goods, a credit system was developed.The land, a natural resource whose availability did not fluctuate, served as collateral for mortgages that the indigenous people used to buy English goods in exchange for a promise from beavers in the future. However, the trade with the British made the skins so profitable that the beaver was quickly hunted. Trade fell from 3,723 skins in 1654 to 191 skins ten years later. With each mortgage, the indigenous people lost more and more land – even as their population was recovering and growing from the old disease.

    In what Lisa Brooks calls “a game of deeds,” the British took more land from the indigenous people through debt, alcohol and other methods. Springfield settler Samuel Marshfield took away so much land from the Aghavam residents that they “had almost no land left to plant,” to the point that the Massachusetts General Court intervened and forced Marshfield to allocate 15 acres to them. The natives began to build and assemble in the palisades “forts” – structures that were not necessary in advance.Fort Aghavam outside Springfield was on Long Hill, although it is commonly (erroneously) believed to have stood in a modern park called King Philip’s Palisade. These sites were excavated in the 19th and 20th centuries by anthropologists who, as noted, took cultural objects and human remains and displayed them in local museums for years. With the passage of the Native American Burial and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) in 1990, a long process of repatriation began.

    Some people became deeply involved in colonial life and even began to work in white families.However, the British simultaneously attempted to impose social divisions, including bans on interracial marriage, English residence among Indians, and the presence of indigenous people in English cities at night.

    King Philip’s War

    Portrait of King Philip Paul Revere. In 1675, Springfield became one of two large settlements burned to the ground during the New World’s first major Indian war, King Philip’s War. (Another large burned out settlement was Providence, Rhode Island.)King Philip’s war ended forever the harmonious relationship that existed between the natives and settlers of Springfield. Thousands of New England settlers and Native Americans died in King Philip’s War, which remains to this day the worst per capita war in American history. The massacre led to the disappearance of the indigenous population from southern New England and the unhindered expansion of the New England colonies. It has also become a ruthless model on which the United States has built its relationship with its indigenous peoples.

    After years of Indian invasion and extermination of the native population by European disease, the Wampanoag leader of Eastern Massachusetts, Wamsutta, died shortly after being interrogated at gunpoint by the colonists of Plymouth. Wamsutta’s brother, Chief Metacomet (known to the Springfielders as “Philip”) began a fight against the British that spread throughout the region.

    As the conflict escalated in the early months, the leaders of Springfield were deeply concerned about maintaining the loyalty of “our Indians.”The Aghavams collaborated, even providing the British with valuable intelligence.

    In August 1675, English soldiers at Hadley demanded the disarming of the “fort” of the Nonotak Indians. Not wanting to give up their weapons, they left on the night of 25 August. A hundred English soldiers pursued them, catching up with them at the foot of Sugarloaf Hill, which was a sacred place for the Nonotaxes called Big Beaver. The British attacked, but the nonotaki forced them to retreat and were able to continue their movement.

    The shedding of native blood on sacred ground was an attack on their entire kinship network, and in reality, the consequences of which were not lost on John Pynchon.He forced the agaves from Long Hill to send hostages to Hartford, which he hoped would prevent the agave people from fighting alongside their relatives. These efforts were unsuccessful.

    In October 1675, warriors from other villages joined the agaves in their village on Long Hill in preparation for one of the biggest battles in King Philip’s war. Historian Charles Burrows suggests that before launching the attack, they sent messengers to Hartford to aid in the escape of the Aghavam hostages held there.Perhaps because these members, an indigenous man named Toto who lived between Springfield and Hartford in Windsor and was associated with the English Walcott family, learned and warned the British of the impending attack.

    On October 5, 1675, despite early warning, during the siege of Springfield, 45 of Springfield’s 60 houses were burned to the ground, as were the crumb and sawmills of the village chief John Pynchon, which were reduced to smoldering ruins. After the siege of Springfield, they seriously thought about leaving the village of Springfield and moving to neighboring cities; however, the inhabitants of Springfield survived the winter of 1675 under siege conditions.That winter, Captain Miles Morgan’s block house became the fortress of Springfield. This continued until messengers were sent to Hadley, after which thirty-six people (the permanent army of the Massachusetts Bay Colony), under the command of Captain Samuel Appleton, moved to Springfield and lifted the siege. Today, a large bronze statue of Morgan, who lost his son Pelatia and son-in-law Edmund Prinrideis in King Philip’s War, stands in Springfield Palace Square, depicting him as a hunter with a rifle slung over his shoulder.

    During the war of King Philip, more than 800 settlers were killed and about 8000 indigenous people were killed, enslaved or became refugees. Some historical sources mark the end of the war with the death of Metacom in the summer of 1676, but the conflict spread to the territory of modern Maine, where the Wabanaki fought with the British and concluded a truce.

    After the war, most of the Indian population left Western Massachusetts, although land relations between the native peoples and the British continued until 1680.Many war refugees joined the Wabanaki in the north, where their descendants remain today. Local warriors returned to Western Massachusetts with the French during the Seven Years’ War, and oral accounts recall the Abenaki coming to Deerfield as recently as the 1830s.

    Today, it is claimed that King Philip instigated the Agave Indians to attack on the hilltop now known as King Philip’s Palisade. This Springfield City Park offers beautiful views of the Connecticut River, the cityscape, picnic pavilions and a statue depicting the famous Windsor Indian trying to warn the residents of Springfield of the impending danger.The actual location of the Indian village, surrounded by a picket fence, is about a mile north of Longhill Street, on a cliff overlooking the river. In 2005, a group of indigenous people from the Nipmuk tribe in Worcester held a re-consecration ceremony for the Palisade.

    18th century

    Springfield Armory

    Springfield Armory, opened by George Washington in 1777, controversially closed in 1968

    Then, as now, at a great crossroads, in the 1770s, George Washington chose a high cliff in Springfield as the site of the US National Armory.Washington chose Springfield because of its central location to important American cities and resources, easy access to the Connecticut River, and because, like today, the city served as a nexus for widely used roads. Washington officer Henry Knox noted that Springfield was far enough upstream of the Connecticut River to defend against all but the most aggressive naval attacks. He concluded that “the plain just above Springfield is perhaps one of the most suitable places in every sense” to house the National Arsenal.During the Revolutionary War, the Springfield Arsenal provided supplies and equipment for the American troops. At that time, the arsenal contained muskets, cannons and other weapons; it also made paper cartridges. Barracks, shops, warehouses, a store were built, but no weapons were produced. After the war, the government retained an armory for future needs.

    By the 1780s, Arsenal was the largest stockpile of ammunition and weapons in the United States, making it the logical center of the Shays Rebellion.Below). On the recommendation of then US President George Washington, Congress formally established the Springfield Armory in 1794. In 1795, the Springfield Armories produced the first American-made musket and during the same year produced 245 muskets. Until its closure in 1968, the Armory designed and manufactured most of the weapons that served American soldiers in successful national wars. His presence also set Springfield on a path of industrial innovation that saw the city become known as the “City of Progress” and then as the “City of the First”.

    The term “Springfield Rifle” may refer to any weapon produced by the Springfield Armories for the US military. Other notable weapons invented in Springfield include the repeater pistol and the M1 Garand semi-automatic pistol.

    55 acres (220,000 m 2 ) inside the famous decorative cast iron fence of the Armory are now run by Springfield Community College of Technology and the National Park Service.Most of the buildings were built in the 19th century, the oldest of which were built in 1808. The complex reflects the goal of the Armory Command to create an institution with dignity and architectural integrity worthy of the growing strength of the federal government.

    Shays’ rebellion

    The Shays Rebellion – the most important battle of which took place at the Springfield Armory in 1787 – was the first populist uprising in the United States. This prompted George Washington to retire and prompted the Founding Fathers of the United States to draft the United States Constitution.On May 25, 1787, General Henry Knox, Secretary of War, addressed the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia: “The Massachusetts riots have made tremendous changes in the minds of the people in the state who respect the authority of the government … They must be strengthened, there is no guarantee of freedom or property.”

    Shay’s Rebellion was partially led by American Revolutionary War soldier Daniel Shays. In January 1787, Shays and the “Regulators,” as they were then called, attempted to take over the Arsenal at Springfield.The Springfield Arsenal was not yet an armory; however, it contained copper ammunition, howitzers, field crews, muskets, swords, various military supplies and guns, and many types of ammunition. If regulators took over Arsenal in Springfield, they would have far more firepower than their opponents, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, led by former US General Benjamin Lincoln.

    Springfield Court closed by angry crowd

    In July 1786, a diverse group of gentlemen, farmers, and war veterans from Western Massachusetts, often characterized as “yeoman farmers” by Massachusetts and the federal governments, gathered in Southampton, Massachusetts to draw up a list of complaints against the 1780 Massachusetts state government.State constitution. Among the attendees was William Pynchon, the voice of the most powerful family in Springfield and the Connecticut River Valley. The convention published 21 articles, 17 of which dealt with complaints calling for sweeping changes to the Massachusetts constitution. These included moving the Massachusetts Legislature from Boston to a more central location where Boston’s commercial elite could no longer control the state government for their own financial gain; the abolition of the Massachusetts Senate, which was dominated by Boston merchants and was essentially redundant given that Massachusetts already had a state legislature that dealt with similar issues; and revising election rules so that state legislators are held accountable annually through elections.There were also complaints about Massachusetts’ overly complex judicial system, which was apparently based on money, and a lack of paper money to pay government taxes.

    Instead of considering the Southampton Convention claims, both houses of the Massachusetts legislature went on vacation. After that, the “regulators” began to gather in thousands of people, forcing the closure of the Massachusetts district courts. Regulatory authorities have closed trials in Northampton, Worcester, Concord, Taunton, Great Barrington, and then finally even in the Supreme Court of Justice in Springfield.

    Massachusetts Governor Bowdoin – along with former Boston patriots like Samuel Adams, who appeared to be out of touch with the common people – was zealous for the regulators’ cause. Samuel Adams wanted the Regulators to be “executed immediately.” In response, Governor Bowdoin dispatched a Boston merchant-funded militia led by former Revolutionary War general Benjamin Lincoln, as well as a 900-man militia led by General William Shepard to defend Springfield.However, members of the militia were generally sympathetic to the regulators and were more likely to side with the regulators than they stayed with the Massachusetts militia. News of the uprising in Western Massachusetts reached the Continental Congress in late 1786. Congress authorized the troops to crush the uprising; however, the government insisted that this was done to combat the Indians in Ohio. In the Massachusetts Legislature, Elbridge Jerry noted that the justification for “fighting the Indians in Ohio” was “ludicrous.”

    Battle of the American Arsenal at Springfield

    By January 1787, thousands of men from Western Massachusetts, Eastern New York, Vermont, and Connecticut had joined the regulators; however, many were scattered throughout Western Massachusetts. On January 25, 1787, the three main armies of the Regulators united at Springfield in an attempt to overtake the US Federal Arsenal at Springfield. The army was commanded, respectively, by Daniel Shays, whose army was camped in nearby Palmer, Massachusetts; Luke Day, whose army camped across the Connecticut River at West Springfield, Massachusetts; and Eli Parsons, whose army was encamped north of Springfield in Chicopee, Massachusetts.The plan to capture the Arsenal at Springfield called for a three-pronged attack on January 25, 1787; however, the day before the planned attack, General Luke Day unilaterally postponed the attack until January 26, 1787. Day sent a postponement note to both Shais and Parsons; however, he never reached them.

    On January 25, 1787, the armies of Shays and Parson approached the Arsenal in Springfield, expecting Day’s army to support them. General William Shepard’s militia of Massachusetts, which had been weakened by the transition to the side of the regulators, was already inside the Arsenal.General Shepard requested permission from US Secretary of Defense Henry Knox to use the weapon at the Arsenal because technically its firepower belonged to the United States, not the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Secretary of War Henry Knox rejected the request on the grounds that it required congressional approval and that Congress was not in session; However, Shepard still used Arsenal’s weapons.

    When Shays, Parsons and their forces approached Arsenal, they found Shepard’s militia waiting for them – and they were confused by the whereabouts of Luke Day’s army.Shepard ordered a warning shot. Two cannons were fired directly at Shays’ men. Four Sheisites were killed and thirty were immediately wounded. No muskets were fired. Shays’ troops fled to the rear, leaving Captain James White “with a contemptuous look from front and back,” and then fled. Without Day’s reinforcements, the rebels were unable to capture the Springfield Arsenal.

    On February 4, in Petersham, Massachusetts, militias captured many of the insurgents. Over the next several weeks, the rebels were dispersed; however, thereafter, the clashes continued for about a year.

    Governor Bowdoin said Americans would plunge into “a state of anarchy, confusion and slavery” if the rule of law is not upheld. However, the Shays rebellion was, like the American Revolution, an armed rebellion against the rule of law that was considered unjust. Ultimately, the legacy of the Shays Rebellions is the United States Constitution.

    19th century

    City of Progress

    Abolitionist John Brown in Springfield, where he lived during the “Transformational Years” from 1846 to 1850.Here Brown stands next to the flag of Underground Road , its belligerent counterpart to the Underground Railroad. Main street in the City of Progress, circa 1910.

    The City of Springfield and in particular the Springfield Armory played an important role in the start of the Industrial Revolution. As of 2011, Springfield received the nickname “City of the First” ; however, during the 19th and early 20th centuries it was nicknamed “City of Progress” . Throughout its history, Springfield has been a center for commercial invention, ideological progress, and technological innovation.For example, in 1819, inventor Thomas Blanchard and his lathe led to the use of interchangeable parts and mass production on the assembly line, which subsequently influenced the entire world, with the initial production of weapons at Springfield Armory being faster and less expensive. Blanchard – and Springfield – are credited with opening the assembly line manufacturing process. Blanchard also invented the first modern automobile in Springfield, the “horseless carriage” powered by steam.

    The first American-English dictionary was published in Springfield in 1806 by the company now known as Merriam Webster. Merriam Webster is still headquartered in Springfield, north of the Springfield Armory.

    In Springfield, the “City of Progress”, many products were invented that are still popular and necessary today. For example, in 1844 Charles Goodyear perfected and patented vulcanized rubber at his Springfield factory.(The car hadn’t been invented yet, so Goodyear patented its rubber stamp rather than the tires it later became known for.) In 1856, the world’s first adjustable wrench was invented in Springfield. In 1873, the first American postcard was invented in Springfield by the Morgan envelope factory. In addition, the first American horse show and dog show were both held in Springfield – 1853 and 1875, respectively.

    Springfield, well known as the First, is also the last New England city to free the slaves of another state.In Massachusetts, this brutal institution was outlawed in 1783 by a court decision based on the 1780 Massachusetts Constitution. In 1808, a man from New York, where slavery was legal at the time, came to Springfield, demanding the return of his escaped slave: a woman named Jenny, who had lived in Springfield for several years. As a sign of support for abolitionism, Springfield residents raised enough money to buy Jenny’s freedom from a New Yorker, after which Jenny lived as a free woman in Springfield.

    John Brown, the celebrated abolitionist and hero of the John Brown raid on Harpers Ferry, became the national leader of the abolitionist movement while living in Springfield. Indeed, Springfield’s role in the abolitionist movement was much greater than when the city’s population (roughly 20,000 before Chicopee seceded). In 1836, the Springfield American Colonization Society was its first radical abolitionist group. Almost all of the Springfielders, from the wealthiest merchants to the influential newspaper publisher, supported abolitionism.In 1846, Brown moved to this progressive climate and created the Wool Commission. Brown began attending church services at the traditionally black church on Sanford Street (now St. John’s Congregational Church). In Springfield, Brown spoke with Frederick Douglas and Sojourner Trout after learning of the success of the Springfield Underground Railroad. Also in Springfield, Brown met many of the people he would need in the years to come to fund his work at Bleeding Kansas. In 1850, in response to the Fugitive Slave Act, John Brown formed his first militant anti-slavery organization in Springfield: Gileadite League. Brown founded the group, saying, “Nothing fascinates the American people like personal courage. [Blacks] would have ten times more [white friends] than they do now if they were half as serious about defending their most precious rights as they should emulate the recklessness and extravagance of their white neighbors … “League of Gileadites defended the slaves who fled to Springfield from the slave traders. After the founding of Brown’s organization in 1850, the slave was never again “caught” in the city.As of 2011, St. John’s Congregational Church – one of the most famous black congregations in the Northeast, celebrating its 167th anniversary – still holds the John Brown Bible.

    Even after the Civil War, Springfield remained the center of early black culture, as Irwin Garland Penn’s book The African American Press and Its Editors was first published in 1891. Prominent residents of the city included Primus P. Mason., a real estate investor in the town after which Mason Square is named, who donated his estate to found a Mason Wright nursing home. In his book Efforts to Better Society Among Black Americans WB Dubois described Mason as “one of the foremost Negro philanthropists of our time” for creating what Mason himself wrote in his will, “places where worthy old people can feel at home. ” house”.

    Springfield was granted city status in 1852; however, it was only after decades of controversy that in 1848 led to the division of northern Springfield into Chicopee, Massachusetts, in order to reduce Springfield’s land and population.Chicopee’s secession from Springfield deprived Springfield of roughly half of its territory and roughly two-thirds of its population. To this day, the two towns of Springfield and Chicopee have relatively small tracts of land and remain separate. The first mayor of Springfield was Caleb Rice, who was also the first president of the life insurance company MassMutual. As of 2011, Springfield-based life insurance company MassMutual is the second largest Massachusetts Fortune 100 company.

    Springfield-based Wason Manufacturing Company – one of the first U.S. manufacturers of passenger car equipment – produced America’s first sleeper car (also known as the Pullman car) in 1857. On May 2, 1849, the Springfield Railroad was chartered for construction from Springfield to the Connecticut state border. By the 1870s, the company had become the Springfield and New London Railways.

    In 1855, the creation of the Republican Party was supported by Samuel Bowles III, publisher of the influential Springfield daily The Republican .The Republican Party got its name from the Bowles newspaper. On Friday, September 21, 1855, the headline in “Republican” read: “A baby is born!” This marked the birth of the Republican Party. By 1858, Republicans had taken control of the governments of many northern states. In 1860, Bowles traveled by train to the Republican Convention in Chicago, where his friend, Springfield lawyer George Ashmun, was elected chairman of the convention, which eventually nominated Abraham Lincoln for president.

    In 1856, Horace Smith and Daniel B. Wesson founded Smith & Wesson to manufacture revolvers. Smith & Wesson has become the largest and arguably the most famous arms manufacturer in the world. The company remains headquartered in Springfield and has over 1,200 employees as of 2011.

    Springfield Quay, 1900-1910

    On September 20, 1893, Springfilders Charles and Frank Durya built and then road-tested the world’s first American gasoline-powered car in Springfield.The Duryea Motor Wagon was built on the third floor of Stacy’s Springfield building and was publicly tested for the first time at Howard Bemis’ farm. In 1895, the Duryea Motor Wagon won America’s first road race, a 54-mile (87 km) race from Chicago to Evanston, Illinois. In 1896, the Duryea Motor Wagon Company became the first company to manufacture and sell gasoline-powered automobiles. The motto of the company is “There is no better car”. The Durye were immediately acquired by the luminaries of the time, such as George Vanderbilt.Two months after buying one of the world’s first Duryeas, New York City motorist Henry Wells hit a cyclist – a racer broke his leg, Wells spent the night in jail – and it was Springfield’s supporting role in the first ever car accident.

    Homeland of Basketball

    Today, Springfield is known throughout the world as the birthplace of basketball. In 1891, James Naismith, a theology graduate, invented basketball at the YMCA International Training School, now known as Springfield College, to fill the gap between football and baseball seasons.The first basketball game took place in the Mason Square area of ​​Springfield. (The game score was 1 – 0). As of 2011, the exact location where the first game took place is immortalized by an illuminated monument. The first building to serve as an indoor basketball court is at the Wilbraham & Monson Academy in the Wilbraham suburb and has since been converted into a dormitory (Smith Hall). In 1912, the Victor Sporting Goods Company in Springfield produced the first ever custom-designed basketball.As of 2011, Springfield-based Spalding is the world’s largest basketball manufacturer and makes the official National Basketball Association basketball.

    Basketball became an Olympic sport in 1936 and after a surge in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s, it became the second most popular sport in the world (after football).

    The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame was opened on February 17, 1968 on the Springfield College campus.In 1985 it was replaced by a larger facility on the banks of the Connecticut River. In 2002, a new architecturally significant Hall of Fame was built adjacent to the existing building (which was later transformed into a Los Angeles restaurant and fitness club). The Basketball Hall of Fame, shaped like a giant basketball and illuminated at night, is currently one of the most architecturally recognizable buildings recently built in Springfield.

    Today both amateur and professional basketball are an integral part of Springfield culture.Springfield Professional Basketball Team, NBA Development League Springfield Armor – the official affiliate of Brooklyn Nets – plays at the MassMutual Center, a few blocks from the Basketball Hall of Fame and the site of the first ever basketball game. Basketball-related events take place in Springfield all year round, including the Annual Basketball Hall of Fame Honoring Ceremony, the NCAA College Basketball Tournament, the NCAA MAAC Division Tournament, the Hoop Hall Classic High School Class and many related activities. Many non-basketball activities in Springfield also draw inspiration from the sport; for example, the annual Hoop City Jazz Festival brings together great jazz musicians and tens of thousands of people in Hoop City.

    “Art & Soles,” a 2010 public art installation in Springfield, featured a painted 6-foot (1.8m) basketball shoe celebrating the city’s history as the home of basketball and home of the Hall of Fame.Each of the nineteen shoes was painted by a local artist and displayed prominently in the city center with the overall goal of providing an artistic answer to the question “What makes Springfield great?” The shoes were auctioned off in March 2011 and the proceeds went to support public art in Springfield.

    20th century

    Early 20th century campaign emblem of the Springfield Trade Council, named it Magnet City ; gear emblem used during the era to promote products manufactured in Springfield

    Durye was joined in the Springfield automobile industry in 1900 by Skin (which disappeared shortly afterwards) and Knox Automobile, which existed until 1927.In 1905, Knox built America’s first motorized fire trucks for the Springfield Fire Department, the first modern fire station. in the world.

    In 1901, “Indian” motorcycles (officially called “Motorcycles”) were the first successful motorcycle manufacturers in the United States. The Chief and Scout models were the company’s bestsellers from the 1920s to the 1950s. Hendee Manufacturing Company, the parent company of India, also made other products such as aircraft engines, bicycles, outboard motors and air conditioners.Although it was inferior in population to cities such as Providence, Worcester and Hartford in the early 20th century, it remained a nationally renowned city from the start, ranked in the top 100 cities by population, peaking at the 51st largest city in America in 1920. According to the census, comparable to the population ranking of New Orleans (50th) or Wichita (51st), this is the place among American cities in 2018. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, Springfield was renowned worldwide for precision manufacturing and as a “diversified production hive”.”The American Civil War brought” intense and concentrated prosperity “to Springfield, which produced almost all the small arms of the Union Army. for the middle class, for which Springfield received the nickname “City of Homes” . A 1910 publication notes that “Springfield has the most beautiful houses in New England. It has the most attractive streets in New England.”To this day, Springfield’s housing stock consists mainly of ornate old houses, many of which now cost a fortune to build — the Painted Lady Victorian mansions, elegant Queen Anne mansions and Tudor architecture dominate Springfield’s housing stock; however, the city also has attractive condominiums, especially in its Metro Center urban area.

    Examples of the Magnet City Campaign promoted by the Springfield Trade Council shortly before World War I; the predecessor of the Chamber of Commerce, the Council promoted Springfield’s geographical proximity to trade routes in the northeast in an attempt to support population and industrial growth.

    By the first decade of the 20th century, Springfield had more than 10% of all manufacturing plants in Massachusetts and a much higher percentage of precision machinery plants (as opposed to textiles, which were more common in eastern Massachusetts.)

    In the 1920s, the city’s manufacturing base attracted the attention of the English company Rolls-Royce, which concluded: “The artisans of Springfield – through years of experience in precision work – were found to have the same pride in their craftsmanship as the craftsmen of England “.Since 1921. until 1931 Rolls-Royce had its only manufacturing plant outside England at Springfield. He collected about 3,000 Silver Ghosts and Phantom before production was halted due to the Great Depression and Rolls-Royce’s decision not to maintain the plant. The Rolls-Royce plant is nearby. to the former Indian Motorcycle Factory by the American International College.

    Granville Brothers Aircraft manufactured aircraft at Springfield Airport from 1929 until bankruptcy in 1934.They are best known for the Senior Sportster (“GeeBee”) racing aircraft series, which set a trophy and speed record.

    During this time, Springfield became a pioneer in the media. For example, the first commercial US radio station was founded in Springfield in 1921, WBZ, and broadcast from Springfield’s most luxurious hotel, Hotel Kimball. In addition, the first UHF television station in the United States, WWLP, was founded in Springfield in 1953 (currently 22 newspapers Springfield , working for you ).

    During this period, then US Vice President Thomas R. Marshall, who worked under US President Woodrow Wilson, expressed the well-known opinion: “This is the center from which thought originates. What they say in Springfield is heard all over the world. ”

    Great floods of 1936 and 1938 and their aftermath

    In 1936, at the height of America’s Great Depression, Springfield suffered one of the most devastating natural disasters before the 2011 tornado. The Connecticut River flooded, reaching record heights, flooding the South End and North End areas, home to some of Springfield’s finest mansions.The damage was estimated at $ 200 million at $ 1936.

    Most of the water damage was repaired after WPA money was transferred to Springfield. However, two years later, Springfield hit Springfield again. Stagnant flood waters were exacerbated by the 1938 New England hurricane that hit the east coast of the United States on September 21, 1938.

    Due to the two Great Floods in Springfield, large parts of the North End and South End areas no longer exist.

    In the 1960s, I-91 was built in areas affected by severe flooding. Several of Springfield’s greatest homes, including the mansion of speed skating tycoon Everett Hosmer Barney, were demolished to build the highway. The original plan was to build a highway along the west bank of the Connecticut River through West Springfield; however, Springfield civilian officials campaigned for him to cross the river through the North End, Metro Center and South End districts. This decision effectively cut off the city of Springfield from the Connecticut River, its largest natural resource.In 2010, plans were announced for the definitive reunification of Springfield with the Connecticut River.

    90,080 40-year recession and immigration trends 90,081

    Springfield experienced a protracted decline during the second half of the 20th century, accelerated by the decommissioning of the Springfield Armory in 1969. Springfield increasingly resembled the declining second-tier cities of the northeastern United States from which it had long been separated. During the 1980s and 1990s, Springfield acquired a new reputation for crime, political corruption, and nepotism.In an effort to overcome the downgrade, the city has embarked on several major (but unfinished) projects, including the $ 1 billion high-speed rail (New Haven-Hartford Springfield High Speed ​​Rail) proposed by MGM Casino for $ 1 billion and others.

    In 1968, the former Springfield Armory was closed during the Vietnam War. From then on, the precision manufacturing companies that had long provided the economic base of Springfield and also been the driving force behind his famous work, moved out of the city for lower taxes.(As of 2011, Metro Springfield has 36,300 manufacturing jobs). During this time of decline, unlike its counterparts in northeastern America, such as Providence, Rhode Island, New Haven and Hartford, Connecticut, which bleed much of its population, Springfield lost relatively few residents. As of 2011, Springfield had only 20,000 fewer people than the most populous census year, 1960 (see chart).(See population chart below). The outflow of its wealthy and middle class – mostly Caucasians – to the surrounding suburbs has been offset by an influx of Hispanic immigrants, which has largely changed Springfield’s demographics since the 2010 census. Springfield, which was once a predominantly Caucasian city (with large populations of British, Irish, Italians, French-Canadians and Polish residents) with a stable 15% black minority, is now evenly divided between Caucasians and Hispanics, mostly of Puerto Rican descent…. Initially poor on arrival in Springfield, the integration of the Hispanic community and the subsequent increase in purchasing power laid the foundation for a revival of Springfield in the first decade of the 21st century.

    In addition to the influx of Hispanics, according to the 2010 census, Springfield is one of the top 5 most populous cities on the East Coast for Vietnamese immigrants and is one of the top three East Coast cities for Vietnamese immigrants per capita after Boston and Washington.District of Columbia In addition, the 2010 census showed a significant increase in Springfield’s LGBT population, likely fueled by the Massachusetts decision to legalize same-sex marriage in 2004. The 2010 census shows that Springfield is now the tenth largest city in the United States, with 5.69 gay couples per thousand. (San Francisco, California, ranked first). Since about 2005, the Springfield Club District in the Metro Center has seen a significant increase in LGBTQ bars and clubs.

    Interstate 91 is built, cutting off Springfield from the river.
    Interstate 91 in 1969, just after the completion of the viaduct that separates Springfield from the Connecticut River, the Church of St. Joseph and the Campanile can be seen in the foreground, as well as the unfinished Tower Square.

    In the late 1960s, the 8-lane Interstate 91 was built on Springfield’s waterfront, effectively blocking Springfield access to the Great River. For generations, the land that became Interstate 91 was the city’s most valuable land for both economic and recreational purposes.The I-91 structure also covered the mouth of the Mill River. Scientists note that both rivers would open up great economic opportunities if I-91 were changed. In 2010, the Urban Land Institute proposed to Springfield a plan to reclaim its rivers.

    The original plan for Interstate 91, detailed in the 1953 Highway Master Plan for the Springfield, Massachusetts suburb, called for I-91 to occupy Riverdale Road in West Springfield (also known as US Highway 5), and which Historically, the highway led to Springfield from both north and south.Indeed, between 1953 and 1958, to make way for Interstate 91, West Springfield’s Riverdale Road was expanded and added, and businesses were relocated. The 1953 plan called for I-91 to connect to Springfield via several modern bridges. In 1958, however, Springfield city planners – believing the river had become too polluted and therefore useless – campaigned intensively to get Interstate 91 to occupy Springfield’s waterfront.They boasted that the construction of I-91 on the Springfield waterfront would catalyze economic growth comparable to that seen during the great expansion of railways in the mid-19th century. However, the highway that blocks the (now clean) rivers of Springfield has become the most famous and failed attempt at urban renewal.

    Although West Springfield had rights and legal claims to Interstate 91, state highway officials succumbed to pressure from Springfield city planners when they faced technical problems – a short existing section of US Highway 5 through West Springfield, built in the early 1950s , did not comply with Interstate Design Standards.Thus, plans for I-91 were shelved at West Springfield and hastily moved to the east bank of the river.

    From construction to date, design flaws in the Interstate 91 have contributed to logistical problems in Springfield. Due to the close proximity of I-91 to both the densely built city center of Springfield and the city rail lines and the waterfront, no more than a few businesses could be built to cash in on highway traffic.Thus, Springfield never got the promised economic benefit from I-91 – indeed, the highway construction coincided with the beginning of Springfield’s four decades of recession. In addition, throughout Springfield, I-91 was built as a flyover that obscured all views of the downtown waterfront. The largest garage in Springfield, with 1,756 spaces, was built under the flyover, along with a series of stone walls and grassy hills that made the waterfront difficult to reach on foot.

    Highway construction cut through three of Springfield’s most (at the time) most coveted neighborhoods and many historic sites, including Court Square, Forest Park and Everett Hosmer Barney’s mansion. In addition, the loss of Springfield’s waterfront and the deformity of Elevated Interstate 91 encouraged whites to flee the city to its suburbs. Indeed, the word “stupid” was used to describe the first and most unsuccessful attempt at urban renewal in Springfield.

    In 2010, the Urban Lands Institute published a plan that proposed several different reconfiguration options for Interstate 91. Currently, many springfielders are excited about the prospect of finally reuniting with the Mill River, and especially the Connecticut River.

    Springfield skyline history
    A portion of the Springfield skyline as viewed from the west side of the Connecticut River.

    See: List of Tallest Buildings in Springfield, Massachusetts.

    As of 2011, there were relatively fewer skyscrapers on the Springfield skyline than most of its peers. The reason for this is due to the construction of the neoclassical 1200 Main Street building, also known as 101 State Street, in Springfield in 1908. The height of the building is 125 feet (38 m), which caused a lot of controversy in both Springfield and Boston during its construction due to its “extreme height”. In the same year, the Massachusetts Legislature set the maximum height for buildings in Springfield at 125 feet (38 m) – 1200 Main Street, as well as the spire of Old First Church in Court Square.The only exception to this law was for the construction of the Springfield Landmark, 300 ft (91 m), Italianate, Campanile – part of the Springfield Municipal Group, dedicated in 1913 by President William Howard Taft.

    Springfield’s Building Height Act remained in effect until 1970, when the city’s economy began to falter and residents began to complain that Springfield looked “old-fashioned.” In response, the city’s 62-year-old building height law was abolished, and the famous architect Pietro Belluschi designed the tower square in Brutalist, an international style popular at the time.The tower area is just over 370 feet (110 m). In 1987, the Monarch life insurance company built a 400-foot (120 m) post-modern Monarch Place in Springfield. During the construction of the building, the insurance company Monarch Life filed for bankruptcy; However, the graceful mirror tower still bears the name of the former company, despite being owned by Peter Pan Bus.

    As of 2011, Monarch Place, 400 feet (120 m), remains Springfield’s tallest skyscraper; however, the city’s absence of numerous skyscrapers is now seen as a positive trait by city councilors such as the Urban Lands Institute, who write that the Springfield Metro Center now stands out from its peers, most of which have long since destroyed human dimensions.architecture that made their neighborhoods livable. “During the revival of Springfield in the new millennium, prominent architects such as Moshe Safdie, who built the $ 57 million US Federal Courthouse in 2008; Gwathmey Siegel & Associates, who built the Basketball Hall in 2004 fame for $ 47 million; and TRO Jung Brannen, which is building an adaptive reuse of the original $ 110 million Springfield Tech High School in 2012, adapted to the human scale of Springfield to create monumental buildings rather than trying to “achieve monumentalism by overscaling.” as happened in other cities.With energy prices rising, limiting the height of a 1908 building in Springfield now seems like an idea well ahead of its time.

    21st Century

    Financial advice: 2004-2009

    Springfield began to experience financial difficulties in the 1980s; however, in the first decade of the 21st century, city finances nearly collapsed, with a budget deficit of about $ 40 million. City and state authorities disagreed over the causes of the crisis. The state accused the city of cost overruns over revenue.City officials blamed the injustice in the way the Springfield bailout was allocated over other Massachusetts cities. Both sides were right. As the Commonwealth argued, Springfield was overspending in relation to its income. However, Springfield officials were also right: for every $ 287.66 per capita additional aid allocation allocated to Boston, $ 176.37 per capita was allocated to Cambridge, $ 67.50 per capita was allocated to Worcester and just 12. $ 04 per capita was allocated to Springfield.In addition to cost overruns and massive inequities in government funding, other observers of Springfield’s financial crisis have noted a weak economy, years of mismanagement, and corruption in the city’s government.

    The city’s financial problems have already resulted in a wage freeze for city workers, cuts in city services, layoffs and an increase in various city taxes; however, on June 30, 2004, the Massachusetts General Court granted control of the city (including financial, personnel, and real estate matters) to the Springfield Treasury Board.The board consisted of three people, appointed by the Secretary of State for Administration and Finance, the Mayor of Springfield, and the President of the City Council.

    The Financial Control Board (FCB) operated under the overall direction of the Secretary of State for Finance and Administration. The FCB legislation included a $ 52 million government loan to be paid off with future tax receipts from the city. A $ 20 million grant was originally included, but then House Speaker Thomas Finneran ruled out the section, fearing it would cause financial irresponsibility among other municipalities.

    The original FCB bill, filed by then Gov. Mitt Romney, included the suspension of Chapter 150E of the Massachusetts General Law, a state law that defines the collective bargaining process for government employees. (Government employees are not subject to federal labor laws.) Trade union opposition has deleted this section.

    For the first few years of the CFB, officials focused on “controlling staff costs,” however in 2006 the FCB hired the Urban Lands Institute to study Springfield and then develop a viable city revitalization plan.The ULI study and subsequent Plan for Springfield resulted in significant improvements to the Springfield Metro Center, a dramatic drop in crime across the city, and a viable course for further urban revitalization.

    On June 30, 2009, Massachusetts dissolved the Treasury Board and returned financial control to the City of Springfield.

    Revitalization: 2007 – 1 June 2011

    From 2007 to mid-2009, Springfield implemented the National Institute for Urban Lands’ Springfield Plan, which revitalized the city by providing large-scale aesthetic improvements, infrastructure investments and construction projects.For several years, these projects revived a traditionally strong civic pride in Springfield. Despite the success of the National Urban Land Institute’s plan, following the departure of the Massachusetts Finance Council from Springfield in June 2009, the ULI National Plan was ignored by Mayor Domenic Sarno, who cleared the mayor’s office of most of its (Boston-based) employees. who watched the return of Springfield. After three years of running without a city plan, the mayor of Sarno adopted a private plan known as RebuildSpringfield, which was made public in 2012.

    In the days of the ULI National Plan, many new buildings were erected at Metro Center (for example, the new Federal Court building by architect Moshe Safdie for $ 57 million) and re-use of several historic buildings (for example, $ 110) was adapted. million adaptive reuse capabilities of the original Springfield Tech High School in the new high-tech Massachusetts data center). North End continues to benefit from Baystate Health’s Hospital of the Future, a $ 300 million private construction project that will add more than 550 new doctors to the facility, which is expected to be completed in 2012.

    Concurrently, from 2007 to 2011, Springfield hosted numerous tourism activities that contributed to the revitalization of the city. These include the annual Hoop City Jazz Festival, the sponsored Springfield-headquartered Hampden Bank, which featured blues legend Springfielder Taj Mahal; The new annual Gay Pride Week at Springfield, featuring political debate, films and celebrations; and a new race officially sponsored by the American Vintage Sports Car Club, the Springfield Vintage Grand Prix , taking place on the streets of Metro Center.

    Crime reduction

    Since 1997, crime statistics in the United States and at the local level have shown that Springfield has seen a decline in violent and property crimes, both of which have fallen by more than 50%. The number of crimes bottomed out in 2009 and increased slightly in 2010 and 2011. Independent sources have also noted a drop in criminality in Springfield, including Morgan Quinto’s annual US Urban Crime Ranking, which also shows a 50% drop in overall crime in the city…. In 2010, Springfield was ranked 51st in this ranking, while once – just in 2003 – it was 18th.

    Springfield’s mature economy: health care; higher education; and transport

    From 2007 to 2010, Springfield thrived economically by comparison with its peers, experiencing “the worst American economic crisis since the Great Depression.” Springfield is considered to have a “mature” economy, based primarily on healthcare, higher education, transportation and, to some extent, the still-existing precision manufacturing center (for example, Smith & Wesson added 225 jobs in 2011).

    Among the large private investments in medicine is the “Hospital of the Future”, created by Baystate Health for 300 million dollars. When completed in 2012, Baystate is reportedly hiring 550 new doctors, roughly doubling the hospital’s current capacity.

    In 2010, two of Springfield’s most prestigious higher education institutions built multi-million dollar properties that opened in 2011. Springfield College built a $ 45 million multipurpose university center, and the University of West New England built a $ 40 million pharmacy school, the only such the region. In 2010, the University of Massachusetts at Amherst moved its Urban Design graduate program to Court Square in the Metro Center. In early 2011, UMass Amherst announced the relocation of its popular WFCR radio station to Springfield’s main street.

    During Springfield’s short-lived revival, the city’s largest projected cash investment was in rail infrastructure — in particular, the proposed United States’ first high-speed rail line.The proposal was an investment of approximately $ 1 billion, split with the state of Connecticut and the US federal government on the New Haven-Hartford-Springfield commuter rail line. The Springfield-New Haven high-speed commuter rail will be fully operational by 2016, including the northern terminus at Springfield Union Station and the southern terminus at Union Station in New Haven, according to NHHSRail, the project’s supervisory authority. The trains will reportedly reach speeds of 110 mph (180 km / h), making the Springfield-New Haven intercity commuter line the first truly “high-speed train” in the United States.In addition, Amtrak’s Vermonter runs through Springfield city center. Vermonter is in the process of re-aligning to the former Montrealer route, through the more populous Pioneer Valley towns of Chicopee and Northampton, as opposed to smaller towns like Palmer.

    Springfield tornado June 1, 2011

    The U.S. National Guard and Massachusetts State Police secure Main Street following a June 1, 2011 tornado.

    At approximately 4:45 pm on June 1, 2011, the city of Springfield was directly hit by a tornado with wind speeds estimated at 160 mph (260 km / h) (high-grade EF3 on the Extended Fujita Scale), according to the National Meteorological Service It was the second largest tornado ever to hit New England – the 1953 tornado in Worcester, Massachusetts, was slightly larger.National Oceans and Atmosphere called the Springfield Tornado “very significant … It is noted not only for its intensity, but also for the length of its continuous path of damage -. About 39 miles The tornado was also very wide at some points, reaching a maximum width of half a mile. ”According to Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick, the springfielders were given just 10 minutes to warn of a tornado approaching a densely populated city. CNN postponed the warning of an impending tornado due to a living an interview with New York Congressman Anthony Weiner, who discussed the candid photos of himself that he posted on the Internet.


    Great Springfield tornado killed four people, hundreds of people suffering in hospitals with injuries ranging from lightning trauma, and more than 500 people were left homeless in Springfield alone, most of whom were left at the MassMutual arena center and convention center. More than two weeks after the disaster, more than 250 people were still living at the Center for Mutual Aid without shelter.

    A tornado crossed the Connecticut River from West Springfield, Massachusetts to Springfield near the Springfield Memorial Bridge.First, it caused serious damage to Springfield’s Connecticut River Walk by cutting down much of the park’s previously lush canopy and removing large sections of its attractive wrought iron fence. He then damaged Court Square — Springfield’s historic center — by tearing off portions of the old First Church (founded in 1637) and uprooting about half of Court Square’s 200-year-old heritage trees. The tornado then moved south along Main Street, devastating the historic southern end of Springfield.In less than two minutes, much of the South End commercial district, built over a century ago and made up mostly of brick commercial buildings, has fallen into complete ruins, while recent South End improvements such as new decorative street lamps have been either bent or thrown away from their place of origin.

    After destroying the South End, the tornado moved east and headed up historic Maple Street, where it caused significant damage.This seriously damaged the MacDuffie School campus. Less than a mile to the east, large swaths of Springfield College and Old Hill were completely destroyed, as well as hundreds of homes in East Forest Park, an upper-middle-class neighborhood. East Forest Park Cathedral High School was completely destroyed by a tornado. With experience fighting these tornadoes, the twelfth (and current) president of Springfield College, Dr. Richard B. Flynn of Omaha, Nebraska, turned the campus’s annual rebuilding into a ten-week project.The remains of the cathedral were found about 43 miles (69 km) from Millbury, Massachusetts. Springfield’s most suburban neighborhood – sixteen upper-middle-class acres – also suffered significant damage. However, Sixteen Acres’ new homes have withstood tornadoes no better than Springfield’s famous Victorians. The East Forest Park and Sixteen Acres areas were without electricity for several days. In Springfield, a tornado completely destroyed more than 100 homes, made countless others structurally failing or uninhabitable, and caused the rapid demolition of other structures deemed dangerous.

    Immediately after the tornado, Governor Deval Patrick declared a “state of emergency” for the entire state of Massachusetts. On that day, Massachusetts Senator John F. Kerry called the destruction of the city “astronomical … well in excess of tens of millions of dollars.” As of June 18, 2011, tornado-related insurance claims exceeded $ 140 million.

    “The Firsts” in Springfield

    In 1901, the Springfield Indiana became America’s first successful motorcycle.This is a 1920 Indian scout. WBZ, the first commercial radio station in the United States, was located at the luxurious Kimball Hotel in Springfield.

    Springfield is known as City of the Firsts, because over the centuries its inhabitants have boldly created avant-garde products, organizations and ideas. Today, the most famous among the “firsts” of Springfield is basketball, invented in 1891 and now the second most popular sport in the world. Below is a partial list of Springfield’s new additions:

    Year Notable event / development Awarded
    1636 First Springfield in the New World William Pynchon
    1640 First charge of witchcraft in the New World Mary and Hugh Parsons
    1641 First Meat Packer (pork export) William Pynchon
    1651 First Forbidden Book in the New World William Pynchon
    1777 First Federal Arsenal Springfield Armory, founded by George Washington and Henry Knox
    1794 First US Armory Springfield Armory
    1795 First American-made musket Springfield Armory
    1806 First American-English Dictionary Merriam-Webster, Inc.
    1806 First American Edition of the Quran Henry Brewer, printer, for publisher Isaiah Thomas
    1820 First lathe for interchangeable parts (leading to mass production on an assembly line) Thomas Blanchard
    1826 The first modern steam wagon Thomas Blanchard
    1830 First major book on American history George Bancroft
    1834 First Kitchen Friction Match Chapin & Phillips Company
    1844 First rubber vulcanization Charles Goodyear
    1849 First clip-on skates Everett Hosmer Barney (Barney & Berry, Inc.).
    1853 First National Horse Show in the USA
    1854 First adjustable wrench Bemis & Call Company
    1855 First School Paint Exhibition Harvard and Yale Rowing Race on the Connecticut River
    1855 Name of the United States Republican Party Samuel Bowles
    1857 First American Railroad sleeping car (also known as Pullman’s car) Wason Manufacturing Company
    1860 First American Popular Parlor Game The game of Milton Bradley’s company life
    1861 Pocket Travel Game for Milton Bradley Company Soldiers
    1863 First registered bank in the United States Springfield National Bank
    1868 First flat bottom paper bag Margaret E. Knight for Columbia Paper Bag Company
    1869 The first manufacturer of supplementary education materials for preschool education Milton Bradley Company
    1873 First postcard in the USA Morgan Envelope Factory
    1875 First Dog Show in USA Springfield Rod & Gun Club
    1877 First Social Service Agency in the United States Allied Relief Association
    1878 First toll commercial telephone line (Springfield to Holyoke) Springfield Telephone and Automatic Signaling Company
    1881 The first planned residential area McKnight Historic District; John and William McKnight
    1882 First Music Recognition Course Springfield Public Schools
    1886 First revolving club Springfield Revolving Club, organized by Smith & Wesson
    1891 First Basketball Game Dr. James Naismith of Springfield College
    1893 First Gasoline Automobile Charles E. & J. Frank Durya
    1899 First public swimming pool in the United States Forest park
    1901 First successful motorcycle Indian Motorcycle
    1902 First Window Cover U.S. Conversion Company
    1905 First modern motorized fire truck Knox Automobile
    1907 First modern motorized fire station Springfield Fire Department
    1910 Girls from the first camp Charlotte Gilick
    1911 First factory air conditioner Bosch Magneto
    1912 First Agricultural Course Hampden County Improvement League
    1912 First course physical education YMCA International College (Springfield College)
    1912 First Basketball Springfield Victor Sporting Goods Company
    1918 First American military regiment awarded by a foreign power (France, with Croix de Guerre) 104th Infantry Regiment
    1918 First Community Chest
    1919 First program achievements of juniors Horace A. Moses
    1920 First American Automobile Plant Rolls Royce Frederick Royce
    1921 First commercial radio station in the United States WBZA; located in the Kimball hotel
    1928 First Experimental Motorcycle Airplane Courier Service (Holyoke-Northampton-Westfield-Springfield-Hartford) United States Post Office with Indian Motorcycles
    1930 First test market for frozen food Clarence Birdsye
    1936 First standard military semi-automatic rifle M1 Garand by John Garand for Springfield Armory
    1937 First Planetarium Built in America Springfield Science Museum
    1939 Installation of the first fluorescent lighting system Springfield Armory
    1949 First American Discount Store King
    1953 First UHF TV station in the United States WWLP-22News
    1954 First Municipal Council on Aging Springfield Council on Aging / Seniors Affairs

    See also


    Further reading

    • Lepore, Jill. (1998). Title of the War: The War of King Philip and the Origins of American Identity . New York: Old Books. ISBN 978-0-375-70262-4.
    • Swift, Esther M. West Springfield Massachusetts: A History of the City.Copyright 1969, West Springfield, Massachusetts. Library of Congress Card Catalog No. 77-96767. West Springfield Heritage Association; Printed by FA Bassette Company, Springfield, Massachusetts.
    • Springfield, New England Handbook , Boston: Porter E. Sargent, 1916, OCLC 16726464
    • Wall and gray. 1871 Atlas of Massachusetts . Massachusetts map. USA. New England. Counties – Berkshire, Franklin, Hampshire and Hampden, Worcester, Middlesex, Essex and Norfolk, Boston – Suffolk, Plymouth, Bristol, Barnstable and Dukes (Cape Cod).Cities – Springfield, Worcester, Lowell, Lawrence, Haverhill, Newburyport, Salem, Lynn, Taunton, Fall River. New Bedford. These 1871 county and city maps are useful to see roads and railroad tracks.
    • Beers, DG 1872 Atlas of Essex County Map of Massachusetts Table 5. Click on the map to see a very large image. See also the 1872 Essex County Map, Number 7.

    External Links

    Coordinates: 42.112411 ° N 72.547455 ° W42 ° 06’45 ″ N 72 ° 32’51 ″ W / / 42.112411; -72.547455

    Springfield flags ‘significant’ oil find offshore Ghana

    The most important

    Find doubles in-place oil in WCTP Block 2

    Block’s in-place resource pegged at 1.5 billion barrels

    Could be a boost for Ghana’s oil ambitions

    London – Ghana’s Springfield Group said Wednesday its maiden exploration well offshore Ghana has doubled its in place resources to around 1.5 billion barrels in the West Cape Three Points (WCTP) Block 2.

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    The Afina-1 well in the West Cape Three Points Block 2 was drilled to a depth of 4,085 meters and encountered 50 meters of net oil play in the Santonian reservoir, the Accra-based company said.

    The company said the find has “has more than doubled its discovered oil in place volume to 1.5 billion barrels and added 0.7 Tcf of gas.” It also reiterated an estimate that the resource potential of the block was up to 3 billion boe of oil and gas.

    The statement came a month after Springfield CEO Kevin Okyer told local reporters that the oil find would be bigger than the Tullow-operated Jubilee field, Ghana’s biggest producing asset.

    Assuming the Afina discovery holds some 750 million barrels of in-place oil, however, its size would be below the 1 billion barrels of in-place reserves at Jubilee.

    Founded as a domestic fuel distribution, trading and export company by in 2008, Springfield branched out into oilfield services in 2011 and expanded into upstream operations in 2016 when it was awarded operatorship of the WCTP Block 2.

    The block was carved out of the Kosmos-operated West Cape Three Points block following the delineation of the Jubilee unitization area. It holds two existing discoveries made by Kosmos, Odum and Banda, which Springfield is currently evaluating to assess their scale and commerciality.

    Springfield is the operator of the WCTP Block 2 with an 84% stake while the remaining interest is held by GhanaNational Petroleum Corporation (GNPC) and its exploration arm Explorco.

    Ghana production boost

    The potential future development of the Afina find would come as a welcome boost to Ghana, which has come relatively late to the oil industry compared with West African neighbors and which only began commercial crude production at the Jubilee field in 2010.

    Ghana’s oil output has almost doubled in the past two years with the start-up of its two big deepwater oil projects: the TEN field in August 2016 and the Sankofa field in July 2017, part of the Offshore Cape Three Points development.

    Ghana, which produces about 180,000 b / d of oil, could see its output double in the next five years due to recent discoveries.

    But this week, the country received bad news when independent Tullow Oil said it expected its oil production from Ghana’s Jubilee and TEN fields to average 70,000-80,000 b / d next year from current levels of 87,000 b / d.

    Tullow also downgraded the outlook for the following three years saying it will average around 70,000 b / d. Thatwas significantly lower than its previous production expectations, which until recently had been forecast to averagemore than 100,000 b / d in 2020 and beyond.

    – Eklavya Gupte, [email protected]

    – Robert Perkins, [email protected]

    – Edited by Dan Lalor, [email protected]

    90,000 America’s Wacky Fair Products | food and wine – Articles

    Cotton candy, corn dogs, and apple candy once ran halfway through the local fair, but now visitors want exotic food – if it’s on a stick or, more importantly, fried.From health-defying anomalies like fried dough injected by Pepsi to crinkly scorpions soaked in chocolate, the new side show is food. -Justine Sterling Facebook Twitter Email Send Text Message

    Indiana Hot Beef Ice Cream


    When the people in the state grew tired of the famous Ribeye steak sandwich, the Indiana Beef Cattle Association invented hot beef ice cream with mashed potatoes, pickled beef, gravy, cheese, corn crumbs, and cherries.

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    Texas Roast Beer


    Even alcohol can be fried when placed in pretzel dough. Food Innovation won the 2010 Big Tex Choice Awards at the Texas State Fair.

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    Montana: Fried Butter Balls

    Great Falls

    While the Montana State Fair is famous for its Big Sky ProRodeo reviews, copycats of Paula Dean and other fried food lovers head out to deep-fried buttered balls.

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    Kansas: Pickle Pop


    The Kansas Fair’s response to freezing pop, filled with brine-salted juice, is a cold, super sour concoction for the region’s famous barbecue.

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    California: Python Kebabs


    Realizing that visitors to the California Show and State Fair wanted more adventurous foods, salesman George Sandefour changed his offering from chicken to foods that “tasted like chicken.”The new grilled python skewers flavored with Worcestershire sauce, liquid smoke, Old Bay and lemon pepper are a new favorite.

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    Massachusetts Fried Jelly Beans

    West Springfield

    Big E (nickname for Massachusetts State Fair) does not impose a choice between candy and funnel. These jelly beans are dipped in the dough before being deep-fried.

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    Wisconsin: Elvis on a Stick

    West Allis

    Slim McGinn’s booth at the Wisconsin State Fair pays tribute to legendary musician Elvis Presley and his love of excess with a portable dessert called Elvis on a Stick: a fried peanut butter cup with banana and bacon.

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    Florida Fried Ice Cream Cheeseburger


    A Florida representative from Florida explained the appeal of a cheeseburger topped with deep-fried ice cream by describing the salty-sweet hybrid as a “milkshake burger.”

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    Ohio: Chocolate Covered Bacon


    Known as the “dirty pig,” the chocolate-covered bacon on a stick is not new to the fairground, but the Ohio State Fair lends a salty-sweet design to candied cherries.

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    Alaska: Reindeer Sausage


    Alaska State Fair celebrates sunny season with grilled reindeer sausages and giant cabbage competition.The current record of 139 pounds was set in 2012.

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    Minnesota: Spaghetti and Meatballs on a Stick

    Falcon Heights

    The Minnesota State Fair (also known as the Great Minnesota Encounter) offers everything from lollipops to camel lolly. To transform the iconic Italian dish into a portable novelty, spaghetti is blended with meatballs, which are then cooked, whipped, fried, skewered and rolled in marinara sauce.

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    Alabama: Crispi Creme Burgers


    At the Alabama State Fair Donut Burger, instead of one bun, you’ll find a four-pound hamburger, bacon, cheese, and two Krispy Kreme glazed donuts. The monster contains almost 1,100 calories and 67 grams of fat.

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    North Carolina Pickles


    Also known as Koolickles, pickles soaked in a sweet baby drink are a Southern tradition and sweet and sour snacks at the annual North Carolina State Fair.

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    Illinois: Alligator on a Stick


    After enjoying some curious antics at the Swampmaster Alligator in the State Fair, visitors can try deep-fried entertainment on a stick.

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    Arkansas: Fried Egg on a Stick

    Small stone

    While other fairs roast oversized liquids and hamburgers, the Arkansas State Fair topped a simple hard-boiled egg with butter and milk and a selection of dipping sauces such as jalapeno ranch and sweet and sour.

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    California White Castle Fried Burgers

    Costa Mesa

    The Orange County Fair is so dedicated to frying that a seller called Heart Attack Café chose the grilled butter rack as its new name after it was filed with the Arizona Heart Attack Grill lawsuit. Even more amazing: White Castle’s Fried Cheeseburgers with Charlie Chicken (bun and all) at the 2011 fair.

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    New York: Kangaroo Spies


    New York’s Greatest State Fair, the oldest in the United States, features a local signature sandwich known as the shpiedi, marinated cubes of grilled meat on a soft Italian bun. While chicken, lamb, or beef are common fillings, kangaroo loin made an exotic substitute at the 2011 event.

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    Oregon: Roadkill


    The 2011 Oregon State Fair featured a flat, deep-fried dough that looks like it was trying to cross the road at the wrong time, complemented by juicy fruit sauces and syrups.

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    California: Chocolate Scorpion


    At the Alameda County Fair, the raccoon on a stick was hardly adventurous compared to the crispy chocolate-covered scorpions, although the dessert was no longer poisonous.

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    Oklahoma: Deep Fried Mashed Potatoes On A Stick


    At the Tulsa State Fair, mashed potatoes with bacon and cheddar are shaped into balls before being baked, fried and served on a stick with ranch sauce.

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    South Carolina: Fried Pepsi


    Pepsi was created in North Carolina, but hardly recognizable in South Carolina, where state vendors introduced Pepsi syrup fried dough and surpassed the result with powdered sugar and more syrup.

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    Iowa: Octo Dog

    Des Moines

    The Iowa Annual State Fair prides itself on big animals: big boar, biggest rabbit, heaviest pigeon.The Miniature Octo-Dog is just another mutant food. Sliced ​​so that the strips curl up during cooking, the hot dog is then dressed with straw for easy picking and served on the “sandy floor” of pasta.

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    Hawaii: Chicken Bacon


    The Maui County Fair is home to local specialties like poi (taro), banana lumpia (similar to spring rolls) and tuna pumpkin (like tartare), but vendors nod for mainland flavors with fried chicken bacon.

    Clinical Study Renal Failure: Tonapophylline, Placebo – Clinical Trials Registry

    90,043 90,000 Top 10 Restaurants in Springfield, MA

    Springfield, Massachusetts is also known as the City of Firsts because of its many innovations and inventions, including basketball.After you satisfy your sports streak, try your top 10 flavoring recipes to grab some maggots.

    Pizzeria with red rose

    The Red Rose Pizzeria in Springfield is a pizza dream. Open Tuesday to Sunday, this pizzeria is owned by an Italian family with a passion for authentic Italian cuisine. Get a slice of Italy at Red Rose the next time you’re in Springfield.

    1060 Main St Springfield, MA USA +1 (413) 739-8510

    Wayne’s Chef Big Mama

    Welcome to Chef Wayne’s Big Mama, a good finger restaurant that serves the finest Cajun dishes from gumbo to etoufee crayfish.Big Mama gives us a taste of New Orleans in Massachusetts and refuses to disappoint.

    63 Liberty Springfield, MA USA +1 (413) 732-1011

    Ginger flower

    Ginger Blossom is the place to sample fine Chinese and Japanese cuisine in Springfield. Their food is casual and authentic to her culture. Each dish is ready to amaze its guests and give them a taste of authentic Asian cuisine. Try their spicy soups if you’re adventurous and won’t let you down.

    1203 Parker St Springfield, MA USA + 1 (413) 783-8300

    Royal Student Café and Canteen at Fort

    This German-style cafe presents German cuisine with a sharp twist. Each dish can be paired with German beers as they have an impressive range on tap as well as a daily selection. The Prince Prefe Student Studio Chair menu will not be missed this fall, with incredible offerings and products combined to deliver a quality dining experience.

    8 Fort St Springfield, MA USA +1 (413) 734-7475

    Max’s Tavern

    Max’s Tavern is part of the Max Restaurant Group, but the former extends outside Connecticut. The tavern’s innovative menu features classic yet peerless American cuisine, craft cocktails, wines, and chopsa fare. The restaurant is equipped with a full bar and is sure to satisfy your tummy with wonderful flavors.

    1000 W Columbus Ave Springfield, MA USA +1 (413) 746-6299

    Bottega Cucina

    Bottega Cucina aims to provide its guests with the most successful restaurant while remaining true to its Italian flavors.They allow their employees to share knowledge and make suggestions for this. Their menus are designed to showcase the fullest and freshest flavors of each season, and to invite their guests to try new and exciting combinations of wine, beer and food.

    46 Morgan Rd West Springfield, MA USA +1 (413) 732-2500


    At Theodores you can find the best barbecues in New England. Its rich and seductive flavors complement each other and challenge its guests to challenge the notion that only the south has great barbecue food.The environment is brimming with live music and entertainment daily and should not be missed.

    201 Worthington St Springfield, MA USA +1 (413) 736-6000

    Adolfos Ristorante

    Adolphos, located in the heart of Springfield, is a classic Italian-American fusion with an emphasis on creativity in the kitchen, fresh ingredients and authentic Italian produce. The sumptuous dining room creates an atmosphere that is unmatched in Springfield.This is the place to meet, relax and eat delicious Italian cuisine.

    254 Worthington St Springfield, MA 01103 +1 (413) 746-5000

    Locator Restaurant

    Latitude Restaurant offers guests fresh local produce to create a farmhouse experience with a community focus. Restaurant owner Jeffrey Daigneau is committed to sharing culinary experiences with the community he grew up in. That’s what the Latitude experience is all about.

    1338 Memorial Ave West Springfield, MA USA +1 (413) 241-8888

    Tavern Storrowton

    Storrowtown Restaurant and Inn is a Springfield landmark.With over 40 years of experience, Storrowton is committed to treating its guests as valuable friends. Traditional New England cuisine is historic and elegant. Enjoy a festive dinner, live music, or even summer patio at Storrowtown for an incredible New England flavor.

    1305 Memorial Ave West Springfield, MA USA +1 (413) 732-4188

    90,000 Massachusetts Highway – Massachusetts Turnpike

    Massachusetts toll road and interstate, USA

    Massachusetts Barrier (colloquially “ Mass Pike ” or “ Pike “) is a toll highway in the US state of Massachusetts, which is maintained by the Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT).The highway begins on the New York State Line at West Stockbridge, connecting to a portion of the Berkshire Connector of the New York State Highway. Stretching 138 miles (222 km) along the east-west axis, it completely coincides with the part of Interstate 90 (I-90), which is within the state. The highway is the longest interstate in Massachusetts, and I-90 all the way (which starts nationally in Seattle, Washington) is the longest interstate in the United States.


    Highway opened in 1957 and was designated as part of the interstate system in 1959. The original western terminus of the highway was on Highway 102 in West Stockbridge before I-90 was completed in New York State. The highway crosses several interstate highways, crossing the state, including I-91 in West Springfield; I-291 at Chicopee; I-84 at Sturbridge; the intersection of I-290 and I-395 at Obernai; and I-495 at Hopkinton.The line’s eastern terminus was originally at I-95 in Weston and was extended several times: to Allston in 1964, to the Central Artery (designated I-93, US 1 and Route 3) in downtown Boston in 1965. to its current terminus in East Boston in 2003 as part of the Big Dig megaproject. Massachusetts has two interstate subsidiary highways for I-90, I-190 and I-290.

    The highway was operated by the Massachusetts Highway authorities until the department was replaced in 2009 by the MassDOT Highway Division.The introduction and elimination of tolls on some sections of the motorway was controversial; travel between most, but not all, exits requires payment. The Fast Lane electronic toll collection system was introduced along with cash in 1998; Later in 2012, it was incorporated into the E-ZPass brand. The original toll stations were removed and replaced with toll stations with a shift to toll collection on open roads in 2016, which replaced cash payment with “pay per room” billing.

    Route description

    The Massachusetts Highway is informally split into two MassDOT sections: the original 123-mile (198 km) Western Highway, which extends from the New York State line through the interchange with I-95 and Highway 128 at exit 123 in Weston, and 15 miles (24 km) “Expansion of Boston”, which continues past exit 123 through Boston. It is a four-lane freeway that runs from the New York State border through its I-84 junction at exit 78 Sturbridge; It expands to six lanes outside of this junction and briefly spans eight lanes from Exit 127 in Newton to Exit 133 at Prudential Center in Boston.Ted Williams Underwater Section + 0.75 Mile (1.21 km) The tunnel, which carries a slingshot under Boston Harbor to its eastern terminus of Route 1A at Logan International Airport, reduces to four lanes.

    Western Highway

    Approaching the former West Stockbridge toll plaza, heading east, January 2008. Weston Toll Roads separating the West Highway from the Boston Extension, October 2006

    To the west, the highway begins in Berkshire County on the Massachusetts State Line to West Stockbridge, where I-90 (which runs through the Berkshire portion of the New York State Highway) enters from Canaan, New York. Most of the paid sites were located at the entrances and exits before exiting the highway itself. An exception was the West Stockbridge, which is designed to collect tolls for inbound vehicles from New York; it existed shortly after Exit 3, entering only east and leaving only west in Massachusetts.The highway crosses the Williams River later at West Stockbridge and runs across the Houseatonic River at Lee. The 30-mile (48 km) gap between Exit 10 on US 20 at Lee and Exit 41 on US 202 and Route 10 in Westfield (the first in Hampden County) is the longest spacing between exits on the highway and the seventh longest. exit gaps on the entire interstate system. The highest point of the highway is in Berkshire, reaching 1,724 feet (525 m) above sea level at Becket; this point is also the highest point on I-90 east of South Dakota.In addition to the peak and between the exits, Russell has a truck exit east.

    Turnpike interchanges with I-91 and US 5 at exit 45 in West Springfield; it crosses the Connecticut River before reaching Route 33 at exit 49 and I-291 at exit 51, both at Chicopee. The highway passes through Ludlow at Exit 54 before crossing the Cuaboag River and Exit 63 at Palmere. The highway first leaves for County Worcester at Sturbridge, where Exit 78 is the eastern termination of I-84.At Obernai, exit 90 directs traffic to the interchange of I-395, heading south, and I-290, heading east. The Blackstone River flows under the highway at Millbury, where it has an interchange with Route 146 and a second direct connection to US 20 at Exit 94. Entering Middlesex County in Hopkinton, it crosses I-495 at Exit 106. The highway crosses the Sudbury River between Exit 111 on Highway 9 and Exit 117 on Highway 30, all located within Framingham.The last connection to another Interstate Highway at the West Turnpike is at Weston, on I-95 and Route 128 concurrency. This multi-part interchange is collectively referred to as the Weston Toll. Before the renumbering of Exit 123 in both directions, Exit 14 was Exit East and Exit Westerly, and Exit 15 was Exit Westerly and Entrance East; Prior to demolition, there was a toll on main roads for through traffic.With the removal of toll plazas, exit 15 was re-configured to exit 15A (now exit 123A) onto I-95 and Route 128, and exit 15B (now exit 123B) toward Route 30. At this junction, the highway crosses the Charles River.

    Boston Expansion

    The state’s eastern terminus and I-90 nationwide on Route 1A in Boston.

    Boston Expansion First Exit, Exit 125, is an eastbound entrance and a westbound exit on Route 16 in Newton.The highway enters Suffolk County in Boston before reaching the Allston-Brighton toll roads, providing traffic towards the Boston quarters of Allston and Brighton, as well as the nearby city of Cambridge. Before the renumbering of Exit 131 in both directions, Exit 18 was a left exit eastbound and an entrance westbound, and Exit 20 was a westbound exit and an eastbound entrance; a through-traffic highway toll had previously been placed between them and was classified as “exit 19”.To compensate for the scarcity of eastbound entrances and westbound exits at Back Bay and downtown Boston, a westerly reversal ramp was opened in Alston in 2007; while without a signature with an exit number, it was recognized as an exit 20A for administrative purposes. The highway crosses the Muddy River past the Allston-Brighton toll roads.

    Exit 133 and the now closed Clarendon Street exit are located inside the Prudential Tunnel, which leads to the highway under the Prudential Center; The first is the east exit to Prudential Center and Copley Square, and the second is just the west entrance from Clarendon Street.Beyond the Prudential Tunnel, exit 134 is marked as the only exit heading west, but splits into three exits for eastbound travel; Exit 134A is the left exit towards South Station, while exits 134B and 134C face I-93 north and south, respectively. The highway runs under the Fort Point Canal and then reaches South Boston at Exit 135, then enters the Ted Williams Tunnel and passes under Boston Harbor. Exit 137 at Logan International Airport is the only exit in the Ted Williams Tunnel before the highway exits the tunnel and merges into Route 1A heading north towards Revere.

    Service platforms

    Ludlow Service Plaza Westbound

    Lee Service Plaza Eastbound

    Location , United States , United States , United States -001, Brazil , Israel
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    Location Direction mi (km) Services
    Lee Eastbound 8.5 miles (13.7 km)
    • Electric vehicle charging stations
    • Bay
    • Gulf Express
    • McDonald’s
    Blandford Eastbound 29 miles (47 km)
    • Bay
    • Gulf Express
    • McDonald’s
    Ludlow Eastbound 55.6 miles (89.5 km)
    • Bay
    • Gulf Express
    • McDonald’s
    • Boston’s Original Pizza
    Charlton Eastbound 80.2 miles (129.1 km)
    • D’Angelo
    • Fresh City
    • Gifford’s Famous Ice Cream
    • Bay
    • Gulf Express
    • Izon
    • McDonald’s
    • Daddy Gino
    Westbound 84.8 miles (136.5 km)
    • Aunt Anna
    • D’Angelo
    • Fresh City
    • Bay
    • Gulf Express
    • Izon
    • McDonald’s
    • Daddy Gino
    Westborough Westbound 104.6 miles (168.3 km)
    • Aunt Anna
    • Boston Market
    • Cheesy Street Grill
    • D’Angelo
    • Dunkin ‘Donuts
    • Fresh City
    • Bay
    • Gulf Express
    • Daddy Gino
    Framingham Westbound 114.4 miles (184.1 km)
    • Boston Market
    • Edie’s Ice Cream
    • Fresh City
    • Bay
    • Gulf Express
    • Donuts with honeydew
    • Izon
    • McDonald’s
    • Boston’s Original Pizza
    • Starbucks
    Natik Eastbound 117.6 miles (189.3 km)
    • Cheesy Street Grill
    • D’Angelo
    • Dunkin ‘Donuts
    • Charging stations for electric vehicles
    • E-ZPass MA Autonomous Service Center
    • Bay
    • Gulf Express
    • Izon
    • McDonald’s
    • Daddy Gino
    • Motor Vehicle Register Express


    As of 2009, toll revenue generated from the Massachusetts Highway must be spent on the site in which they were collected, either on the Western Highway or the Boston extension (alternatively referred to as the “Metropolitan Highway System” for administrative purposes).The fees at Exit 3 (former Exit 1) in West Stockbridge through Exit 51 (former Exit 6) in Chicopee were canceled by then Governor Bill Weld in 1996 after complaints that the fees levied in Western Massachusetts funded Big Dig in Boston; they were eventually rebuilt in October 2013.

    On the recommendation of former Secretary of Administration and Treasury Eric Criss, who recommended abolishing tolls on the entire highway except for tunnels leading to Logan International Airport, the Massachusetts Highway Authority voted to abolish all tolls west of Highway 128 in October 2006. Members of the Massachusetts Legislative Assembly’s Transportation Committee cited the potential need to amend state law and uncertainty about how the highway will be serviced as obstacles to toll abolition, which ultimately never materialized.

    The issue of abolishing tolls is politically motivated. Several members of the state’s Democratic Party said it was a political maneuver to support the gubernatorial campaign of Lieutenant Governor Kerry Healy, a Republican who was lagging behind in the polls at the time of the announcement.In addition, since the MTA’s board is made up of Romney’s appointees, Criss’s former connection to the Romney administration, and the current elections at the time, the matter has been marred by allegations of bias and political agendas from both sides of the aisle.

    In issue of the Boston Globe , dated November 9, 2006, Romney announced his intention to try to abolish tolls prior to the inauguration of Governor-elect Deval Patrick, a Democrat, in January 2007, but this did not happen.As of November 2008, Patrick’s plan was to remove all tolls west of Interstate 95, except for West Stockbridge and Sturbridge tolls, but that also didn’t happen until his term expired in January 2015. State law requires that tolls be abolished in the west. road 128 when its debt is paid and the road is in “good condition,” but MassDOT plans to continue charging tolls after bond payments in January 2017 because the road will still need $ 135 million a year in repair and maintenance.

    At a board meeting on January 22, 2009, Turnpike decided to stop charging the $ 25.95 one-time fee for the Fast Lane transponder, replacing it with a monthly recurring maintenance fee of 50 cents. The introduction of the 50 cent monthly fee has been canceled due to long delays at toll points on Easter Sunday.

    Payable area

    The now demolished paid site at the convention, January 2016 Toll used before changing to toll roads on open roads

    The Circuit has traditionally used the ticketing system to collect tolls; the driver received a ticket at the exit, which he handed over to the exit and paid the fare depending on the distance traveled.While most toll plazas were located at freeway entrances / exits, exceptions included highway toll plazas in West Stockbridge, Weston, and Allston Brighton. Electronic toll was introduced as an alternative to cash payment using Fast Lane transponders in 1998; when installed on the inner windshield of a vehicle, the equipment will be automatically recognized on special lanes in toll areas and will deduct the amount of tolls from the motorist’s account.It was first sponsored by BankBoston and then by FleetBoston Financial, before being sponsored by Citizens Bank in 2003. Motorists were previously paid $ 27.50 for the equipment itself, although that fee has since been removed. Citing federal road traffic regulations that prohibit sponsoring signs in toll plazas, the contract with Citizens Bank was not renewed after expiration; in 2012, the Fast Lane name was replaced with the E-ZPass brand that Fast Lane could interact with.

    Toll on open roads

    Newton toll collection platform

    In 2014, Raytheon won a $ 130 million contract to convert the Massachusetts Highway to a fully electronic toll collection system for open roads. The stated aim of the change was to “make car travel safer and more efficient.” Additional changes included the elimination of toll station operators, as well as the demolition of existing toll sites and the reconfiguration of adjacent roads.Hanging portals between most of the outputs read E-ZPass transponders. Drivers without a transponder use a billing-by-number system, photographing the license plate and sending the invoice to the registered owner. This payment method will add a surcharge of $ 0.60 per bill if you pay online or in cash at your local retailer. Installation of the portals began in January 2016, and toll collection on open roads began on 28 October 2016. 30 days after that date, the inner toll booth segments were demolished, allowing for faster travel speeds.By the end of 2017, the complete demolition and reconstruction of toll stations had been completed.

    Since there are no portals between Exits 45 and 54 (former Exits 4 and 7) or between Exits 90 and 96 (former Exits 10 and 11), the Massachusetts Highway is virtually free between these pairs of exits. Otherwise, the shift to toll charging on open roads does not affect income, which means that tolls between any other pair of ramps have changed only slightly.Fares are slightly higher for out-of-state residents without an E-ZPassMA transponder, and fares without a transponder are higher.

    When all electronic tolling continued to live on Mass Pike, Tobin Bridge, Callahan Tunnel, Sumner Tunnel, and Ted Williams Tunnel joined the system and were converted to charging a single toll in both directions rather than double tolls in one direction. Tobin Bridge was only switched to a fully electronic toll collection system for the south in July 2014.

    In addition to license plate information, the portals also collect vehicle speed data, which, according to a MassDOT spokesman, “will not use the AET system to detect speed violations.” Toll road data is not a public record that must be disclosed to comply with the Freedom of Information Act and MassDOT: “All data collected will remain secure and confidential.” Toll road data can be obtained by subpoena and law enforcement will be able to specify license plates that will immediately generate an email if detected by the system.


    Background and construction

    As Boston’s place as a center of trade and manufacturing began to grow in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, it became necessary to move goods to the ports of the city from growing factories and factories in towns such as Worcester, Lowell and Providence, Rhode Island, to warehouses. in the city demanded investment in new modes of transportation. The growth of shipbuilding in the city also required the import of raw materials from inland regions.In addition, the city’s newly expanded marketplaces such as Faneuil Hall needed ways to bring their products to market. In response to these needs, the city and the Commonwealth have begun the process of expanding transport access to the city. New infrastructure such as bridges, marinas and ferries was created, often by early public-private corporations chartered by the Commonwealth.

    The rudimentary road system that existed in the region at that time was extremely inadequate for the needs of traders, as it needed major repairs and modernization, for which the financial resources of the Commonwealth and the municipal authorities of that time did not suffice.The poor quality of the first roads in the state, as well as in other countries in the young country, often made transporting goods within the country from ports by road by road economically unfeasible.

    While the military necessity of transporting people and supplies during the Revolution helped improve some of the first highways in the states, many were not maintained or upgraded after the end of the war. Many roads lacked bridges and adequate conditions to feed and accommodate travelers on trips that often took days to a week.Many communities were also hesitant or unable to provide sufficient capital to create or maintain amenities for those who passed through their cities.

    Highway map of Eastern Massachusetts, where the Worcester Highway follows roughly the same path as modern Route 9.

    On March 16, 1805, the Massachusetts Legislature instituted a system of private roads or highways designed to facilitate travel and trade, in accordance with common Commonwealth laws.Named for the traveler toll system, these highways were based on a franchise system of private operators who built, maintained and operated roads using toll collection revenues. Highways often ran at a loss, and many folded shortly after opening.

    One such highway was designed to go from Roxbury to Worcester and was chartered by the Worcester Turnpike Corporation on March 7, 1806. The Worcester Turnpike was designed as the main road on the western approach to Boston and used part of the old Connecticut road.along Tremont and Huntington Streets to Brooklyn and continued west to Worcester on roughly the same route as current Route 9. However, maintenance costs began spiraling as needed, bridges at Shrewsbury began to deteriorate with its charter required Operation and maintenance of old and independent roads along the route made it difficult to maintain the Corporation’s profitability. Like many of its modern highways, the Worcester Mainline eventually failed in 1841, its charter was terminated by the Commonwealth, and the road was divided and control passed to local municipalities.

    One of the main factors contributing to the decline of the Worcester Mainline was the dominance of the railroad in the 1830s. The Boston-Worcester Railroad, chartered in 1831 by the Court General, began construction of its line in 1832, and the main line was completed in July 1835. The newly built railroad originally used a right-of-way along another failed mainline, the Central Highway, which ran from Boston to Worcester via Brooklyn, Wellesley, Natick, Framingham and other localities along what is now the MBTA Framingham / Worcester Suburban Railroad line. …Originally, the railroad ran through the tidal shoals of Back Bay, and its impact on the city was felt only in the southern parts of the city. Originally designed as a long-distance railroad, the owners of B&W and other railways eventually discovered that there was a ready market for commuter services along the routes, and by 1845 had created a number of commuter rail facilities along their route. As a result of a series of mergers over the next several decades, the Boston and Worcester Railroad eventually became the Boston and Albany Railroad in 1870, connecting the capitals of Massachusetts and New York State.

    As the city slowly began to fill the Back Bay tidal estuary to establish the South End and Back Bay city districts, the railway line evolved from a secluded dam at the center of the specified tidal estuary to a major transport hub through the heart of the western portions of the city … The railroad was not only a physical divider, but also a social and economic barrier; while the South End reclamation project was a municipal project that lacked any form of solid planning, the Back Bay reclamation project was a government program that formulated specific ideas about who would live in the county.The proximity of the railroad also led to the unintended effect of commuter travel. With the advent of new rail lines in close proximity to the entire city, many wealthier citizens began to migrate to cities west of Boston. This migration placed a financial burden on municipal services such as water and sewerage, fire and police, and helped these communities to join Boston, further expanding the city’s boundaries. Despite these problems, by the end of the nineteenth century, the Western Railway and its contemporaries were helping the city’s economy by helping local industries deliver food to Boston’s port, helping it become the second busiest port on the east coast.

    To help accommodate the growth in rail traffic, Boston and Albany have built two large train stations, one in the Allston area of ​​the city and the other near the Lennox Hotel on Huntington Street, near Back Bay. While Boston and Albany and its modern railways were building new shipyards, other factors that foreshadowed a decline in the city’s wealth emerged in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth; traffic to the Boston port declined, forcing the federal government to deepen major shipping channels and build new berths to accommodate larger vessels; AT&T moved its operations and headquarters from Boston to New York in 1910.The troubled relationship between the city and the business sector under successive James Michael Curley mayors has driven a wedge between these businesses and the municipal government, undermining employers in Boston. Added to these problems were a series of periods of economic recession, culminating in the Great Depression, coupled with a heavy tax burden, which left the city’s finances in a tailspin. Despite the minor upturns caused by mobilization during the two world wars, the city was in dire straits by the end of World War II.Much of the state’s infrastructure west of Boston was in serious deterioration, and major east-west routes 2 and 9 were in need of significant upgrades. At the same time, rail transport in the region was becoming financially disadvantageous to use to transport materials for the new technology companies of the era due to the railways’ outdated pricing structure and limited geographic reach.

    Map of the proposed highway as presented in the 1948 Massachusetts Highway Master Plan.These proposed roads will become some of the state’s most important transportation routes in the eastern half of the state.

    In the period after World War II, Boston plunged into a period of deep stagnation in growth. Its former maritime industry closed as traffic in the harbor dwindled, textile factories that provided much of the city’s wealth migrated from the region in search of new locations that would allow them to maximize revenues, and property development led to a halt with little to no new construction. – or an impact that has occurred since the beginning of the Great Depression.Boston-based retail advocates such as Philnes and Jordan Marsh have chosen to focus their energy and growth in the suburbs; Boston’s citizens began to flee to the same suburban pastures as property taxes soared in the city. US News and World Report stated that Boston was “dying on the vine.”

    After the end of the war, Massachusetts entered a period of planning for new road projects to help end the economic malaise that plagues the state.It was in 1947 that Republican Governor Robert Bradford realized that the Commonwealth needed to put in place a standard structure to properly guide the planning and construction of these new roads. He commissioned a study to develop a new motorway master plan for the eastern region, and by 1948 it was completed. Seeking the political benefits of a major public works project, Bradford sent his plan for approval to the Democratic-controlled Massachusetts legislature; however, Democrats continued to participate in the project as long as their candidate, newly elected Democratic Governor Paul A.Dever, did not take office in January 1949.

    Instead, Dever initiated a program to implement the Road Master Plan for the city shortly after taking office in 1949. With a Democratic majority in the House of State along with a Democrat governor, for the first time in Commonwealth history, he pushed through a series of highway bills with related gas tax increases totaling over $ 400 million (US $ 3.97 billion in 2014, adjusted for inflation) between 1949 and 1952.In order to follow up on this endeavor, Dever is listed by the former Massachusetts Department of Public Works commissioner, William F. Callahan, to re-head the agency he ran from 1934 to 1939. Known for his strong personality and commitment to project completion, Callahan immediately began construction on three of the proposed highways, not counting what would eventually become the “outer” ring road around Boston, planned from 1947: the “original outer” ring road, which became Highway 128, the Southeast Expressway, and the Central Artery in the heart of Boston.These three projects, totaling more than US $ 92 million (US $ 913 million in 2014 adjusted for inflation), were seen as important for the city’s future growth. However, such a large portion of the funds went into the construction of these roads that the Commonwealth was unable to provide funds for the Western Expressway project. However, before Callahan could oversee the completion of the southern section of Route 128, Dever put him in charge of the newly formed Massachusetts Railroad Authority.

    Due to the financial stress created by the bond issues used to build these other highways, the Commonwealth could not afford the cost of placing additional bonds to finance the costs of the Western Expressway along the West Approach corridor to Boston. Callahan proposed creating a strong, independent, and semi-public transport administration that could fund the new expressway by placing its own bond issues and funding them with highway toll charges, while having its own preeminent domain credentials to provide the land needed for its construction…. Using the political goodwill he had amassed during his tenure as Public Works Commissioner, primarily through extensive patronage, Callahan was able to easily push his idea of ​​new authority through the State House. The government was formed in early 1952, and by 1955 it had issued the necessary bonds needed to build the 198 km highway from the New York-Massachusetts border to the newly built Highway 128 in Weston.Although construction was completed in 1957, many Commonwealth residents quickly realized that the local routes used to enter Boston were still insufficient for the traffic load they had been entrusted with. In the late 1950s, prominent possession of a mass highway devastated a historic African American community called The Village. Compensation was offered for houses below market value. Homeowners and tenants faced racial discrimination when trying to buy or rent homes in Newton.Real estate agents didn’t work with them. They had to rely on word of mouth to find a new home. An estimated 50% left Newton as a result of the construction of a massive highway.

    Expansion to Boston

    While the motorway boom proved to be successful for the suburban communities that these new roads passed through, Boston’s economy was still in a precarious state. Realizing that Boston still needed to be connected to the mainline to help reverse its weakened economy and municipal reputation, in 1955 the Legislature commissioned Callahan to create an extension to the city designed to facilitate the restoration of the city’s fortunes…. This new freeway will connect the Massachusetts Expressway to the city center with a 12.3-mile extension of the interstate. His plan was to build a toll highway from the terminus on Highway 128 in West Newton to the city along the Boston-Albany railroad and connect it to the Southeast Expressway. This plan was in line with the 1948 Motorway Master Plan for the city, which has always called for the city to build a Western Expressway.However, with the passage of the Interstate Highway Act in 1956, the federal government provided the states with sufficient funds to build new highways with a ninety percent subsidy, making the need for toll roads to the city obsolete.

    An employee magazine for the New York Central Railroad (parent company of Boston and Albany) Headlights, February 1965, showing an aerial photograph of the completed Boston Massachusetts Railroad Extension

    To complicate matters, Callahan’s planned itinerary has not been widely adopted by others in the state, such as newly elected Governor John A.Wolpe and Newton’s mayor Donald Gibbs, who sought to build a freeway that would follow a different route between Newton’s borders. , Waltham and Watertown along the Charles River and US Highway 20 and will be built with funds currently provided by the Federal Highway Administration. In addition, Newton residents, who will see significant demolition of neighborhoods in the city, along with large portions of its central business district to make way for highway expansion, were vehemently opposed to the proposed road route in Boston and Albany.Newton, with the help of two mayors, set about fighting the highway proposal through a series of increasingly futile legislative maneuvers in the General Court. Realizing that the needs and desires of a smaller city cannot overcome Callahan’s influence in the state capital, the smaller city will instead redirect its efforts to block highways at the federal level through the Interstate Commerce Commission and federal courts. Affected Boston property owners, who were also considering losing their homes and businesses, followed Newton’s lead by filing a series of state and federal lawsuits that they hoped would derail the proposed expansion.

    Prudential Company

    In addition to Callahan’s many concerns with those opposed to the new road, Prudential Life Insurance Company announced that it is in the process of acquiring the 32-acre Boston and Albany Tremont Street train station with the aim of constructing a new building and associated complex for deploying its northeastern American operations around the same time that the Commonwealth’s plan to bypass the mainline authorities was announced.This proposed development stood right in the middle of the Boston section of the planned Callahan Mainline extension and could possibly kill his proposed extension. While many opponents inside and outside the city saw the Prudential announcement as a possible final nail in the coffin for Callahan’s proposed toll road, Boston Redevelopment Authority chief Edward J. Logue saw Callahan’s Prudential as a way to overcome BRA-related problems. had in getting approval for the Prudential project from the city.

    Log was Callahan’s equal in many ways; a single-minded person who sought power in order to achieve his goal, as the head of a semi-independent power structure modeled after Callahan’s Turnpike Authority. Log, who was responsible for many urban renewal projects in Boston at the time, including Storrow Drive and the West End renovation project, realized that the Prudential project was essential to Boston’s redevelopment efforts.The main problem holding back the project was the lack of consensus on the tax breaks that Prudential demanded to move the project forward. In addition, the Massachusetts Supreme Court has issued several judgments that question the constitutionality of the land acquisition required to build the complex.

    In addition to the problems associated with Project Prudential, a number of charges were brought against Callahan during 1960 and 1961 alleging that he was involved in illegal activities related to his second term as Commissioner for Public Works.These charges included charges of financial kickbacks, bid rigging and other questionable conduct. This led to a corruption trial that tarnished his reputation, which did not help his quest to build a highway extension. In addition to the legal charges, a group of three professors from MIT and Harvard made public allegations that the mainline administration used inflated numbers to push its bond issues, thereby artificially inflating their value.This led to an unsuccessful series of bond issues that critics hoped would prevent the mainline authorities from raising the necessary funds for the construction.

    It was in the midst of these many legal issues that Prudential announced in April 1960 that the continuation of their construction project depended on direct highway access via a toll road along the Boston & Albany Rail Road. In addition, Prudential will lease the air rights to the parcels from the Turnpike Authority and buy most of the bonds issued by the Authority.Despite this agreement, Gov. Wolpe still tried to thwart highway plans along the Boston and Albany right-of-way by filing a request from the City of Newton with the ICC to stop building the road. It was only after a series of meetings between the leaders of Volpe, Callahan and the Prudential that the governor was finally persuaded to revoke the ICC registration and reluctantly support the toll road. With a new deal, a criminal conviction and a public relations response to allegations of government interference with the market, the bond measures were once again perceived as sound investments and investors quickly headed for them.a $ 175 million bond issue ($ 1.4 billion in 2014 adjusted for inflation). With the Turnpike-Prudential agreement in place, Log was able to petition the General Court to re-authorize the land acquisition deal and a tax deferral bill that was passed fairly quickly and signed into law by then-Governor Foster Furcolo. Although this new bill was again declared unconstitutional by the SJC, in its decision the Court provided the legislature with a basis for drafting a bill that would go through constitutional consideration.The bill also gave Loga’s BRA significant powers over the redevelopment project, allowing it to move quickly forward with permits and tax issues. The Turnpike-Prudential deal, tied to the Logue and BRA’s new power to advance the project, quickly quieted much of the remaining opposition to the new road and cemented the idea of ​​developing air law as an integral part of the Turnpike movement. By 1965, the Massachusetts Highway was connected to the Central Artery, and the Prudential Center was on its way to completion; however, Callahan did not live to see it.On April 24, 1964, he died of a heart attack at his home.

    In 1968, the first major mainline expansion began after the completion of the Boston expansion in 1965. Although the initial design of the road involved an eight-lane expressway along most of the route, it was built only as a carriageway with four lanes for most of its length, until it reached the intersection with Highway 9 at Framingham, where the carriageway expanded to six lanes.Beginning in 1968, the highway from Interstate 84 at Sturbridge to Highway 9 was expanded from four to six; this expansion project was completed around 1971. However, the main right-of-way was built to allow for future expansion of the roadway, with most of the bridges across the highway being built with an eight-lane roadway in mind, so only a few bridges had to be rebuilt. when it was expanded in the late 1960s.

    Big Dig

    While developing the Central Artery / Tunnel project in the 1970s and 1980s, horror stories of urban renewal projects such as the construction of an old viaduct in the 1950s weigh heavily on the minds of Frederic Salvucci and his team.It was understood from the start that the Commonwealth could not simply lay waste to parts of the city and freeze them; The state would have to ensure that the construction will balance the needs of the highways with the livability of the city and the areas through which the project will pass. Mitigation efforts will be of paramount importance to move the project forward.

    Gov. Francis Sargent rejected any idea of ​​further motorway construction within the MA Route 128 ring road in 1970, thereby canceling the I-695 Inner Belt and Southwest Corridor projects, with more emphasis on the already completed Boston Expressway extension.I-90, an extension of I-93 to Boston, and work to finally lower Boston’s central artery below ground level as the only uncompleted freeway-related construction projects “inside” Highway 128 that will be allowed to move forward.

    The concepts of using existing right of way or areas where neighborhood displacement would be minimized were applied to the second extension of the CA / T mainline. already belong to the Commonwealth.As a result, there was almost no occupation of buildings or homes in East Boston due to prominent holdings or neighborhood destruction because construction was moved to the then unoccupied areas of the South Boston seaport and Logan Airport. Like the first line extension, the line’s connection to East Boston was also designed to give the city an economic boost, and this time to revitalize an abandoned seaport area.

    Diagram of the motorway system in downtown Boston before and after the completion of the Great Excavation

    The Massachusetts Highway Authority operated the Central Artery / Tunnel Project (“Great Excavation”), which redirected the elevated Central Artery into the O’Neill Tunnel through downtown Boston and extended the highway beyond its Central Artery termination to Ted Williams.The tunnel and connected it to Route 1A behind Logan International Airport. Construction began in 1991 and the last extension of the highway was opened in 2003.

    It was for the financial needs of the project that the Metropolitan Highway System was created with a highway east of Highway 128; the Ted Williams, Sumner and Callahan Tunnels under Boston Harbor; and I-93 from Southampton Street through the O’Neill Tunnel and Zakim Bridge to the foot of Tobin Bridge. Finance for Western Turnpike and Boston Extension will continue to be processed separately in this reorganization.

    Ceiling Collapse
    Boston transport crawls over the closed entrance to the Ted Williams tunnel during rush hour, the day after the ceiling collapsed.

    In response to an accident caused by the collapse of the ceiling of the Eastbound I-90 Interconnection Tunnel, approaching the Ted Williams Tunnel on July 10, 2006, and in response to the refusal of Mainline Chairman Matthew J. Amorello (at the time) to to resign, Romney took legal action to have Amorello forcibly removed from his post as head of the Massachusetts Mainline.These efforts culminated in Amorello’s resignation on August 15, 2006. The next day, Romney swore in John Cogliano as the new chairman of the Highway Administration. On November 27, 2006, outgoing Attorney General Tom Reilly (Democrat) announced that the state would file a civil lawsuit over the collapse of the ceiling in the Ted Williams tunnel. The Commonwealth will seek more than $ 150 million from Bechtel / Parsons Brinckerhoff Project Manager, Modern Continental Construction Co.and a manufacturer of the epoxy used for ceiling bolting.

    Filled Outputs

    With the exception of the ramps opened during the construction of the Boston expansion, two infill ramps were opened between the existing interchanges on the West Line. Exit 106 (former Exit 11A) at Hopkinton connects the highway to I-495 and provides transit between northern New England and Cape Cod; it was opened in 1969. Exit 94 (formerly Exit 10A) at Millbury connects the highway to Highway 146 and US 20 through the Route 20 connector, which in turn facilitates traffic between Worcester and Providence, RI; construction began in 1996 and was opened in 1998 until completion in 1999.

    Broadcast rights

    Star Market (abbreviated as Shaw’s Supermarket) built over a highway in Newton, August 2009.

    Most of the airspace (“air rights”) over the Boston expansion has been leased to third parties for commercial development. This concept was originally developed to “bring communities together” that were divided by a new highway, as the highway was described as “broader and more divisive for the city” than the original Central Artery.More recently, rental income from air rights has been used to pay off a large excavation site. Above the route there are 23 sections of airspace, most of which have not been developed. Among other goals, the guidelines set by the Boston Civilian Vision of Highway Air Rights 2000 recommend that the proposed use of the sites “[promotes] increased utilization and capacity of public transport” and “[enhances] the viability and quality of life in the neighboring quarters. “


    Star Market (briefly renamed Supermarket Shaw) in Newton is the earliest example of commercial construction over a mainline. In the 1960s, the Massachusetts Highway Administration intended to route a highway through a parking lot at the site of the city’s previous supermarket; it is an alignment that was ultimately approved by the Massachusetts Supreme Court of Justice, provided that a replacement for the Star Market was allowed in place of the mainline. Other air rights-based projects include the Newton Plaza Hotel in Newton, the Copley Place shopping center in Boston and the Prudential Center in Boston.Proposals for future air law projects include the mixed-use Fenway Center, and the expansion of Boston University on a campus near the Boston University Bridge.

    After four decades of no new development, construction began on Section 12 in August 2020, and construction was expected to begin within a month at Fenway Center, pending a final agreement with MassDOT, leading to the planned closure of one lane in each direction for the year…. Section 12 is located between Newbury Street, Boylston Street and the west side of Massachusetts Avenue and is expected to include the 13-story Citizen M Hotel, 20-story office tower (including CarGurus headquarters), a redeveloped bus stop, and a public park , street-level retailers, and a new entrance to the Hines Convention Center station on the MBTA Metro Green Line. The developer of Section 13, on the east side of Massachusetts Avenue along Boylston Street, unveiled updated plans in February 2020 with 17 floors of apartments, hotels, parking lots and public spaces.The approved plan for plot 15 (known as 1000 Boylston Street) was canceled by the developer in August 2019, resulting in legal action.


    Suggested Outputs

    Construction of an exit between Exit 10 (former Exit 2) at Lee and Exit 41 (former Exit 3) at Westfield, separated by 30 miles (48 km), has been controversial since the 1960s. The state conducted a study to determine the feasibility of such a project in 2018; land occupied by the maintenance site and refurbishment complex (both in Blandford) and Algiers Road in Otis were proposed as potential exit locations.As of November 2020, the proposal for a new interchange between Gates 2 and 3 is officially dead: 79 votes against, compared to 63 votes in favor.

    Allston Interchange

    The I-90 Allston Multimodal Project is a plan to replace the deteriorating viaduct at Allston by straightening a barrier across the former Harvard-owned Park Yard lighthouse, along with improving MBTA’s Framingham / Worcester Line.The preliminary design plan requires the highway to be rebuilt flush with the existing overpass, and the adjacent Solders Field road to be partially rebuilt into a new overpass above the freeway and off the existing subgrade. The design takes up significantly less floor space than the existing configuration; this would facilitate the construction of the proposed West Station and the onshore expansion of Harvard University where the existing viaduct is located. The design phase was expected to be completed in 2019, with construction scheduled to begin in 2020.In the 2019 project schedule proposed by MassDOT, the design phase will now run until 2020-2021, with an expected start in 2022 and a construction duration of 8-10 years.

    I-495 interchange

    I-495 / I-90 Interchange Improvement Project is intended to redevelop exit 107 (former exit 11A) at Hopkinton, where the existing interchange (designed for now demolished toll areas) is known to be congested and prone to accidents during the rush.hour and travel time on holidays. As of 2018, MassDOT is studying three project proposals, which included proposals for separate north / south exits from I-495 and the expansion of acceleration lanes through exit 111 (former exit 11A) at Framingham. The project was originally estimated at $ 296-413 million and the design phase is expected to be 25 percent complete by 2020.} In July 2019, MassDOT announced that the state would be promoting a preferred design for the overhaul of I-495.-Mass Interchange Pike, consisting of a series of “flyovers” that will eliminate the intertwining of traffic that causes bottlenecks and accidents at the interchange. The state expects construction to begin in 2022 and last until 2026 at an estimated cost of about $ 296.4 million.

    State Control

    Massachusetts Expressway next to the Chicopee exit

    Since 2001, the highway administration has been criticized by government politicians in a fight for control of a quasi-government agency.Beginning in 2001, former Massachusetts Acting Gov. Jane Swift (RR) tried to fire Christie Michos, a former Turnpike board member, and Jordan Levy, deputy board chairman.

    Mihos and Levy voted to postpone the fare hike. Swift objected, stating that such a delay was “fiscal irresponsibility” and stating that the two men “interfered with the effective day-to-day administration of power.”Mihos and Levy refused to resign and sued Swift to maintain their positions. The Massachusetts Superior Court of Justice (HJC) ruled that the barrier was “not part of the government apparatus” and therefore not in accordance with Swift’s decisions.

    Governor Mitt Romney, elected in 2002 during the financial crisis, spoke on a political platform to streamline government and eliminate waste. Part of this was the elimination of the mainline authorities.Romney wanted to turn Turnpike into MassHighway, a state highway agency run by the Executive Office of Transportation. The first step towards this was to replace the chairman of the board, Matthew J. Amorello, with someone who was loyal to the governor. The Governor has the power to appoint councilors, but the Massachusetts Superior Court of Justice (SJC) advised in an advisory opinion that “nothing in GL c. 81A does not expressly provide for the removal and reappointment of the chairman to the position of a member.”

    Romney demanded that Amorello resign. Amorello announced that he would do so in 2007, after Romney would have left office. Romney continued to pressure the legislature to remove board members, in particular the chairman, pointing to a series of financial and construction failures over the past few years. However, the legislature instead sought to keep Amorello on board, extending the terms of various councilors to prevent Romney from ousting Amorello.

    In line with a government budget savings plan, the Massachusetts Motor Vehicle Registry (RMV) has announced plans to close eleven of its leased locations and relocate operations to MassHighway and Massachusetts Turnpike Authority’s toll-based sites in centers for visitors, and offices. Branch closures of RMV have been planned for Framingham, Lowell, North Atttleboro, Cambridgeside Galleria in Cambridge, New Bedford, Eastfield Mall in Springfield, Southbridge, Falmouth, Eastham, Beverly and Boston.In addition, part of the state’s recently increased sales tax prevented a planned increase in fares. The MTA will receive approximately $ 100 million from the state’s general fund over the next few years, which will eliminate the need for higher fares.

    Under legislation signed into law by Governor Deval Patrick on June 26, 2009, the highway was transformed into a new super-agency that controls all ground transportation in the state. The new agency, the Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT), manages all highways previously operated by the MassHighway and Turnpike Authority, as well as eight city highways previously owned and operated by the Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR).In addition, MassDOT oversees RMV, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA), regional transit authorities, and the State Aeronautics Commission. The new Transport Department began operations on November 1, 2009.

    Mainline Authority also owned the Callahan Tunnel and Sumner Tunnel, two other road links between downtown Boston and East Boston under Boston Harbor. Upon completion of the Central Artery / Tunnel Project, all tunnels built under the Big Dig Project, including the O’Neill tunnel segment on I-93, were transferred to his control.The office did not receive funding from the state or federal government. His income came from fares, rentals of air rights and service areas, and advertising. All of its assets were transferred to the new agency MassDOT as part of an agency restructuring.

    Shield Highway

    Original logo

    The original logo depicts Paul Revere on horseback with “Massachusetts Turnpike Authority” written in a circle around it.In one embodiment of the shield, an Indian arrow protruded from the pilgrim’s hat through the pilgrim’s hat. In 1989, it was replaced with a simple hat and “Mass Pike” lettering. It has been reported in various ways that the sign was changed due to confusion among motorists, who sometimes mistakenly turned in the direction of the arrow (to the right) when trying to enter a highway, or that this was the result of a letter campaign describing the signs as offensive to Native Americans. …

    According to a blog entry by MTA Board Member Mary Z.Connaughton for Boston Herald , all pilgrim hat signs unique to the Turnpike will be removed. However, in personal correspondence with the travel blog, a MassDOT spokesman said that hat use would actually increase. Replacing the signs on I-95 and I-495 will replace the Mass Pike signs with pilgrim hat shields.

    Leave the list

    While Massachusetts has used sequential exit numbers since 1964, the 2009 edition of the Unified Traffic Control Devices Guide required all U.S. states to submit plans to move to mile-based exit numbering by 2012.It is expected that after this all exits on the highway will be renumbered. this convention with two sign replacement projects scheduled for completion by 2018; The contractors were ultimately instructed to install new signs with existing numbers, albeit with wider exit ridges, on which larger two- and three-digit exit numbers could be placed if conversion occurs in the future. In November 2019, MassDOT announced that the statewide exit numbering will begin in Western Massachusetts in the summer of 2020.Work began along I-90 during the week of December 13, 2020, starting at Weston (I-95) and further west. renumbering exits inside 95 and towards the airport.


    Further reading

    External Links

    Route Map :

    KML taken from Wikidata


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