Staples in waterville maine: Staples in Waterville, ME, Store Hours

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Staples Locations in Maine Waterville

You are on the page of Staples Maine Waterville where all the information is available about the contact, phone, addresses and services.

In this store of Staples you can find out the price range of the all products which you can see online or in-store.

Address :

40 Waterville Commons Drive, Waterville, Maine, USA

Postal Code : 04901
Opening Hours :

Monday – Friday: 8:00 am – 9:00 pm Saturday: 9:00 am – 9:00 pm Sunday: 10:00 am – 6:00 pm

Phone : 2078734092
Fax : 2078736542

All stores might not offer the same variety but they mostly have the typical range of products that would be available at any store of Staples.

Staples is among the biggest brands that retail best electronics, stationery and office supplies in the whole country.

Since, I advice you to have a rough look at the product range before you go shopping for electronics or professional office supplies.

Staples has also savings on product ranges randomly and anytime we can come across with this type offers on their website.

We’ll also focus on these deals and coupons you might print or use on the internet sites.

From technology range of Staples you can see:

Apple; contains offers of iPad, iPod and iPhone accessories in general and you can see products related to Mac accessories.

Cell Phones; you can see price range for smart phones, accessory range suitable with them.

Many more aisle of Staples which you can find at Staples Locations Maine Waterville are actually available in the range of products.

Staples Maine Waterville Features

  • Mobile Phones
  • Full-service UPS® Shipping
  • Buy online.Pickup in store
  • Technology Services
  • Ship to Store
  • Copy & Print Services
  • UPS® Prepaid Drop-off
  • Mobile Printing

Home > Staples Store Locator > Maine > Waterville

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Office supply stores in or near Waterville, Maine ME

Waterville, Maine, ME: Office supply stores

There are 18 Office supply stores in or near Waterville, Maine ME.

Office Depot Bangor ME

Office Depot Bangor ME is located approximately 42 miles from Waterville. They are a nice Office supply store. Office Depot Bangor ME: no phone number.

Office Depot South Portland ME

Office Depot South Portland ME is located approximately 73 miles from Waterville. A friendly Office supply store. Office Depot South Portland ME: no phone number.

OfficeMax Auburn ME

OfficeMax Auburn ME is located approximately 46 miles from Waterville. We recommend their services. You can call them at (+(2) 07)- 782.

Staples Augusta ME

Staples Augusta ME is located approximately 19 miles from Waterville. Staples Augusta ME is located at 14 Market Place Drive
Augusta ME 4330 . If you need more information, call them: (+20) 7-6-23-9.

Staples Bangor ME

Staples Bangor ME is located approximately 41 miles from Waterville. Customers have good opinions about Staples Bangor ME. Contact them at (+20) 7-9-41-2.

Sponsored link

Staples Bangor ME

Staples Bangor ME is located approximately 44 miles from Waterville. Visit Staples Bangor ME at 180 Bangor Mall Blvd.
Bangor ME 4401 . If you need more information, call them: (+20) 7-9-47-9.

Staples Biddeford ME

Staples Biddeford ME is located approximately 88 miles from Waterville. Looking for a good Office supply store? Check out Staples Biddeford ME at 201 Mariner Way
Biddeford ME 4005 . Phone number: (+20) 7-2-94-6.

Staples Brunswick ME

Staples Brunswick ME is located approximately 48 miles from Waterville. Join the group of happy customers of Staples Brunswick ME!. Their phone number is (+20) 7-7-25-2.

Staples Falmouth ME

Staples Falmouth ME is located approximately 67 miles from Waterville. If you need a good Office supply store near Waterville, contact Staples Falmouth ME. You can call them at (+20) 7-7-81-2.

Staples Lewiston ME

Staples Lewiston ME is located approximately 46 miles from Waterville. Regarded as one of the best Office supply stores in Waterville area, Staples Lewiston ME is located at 855 Lisbon Street
Lewiston ME 4240 . Need to give Staples Lewiston ME a call? (+20) 7-7-53-0.

Staples N. Windham

Staples N. Windham is located approximately 66 miles from Waterville. Contact information: 770 Roosevelt Trail
N. Windham ME 4062 . If you need more information, call them: (+20) 7-8-92-1.

Staples Newington NH

Staples Newington NH is located approximately

119 miles from Waterville. Customers have good opinions about Staples Newington NH. Their phone number is (+60) 3-3-34-3.

Staples North Conway

Staples North Conway is located approximately 86 miles from Waterville. They are a nice Office supply store. If you need more information, call them: (+60) 3-3-56-2.

Staples Rochester NH

Staples Rochester NH is located approximately 110 miles from Waterville. We recommend their services. Phone number: (+60) 3-3-32-4.

Staples Rockland ME

Staples Rockland ME is located approximately 38 miles from Waterville. A friendly Office supply store. Their phone number is (+20) 7-5-96-5.

Staples Somersworth (Dover)

Staples Somersworth (Dover) is located approximately 114 miles from Waterville. Looking for a good Office supply store? Check out Staples Somersworth (Dover) at . As we don’t have their phone number on our records, you can contact them directly at .

Staples South Portland

Staples South Portland is located approximately 74 miles from Waterville. They are regarded as one of the best Office supply stores in Waterville area. You can call them at (+20) 7-8-71-9.

Staples Waterville ME

Staples Waterville ME is located approximately 4 miles from Waterville. They’re a decent Office supply store in Waterville. Contact them at (+20) 7-8-73-4.

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Staples – Mid-Maine Chamber of Commerce

Company Hours

Sunday11:00 AM – 6:00 PM
Monday9:00 AM – 8:00 PM
Tuesday9:00 AM – 8:00 PM
Wednesday9:00 AM – 8:00 PM
Thursday9:00 AM – 8:00 PM
Friday9:00 AM – 8:00 PM
Saturday10:00 AM – 7:00 PM

Member Discount: Members of the Chamber of Commerce have access to special partner discounts every time they shop in store. They can save on an assortment of products, from signage to PPE to business essentials and more. Ready to start saving? Enroll now in Staples Rewards® at staples.com/rewards. Already a Staples Rewards member? To get your number, login to your account, click Rewards, and then click Rewards Profile to locate your Rewards number or call 800-793-3320 for assistance.

We’re very excited to introduce out new Staples Chamber Discount Program exclusively for Chamber members; 10% off in-store purchases and 20% off printing and marketing services!

Link to Discount

Members of the Chamber of Commerce have access to special partner
discounts every time they shop in store. They can save on an assortment
of products, from signage to PPE to business essentials and more.
20% off your in-store Print &
Marketing Services order
• Floor decals, signs and posters
• Indoor and outdoor banners
• Disposable menus and more
10% off your in-store purchase
of regularly priced items
• Safety essentials like face masks, sanitizer and more
• Office supplies like paper, ink and toner and more
• Remote furniture like chairs, desks and more
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE
MEMBERS ONLY
Exclusive discounts at Staples® stores
Ready to start saving? Enroll now in Staples Rewards® at
staples.com/rewards.
Already a Staples Rewards member? To get your number, login to
your account, click Rewards, and then click Rewards Profile to
locate your Rewards number or call 800-793-3320 for
assistance.

 


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40 Waterville Commons Drive Waterville, ME 04901

40 Waterville Commons Drive Waterville, ME 04901 – Retail Space for Sale and Lease on CommercialExchange.com

Back Share

Former Staples Store

Retail: Freestanding


40 Waterville Commons Drive, Waterville, ME 04901

Property Details

Location

Address
40 Waterville Commons Drive, Waterville, ME 04901

County
Kennebec

Submarket

Parcels
11240_061-080-002

Building Size

Building Size

Rentable Space
23,748 SF

Building Details

Number of Buildings
1

Occupancy Type
Single Tenant

Percent Occupied

Building Class

Building Status
Existing

Floors
1

Year Built
2002

Sprinklers

Parking Ratio

Land & Utilities

Land (Acres)
2.36 Acres

Land (SF)
102,802 SF

Sanitary Sewer
Yes

Water
Yes

Rail Service
No

Zoning
CB

Lot Depth

Lot Width

Current Listings

Prime Retail Building

23,748± SF retail building on 2.36± acres

Located on Waterville Commons Drive with direct access from Exit 130 of the Maine Turnpike

Recent capital improvements include roof 2019 and parking lot 2020.

Prime location adjacent to Home Depot, Walmart and several other national retailers

Waterville Commons generated over 3,000,000 customer trips in the last year.

Excellent signage visibility from I-95

Traffic Count: 20,000± cars per day (MDOT)

23,748± SF retail building on 2.36± acres

Located on Waterville Commons Drive with direct access from Exit 130 of the Maine Turnpike

Recent capital improvements include roof 2019 and parking lot 2020.

Prime location adjacent to Home Depot, Walmart and several other national retailers

Waterville Commons generated over 3,000,000 customer trips in the last year.

Excellent signage visibility from I-95

Traffic Count: 20,000± cars per day (MDOT)

Prime Retail Building
23,748 SF $10.00 Annual/SF

23,748± SF retail building on 2.36± acres

Located on Waterville Commons Drive with direct access from Exit 130 of the Maine Turnpike

Recent capital improvements include roof 2019 and parking lot 2020.

Prime location adjacent to Home Depot, Walmart and several other national retailers

Waterville Commons generated over 3,000,000 customer trips in the last year.

Excellent signage visibility from I-95

Traffic Count: 20,000± cars per day (MDOT)

Former Staples Store

23,748± SF retail building on 2.36± acres

Located on Waterville Commons Drive with direct access from Exit 130 of the Maine Turnpike

Recent capital improvements include roof 2019 and parking lot 2020.

Prime location adjacent to Home Depot, Walmart and several other national retailers

Waterville Commons generated over 3,000,000 customer trips in the last year.

Excellent signage visibility from I-95

Traffic Count: 20,000± cars per day (MDOT)

Former Staples Store

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Retail for sale | Staples

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David Ogilvy | Advertising industry

David Ogilvy (David Mackenzie Ogilvy) – American entrepreneur, professional copywriter, advertising organizer, founder of the advertising agency “Ogilvy & Mather”, one of the most prominent representatives of the advertising business of the XX century.

Recognized by advertising practitioners and theorists, cultural historians and market research specialists, Ogilvy is one of the classic of advertising of the 20th century. In 1953, just five years after Ogilvy opened his own advertising business, the leading professional magazine Printers’ Ink wrote about him: “He is practically guaranteed a place among the great authors of advertising of all times” [1, p.233]. And in 1962, “Time” called Ogilvy “the most sought-after wizard of the modern advertising industry” [2]. In the early 1980s, Expansion magazine published an article on the industrial revolution and a list of thirty people who most stimulated the most important socio-economic transformations of the 20th century, revolutionizing social practice, science or technology. The list included Edison, Einstein, Keynes, Krupp, Lenin, Marx, Pasteur and others. It also included Ogilvy – “Pope of modern advertising” [3, p.64-65].

Introduction

During the 20th century, hundreds of thousands of people worked in the advertising industry; Thousands of specialists of various professions were involved in the development of rules for the creation and distribution of advertising; advertisements remembered by people and selling goods were done by hundreds of professionals; Dozens of outstanding professionals were able to develop their own style, and only a few determined the main directions in the development of philosophy, ethics and the language of advertising. Their ads became part of the cultural environment and set the standard for the future.Ogilvy belongs to this latter group.

Ogilvy entered the advertising business late. He had the opportunity to take into account as much as possible the achievements in this area of ​​the period 1930-1950s and took full advantage of the chance given to him by fate. In addition, by nature he possessed good logic, intuition, organizational talents and a fine sense of the word. And everything he did before working in advertising contributed to the development of these qualities in him.

Moving away from the day to day management of his company, Ogilvy has written several books about his life and advertising.Because his life trajectory had a unique, amazing configuration and because he had a bright literary ability, these books are read with great interest, they have become textbooks for several generations of advertisers. At the same time, they contain valuable material for advertising historians. Moreover, the content of the books allows us to consider Ogilvy as an advertising historian: he outlines the main lines, trends in the development of advertising, analyzes a significant number of classic advertisements, examines the features of the advertising business and briefly describes the legacy of a number of prominent American copywriters.When one of the well-known advertising creators Raymond Rubicam (1892-1978), with whom Ogilvy had been friends for about forty years, was asked why he had not written the book, he replied: “David Ogilvy has already collected everything and put it in his book.” 4, p. XVI].

European in American advertising

David Ogilvy’s active creative activity took place in a narrow time interval: from the late 1940s to the late 1960s. When he opened his own advertising agency and made it one of the largest in the country and in the world, copywriters worked successfully in America, and then and now are recognized as classics.Among them: Theodore L. Bates (1901-1972), William Benton (1900-1973), William Bernbach (1911-1982), Lester Wunderman (b. 1920), George Gribbin (George Gribbin, 1907-1891), John Caples, Rosser Reeves (Rosser Reeves, 1910-1984) and others. Advertising agencies, which have built a reputation for themselves over decades, have vast experience in advertising campaigns and significant long-term contracts with reputable customers, functioned extremely productively: “N.W. Ayer & Son, Batton, Barton, Durstine & Osborn, Lord & Thomas, Young & Rubicam, J. Walter Thompson Co and others. Competition in this area of ​​the market was extremely high, and it was extremely difficult to take one of the leading positions in it. Ogilvy succeeded.

What helped him in this? It seems that the answer is clear – it is spelled out in the books of Ogilvy himself and is contained in the memories of him. Everything seems to be reduced to the Ogilvy method, which synthesized the rational (strict prescriptions, scientific recommendations) and the non-rational, intuitive.But by and large, these same two drivers generated the activities of all the advertisers from whom Ogilvy learned. Science firmly entered the advertising production process at the end of the first third of the 20th century, and its conclusions were taken into account by everyone. As for the sensual, intuitive, spontaneous, the importance of this component of creativity has always been emphasized by the creators of advertising. This means that Ogilvie’s success lies not in the originality of the constituents of his method, but in Ogilvie himself, in what he brought into the understanding of the role of science, and in the peculiarities of his imagination.In other words, in the originality of Ogilvy’s attitude to science and in the specifics of his reflection of the world around him, in the uniqueness of his personal experience and associations. In addition to purely subjective, personal qualities, there was only one external circumstance that fundamentally distinguished Ogilvy from his outstanding contemporaries who worked in American advertising: he was not an American and represented European culture in the American advertising business.

Noting that after many years of living in America, Ogilvy spoke with a strong English accent and used the phrases of English colloquial speech, his musical tastes, style of dress, his habit of drinking tea in the office at half past five, that communicating with his colleagues in the advertising shop, he preferred communication with writers, intellectuals, academic scientists, cultural scientist S.Fox called Ogilvy’s personal image cosmopolitan [1, p. 235].

England: childhood, youth

David Ogilvy, 85, begins his latest book by saying, “My grandfather was born on June 23rd. And so is my father. And I – in 1911 ”[6, p. 1]. Their home was located in a small village near London. Father Ogilvy came from an old Scottish family, spoke English and Gaulish equally well, was a classical philologist, a kind, strong, self-possessed man. He wanted his son to be the same.To be strong, at the age of six, David had to drink a glass of fresh blood daily. When that failed, the blood was replaced with beer. To develop his son’s mental abilities, his father forced him to eat calf brains three times a week. This, according to Ogilvy, “an outstanding experiment” remained a memorable one for him throughout his life; he titled his first book of memoirs Blood, Brains & Beer: The Autobiography of David Ogilvy. Ogilvy inherited two traits from his father: pipe smoking and an addiction to crude humor.Poetry did not bother him, the only exceptions were Rudyard Kipling and Henry Newbolt. Of the symphonies, he preferred Beethoven’s Battle of Vittoria, written in honor of Arthur Wellington’s victory over Joseph Bonaparte. It is performed by three orchestras, accompanied by the sounds of gunshots from muskets and cannons, begins with the words “Rule Britain” and ends with “God save the king” [6, p. 25-26].

David’s father married at 35 and chose “the wrong wife” [6, p. 7]. Her marriage did not allow her to become a doctor, and nothing else ever interested her.She was deaf to all kinds of arts, but she read incessantly. The family had five children, David was the fourth. David was sent to kindergarten in a Scottish kilt; the English guys started teasing him and he broke one of them’s nose. His mother told him that fighting is a manifestation of weakness, he must fight back in words. Soon he could “beat” any boy in school with words. He managed to break the habit only after forty years. Knowing how Ogilvy’s life developed in the future, we can say that at an early age he was able to find words that effectively influenced people.

At the age of nine he was sent to the school of St. Cyprian, which prepared its students for admission to the best universities in the country. The family lived modestly and could not pay for school, but its director, knowing about the achievements of Ogilvy’s father in philology, hoped that David would be successful in science, and gave the family a discount. Ten years before him, George Orwell attended this school, who in his novel 1984 gave Big Brother some of the features of a school principal. On the first night at school, Ogilvie was surprised that the children prayed before going to bed, everyone in his family was unbelievers.The next day was Sunday, and David went to church for the first time, where he applauded after the end of the service. He soon became very religious, although he did not believe in many church dogmas.

At the age of eight, Ogilvy began to study Latin, at the age of eleven, Ancient Greek. The school director wrote to his parents: “He has a highly original way of thinking, and he explains to the teachers that he is right, and the books are written incorrectly” [6, p. fourteen]. The protagonist of Ogilvy’s childhood was his paternal grandfather, Francis Ogilvy, who lived an interesting life and achieved a lot.Coming from a farming family, he left school at the age of 14, married early, and then went to Argentina, where he began to develop a financial business and fought on Argentina’s side in the war with Paraguay. Learning that gold had been found in New Zealand, he went there, but found nothing; returned to London and began working at the Bank of England in Rio de Janeiro. The grandfather became a wealthy man and was able to send his seven children to prestigious educational institutions. He gave two valuable advice to his grandson. First, learn to dance: “If you dance with your boss’s wife better than him, then fortune will smile at you.”Second, he predicted to David that in time he would want to know the world and would most likely go to New York, and in this regard recommended that he study the methods of the John Morgan company (“J. P. Morgan & Company”). Indeed, a quarter of a century passed, and Ogilvy came to New York, got acquainted with the recommendations of John Morgan on doing business and made them the basis of his firm’s policy.

At the age of 13, David attended the prestigious Fettes School in Edinburgh, Scotland. Subsequently, he warmly recalled the years spent there: “Fetts was in my blood.”In 1968, addressing the students of Fetts, Ogilvy noted that his family was associated with this school for 111 years, the traditions of the school were largely laid by Ogilvy’s great-uncle, an outstanding Scottish politician and lawyer Lord John Inglis (John Inglis, Lord Glencorse, 1810-1891 ) [3, p. 95], Ogilvy’s father and brother studied there. Ogilvy studied Latin and Greek, studied ancient history.

After leaving school in 1929, Ogilvy decided to continue his studies at Oxford. He chose this university to avoid comparison with his father, brother Francis and other members of the clan, who studied at Cambridge in different years.Ogilvy was interested in history and hoped to receive a scholarship to Balliol College, one of the oldest at the university. However, after David passed the interview, the dean wrote to his father: “Your son has no chance to go to Balliol, but I am sure that he will easily get a scholarship to any other college that he chooses” [6, p. 34]. Ogilvy applied to Christ Church, a college founded in the early 16th century, three centuries after Balliol. The history teacher, on whom the scholarship decision depended, liked Ogilvy’s essay and invited him over for the weekend.After a conversation with David, he said: “You do not know history, and therefore we are thinking of giving you a scholarship” [6, p. 34]. Christ Church provided financial assistance to those who could achieve great success in the future; however, they believed that students who received high marks on admission were more likely to become mid-level specialists. But Ogilvie’s studies did not go, and two years later he left Oxford.

France: Hotel Majestic

Ogilvy’s career began in 1931 in a restaurant at the Majestic Hotel in Paris.All positions in the kitchen were occupied, and Ogilvy was asked to prepare food for the guests’ dogs. Ogilvy’s industriousness, a creative approach to solving constantly arising problems – much later he wrote about the preparation of some dishes, that it was a real surgery – quickly brought him to a high-level specialist. He once cooked for French President Paul Doumer. The chef of the restaurant, Monsieur Pitar, gathered the entire team, showed the frog legs prepared by Ogilvy and said: “This is how it should be done.” Ogilvy was allowed upstairs and the waiter handed him a glass of expensive champagne.Another time he was invited to President Doumer, when he prepared a soufflé for him: “… three weeks later he died, not from my souffle, but from the bullet of a crazy Russian” [6, p. 46]. This happened on May 6, 1932, Ogilvy was 21 at the time. In the evenings after work, Ogilvy often listened to the orchestra of Russian balalaika players, and if the day off was on Sunday, he visited the Russian Cathedral on Daru Street, where the choir sang with Chaliapin.

Years at the Majestic Hotel’s restaurant have given Ogilvy a lot in terms of understanding the role of a leader in the organizational process.In his books, he remembered with great respect the chief chef of the restaurant, Monsieur Pitard, who closely monitored the observance of the rules for preparing the most complex dishes and at the same time supported the creativity of the chefs. Over the years, what he saw in Paris became part of Ogilvy’s management style. He wrote: “I was fortunate enough to work with three outstanding leaders: Monsieur Pitar in the kitchen of the Majestic Hotel, George Gallup and Sir William Stephenson of British intelligence” [7, p. 51].

Scotland, UK: Traveling Salesman, Aspiring Advertiser

Working in the kitchen was difficult and unpromising: heading a large French restaurant was no easier than becoming the chief surgeon of a large hospital.A year later, Ogilvy returned to England and started selling Aga home ovens. This oven, invented by the Nobel laureate in physics Nils Gustaf Dalen (1869–1937), was safe and efficient and soon became a symbol of excellence in cooking technology. In a 1997 interview, Ogilvie said that Aga was the Rolls-Royce of the kitchen, and people quickly figured it out [8].

Ogilvy’s intuition and ability to analyze what was going on allowed him to quickly develop a successful form of marketing behavior.So, he discovered that when selling a stove, there was no point in contacting the owners of expensive houses directly, this issue, first of all, was decided by their cooks. In his new job, Ogilvy used his culinary experience; he would often suggest, “Buy an oven and I will cook you the best dinner in Scotland.” One archbishop to whom he sold the stove invited Ogilvy to work in his ward. There was no shortage of buyers for the next three months.

Ogilvy sold many ovens and the company asked him to write a manual for other sellers.So in 1935 his booklet The Theory and Practice of Selling an Aga Cooker appeared. This document helped the company to fundamentally improve the sale of stoves, and in 1971 Fortune magazine called it “probably the best sales manual ever written” [3, p. 4]. Many years ago, according to experts, what Ogilvy the traveling salesman wrote proved to be useful for all forms of modern advertising. In his notes, yesterday’s chef, a person who did not receive special theoretical training and had a rather limited experience of behavior in the service market, formulated the principles of attitude towards the consumer and the promotion of goods, which he later successfully developed and used fruitfully in the advertising business.

Ogilvy considered the main thing in communicating with a potential buyer to refuse the standard, from a rigid scheme. He wrote: “If one day you find yourself saying the same thing to the cardinal and the circus performer, it’s all over for you” [3, p. 5]. At the same time, he pointed to the defining universals of the traveling salesman’s behavior: accuracy, emphasized respect for the consumer, politeness, lack of falsity in communication. As a copywriter, he followed the same rule: his ads were elegant, with no pretense to entertain the reader.He said that lasting success is seldom built on buffoonery – people don’t buy from clowns. Ogilvy emphasized the importance of studying the various characteristics of potential buyers: profession, health status, habits of them and their friends; determining the best time to visit homes. Mature Ogilvie coined this thought in words: “The consumer is not an idiot, he is the same as your wife.” Every hour spent on consumer research, Ogilvy argued, brings him closer to success [3, p. 5].

Many years later, rereading his earlier work, Ogilvy commented on it as follows: “… a) at 25 I was brilliantly clever; and b) over the next 27 years, I have not learned anything new. “The first part of this remark is certainly true: Ogilvy grew up quickly. It is difficult to say what prompted the closing phrase of the comment; apparently, in subsequent years he really developed what he found in his youth. This is typical of geniuses: they realize their strength early.

Ogilvy sent a copy of the manual to his brother Francis (Francis Fairfield Ogilvy, 1904-1964), one of the leaders of the London advertising agency “Mather & Crowther”. Francis assisted David on several occasions at the most important moments in his life.After the death of his brother Ogilvy wrote that Francis meant a lot to him and in the last thirty years was his best friend [10, p. 172]. In 1935, when David Ogilvy joined Mather & Crowther, it was one of the most prestigious advertising companies in England, maintaining the traditions of the mid-19th century while striving to master new techniques.

Several pages of the memoirs of Sir Francis Meynell (1891–1975), the famous English poet and publisher, recount his short work at Mather & Crowther.In particular, he gives a brief description of David Ogilvy, who initiated his invitation to the agency: “Although he was not yet a” gray eminence “, he was certainly a” gray curé “- having no power in the agency, but very influential” [11, p. 229]. It should be noted that Ogilvy was then 26 years old, Menell was 47. Ten years later, Menell helped Ogilvy open his own advertising agency. In 1963, giving Menell his book on advertising, Ogilvy wrote: “The older I get, the more I admire you” [11, p.229].

Ogilvy was young and led a rather turbulent life: he actively attended concerts, rode yachts, had affairs with girls, and loved to drink. But already in those years he developed the habit of working hard. It was then that he began to study American advertising: he copied the materials he liked and used them in working with the agency’s clients. Later he remarked: “If someone then suggested that in twelve years I would be in New York to conduct my own advertising campaigns, I would not have believed him” [6, p.56].

Unfortunately, in his critique of his first ad, Ogilvy did not indicate when it was made: when he started at Mather & Crowther or when he was selling Aga ovens. But one thing is clear, the French impressions were still significant for him. Aga was advertised as follows. A small photograph of the oven was located in the lower left corner of the advertisement, and its dominant feature was a black and white photocopy of Edouard Manet’s famous painting Breakfast on the Grass. In a forest glade, two fashionably dressed men are reclining talking.There are two naked women with them: one sits next to them, the other swims in a stream at a distance. The link between this idyll and the Aga oven is indicated in a very peculiar way by the advertiser. First, it is briefly said that Manet’s painting was exhibited in 1863 in the Salon des Monsieurs and caused a public scandal, the reason for which was the boldness of the plot and the novelty of the artist’s technique. It is further noted that such attacks by conservatives were also caused by revolutionary scientific and technical inventions: the telephone and the car.And finally, it is reported that now the public is more inclined to immediately accept innovations, in particular – the Aga oven with a lot of positive qualities. Regarding this early work, advertising guru Ogilvy wrote: “No headline, no information about the product and the benefits of using it. Of course, no one had previously portrayed a naked body in advertising, but in this case it had nothing to do with the advertised product – a kitchen stove ”[7, p. 25].

Mastering America. Meeting with Gallup

Ogilvy decided to leave for America in 1938 after working for Mather & Crowther for three years.His friends considered it reckless to leave a good job and start all over again in a country where he did not know anyone. Ogilvy cited a number of reasons for his emigration. First: I wanted novelty, testing. Second: he understood that huge America is more promising for a career than small England. Third: he wanted to make sure that he could achieve success on his own, without the help of his brother. Fourth, he was encouraged by Roosevelt’s New Deal. Finally, he loved what he read in books about America, from the adventures of Haeckelbury Finn to the novels of Sinclair Lewis.In addition, Ogilvy did not share the somewhat arrogant attitude of the British towards the Americans (who, however, also did not have the best opinion of the British).

Ogilvy arrived in America with two letters of recommendation addressed to people who at that time represented the elite of their professional communities and were noticeably older in age. And the fact that the young Englishman developed friendly relations with them says a lot about Ogilvy’s communication skills. Decades passed, and, compiling a list of 50 of his best friends, Ogilvy included those he first turned to when he arrived in New York.

One of the letters was written by Ogilvy’s uncle, physician Sir Humphry Rolleston (1862-1944). In one of the old medical journals, it is written that Humphrey Rowleston was the nephew of the outstanding English chemist and physicist Sir Humphry Davy (Humphry Davy, 1778-1829), professor of medicine in Cambridge, holder of many scientific degrees and titles, author of books known to doctors in different countries and editor of multivolume editions. In 1884, he married Lisette Ella, daughter of Francis M.Ogilvy, the grandfather of David Ogilvy [12]. Obviously, being a luminary of medicine, he had the opportunity to write to a specialist of the highest level. Indeed, Dr. Emanuel Libman (1872-1946), to whom Sir Rawllston turned, was an eminent diagnostician; it was said that he had a special sixth sense – to see diseases. His patients included Sarah Bernhardt, Thomas Mann, Albert Einstein and many other celebrities. Ogilvy was young, but he was also given valuable medical advice by Dr. Liebman.

Ogilvy’s second letter of introduction was given by his maternal cousin Cecily Isabel Fairfield (1892-1983), an Anglo-Irish writer, essayist and journalist known as Rebecca West.She began her career as an actress, entered the narrow circle of literary bohemians, had a son from H.G. Wells, was in close relations with Charlie Chaplin, and did a lot to strengthen feminism in England. Her letter was addressed to Alexander Humphreys Woollcott (1887–1943), the country’s leading theater critic, whose articles have shaped the cultural attitudes of the American intelligentsia for many years.

At Woolcott Ogilvy often spent the weekend, he met with many famous people in the world of theater and cinema already in those years: Ethel Barrymore (Ethel Barrymore, 1879-1959), Ruth Gordon Jones, 1896-1985, George Kaufman (George Simon Kaufman, 1889-1961), Harpo Marx (Harpo Marx – Adolph Arthur Marx, 1888-1964), Robert Emmet Sherwood (1896-1955) and others.Each of them left a significant page in the history of American culture in the 20th century.

Many have helped Ogilvy navigate American life, but above all he calls Charles Burlingham (Charles Culp Burlingham, 1858-1959), a prominent lawyer, one of the most famous people in New York. From him Ogilvy received the necessary knowledge in the field of American politics. Ogilvy also mentions Frances Perkins (1882-1965), the Minister of Labor, who helped him obtain a work permit.During the same period, Ogilvy met the young copywriter Rosser Reeves (1910-1984), who soon became a very prominent person in the advertising world. They dined together twice a month, and Reeves opened Ogilvy’s eyes to what advertising was. After a while, they became related: Ogilvy’s first wife, Melinda, was the sister of Reeves’ wife.

Having a general idea of ​​the young Ogilvy’s social circle, of people whose attention he valued throughout his life, for each helped him in his own way to find himself, one can understand the true meaning of Ogilvy’s words: “And here I got the happiest chance in my life: Dr. George Gallup invited me to work in his organization in Princeton ”[6, p.65].

Ogilvie and Gallup met by chance, and although their life experiences were different, their relationship soon grew from business to friendship. George Gallup was ten years Ogilvy’s senior and had a Ph.D. in psychology, became a professor early and, thanks to the successful prediction of the victory of Franklin Roosevelt in the presidential election in 1936, gained nationwide fame as an analyst of public opinion. He directed the American Institute of Public Opinion (AIPO), which he founded in 1935.In addition, Gallup was a recognized expert in the study of press audiences and advertising performance, and by the time he met Ogilvy, he had been head of research for several years at Young & Rubicam, one of America’s largest advertising agencies.

According to Ogilvy’s recollections, the day after arriving in America, he called Raymond Rubikam with a request to meet. “Start your own business,” he barked. To which Ogilvy replied: “I would like to use your brains” [7, p.193]. Ogilvy traveled to America to deepen his knowledge of advertising, but no one offered him a job as a copywriter. Rubikam introduced Ogilvy to Gallup, under whose guidance he quickly mastered the technology of public opinion polling. Ogilvy already possessed excellent business acumen and quickly showed his analytical skills. Soon Gallup invited him to head the Audience Research Institute (ARI), which he created in March 1940, which later became known as “Audience Research Incorporated” [13].Both Gallup Institutions were located in Princeton.

In his memoirs, Ogilvy noted that he was the head of ARI, but did not indicate his position anywhere. In a number of reference publications and articles about Ogilvy, he is called the executive director, the head of the institute. But on the corporate site of The Gallup Organization, which originates from the AIPO, Ogilvy is named ARI’s vice president. [14] Perhaps, when deciding whether to attract Ogilvy to the leadership of ARI, Gallup took into account not only the business qualities of his young colleague, but also his knowledge of the world of artistic bohemia.Time has shown that Ogilvie could indeed conduct difficult negotiations with the “bison” of Hollywood, discuss with them difficult questions regarding the results of research.

Gallup himself began to think about studying cinema as early as 1934-1935 due to a number of circumstances. First, he saw an interesting methodological problem here: his method worked in the study of political and consumer attitudes, in the study of the effectiveness of advertising, but no one tried to use it in the analysis of the film audience.Secondly, Gallup understood that the representatives of the film industry did not take into account the interests of ordinary viewers in their work: “… they never paid attention to the desires of local audiences, to the prices that would be acceptable for them, to the types of films that certain groups of people wanted to see ”[16, p. 65]. Ogilvy recalls that Gallup – based on the AIPO – began exploratory research in the field of cinema in late 1936, but he did not make this fact public until January 1939, when a number of newspapers published the results of a nationwide study of attitudes towards the movie “Gone with the Wind.” [16, p.65]. Gallup suggested promoting the film as a love story rather than a war movie. And although the creator of the film, D. Selznick, did not order this study, in negotiations with distributors he referred to Gallup’s findings, spoke of the film’s unprecedentedly large audience and that it would be a significant cultural phenomenon. It is known that this is what happened. According to G. Bakker, who thoroughly studied the formation of marketing research in the film industry, this Gallup survey was a turning point in the history of studying the film audience; everything that was done before was the “prologue of scientific marketing” [17, p.107].

In 1940, ARI’s main client was RKO (Radio Keith Orpheum), which distributed films in the country and controlled many aspects of the development of the film industry. Its president, a very young man George Schaefer (1920-1997), offered Gallup an exclusive contract for a year. In 1941, new customers appeared. In the early 1940s, the firm employed 50 to 60 people who planned the studies, processed them, and analyzed the results.About a thousand interviewers who worked for AIPO were involved in collecting information. Some interviews included up to 200 questions and lasted over an hour. The questions were carefully selected and used in a variety of ways. Since the title of a movie largely determined its audience success, the polls tested the main title and two controls from a secret list of hypothetical titles. Other methods of studying attitudes towards cinema have also been used. For example, groups of one hundred people were formed, representing various layers of the audience, and while watching a movie, this jury, having a special device in its hands, evaluated this or that fragment according to a five-point system.This information was fed to the central “seismograph”, and a curve was drawn for evaluating various parts, plots of the film. Recalling later the work of ARI in the 1940s, Gallup said that “these were the best studies he had ever seen or participated in” [17, p. 114]. Made in ARI has become synonymous with quality film marketing testing [18].

Ogilvy was to use the Gallup polling technology, which has successfully proven itself in the study of public opinion, to investigate the attitude of Americans towards films and identify the factors due to which films are accepted or not accepted by the viewer.First of all, it was necessary to determine the composition of the film audience. Prior to Gallup’s research-based sampling, judgments about who went to the movies were based on observations and letters from viewers. For the first time, Ogilvy’s reports allowed RKO to obtain representative data on gender, age, and socioeconomic status, as well as preferences for different audiences.

Ogilvy, who had no special education, carried out a very subtle sociological analysis of the film audience.So, in 1941, before releasing on the screen a new film with the actress Gloria Swanson, popular in the 1920s (Gloria Swanson, 1897-1983), the RKO company asked to find out the attitude of viewers towards her. Ogilvy wrote: “… the audience of films is not an army standing still, it is a moving parade. Miss Swenson starred for the last time in 1934. Over the years, most of her fans have ended up in the category of people who don’t go to the movies. Their places in front of the box office window of cinemas were taken by representatives of the generation that had never seen Miss Swenson ”[16, p.69].

Every two months, Ogilvy made a graph to illustrate the dynamics of the popularity of movie stars. Previously, he assumed that viewers go to the cinema to admire actors of the opposite sex, but it turned out that this is not the case. In reality, male viewers identified with male heroes, and women with heroines. Of course, there were exceptions, but in general, moviegoers “voted for those stars with whom they had the most in common” [6, p. 70]. This conclusion was later used by Ogilvy in the creation of advertisements; it turned out that men often ignore advertisements with a photograph of a woman, and a man’s photography reduces the female audience of advertising [19, p.119]. Ogilvy argued: “To attract the attention of women, show children or women, to attract the attention of men, show men” [9, p. 127].

Gallup and Ogilvy formulated four search problems: determine the popularity of movie stars through the number of tickets purchased for movies with their participation; to reveal the expectations of the audience of films on the basis of the content of the plays shown on Broadway, to give an opinion on the “marketability” of certain movie titles; find out what part of the audience heard about the film before it was released.This information was used to predict the size of the audience for the new movie. Ogilvy notes that the average error in solving this most difficult problem was less than ten percent [6, p. 68]. The question of Gallup’s (and possibly Ogilvy’s) contribution is most fully explored by Susan Ohmer in her in-depth study George Gallup in Hollywood [20].

Researchers soon took the liberty of sharing ideas with filmmakers about which films would appeal to audiences.In particular, Ogilvy invited Disney to stage “Alice in Wonderland”, which he successfully did.

While the ARI was running Gallup, a busy weekly poll and Young & Rubicam projects, the film audience reports were produced over a three-month period. Ogilvy reduced this period to two days [7, p. 36], which fundamentally increased their value for Hollywood managers. Over the course of three years, Ogilvy conducted over 400 nationwide surveys, providing a wealth of research experience and insight into the American moviegoer.

In a more than 60-year-old issue of Time magazine, there is a short note on ARI research, which refers to the work of “a promising young Scotsman named David Ogilvy”, who has already conducted 194 surveys that have “shattered many of Hollywood’s cherished illusions.” … And here is Ogilvy’s main takeaway: “No motion picture can have significant commercial success if it does not attract audiences of all ages and from all groups. But there is no infallible formula for creating such a movie ”[21].Until July 1941, Time did not write about Ogilvy, and perhaps this is generally one of the first mentions of him in the mainstream American publications.

Gallup and Ogilvy are rightfully called the pioneers of the study of film audiences; before them, the American film production and distribution industry did not have scientifically substantiated information about the structure of the audience and its preferences.

Gallup created ARI, formulated the philosophy of its activities and laid the methodological basis for the system for collecting empirical information.Ogilvy, in fact, was the first to master the Gallup technology of sample surveys in the study of cultural, aesthetic attitudes, recorded the parameters of the American film audience at the turn of the 1930s and 1940s, and proved the practical value of sociological and marketing research of viewers.

Gallup not only taught Ogilvy how to analyze the results of film audience research, but also helped him come to the general, universal conclusions later used by Ogilvy the advertiser.One such conclusion Ogilvy cited in 1985 in a letter to his colleague and close friend Alexander L. Biel, head of The Ogilvy Center for Research and Development, in response to Beale’s statement that the majority of the population just doesn’t like ads: “When I did my research for Hollywood, I found that the majority of the population couldn’t be said to dislike any movie stars. Forty-five years ago, I came to the conclusion that ordinary Americans are too friendly or too stupid, too passive or too uncritical not to love anything ”[3, p.39].

According to Ogilvy’s recollections, Gallup paid him $ 40 a week, less than the gardener received from the Hollywood luminaries whom Ogilvy advised. Nevertheless, he wrote: “… I would be happy to pay Gallup myself for the education he gave me” [6, p. 74]. Speaking about the importance of Gallup’s research on the perception of advertising, Ogilvy noted: “Gallup brought more of us to the study of advertising combined” [3, p. 106]. In previous publications, I linked these words primarily with a large number of factors that increase the effectiveness of advertising, which Gallup identified.However, the context in which this statement was formulated allows it to be extended to both Gallup’s philosophy of political and marketing research and his understanding of the phenomenon of creativity. The fact is that further Ogilvy talks about the relationship between science and creativity in his work. “When Ogilvy & Mather started, I had two functions. On Thursday and Friday, I was director of research. On Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday – creative director … The long-standing conflict between creative and research functions did not subside in my fevered brain … I always looked at creative work through the eyes of a researcher, which did not contribute to the love for me on the part of my copywriter friends and art editors.And I looked at the research through the eyes of a copywriter ”[3, p. 106-107].

The bottom line is that Gallup not only provided Ogilvy with facts that make it possible to increase the effectiveness of advertising on a person, but opened the mechanisms of creative thinking to him, convinced him that following the recommendations of science does not reduce the creative potential of work, but, on the contrary, allows intuition, imaginative thinking to open up more fully. Ogilvy agreed with Gallup that every word in an ad must have a meaning. Instead of vague promises, there should be specific numbers, general phrases should give way to facts, and empty persuasions should give way to tempting proposals.One of the most important rules Ogilvy formulated for new hires was: “Content is more important than form. What you say is more important than how you say it ”[9, p. 64]. He called the word “test” the most important in the copywriter’s vocabulary and called for testing everything: advertised products, advertising media, headlines and illustrations, size of advertising texts, frequency of advertising, costs. “Never stop testing, and your advertising will constantly improve” [19, p.86].

Illustrating the idea of ​​the need to strictly adhere to a rigid scientifically verified system of advertising design, he cited as an example Shakespeare’s sonnets and Mozart’s sonatas, built according to the strict rules of the genre, and asked: “Are they colorless, shapeless?” [19, p. 90]. And in one of his books, Ogilvy quoted the words of Mozart: “I never made the slightest effort to compose something original” [6, p. 24]; listening to the music of this composer, Ogilvy felt great happiness [6, p.26].

Two “European” periods of Ogilvy’s life in America

The first years (1938-1942) of Ogilvy’s American life were the time of his active comprehension of America and an important stage in his professional development. For the next six years, until 1948, Ogilvy continued to accumulate and deepen his European experience without leaving America. It seems impossible, but it was.

Knowledge of methods of measuring public opinion, the ability to work with large amounts of information determined the nature of Ogilvy’s activities during the Second World War.In 1942, brother Francis helped him enter the British intelligence service, where his immediate superior was superclass intelligence officer William Stephenson (1896-1989), known to millions of people in the West as Intrepid (Fearless). In his youth, the Canadian Stephenson was carried away by the just nascent radio, during the First World War he was a pilot, received the education of a radio engineer, invented and patented a device for wireless transmission of photographs, participated in the creation of the British broadcasting company BBC, had his own radio business and became a wealthy man.He traveled a lot across Europe, knew well and deeply understood the events taking place. In 1940, Winston Churchill commissioned him to coordinate the activities of British intelligence in the Western Hemisphere. Much of the successful cooperation between Britain and the United States during the war years was determined by the absolute trust of the leaders of these two countries to Stephenson.

Stephenson was a man of phenomenal business acumen, served by 12 secretaries. Bernard Baruch (1870–1965), legendary on Wall Street, an outstanding financier who made millions in the stock market, an economic adviser to Presidents Wilson and Roosevelt, admired Stephenson’s analytical skills.He said: “Stephenson could have calculated everything seven steps further than you … His messages contained only the essence of the matter. Not a single superfluous word ”[6, p. 81].

First of all, Ogilvy received training at a special camp near Toronto to train saboteurs. He was taught to discreetly observe people, shoot a revolver, organize explosions, kill with his bare hands. He expected to be parachuted into the occupied territory, but Stephenson gave him another task: to analyze economic information from agents in Latin America.The tasks of the group in which he was a member included the destruction of businessmen working against the Allied countries. It was also necessary to do everything to prevent Germany from using Latin American strategic materials. Ogilvy, in his recollections, knew more about all this than anyone in Washington – the British embassy was located there – and sent about forty reports to the US intelligence department every day. With the work diminishing in importance, Stephenson assigned Ogilvy to investigate a leak of super-classified information from Churchill to the command in Greece.Ogilvy solved this problem and then participated in many more complex operations. Ogilvy in the book about Stephenson is named “perhaps the most outstanding young man” surrounded by the latter [6, p. 83–84]. After the war, Stephenson sent him a photograph of himself with the caption: “David, my dear friend and comrade in arms” [6, p. 163].

In parallel with this work, in 1944 and 1945, Ogilvy served as the second secretary of the British Embassy in America. One of his tasks was the preparation of instructions sent to different countries.Here he gained the skills to create readable texts. He recalled: “We rarely had any difficulty in what to say. But it was often inconvenient to tell representatives of the State Department, mainly lawyers, that their preparations were so clumsy that no ambassador could understand them ”[6, p. 88].

By service, Ogilvy met with many high-level English and foreign diplomats, with some of whom he developed friendly relations. However, he himself did not look like a diplomat.An elderly black woman at the Union Station in Washington, DC, mistook him for a porter and tip him when he helped her with her luggage. This short dialogue between Ogilvy and the taxi driver suggests that he did not look American either. “When I asked the taxi driver to give me a lift to the embassy building, he was noticeably surprised. “Do you work there?” – “Yes”. – “Who are you, gardener?” – “No”. “But you speak English very well.” – “Thanks”. – “Did you teach him before you arrived?” – “Yes” [6, p.91].

So, during the war years, Ogilvy, while in Washington, worked in an English organization and in the interests of England. He lived in an English environment and communicated with the British. He remained an Englishman rather than an American.

For the next three years, again without leaving America, Ogilvy actually lived in southern Germany at the beginning of the 18th century. It all began in June 1940, when, on one of his trips with Gallup, Ogilvy saw from a train window a group of men who looked like pilgrims.Gallup explained to him that they were Amish. A few weeks later, Ogilvy and his wife rode their bicycles to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and found Amish settlements there. Then they started going there regularly and made many friends there.

The Amish are descendants of emigrants who moved to America in the first half of the 18th century from southern Germany; they mainly live in Pennsylvania. Until now, the Amish have retained their language, religion, customs, old names. They wear old-fashioned clothes, women sew them themselves for their family members.Usually the Amish light the house with candles and kerosene lamps, electricity and modern technology are used extremely limited, for example, battery-powered flashlights and light tractors. They don’t use cars or telephones. They believe that television and computers can destroy their traditional forms of communication, weaken family ties; in general, according to their ideas, progress is not “something better.” Their whole life is strictly regulated by the prescriptions of the church. Within the community, the Amish speak one of the old German dialects, but learn “high” German, which is used for church services, and learn English in school.They are skilled farmers, artisans, and make beautiful and expensive furniture.

Ogilvy’s own publications do not explain why after the end of the war, in 1946, he and his wife Melinda (Melinda Graeme Ogilvy, 1919-2004) and their three-year-old son David (David Fairfield Ogilvy) settled in the Amish community. After all, Ogilvy was 35 years old and had a solid background in various marketing fields, influential friends in the advertising world and among leading American public opinion analysts. Perhaps, as in emigration to America, he did not want to turn to anyone for help, he decided to achieve everything himself.One way or another, but in Lancaster County, he bought 100 acres of land with two houses and began to grow tobacco. Ogilvy lived in this “big country monastery” for three years. He liked a lot about this simple life. However, constant worries about crop prices, lack of physical strength to engage in rural labor, lack of skills in repairing equipment, and so on, forced Ogilvy to leave farming. He started his own business: an advertising agency.

Creative heights

In 1971, Ogilvy briefly described his entry into the American advertising business.Here is the full text: “Which ad agency would hire this person? 38 years old, unemployed. Dropped out of college. He was a cook, a traveling salesman, a diplomat and a farmer. Knows nothing about marketing and has never written advertising copy. He says that he was interested in advertising as a profession (at the age of 38!) And is ready to work for $ 5,000 a year. I doubt there would have been an American agency willing to hire him. But one London agency nevertheless accepted him into its ranks. And three years later, he became the world’s most famous copywriter and now sets the course for the tenth largest agency in the world.Moral: a creative and unorthodox approach to hiring new employees is sometimes justified ”[3, p. twenty].

There is no essence of 38-year-old Ogilvie in this self-image, which is what actually explains his extreme success in the advertising business and the rapid recognition of his leadership by those around him. God, Ogilvy repeated in advertising, is in the details. The “details” of his biography by that time – this is a huge experience in studying film audiences and understanding of consumer psychology, high analytical skills, honed by years of research, knowledge of American advertising literature and personal acquaintance with a number of top-level specialists in this field of activity.Finally, performance, creativity, healthy ambition. Even during the farming period, Ogilvy thought about working in advertising, studied what was done by leading agencies. In the early 1960s, he recalled in one of his letters that most of all he would like to work for Young & Rubicam, “because he was close to the style and traditions of this company. But he did not apply there, realizing that they would not take him – due to his age and the fate of the tumbleweed [1, p. 229].

It is possible that, with some effort, Ogilvy would still find work in advertising, but this course of events clearly did not suit him.He was overwhelmed with all sorts of life observations and impressions that pushed him not just into the advertising business, but to the activities of a copywriter. However, he understood that he could not slowly build his career, starting with a small position in one of the existing agencies. He didn’t have time for a run-up, and in general copywriters, as a rule, reach creative heights in their youth. When Ogilvy was 53 years old and a number of his advertising works have already become classics, he said: “… most copywriters, including me, work better in the third ten than in the fourth, and in the fourth better than in the fifth” [5, p.75].

In September 1948, Ogilvy opened an “English advertising agency” in New York. He invested only $ 6,000 in this business. Most of the capital belonged to Mather & Crowther and the London advertising firm S. H. Benson, Ltd “. Ogilvy had no experience in advertising business in America, and therefore it was decided to find the president of the firm – an American.

Ogilvy brought in the energetic accountant Anderson Fowler Hewitt (1912–1984), who worked in the advertising industry and knew many people in the field.Ogilvy became vice president [1, p. 230]. The new firm was called Hewitt, Ogilvy, Benson & Mather and had only a few small UK orders. Hewitt did a lot to establish the firm, but it soon became clear that he and Ogilvy had different visions of the prospects for its development, and four years later Hewitt went out of business. Ogilvy became head of Ogilvy, Benson & Mather.

While still thinking about the strategy of his advertising agency, Ogilvy noted: “The name in advertising has to be earned.We start with very modest means, but we are going to become the largest agency until 1960 ”[19, p. 24]. And so it happened. At the dawn of his independent career, Ogilvy wrote down the names of five companies with which he most wanted to work: General Foods, Bristol-Myers, Campbell Soup, Lever Brothers and Shell [19, p. 25]. All these companies by the middle of the XX century had a long history, nationwide fame and collaborated with the largest advertising agencies in the country.By the early 1960s, they were all clients of the Ogilvy firm.

Ogilvy’s Campaigns revolutionized the art of advertising and established him the highest authority in the field. Ogilvy, like no one else, understood the role of each of the many factors that make advertising successful, and at the same time he always saw them in harmony, in unity.

Ogilvy’s interpretation of the functions of advertising and the results of its testing led him to understand the specifics of the advertising language and the difference between the latter and fiction. In a conversation with the famous American novelist Roald Dahl (1916-1990), Ogilvy noted that not all great copywriters had the talent to write well; they were great because their ads sold well.Ogilvy himself considered many of his advertising texts terrible from the point of view of a professional writer – but they took into account the fact that “the majority of consumers were uneducated housewives” [1, p. 236].

Highly appreciating creativity in creating advertising, he divided copywriters not into creative and non-creative, but exclusively into good and bad. Accordingly, he considered advertising not as entertainment or an art form, but “in Lasker” – as a source of information.Good advertising “sells the product without attracting attention to itself” [19, p. 90]. Ogilvy wanted the ad reader to say, not “what a clever ad,” but “I didn’t know that, I gotta try this product.” As an illustration, Ogilvy cited an example from the history of ancient Greece, when two famous orators, Aeschines and Demosthenes, called on the Greeks to war with Philip of Macedon: “When Aeschines spoke, people noted:“ How well he speaks ”. But when Demosthenes spoke, they shouted: “Let’s go to Philip!” [19, p.90].

Many of Ogilvy’s own works and those that he performed in conjunction with his employees entered the golden fund of American advertising of the twentieth century: they were expressive, and with their help the goods sold well. Below are considered those of them that are most highly appreciated both by specialists in this field and by Ogilvy himself.

Guinness

In 1950, the Irish beer company Guinness invited Ogilvy to create a series of travel guide advertisements for oysters, cheeses, game, and more.The Guinness advertising campaign in England in the 1930s was extremely simple in form, primitive in content and created a distorted image of this beer brand.

The Oyster Advertisement was the first Ogilvy created while running an agency. She was informative and elegant in graphic and color terms. The advertising field is divided into 12 cells, three in four rows. In the top center box is the heading “Guinness Guide to Oysters”, in nine there are photographs of different types of oysters and short stories about each of them.In the lower right is a bottle of Guinness dark beer, next to it is a glass of beer. A smiling face appears on the surface of the foam. In the lower middle cell – the main slogan of the advertisement: “Any oysters will be tastier with a sip of Guinness beer.” The order, Ogilvy wrote, was not very profitable, but provided an excellent opportunity to showcase the firm’s creativity.

Man in shirt Hathway

The advertisement known as “The man in the Hathway shirt” not only became a turning point in the history of the company, but is also recognized as one of the highest examples of advertising culture of the twentieth century.Today, half a century after its creation, the reason for its phenomenal success becomes clear: it has the spirit of America in the early 1950s, it reflects a number of features of the American way of life in the postwar years, and it is personal – traces of the biography of its author can be read in it.

It all started simply: a new advertising company, which did not have a large number of clients, was approached by Ellerton Jett (1899-1986), the owner of a small factory “Hathway Shirt Company” for the production of men’s shirts.The factory was established in 1837 and, although it produced good products, did not advertise it to the general public [23]. The customer could offer no more than $ 30 thousand a year for work, but he promised not to change a word in the advertisement text; he placed all responsibility for product advertising on Ogilvie. For all 19 years of their further cooperation, Gette did not break his promise.

Professionally, the task was not easy. First of all, what new, especially interesting, could you say about the men’s shirt? Secondly, at the time, Arrow Collar Man shirts were famous, which were advertised by the movie superstars of the 1930s and 1940s Clark Gable, Cary Grant and others.This advertising campaign was run by Young & Rubicam since the late 1930s and was carried out by the distinguished copywriter George Gribbin under the slogan “My friend Joe Holmes is now a horse” (1938). It was about the fact that when Joe was a man, he did not know about Arrow Collar Man shirts and was constantly tormented by bad collars; now that he has died and reincarnated as a horse, he has a wonderful yoke and is finally happy. Attempts by other copywriters to advertise a similar product have not been successful.At any rate, the ad for Van Heusen shirts featuring Hollywood actor Ronald Reagan was unsuccessful.

Ogilvy wanted to create not a glamorous, but a lively, everyday image. The man in the ad had to be attractive to both women (main customers) and middle-aged and older men who were supposed to have the shirts. There is a note dated May 5, 1951, in which Ogilvy asks his photographer to find a middle-aged man who looks like Hemingway or Faulkner, preferably with a mustache.Gradually the idea crystallized that made the ad for Hathway shirts famous. Among Ogilvy’s schoolmates was a boy who wore a black patch over his eye. Shortly before starting work on the advertisement, Ogilvy saw a photograph of Lewis Williams Douglas (1894-1974), the American ambassador to England, with the same bandage. Ogilvy had thought about the colorfulness of a black band before, and, thinking about a new ad, he decided to use this touch there. On his way to work, he bought one for a dollar and a half.

This story is corroborated by a series of letters from Ogilvy. But there is another version, told in the Hathway Shirt Company to James Twitchell, author of a series of essays on outstanding advertising. According to this version, such an idea arose from the wife of Gette, who saw a man with a black bandage and told her husband that this makes a person very special. Gette shared her observation with Ogilvy [24, p. 141].

Photographer has found a man who resembles Faulkner; it turned out to be a former white Russian officer, Baron George Wrangell (1904-1969), with healthy eyes and normal vision.The photograph immediately attracted attention; On May 7, 1951, Ogilvy wrote to Gette: “I did something extremely unorthodox … This is a trifle, but it can change a lot” [1, p. 230]. More than once in his books, Ogilvy wrote that there is no success without a big idea. The small eye patch became the big idea, which he later successfully developed.

The ad text was short, five paragraphs, and highly informative. First, a compliment to American men, who, of course, understand that a good suit can be ruined by a mass-produced shirt.Then – the message that the growing popularity of comfortable and elegant shirts factory “Hathway”, located in the small town of Waterville (Waterville), Maine, is explained very simply: shirts have been sewn there for 120 years from the best materials made in England, Scotland, Iceland, India, France and America. On September 22, 1951, the “Man in the Hathway Shirt” advertisement first appeared in the New Yorker magazine. Soon, the factory was unable to satisfy requests for its products.

A small message about this advertisement was published by Time magazine a year after its birth [25]; then Ogilvy’s work was already well-known, but had not yet acquired the status of a classic.It was noted that the Advertising Federation of America named Ogilvy as Young Advertising Man of the Year. There was also an example of Ogilvy’s “one-eyed flattery”: a major Manhattan department store used a black eyepatch in its ad. It should be noted that the publication itself in “Time”, in American terms, was an excellent advertisement for Ogilvy’s activities.

Following the first advertisement, in which Baron Wrangel only showed his shirt, others began to appear, where he played the oboe, conducted the orchestra, copied a Goya painting, inflated a car tire, acquired Renoir, played bridge and others.It was all part of Ogilvie’s life. In American culture, there is a man named Walter Mitty, invented by the writer James Thurber, who constantly finds himself in fantastic situations that he himself invented; his name has become a household name. So, in one of his letters, Ogilvy calls the man with the eye patch “Walter mitty” Ogilvy. And he adds: “Therefore, it is a coherent, logically consistent image” [1, p. 231]. There was even an advertisement in which a man with an eye patch was writing a will; here is its headline: “To my son Benjamin: one million dollars and all my Hathway shirts” [26, p.301].

In some cases, the text of the advertisement was printed in abbreviated form. Moreover, for the first four years, the ad campaign was carried out only on the pages of the New Yorker and was so famous that Ogilvy often published only a photo of a man with an eye patch, without textual support. This image became recognizable, turned into a brand.

Tonic Schweppes

An advertising campaign for the British tonic firm Schweppes is another classic by Ogilvy.And it all started not in the best way. Half an hour after Ogilvy, relying on the results of research, began to report the marketing plan of the campaign to Sir Frederic Hooper, the president of Schweppes, not a retrograde and a successful businessman, the latter stopped him by saying: “… your statistical approach is this is sheer childishness. ” However, Ogilvy did not change his style of work, and after five years, Hooper admitted he was wrong. He suggested that Ogilvy organize a forum for advertisers and use in his speech one of Hooper’s conclusions: “In the end, clients should be grateful to advertising agents who tell the truth” [19, p.68–69]. And could it be otherwise if by then the sales of Schweppes drinks in the United States had grown by 517 percent?

The company offered Ogilvy to use in advertising one of its managers, during the war years a former officer of the British navy, Commander Edward Whitehead (Edward Whitehead, 1908-1978). Whitehead was a tall, elegant man with a beard that made him look a little like Nicholas II. In those years in America, a beard made a person stand out no less than an eye patch; in addition to the man from Hathway, a man from Schweppes appeared [1, p.233].

Photography occupied the main place in advertising, the text was short and highly informative. It was reported that the company “Schweppes” has existed since 1784, that the tonic is good for refreshing and whoever tastes it will forever remember the day when he first read the advertisement for the drink. As in the case of Baron Wrangel, Ogilvy designed a series of advertising campaigns representing Commander Whitehead in various situations: here he is at the airport – he flew in to make sure of the quality of the Schweppes delivered to America; here he is – the “London ambassador” from “Schweppes”, with a frosty mustache and beard, looking like Santa Claus, advertising a cold tonic with vodka or gin; now the president of the American branch of “Schweppes” is present at the check of tonic barrels; he is next to teenagers in sports uniforms, with a princess from the Indian city of Bangalore … After a while Whitehead was so popular that he was invited to television shows and he became the hero of jokes.Artist Bernard Hailstone (1910-1987), whose brushes belong to the portraits of members of the British royal family, Winston Churchill, Peter Ustinov and other celebrities, also painted a portrait of Edward Whitehead.

This advertising campaign for Ogilvy began in 1953 and lasted for eighteen years.

Puerto Rico

Ogilvy was delighted with the Puerto Rico advertising campaign. He highly appreciated the result of this work, saw in it a space for creativity, appreciated the spirit of cooperation with the main customer of the advertising project – the architect of the “Caribbean Miracle” of the 1950-1970s Teodoro Moscoso (Teodoro Moscoso, 1910-1992).Moscoso asked how Ogilvy was going to advertise his country: “An oasis of serenity rooted in Spanish tradition? An industrial hive? A bridge between the United States and Latin America? ” Ogilvy proposed to create a wonderful image of Puerto Rico instead of the existing idea of ​​an impoverished state [6, p. 137]. According to Ogilvy, such an image would be of fundamental importance for the industrial development of Puerto Rico, tourism and political evolution [19, p. 51].

At the very beginning of his work, Ogilvy sent a telegram to photographer William Binzen, in which he wrote: “What we need for advertising is about twelve immortal photographs.You should choose historical, cultural and Renaissance sites. We need old churches, magnificent landscapes, friendly people, and modern architecture is just for contrast … Remember that advertising should be beautiful, spiritual and unforgettable ”… [27].

Binsen and another now famous photographer, Elliott Erwitt, took highly expressive photographs that convey the romance of old Spanish architecture. The accompanying texts briefly spoke about the beauty of the country and the social changes taking place in it.Several advertisements were associated with the name of the great cellist Pablo Casals. The most famous of them depicts an almost empty room in the house of Casals’ mother. There is no maestro, only his instrument. The melancholy of Eruitt’s photograph, the interior and overall illumination reminiscent of the romanticism of the mid-18th and early 19th centuries (how not to recall Baron Wrangel, who copied Goya), is enhanced by the ad’s headline: “Pablo Casals is coming home – to Puerto Rico “).

Research by the Ogilvy Agency showed that most Americans who had never been to Puerto Rico believed that it was a dirty, impoverished country. Advertising generated a tourist boom for this island [7, p. 128]. Ogilvy opened the country to Americans, attracted hundreds of companies and millions of tourists to it, helped to get rid of four centuries of poverty.

Soap Dove

The Dove soap campaign of the famous Lever Brothers company is an example of the effectiveness of a scientific approach to advertising and understanding consumer psychology.

Initially, the firm planned to serve Dove as the first “neutral”, that is, soft, non-alkaline, brand of soap, but Ogilvy decided that such a lackluster presentation would not appeal to the consumer. Studying the composition of the soap, he drew attention to the presence of a popular moisturizer in it. This became the starting point for building an advertising campaign; Dove could have been marketed as a men’s soap, but Ogilvie decided to offer it as a women’s toilet that does not dry out the skin.

Ogilvy saw the ad as provocative: a bold photograph for 1950s America, an emotional headline.But for “European” Ogilvy, who used Manet’s “Breakfast on the Grass” in his first ad, it was quite natural. In the photo – a girl lying in a bath; it is almost entirely covered with lather. In one hand – a block of soap, in the other – a telephone receiver. The girl talks to her fan: “Darling, this is an incredible feeling” … (“Darling, l’m having the most extraordinary experience …”). These words are the headline of the advertisement. The use of the word “darling”, as follows from a series of tests, should have elicited a strong emotional response from the reader.“Soap is just soap,” she continues. “But a bath with Dove is heaven. And just think, dear, tomorrow night I can do it again. ” In the corner of the advertisement there is information about the composition of the soap, the manufacturer is called; it is noted that if the soap is not pleasant, then it can be returned at full cost.

Advertising campaign began in 1956 and lasted forty years, Dove became the most famous toilet soap in the country and in the world [4, p. XVI].

Rolls-Royce

In 1957, employees talked Ogilvy out of accepting an order to advertise Rolls-Royce vehicles.But when, a few months later, Rolls-Royce proposed new terms to Ogilvy, Benson & Mather, Ogilvy decided he would do the ad himself. He studied Rolls-Royce technical data for three weeks and produced 28 headlines; then he selected a dozen of them and presented them to his colleagues for trial. During the discussion, the best one was selected: “At 60 milws a hour the loudest noise in this new Rolls-Royce comes from the electric clock “).

The ad was built in violation of all traditions and rules: the text contained 607 words – more than Ogilvy considered acceptable. But in this case, he did it on purpose. Educated and wealthy people – and only they could afford such a car – needed detailed information.

The ad content is the answer to the subheading question: “What makes a Rolls-Royce the best car in the world?” Overall, the answer is simple: the manufacturers’ utmost attention to detail.Each motor is tested before installation, after assembly, the machine is also carefully checked; the car is eighteen inches (about 46 cm) shorter than the longest American cars and its design is such that the owner himself can drive it, no chauffeur is needed; there is a three-year warranty and repairs can be carried out anywhere in the country. Gasoline is economical, the use of the purest grades is not necessary.

The rear window is heated by an invisible wire laid in it, there is a cooling system.You can install a coffee maker in the car, turn on a voice recorder, an electric shaver, a telephone, and unfold the seats. High safety is ensured by a special braking system, the car reaches speeds of over 100 miles per hour. In other words, the ad text contained everything that could interest a potential buyer – and nothing superfluous. This advertisement, – noted in a special edition, – at the beginning of 1958 engraved in the memory of people. For the year, the sale of Rolls-Royces increased by 50 percent, advertising costs amounted to 25 thousand dollars [28, p.243].

The Ogilvie Empire

In the history of advertising, Ogilvy is recognized as one of the creators of the practice and theory of the brand, that is, the personalization of the market product, which allows the consumer to navigate the market space. According to Ogilvy, each advertisement should consistently, for many years, promote the same product image [7, p. 14-15]. Experts naturally see the nature of brand and branding primarily in the social and economic changes that took place in post-war America, when Ogilvy entered the country’s advertising business.

In 1964, David Ogilvy’s firm, Ogilvy, Benson & Mather, merged with Francis Ogilvy’s recently deceased firm, Mather & Crowther; a new company, Ogilvy & Mather International, was formed. In 1966, its shares were freely traded on the New York and London stock exchanges for the first time in the advertising industry. In 1970, Ogilvy & Mather International operated in 14 countries, at the end of the 1970s in 20 countries. In 1984 the company became Ogilvy & Mather Worldwide.Currently, over four hundred branches of this global structure operate in more than 90 countries of the world [29].

In the late 1960s, Ogilvy gradually began to move away from creative and managerial work in his organization, but until 1975 he served as Chairman of the Board of Directors and was mainly involved in creating new offices outside the United States. In the early 1970s, Ogilvy bought a 12th century castle in France and settled there with his third wife, Herta Ogilvy. At first he ran his empire, but later focused on the analysis of his work and wrote books that largely determined the development of the advertising industry in the last decades of the twentieth century.Ogilvy, who felt like a man of the world, chose France from the six countries he considered, taking into account 24 criteria. But for an understanding of both Ogilvy’s personality and the nature of his work, it is important not that France was preferred (he did not indicate which countries he chose from), but that he left America. He remained European.

Much of Ogilvy’s success and his behavior, which sometimes seemed eccentric, but in reality – rigidly subordinated to the goals that he set for himself, is due to his deep confidence in the social usefulness of his work.To critics and pessimists who said that advertising forces people to buy what they don’t need, Ogilvy replied, “If you don’t think people need deodorant, you are free to criticize the ad that convinced 87 percent of American women and 66 percent of American men to use it. If you don’t think people need beer, then you can criticize the ad that convinced 58 percent of adults to drink it. If you disapprove of social mobility, living comforts, overseas travel, you can blame advertising for promoting this evil.If you don’t like a prosperous society, you would be right to blame advertising for inspiring the masses to live in it. If you are such a puritan, I will not convince you of anything. I can only call you a hidden masochist ”[19, p. 159].

The creative revolution of the 50s in advertising (test)

Contents

Introduction

The creative advertising revolution of the 50s. Talents and geniuses

Conclusion

Literature

Introduction

Creativity in translation from English “creative work” means creative activity.The concept of creativity includes not only creativity, but also the totality of embodiment, search, originality of the presentation of information, which will amaze with its novelty, uniqueness, attract attention and remain in memory. It is widely used in the world of advertising and design. Indeed, it is in this area that new ideas, a non-standard approach, and a departure from imposed standards are needed. The main task of the creative approach in advertising is to increase the efficiency of product consumption several times.

Competent creativity is the strength of a good, high-quality brand.A good creative idea is always in demand. The advertising market will always need new ideas.

At the moment in the Russian advertising market, there is an urgent need for novelty, unusualness. We clog the heads of consumers with bad ideas, who are looking for in low-quality advertising exactly the one that can attract and surprise them, and at the same time think about purchasing the advertised product. After all, a product with a well-formed concept, an advertising campaign and a creative idea is a professional brand.

advertising creative brand history

The creative advertising revolution in the 50s. Talents and geniuses

Demand is considered the engine of trade, but high-quality creative advertising can create demand. In a number of one-day advertising products similar to each other, there are those who have become the real property of the world of advertising and trade. It is these advertising companies that are being looked up to and trying to repeat their success. They increase the number of sales, change the way of life, and bring aesthetic pleasure to people.

These projects are known to every interested and competent advertiser – their strategies, slogans, prints and commercials. The work of the advertising masters of the 50s is a guide to creativity and goal achievement in such a difficult task as advertising.

“The danger of advertising is not that it can deceive people, but that it can bore them to death.” Leo Barnett.

Leo Barnett, one of the advertising geniuses, dedicated his professional career to the search and creation of images.In 1935, during the Great Depression, when the US experienced an economic downturn and unemployment reached incredible proportions, Barnett created his own advertising agency, now known as Leo Burnett Worldwide. Chicago newspapers ridiculed and predicted that Barnett would fail and sell apples to a beggar on the street. Leo made a vow to himself that he would distribute apples. This is how red apples appeared in the agency for employees and visitors, which became an internal corporate symbol.To translate his ideas, Barnett often used red.

Barnett never used market research or expert judgment. He believed that the “market share” can be increased by expanding the “share of consciousness” of the consumer. He directed his efforts at stimulating desire and building people’s trust. The images he created were distinguished by their charm and inner appeal. His images have become part of popular culture. He believed that product images were more important and more convincing than far-fetched stories and empty promises.Whereas before the visual image was used to embellish the advertising message, Leo made it a key element. It was a completely new approach to advertising.

Barnett has dedicated his career to inspiring his employees to search for images, visual symbols. His goal was to keep the “brand identity” in mind.

He created the famous image of a green giant in a garment of green leaves to attract female consumers. It was created by him to sell Green Giant peas.The image emerged from the Green Giant pea variety itself. The friendly giant (which initially did not look so friendly) brought such marketing success to the company that in 1950 it was renamed Green Giant Co (the original company name was Minnesota Valley Canning Co). It is surprising that the image could change even the name of the company of the advertising customer.

We can still see this giant on the shelves of supermarkets, and after all, more than sixty years have passed.

And yet his main masterpiece is, of course, the Marlboro ad he created.In 1954, Leo Barnett began launching an advertising campaign for Philip Morris. Marlboro cigarettes were considered feminine because they were filtered. In 1953, medical scientists officially declared that smoking cigarettes leads to lung cancer. This led to a drop in US tobacco use for the first time ever. At that time, the production of filter cigarettes for men was the only way out of this situation, the manufacturers considered. Although other manufacturers did not dare to take such a step, considering it a losing one.But Philip Morris decided on a bold advertising campaign. Barnett decided to completely exclude all feminine traits from the brand. The advertising campaign aimed at the male audience was supposed to capture the image of “cool” masculinity in the minds of consumers. The habit of looking through old newspapers and magazines did not remain a waste of time for Leo. In one Life magazine, Barnett was attracted by a photograph of a cowboy, which inspired him to create the image of the Marlboro Man. Although there were several Marlboro Man looks, the cowboy look was the most popular and became the main one in subsequent advertising campaigns.Marlboro Man is a sturdy, silent cowboy in the saddle amid the harsh nature of the American prairie. At first, photo models participated in the company, and later they were replaced by real characters. The cowboys personified the American spirit. The posters reminded of the real heroes of the country – wild and brutal guys who conquer the steppes. The image of the courageous conqueror of the Wild West resonated not only in the hearts of Americans, it made Marlboro the best-selling brand in the world. The ad campaign has been included in the tutorials as the most successful in advertising history.

Although there is another side to the history of Marlboro Man. Several people acted in the guise of cowboys at different times, two of them McLaren and McLean died of lung cancer. And the red Marlboro, thanks to its fortress, acquired the fame of “cowboy killers”. But the fact of the masterpiece of this advertisement remains undeniable. Leo Barnett was literally obsessed with creating visuals. It was these images that were in wide demand at the end of the 50s, during the years of the creative revolution in the field of advertising.

Leo Barnett became the leader and creator of the Chicago School of Advertising.In the process of creating ads, he adhered to three main principles:

. The play is contained in every product. Our # 1 job is to discover and benefit from it.

. When you achieve stellar excellence, you may not be completely satisfied with the results of your work, but you will never be equal to the dirt.

. Immerse yourself in your topic, work like hell, with love, ambition and listening to the voice of intuition.

His agency has set a very high standard for advertising quality.To maintain it, a Creative Review Commission was created. All works of art directors and copywriters had to be approved by her before being launched in the media.

“Nothing accelerates the failure of a low-quality product like a massive ad campaign.” W. Bernbach

William Bernbach is a legend in the history of American advertising. He was one of the founders of the Doyle Dane Bernbach advertising agency and the author of the Think Small advertising campaign for the Volkswagen Beetle, which is considered one of the best campaigns of the 20th century.

Bernbach was known as a creative and original person. His advertising campaigns made him one of the main forces of the creative revolution of the 50s.

In 1959, the famous advertising campaign for the “Beetle” car from Volkswagen appeared. Then the creative department of DDB, fulfilling the order of the German automaker, created a masterpiece that could take first place in the list of the best advertising companies of the 20th century. Volkswagen was the largest manufacturer in West Germany after World War II.He practically pulled the recovering German industry with him. One of the most popular mass-produced models in Europe was the subcompact Volkswagen Beetle, but this car could not take root in the United States, partly because of its appearance, partly because of its German origin. At that time, the States were experiencing a craze for huge Cadillacs and the “bug” looked at their background, to say the least. It was hard to imagine anything that did not fit into the myth of the “American Dream” as well.But Bernbach did the almost impossible – he made America fall in love with Volkswagen. DDB presented to the Americans all the disadvantages of the “beetle” as its undoubted and “well thought out” merits. Bernbach made a high-class European product out of a cheap subcompact, inexpensive and democratic. The most famous poster of this campaign: a small car on an empty white field and the words “Think small” at the bottom. The article below extolled the machine’s “$ 1.02 per pound weight” in a humorous way.The whole, rather aggressive, advertising campaign was built on puns and jokes. “Beetle” overtook the Americans wherever they were – radio and television at home, posters on the street. A huge egg and a Volkswagen are shown side by side, the inscription “Some forms are difficult to make more perfect: ask any chicken – for an egg you simply cannot think of a more functional form. It seems that the same is true for Volkswagen. Don’t think we didn’t try (to tell the truth, we went through almost 3000 options for it). “Another example: on the poster, instead of a car, a lunar rover is drawn, the slogan read: “He’s ugly, but he will take you there.” Within a month after the start of the campaign, sales increased, and a couple of years later the Beetle became a cult car of the 60s generation.

Text on canvas: Trash

This Volkswagen did not make it onto the ship.

The chrome strip on the glove compartment is slightly damaged and needs to be replaced. You probably wouldn’t have noticed it, but Inspector Kurt Kroner did.

The 3,389 people at our factory in Wolfsburg have one task: to check every vehicle at every stage of its production.Each shock absorber is carefully inspected (random inspection is not acceptable) and each windshield is closely inspected. Cars are rejected for the smallest scratches, barely perceptible to the eye.

Final check is something! VW inspectors move each vehicle from the assembly line to the car test bench and evaluate it against 189 indicators. Then they spit it out onto an automatic brake test bench and say no to an average of one in fifty cars.

This attention to detail means VW will last you longer and require less maintenance than any other car.(This also means that a supported VW depreciates less than other cars.)

We save you from trash. You get the best.

Bernbach believed that a manufacturer should produce a high quality product. Then it is not a shame to advertise it, and with a competent advertising campaign, you can count on profit.

Bernbach’s next major client was Avis, which was engaged in car rental, but at that time was losing the leading position to another car rental company, Hertz.Bernbach offered the client such an extravagant advertising idea that not only customers, but also DDB employees doubted. Research showed that advertising had no chance, but Bernbach defended his idea and in the summer of 1962 came the legendary ad: “Avis is the # 2 car rental company. So why are they coming to us? ” The rest of the text explained why: “We’re working harder … We just can’t afford dirty ashtrays. Or half-empty gas tanks. Or worn out wipers. Or unwashed cars…” Etc. Almost the entire text was sold to quotes, and the company’s market share grew by 28% in two years. It’s funny that the losing competitor didn’t give up and answered almost symmetrically. A few years later, an ad came up: “Hertz has a competitor who says he’s only # 2. It’s hard to argue with that … “

Working on orders for Ohrbach s (a department store chain) and Levy, William Bernbach introduced three principles for a successful advertising message.

It should raise consumer awareness of the product

It should be creative and humorous

· In the end, it must sell a product or service; it was selling cheap clothes at retail and wanted to present its activities in a favorable light, it was necessary to overcome the prejudice that consumers experience before knowingly cheap products.It so happened that Bernbach became famous by advertising exactly cheap, mass products – from hats to cars. While Ogilvie sang the delights of luxury cars in a high-pitched style, Bernbach, jokingly and punishingly, sold products that were available to most Americans. “Liberal Trade: Take a wife and just a few dollars … and you get a new woman,” read one of the posters, on another poster, a snide feline lady declared that “she finally found out the truth about Joan.” A small text below the graphic explained that Joan looked so good because she was buying inexpensive and fashionable clothes from Ohrbach’s stores.But it is believed that all these were just talented attempts at writing before the advertising campaign “of all times and peoples.” (VW)

“Bill has always been able to create an atmosphere in which talented people just flourished. The woman who wrote me an incredibly boring ad created real masterpieces for Bill. He, like no one else, knew how to sell the products of his agency and was very persistent. ” David Ogilvy.

“I think I had the advantage of not knowing much about advertising while staying fresh and more original.Once you become a slave to the rules, you start doing what everyone else is doing. As soon as you start doing what everyone else is doing, you are out of the game. ” William Bernbach.

William Bernbach always left the office at exactly 5 pm, never took work home and believed that working on Holy Saturday was not only sinful, but also harmful. Nevertheless, it was his ideas that most influenced the development of advertising in the following decades. Even now, 50 years later, you often come across a blatant copy of Bernbach’s advertising campaigns, and that already means something.During his life, Bernbach managed to work with almost all more or less well-known companies. By 1965, the total revenue of DDB was $ 174 million. Bernbach remained in the memory of advertisers as a titan, a legendary hero, whose exploits glorified the entire advertising business and, of course, America.

There is an opinion that any advertisement is a trade engine. Not any! Bad advertising is not an engine, but a brake. ” David Ogilvy.

In September 1948, Ogilvy opened an “English advertising agency” in New York.He invested only $ 6,000 in this business. Most of the capital belonged to Mather & Crowther and the London-based advertising firm S. H. Benson, Ltd “. Ogilvy had no experience in advertising business in America, and therefore it was decided to find the president of the firm – an American.

While still thinking about the strategy of his advertising agency, Ogilvy noted: “The name in advertising has to be earned. We start with very modest funds, but we are going to become the largest agency by 1960 ”.And so it happened. At the dawn of his independent career, Ogilvy wrote down the names of five firms with which he most wanted to work: General Foods, Bristol-Myers, Campbell Soup, Lever Brothers and Shell. By the middle of the 20th century, all these companies had a long history, nationwide fame and collaborated with the largest advertising agencies in the country. By the early 1960s, they were all clients of the Ogilvy firm.

Ogilvy’s Campaigns revolutionized the art of advertising and established him the highest authority in the field.Ogilvy, like no one else, understood the role of each of the many factors that make advertising successful, and at the same time he always saw them in harmony, in unity.

In 1950, the Irish beer company Guinness asked Ogilvy to create a series of advertisements for oysters, cheeses and game. The oyster ad was the first Ogilvy created while running an agency. She was elegant in graphic and color terms. The advertising field is divided into 12 cells, three in four rows. In the top center box is the heading “Guinness Guide to Oysters”, in nine there are photographs of different types of oysters and short stories about each of them.In the lower right is a bottle of Guinness dark beer, next to it is a glass of beer. A smiling face appears slightly on the surface of the foam. In the lower middle cell – the main slogan of the advertisement: “Any oysters will be tastier with a sip of Guinness beer.” The order, Ogilvy wrote, was not very profitable, but provided an excellent opportunity to showcase the firm’s creativity.

The advertisement known as “The Man in the Hathway Shirt” not only became a turning point in the history of the company, but is also recognized as one of the highest examples of advertising culture of the twentieth century.Today, half a century after its creation, the reason for its phenomenal success becomes clear: it has the spirit of America in the early 1950s, it reflects a number of features of the American way of life in the post-war years, and it is personal – traces of the biography of its author can be read in it.

It all started simply: a new advertising company, which did not have a large number of clients, was approached by Ellerton Jette, the owner of a small factory “Hathway Shirt Company” for the production of men’s shirts. The factory was established in 1837 and although it produced good products, it did not advertise it to the general public.The customer could offer no more than 30 thousand dollars a year for work, but he promised not to change a word in the advertisement text; he placed all responsibility for product advertising on Ogilvie. For all 19 years of their further cooperation, Gette did not break his promise.

Ogilvy wanted to create not a glamorous, but a lively image. The man in the ad had to be attractive to both women and middle-aged and older men who were supposed to have the shirts. There is a note dated May 5, 1951, in which Ogilvy asks his photographer to find a middle-aged man who looks like Hemingway or Faulkner, preferably with a mustache.Gradually the idea crystallized that made the ad for Hathway shirts famous. Among Ogilvy’s schoolmates was a boy who wore a black patch over his eye. Shortly before starting work on the advertisement, Ogilvy saw a photograph of Lewis Douglas, the American ambassador to England, wearing the same bandage. Ogilvy had thought about the colorfulness of a black band before, and, thinking about a new ad, he decided to use this touch there. On his way to work, he bought one for a dollar and a half. The small eye patch became the big idea, which he later successfully developed.

The ad text was short, five paragraphs, and highly informative. First, a compliment to American men who, of course, understand that a good suit can be ruined by a mass-produced shirt. Then – the message that the growing popularity of comfortable and elegant shirts factory “Hathway”, located in the small town of Waterville, Maine, can be explained very simply: shirts have been sewn there for 120 years from the best materials made in England, Scotland, Iceland, India , France and America.On September 22, 1951, the “Man in the Hathway Shirt” advertisement first appeared in the New Yorker magazine. Soon, the factory was unable to satisfy requests for its products.

In some cases, the text of the advertisement was printed in abbreviated form. Moreover, for the first four years, the ad campaign was carried out only on the pages of the New Yorker and was so famous that Ogilvy often published only a photo of a man with an eye patch, without textual support. This image became recognizable, turned into a brand.

In 1957, employees talked Ogilvy out of accepting an order to advertise Rolls-Royce vehicles. But when, a few months later, Rolls-Royce proposed new terms for the contract, Ogilvy decided he would do the ad himself. He studied Rolls-Royce technical data for three weeks and produced 28 headlines; then he selected a dozen of them and presented them to his colleagues for trial. During the discussion, the best one was selected: “At 60 mph, the loudest noise in this new Rolls-Royce is made by its electric clock.”

The ad was built in violation of all traditions and rules: the text contained 607 words – more than Ogilvy considered acceptable. But in this case, he did it on purpose. Educated and wealthy people – and only they could afford such a car – needed detailed information.

The ad content is the answer to the subheading question: “What makes a Rolls-Royce the best car in the world?” Overall, the answer is simple: the manufacturers’ utmost attention to detail.Each motor is tested before installation, after assembly, the machine is also carefully checked; the car is eighteen inches shorter than the longest American cars and its design is such that the owner himself can drive it, no chauffeur is needed; there is a three-year warranty and repairs can be carried out anywhere in the country. Gasoline is economical, the use of the purest grades is not necessary.

The rear window is heated by an invisible wire laid in it, there is a cooling system.You can install a coffee maker in the car, turn on a voice recorder, an electric shaver, a telephone, and unfold the seats. High safety is ensured by a special braking system, the car reaches speeds of over 100 miles per hour. In other words, the ad text contained everything that could interest a potential buyer – and nothing superfluous. This advertisement, – noted in a special edition, – at the beginning of 1958 engraved in the memory of people. Rolls-Royce sales increased 50 percent over the year, with advertising costs of $ 25,000.

In advertising history, Ogilvy is recognized as one of the founders of brand practice and theory. According to Ogilvy, every ad should consistently promote the same product image over the years. Experts naturally see the nature of the brand and branding, primarily in the social and economic changes that took place in post-war America, when Ogilvy entered the country’s advertising business. In the late 1960s, Ogilvy gradually began to move away from creative and managerial work in his organization, but until 1975 he served as Chairman of the Board of Directors and was mainly involved in creating new branches outside the United States.In the early 1970s, Ogilvy bought a 12th century castle in France and settled there with his third wife, Gertha Ogilvy. At first, he led his empire, but later focused on analyzing his work and wrote books that largely determined the development of the advertising industry in the last decades of the twentieth century.

Much of Ogilvy’s success and his behavior, which sometimes seemed eccentric, but in reality – rigidly subordinated to the goals that he set for himself, is due to his deep confidence in the social usefulness of his work.To critics and pessimists who said that advertising forces people to buy what they don’t need, Ogilvy replied, “If you don’t think people need deodorant, you are free to criticize the ad that convinced 87 percent of American women and 66 percent of American men to use it. If you don’t think people need beer, then you can criticize the ad that convinced 58 percent of adults to drink it. If you disapprove of social mobility, living comfort, overseas travel, you can blame advertising for promoting this evil.If you don’t like a prosperous society, you would be right to blame advertising for inspiring the masses to live in it. If you are such a puritan, I will not convince you of anything. I can only call you a hidden masochist “

Conclusion

The

s of the last century made a huge contribution to the art of advertising and left big names in the memory of their followers and ordinary consumers.

I think the current generation of advertisers should remember the commandments of the great advertising gurus and start making a quality product, and not chase easy money without investing any sense in their projects.

But the manufacturer must also produce initially high-quality goods that the consumer needs. To do this, the manufacturer should expand the “share of consciousness”.

We need to create masterpieces of advertising, new images, loud slogans, we need a completely new approach. You need to reread the books of famous advertisers and look for new ideas.

Literature

1. Bernbach B., Levenson B. The Bible of Bill Bernbach. The story of advertising that changed the advertising business. – M.: Eksmo, 2011

. D. Ogilvy. – M .: Eksmo, 2016 Ogilvy D. About advertising.

. Tangeit M. World history of advertising. Ed. Alpina Publisher. 2008

. Rosenspen A. Confessions of the Obsessed with Efficiency. M .: In-Oktava, 2005.

. David Ogilvy. Theory and practice of advertising. [Electronic resource] // Advertising Industry. URL: http://adindustry.ru/personnels/1207


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Large animals are exposed to “double danger” on land and in the sea,

Large animals hunting for their parts such as ivory and shark fins are in double danger of extinction due to their large body size and high value, according to a new analysis published in Cell Press Current Biology on June 9.reveals an underestimated risk to marine species, similar to cult terrestrial species, but elevated in key differences in the sea.

“We generally assume that if a species is reduced to low numbers, humans will have difficulty finding, hunters will stop hunting, and the population will have a chance to recover,” says Lauren McClenachan of Colby College in Waterville, Maine. “But the extremes of these species mean they will hunt for extinction without significant conservation intervention.”

In a new study, McLanachan worked with Andrew Cooper and Nicholas Dulvey of Simon Fraser University in Canada to identify a taxonomically diverse group of more than 100 large marine and terrestrial species destined for international luxury markets. They evaluated the value of these species at three points of sale and examined the relationship between risk, cost, and body size that was extinction. They also assessed the impact of two mitigating factors: poaching fines and the size of the geographic range.

The analysis showed a threshold above which economic value is a key risk factor for extinction. Although the lower-value species mainly depend on their biology, the most valuable species are at high risk of extinction, regardless of their size. As the data shows, product averages exceed $ 12,557 / kg, body size no longer affects risk.

Researchers have also found important differences between marine and terrestrial species that indicate an increased risk at sea: although marine foods tend to be less valuable per kilogram, individual animals are still just as valuable as the most valuable terrestrial species.For example, the special whale shark is as valuable as the most valuable terrestrial species: rhinos and tigers.

“Hunters don’t kill kilos, they kill people, so we need to pay attention to these high values ​​of individual animals,” McClanahan says.

The risk to marine species is not reduced for species with large ranges as it is on land.

“The assumption that large ranges protect species from extinction is based on conservation science done on land, where animals found in many countries have a higher likelihood of protection in at least one location and do not appear to apply to marine species, where widespread and little “hunting smuggling contrasts with tighter controls on land,” McClenachan says.

Research points to the importance of considering the marine animal trade and the differences between land and marine animals when it comes to conservation.

“We’ve been reading wildlife trade reports for far too long with little recognition of the diversity and value of marine wildlife trade,” says Dulvi.

“We need to look at the fundamental differences between marine and terrestrial species,” adds McClanahan. “Conservation science began on land, so it’s tempting to assume that the fundamentals are the same across the ocean.However, as we found out, this is far from the case. If we are not aware of these basic differences, effective conservation design is impossible. ”

Researchers say the next step will be to develop effective conservation strategies for these highly valuable, large-scale, far-reaching species. It’s a tough road forward, but they say there are reasons for optimism, including indications that control of international trade through CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) is working in some cases and the increased use of new technologies such as DNA – Forensic science for detecting wildlife crime.

Death of Samantha Smith: 30th Anniversary of the Auburn Disaster – Accidents

On 25 August 1985, a small twin-engine passenger aircraft Beechcraft 99 (registration number N300WP) of the American airline Bar Harbor Airlines was operating scheduled flight 1808 from Boston to Bangor, Maine from stopovers at Auburn, Waterville and Augusta. The flight took place in the dark, in difficult weather conditions. When landing in the area of ​​Auburn-Lewiston airport, the plane collided with trees, crashed to the ground and burned up 1 km from the end of the runway.Both pilots and six passengers died, including 13-year-old Samantha Smith – the “Goodwill Ambassador” who became famous during her visit to the Soviet Union in 1983 – and her father Arthur Smith, who were returning home after filming Samantha in the television series Lime Street in London.

The aircraft was not equipped with a flight recorder and recorder. The Soviet media put forward versions of the incident related to the international peacekeeping activities of Samantha Smith, in particular, it was argued that the disaster could have been organized by the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).On September 30, 1986, the National Transportation Safety Board (USA) published a report on the investigation of the disaster. The likely cause of the emergency was the actions of the pilot, who, while piloting the plane on instruments, lowered the aircraft below the landing glide path and did not go around, which led to a collision with an obstacle. A factor that aggravated the situation was a failure in the operation of ground-based radar.

After Samantha’s mother Jane Smith accused Bar Harbor Airlines of the death of her loved ones, the dispute was settled out of court, the airline paid monetary compensation, the scope of which was not disclosed.

In 1985-1995, the Samantha Smith Foundation, founded by Jane Smith, organized trips for groups of Soviet and later Russian schoolchildren to the United States. In December 1986, a monument to Samantha was erected in Augusta, Maine. Also in Maine, Samantha Smith Memorial Day is celebrated on the first Monday in June. A bronze bust of Samantha is kept in the Moscow Center for Children’s Diplomacy. Her name was given to a mountain peak in the Caucasus, an asteroid, a sea vessel, a Yakut diamond, varieties of dahlias and echinopsis, an alley in the children’s camp “Artek”, streets in the village of Armak in Buryatia and the village of Gobiki in the Rognedinsky district of the Bryansk region, in the city of Taraz in Zhambyl area in Kazakhstan.

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