Staples, 1552 South, IL-59, Naperville, IL 60564, USA
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Staples #1633 1552 South Route 59 Naperville, Illinois 60564 630-305-0253
Staples® South Route 59, Naperville, IL | Store Details
(630) 305-0253 (630) 305-0253. Fax (630) … Staples South Route 59 offers a first class selection of top brands including Apple, Microsoft, HP, Canon, Epson and Dell …
Staples in Northglenn, CO – Business Hours and Locations
Staples in Northglenn, CO Directory listings of Staples locations in and near Northglenn, CO, along with business hours and contact information. Find the affordable local office stores and learn about packing and shipping services.
Staples in Naperville, IL | Whitepages
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Staples in Naperville (IL) | Staples Locations
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Staples Aurora IL, Hours & Locations
Staples Aurora IL locations, hours, phone number, map and driving directions.
Staples in Illinois – Locations and Hours – MyStore411
Staples » Staples in Illinois; Official Website www.staples.com Category office supply (3.4 /5 – … 630-305-0253: Staples #1691 in Naperville: 1125 E Ogden Ave:
Staples – 16 Photos & 16 Reviews – Shipping Centers – 1552 …
(630) 305-0253 Need office supplies? OK. That’s why you come to Staple….for office supplies. It’s a decent store. Do I really care if it’s Staples or Office Depot?
Staples Downers Grove IL, Hours & Locations
Staples Downers Grove IL locations, hours, phone number, map and driving directions.
Emily Staples – NIU – Huskie Spotlight
Hometown: Aurora, IL
Year: Expected graduation: 2021
Major: Business administration and marketing
Transfer from: Central Michigan University
What did you want to be when you were growing up? Are you pursuing that as a major, or have you taken another path?
I wanted to be a lawyer when I was growing up. I’m pursuing a sales degree because I realized the reason I wanted to be a lawyer was to help people. I can still help people in sales, it’s just a different role.
What is your major (and/or minor) and why did you decide on this course of study?
I’m double majoring in business administration and marketing, with a sales certificate. I always wanted to be a lawyer, but I was lucky enough to find the amazing sales program at NIU and fell in love with the faculty and program.
What has been something you have found pleasantly surprising about your experience at NIU?
The faculty genuinely look out for their students and want them to succeed. I was pleasantly surprised at how connected and engaging the College of Business is. They not only talk the talk, but they walk the walk, and NIU business students are one-of-a-kind, hardworking students. I am also extremely blessed to have gone on a trip to San Francisco with my peers. That’s where I truly found my calling in sales, and it helped me land my dream internship with Adobe. It all would not have been possible without the NIU College of Business, the Professional Sales Program and Dr. Robert Peterson.
Who has been one of your favorite instructors/professors and why? What course did they teach?
How have you connected with other students at NIU?
I have connected with other students here at NIU by being a part of a sorority and getting involved with on-campus jobs and activities. Being a Northern Ambassador allows me to meet peers in a wide variety of majors and clubs while also interacting with future Huskies.
Are you involved in any student organizations or extra-curricular activities? If so, which ones? How have they added to your experience as a Huskie?
I am a part of Alpha Sigma Alpha Sorority, the Business Administration Association, and the Dean’s Advisory Board for the College of Business. These experiences allow me to be involved in something bigger than myself while helping me develop my professional and personal skill sets.
Who has been one of your favorite instructors/professors and why? What course did they teach?
Robert Peterson. He has consistently pushed me to be a better student and explore my true calling in the professional world. I would not be in the position I’m in, with an amazing internship, without Dr. Peterson. He is honest, and I always know that I’m going to get a straight answer from him, no matter how much I might not want to hear it. He teaches sales/marketing classes. I was lucky enough to travel to San Francisco with him and my peers last summer for a class. Thank you, Dr. P., for being my sales guru, my career guide and my friend.
Where is your favorite spot on campus or in the community? Why are you drawn to it?
I love the fountains behind Davis Hall. It’s secluded and the perfect place to have a power-hour study session with an added scenic element. I’m drawn to it because it’s a true hidden gem on campus with a great view of the lagoon.
What advice would you give to a student who is applying to colleges?
Trust your gut and don’t be afraid to try new things. I always tell my tour groups that when you attend your first involvement fair, go up to any table that interests you in the slightest. Go up to that table and ask, “Can you tell me about this?” Odds are, someone at that table would love to give their five-minute elevator pitch about the club. And by the end of the speech, you might have discovered an awesome club/organization that you are going to thrive in over the next four years.
Coming to college, what is something that you have had to learn to do differently?
I have had to learn that it’s important to not get everything done and that you deserve a break, too. College is where you go to get a degree, but it’s also where you go to make memories and have one last hurrah before the real world. Don’t forget to let yourself have fun!
What do you do to relax or recharge?
I love to go out to eat or watch some Netflix shows with my friends or roommates. Or, if I’m feeling motivated, work out.
Staples, Illinois (+1 630-305-0253)
What Other Say:
User (23/11/2017 05:14)
I got copies done here for a non profit fundraiser and the employee at the copy/printing center was so helpful. He really made things easier for us. Overall it was a great experience! Great costumer service!
User (24/09/2017 09:55)
Been here about 4xs the staff and Manager very helpfull.
Went to the print dept. Girl really helpfull got my project printed sooner than anticipated and helped with the formatting.
User (10/09/2017 01:52)
Just 1 register open on a weekend! Rude and poorly trained staff. Stay away!
User (07/07/2017 23:03)
Worst customer service I’ve ever seen. Staff hardly acknowledges customers standing right in front of them. This store needs better management and training for sure.
User (06/05/2017 04:13)
Meets expectations. Always greeted when I go in
User (30/04/2017 01:17)
Complete idiots!! Management has a lot to be desired for coming from a business owner myself!! Manager is not “Manager” material what soever! Will NEVER do business with them!!
User (24/04/2017 05:59)
It has all the basics. Staff is friendly but not all of them. You can find the same things for less price at other stores.
User (13/08/2016 05:45)
Had to pick up a project of multiple copies they made for me. I asked if he could cut me some circles out of black vinyl, He said no! After completing my order and paying for it he then asked well, how many circles? I said no thanks I will go to a professional! Not friendly, not helpful, I will spend my hard earned money elsewhere!
User (21/03/2016 04:33)
Staff is hit or miss some days. Better off just placing an order online and having it delivered to your business or residence.
User (15/01/2016 05:18)
I had to get 190 pages to be printed and spiral bounded, so I checked online it was little over $18 for this job. I thought it will be good idea to go drop on the store and pick later so I did. I was surprised when they changed me over $26 for the same job. They do not match their own website pricing…weird.
IT WAS NOT EASY for me to pay 36% extra Staples. I am done with you STAPLES.
User (22/12/2015 02:46)
Nice stuff but a little expensive. Luckily they price match from Amazon so it worked out good.
User (12/08/2015 21:53)
I ordered cardstock offline because they did not carry it in the store. On the day it was to arrive, I called at noon and was informed that the package was not there and that I should wait for the delivery confirmation email. Later that evening, I found out that my order actually arrived at 10 that morning. So I was lied to because they were too lazy to actually check. They also took it upon themselves to sign MY name for the package rather than their own name, which is ILLEGAL. I will never shop at this location again.
Customer Service Help Desk job in Aurora at Staples
Representative – Customer Service At Serta Simmons Bedding, the experience of our customers is of the utmost importance. As a member of the Customer Experience (CX) team, you will support our customers on their journey to the perfect night s sleep as well as move quickly to solve customer problems when their experience with us has been anything less than stellar. You will also have the opportunity to impact how we grow, as you learn about customer issues and propose new ways to solve them, ensuring our customer experience continues to exceed our customers expectations. You should be an excellent communicator, able to think quickly on your feet, resourceful, self-sufficient, and extremely organized. This position is ideal for someone who enjoys high levels of interaction with people and wants to join a growing, fast-paced company with a trusted family of consumer brands. We are looking for smart, passionate individuals who love to help people and are quick at problem solving. The essential functions include: Essential Duties and Responsibilities Deliver a delightful experience to current and prospective Serta Simmons Bedding customers by fielding incoming questions via Salesforce, e-mail, phone, and fax. Help us fulfill our commitment to accurate, on-time delivery for our customers by: Creating an on-time manual sales order in the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system Verifying accuracy of orders received via Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Maintaining reporting on all open orders to ensure on time production, delivery, and invoicing Tracking, tracing, and expediting orders as needed Fulfilling support requests for address shipment or delivery changes Handle a large number of support requests daily including assisting with returns, exchanges, special delivery instructions, and product support inquiries from customers. Educate and inform customers and prospective customers on our products, policies, and procedures. Quickly and accurately resolve problems for customers any time experiences don’t go entirely as planned. Have the ability to work well with a large, cross-functional team, balance competing priorities and provide support to teammates when needed. Be able to confidently solve unique customer problems using empathy and the ability to make decisions quickly. Maintain a thorough understanding of our evolving products, technology, policies, and procedures. Improve overall customer experience by serving as the eyes and ears of customers by tracking and reporting strengths and pain points to other departments. Challenge the status quo and have fun! Functional/Technical Competencies Able to work in a team setting. Able to multi-task and work effectively in a fast-paced environment. Strong, effective and professional communication (written/verbal) and interpersonal skills to deal with all levels of staff, management, internal and external contacts and customers. Passionate about helping people and providing honest, transparent service to all customers and guests Extraordinary communication (both written and verbal) with a knack for organization Ambitious and self-motivated with an eagerness to learn and the ability to juggle many tasks simultaneously. Quick to solve problems (or see them before they arise) with a no-task-too-small mentality Genuinely empathetic and approachable, able to assume positive intent Ability to work autonomously and take on challenging situations, excellent decision-making, and prioritization skills Experience/Education Minimum 2 years’ experience within a customer service position, preferably within an order entry or order fulfillment role in the manufacturing industry Demonstrated ability to successfully interact with and navigate between multiple software applications throughout the day, preferably to include experience using an Enterprise Resource Planning system as well as Salesforce.com Highly proficient in the full Microsoft Office suite of products (Outlook, Word, PowerPoint, etc.), including Excel Job Factors/Work Environments No travel Work is primarily sedentary in nature Key Relationships Plant Operations, Customer Supply Chain Managers, Sales This job description is not intended to be an exhaustive list of all duties or responsibilities associated with the job. Other job-related duties may be assigned. An Affirmative Action Equal Opportunity Employer, M/F/D/V Drug-Free Working Environment
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Outdoor Events Take Center Stage In Aurora This Summer
AURORA, IL—From music to movies, and from to food to fun, Aurora Downtown’s summer event schedule is chock full of family activities this year.
New events have been added to this year’s lineup, but long-loved staples are also in store over the next few months.
Aurora Arts Weekend kicks off on June 4 and 5. The gathering will run in conjunction with First Fridays on June 4, and then the Fox River Arts Ramble on June 5. Both dates will feature art shows by local artists at eight locations downtown.
Wednesdays at the Plaza also gets underway again next month. The free summer concert series will return to the gazebo at Millennium Plaza from July 14 to August 11. The weekly concerts will feature a variety of genres and local bands playing from 7 to 9 p.m.
New this year is Movies at a Museum, an outdoor film series pilot premiering on July 8 at the Aurora Regional Fire Museum. The event will occur on Thursdays during July. Socially-distanced seating areas open at 7 p.m. and movies start at 8 p.m. Dates are July 8, 15, 22, and 29.
“We worked with Aurora Film Society on the series, and we’re thrilled to be able to offer outdoor movies this year. If all goes well, we hope to add outdoor movies to our event roster,” said Marissa Amoni, manager of Aurora Downtown.
In August, the Alley Art Festival will likely be back at its home along Water Street Mall. On August 28, from noon to 5 p.m., local and regional artists will set up along the pedestrian mall and nearby riverwalk. Live music will be located at Millennium Plaza on Stolp Avenue throughout the day. Final details are still being worked out, Amoni said.
This summer, the festival will also coincide with live mural planning throughout downtown coordinated by Aurora Public Art.
“Alley Art Festival is now a decade-long staple for the arts community. The festival continues to grow and evolve, but it always has the local artist at the forefront,” Amoni said. “Being able to get back to showcasing local talent is a great thing for everyone,” Amoni said.
First Fridays will continue through the summer with the exception of July. First Fridays will feature a Food Truck Court with a handful of food trucks from 5-9 p.m. at Water Street Square located at the northwest corner of Benton and Water Streets. The next First Fridays will be on June 4.
All events are free to attend.
For more information on summer events, visit Aurora Downtown.
Shirley Staples Therapeutic Massage | 4255 Westbrook Dr., Suite 227 60504 Aurora, IL, US
Shirley Staples Therapeutic Massage
Locality: Aurora, Illinois
Phone: +1 630-296-7308
Address: 4255 Westbrook Dr., Suite 227 60504 Aurora, IL, US
16.01.2021 Dear Clients, I regret to inform you that my office on Westbrook will be closed for good on February 27th. Due to unavoidable circumstances, my colleagues and I will not be renewing our lease at the end of this month. I would like to thank each and everyone of you for the loyalty you’ve given me. Thank you for the opportunity to care for your wellness. I hope you’ll continue to follow through with the self-care I provided for you. I will keep you posted as to when and where I… will be practicing again and I am still available for some appointments from now until then. Keep healthy and hydrated until we meet again. With great appreciation, Shirley Staples Lic. Massage Therapist 630-815-5799
05.01.2021 Start your new year and new you with an hour long massage! Getting a massage is not an indulgence, but a significant component to achieving overall health and wellness and relaxation. PM for an appointment today!
29.12.2020 Massaging knotted muscles not only relieves physical pains, but can also help in processing emotional pains. What have you been experiencing that’s been manifesting in physical aches? Taking care of your body with a therapeutic massage is an effective way of addressing areas that are calling for your attention https://lonerwolf.com/muscle-tension/
16.12.2020 It’s National Relaxation Day! Have you taken time to pamper yourself? Come make your appointment today for a full hour of therapeutic massage from me!
Batavia Depot Museum
Batavia Station in August 2007.
|Location||155 Houston Street, Batavia, Illinois 60510|
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Depot
|Location||Batavia, Kane County, Illinois, USA|
|Coordinates||41 ° 51’5.22 ″ Nsh. 88 ° 18’37.43 ″ W. / 41.8514500 ° N 88.3103972 ° W / 41.8514500; -88.3103972 Coordinates: 41 ° 51’5.22 ″ N 88 ° 18’37.43 ″ W. / 41.8514500 ° N 88.3103972 ° W / 41.8514500; -88.3103972|
|Architectural style||Gothic Revival|
|NRHP ref. No.||7|
|Added in NRHP||June 6, 1979|
Museum Batavia Depot is a museum in Batavia, Illinois that was once the city’s main train station. It was the first of many depots built by the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979 as Railroad Depot Chicago, Burlington and Quincy .
The Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad (CB&Q) was founded in the 1850s to compete with the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad (C&GU).The new railroad was built due to growing fears that the cities of Batavia and Aurora will be in economic downturn as C&GU bypassed both settlements. The Batavia train station was the first to be built by CB&Q and therefore the company has gone to great lengths to make it architecturally distinctive.
The two-story timber structure is decorated with red vertical panels. Originally 22 by 45 feet (6.7 by 13.7 m), a four-room annex was added to the first floor in 1868.The main structure has a gable roof with Gothic braces, while the annex has a flat roof. The station was later abandoned by CB&Q, which chose to maintain only a direct route through Aurora. The station was moved to its current location in 1973 in order to preserve it. Renovations were made to return the building to its 1919 appearance (which was probably very similar to the original). The house was put on a new cinder block foundation. The new site also had a basement for an oven to keep the building open during the winter.The Fox River is now east of the building. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on June 6, 1979.
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90,000 through the thorns to the heights of printing
Despite serious transport problems, 19,229 visitors to the annual printing exhibition held from September 28 to October 1, 2014.in Chicago, witnessed numerous premieres and alliance announcements.
The day before the exhibition opened at a key Air Traffic Control Center in Aurora, Illinois, an employee set fire to and attempted suicide. The consequence of this incident was the cancellation of more than 4,251 flights at two major airports in Chicago, and more than 12,000 flights were delayed. Therefore, the fact that the number of visitors compared to last year’s Graph Expo has decreased by 8% should be interpreted with the caveat “only” – given the extreme circumstances and the traditional love of Americans for air travel.The next exhibition will be held from 13 to 16 September 2015
Pre-press and automation
Ultimate TechnoGraphics introduced new software: Ultimate Bindery v.4 – Winner of Must See ‘Ems 2014 in the Automation Finishing Software category; Impostrip Automation v.9 with the new Universal Mapper function for connecting the imposition system to any component of the technological process; Impostrip Scalable v.9 for on-demand book production; Impostrip Econo with new finishing barcodes on Duplo and Morgana; Impostrip PassGate is a high volume photo printing management system (photos and photo albums).The company’s solutions could also be seen at the stands of partners: HP, Horizon, Glunz & Jensen, Duplo, Morgana, etc. At the Xerox stand, visitors were shown the Xerox IntegratedPLUS finishing system: the Ultimate software was responsible for the data exchange between the prepress stage and finishing in line and semi-autonomously Bindery.
Specialized in large format scanning and imaging solutions Contex has announced a partnership with Global Vision .The latter showcased the latest solutions for color proofing and quality control in the printing industry, including the ScanTVS fingerprint inspection system with a Contex HD Ultra 3650 scanner. The combined solution is designed to check labels, cardboard products, inlays and printed sheets for data fidelity: color proofs can be checked for printing defects, missing and incorrect items, color deviations. Scanning speed – 31 cm / s (in b / w mode).
XMPie introduced the updated PersonalEffect 7 variable data printing solution.0 – with design features from Adobe and server performance. The solution includes XMPie uCreate Print software for creating dynamic document templates, and uProduce server software for merging templates with logic and data. You can connect to the uProduce server and work with documents on it directly from Adobe InDesign. Created and updated files are automatically synchronized with the server. Other innovations include PDF / VT support and significantly improved performance.
China’s Hangzhou Cron Machinery & Electronics enters the North American printing market: the company established a joint venture with ECRM Imaging Systems .CRON-ECRM, headquartered in the US, participated in the show in conjunction with Graphic Systems North America (GSNA), the exclusive distributor of Ryobi MHI presses. Rick Black has been appointed President and CEO of the new company, and Mike Xian has been appointed Chairman of the Board of Directors. Cron-ECRM will be the master North American distributor of Cron CTP systems and a new line of Chinese-made Blackwood offset plates. In addition, in the future, the company will become a center for research and development of high-quality prepress equipment.
Air Motion Systems (AMS) has prepared the next generation XP7 UV LED curing systems for sheetfed offset equipment for the exhibition. The solutions are equipped with 100% solid state UV LEDs that do not emit heat, mercury or ozone. The company notes that the installation of such systems is possible on existing machines of almost any type. The installation site also varies – from the intersection option to acceptance. Accordingly, the machine will be able to print with CMYK and Pantone inks, opaque white and metallized compositions, apply varnishes and coatings in-line on almost any material.A unique feature of AMS UV curing systems is the ability to service two adjacent machines at once. Visitors to the stand were shown many real samples of printing using LED UV curing.
Ryobi MHI introduced the Ryobi MHI 750 6-lane (79 cm) sheetfed offset in a modification for the packaging market. With the new model, equipped with Ryobi Smart Instacolor make-up technology and an LED UV curing system, the vendor says print runs of 500 sheets or more are cost-effective, according to the supplier.Productivity – up to 16,000 sheets / h with up to 8 colors. The machine works both with cardboard up to 0.8 mm thick and with a wide range of synthetic materials. Additional features – “chemical stamping”, cold foil stamping, printing with white opaque ink on foil, etc. Five additional centimeters of paper compared to competing techniques from German and Japanese manufacturers are designed to increase flexibility and stability, as well as print quality. Plates change with the Smart Ryobi Plate Changing system takes about 2 minutes.
They also showed a five-color sheetfed offset Ryobi MHI 925 equipped with an LED-UV system. Factors such as increased responsiveness, no powder and no protective varnish for premium print runs, the ability to print in an environmentally friendly manner, and substantial energy savings give the new user of LED UV technology significant benefits.
“We are very seriously involved in the implementation of LED-UV technology in the Russian market,” commented Stefan Valuisky, General Director of Terra Systems (the exclusive distributor of Ryobi MHI in Russia).- Ryobi today offers LED solutions for its entire line of machines. The solution for retrofitting AMS LED dryers, which has no restrictions on existing brands of printing machines, years of production and formats, is also in great demand on the market. ”
Digital printing and finishing
At booth , Xerox showcased the Xerox Color C60 / C70 printer (US $ 34,900).). He works with a wide range of products, from decorative magnets for a local pizzeria to marketing brochures for a real estate agency. Possible production of polyester labels, menus, signs, vinyl window advertisements. For the first time for a device of this category, printing on canvas is declared. Print resolution – from 2400 × 2400 dpi, speed – up to 70 ppm (75 ppm in b / w) with improved face and turnover registration. Finishing options include stapling, hole punching, folding and leading edge trimming.The printer is certified by IDEAlliance, Gracol, Fogra and Pantone. There are four Xerox and EFI print servers / controllers to choose from. Provides work with variable data for the release of personalized products.
North America KBA introduced the new RotaJET 89–130 series of inkjet digital presses. The series includes five machines with web widths from 895 to 1300 mm. They are all based on a common platform: the basic KBA RotaJET 89 can be easily and quickly upgraded to the RotaJET 130.The company emphasizes that at the moment in the segment of industrial inkjet digital printing machines only RotaJET 130 provides high quality 4-color printing with a width of 1300 mm. Another declared advantage is the ease of integration into offset production: the machines work with traditional standard width materials. KBA plans to continue supplying the RotaJET 76 digital machine, but width changes are not available for this model.
Also KBA announced a joint project with HP to develop the latest brand new inkjet roll-to-roll solutions for industrial corrugated packaging.The corrugated cardboard packaging segment is showing stable growth: the volume of the corresponding market today is $ 2.5 billion. Among its main trends are an increase in the number of assortment positions, a micro-segmentation of the market and a reduction in the product life cycle. With these factors in mind, HP and KBA will launch a series of high-speed roll-to-roll thermal inkjet devices that will lower production costs while maintaining quality standards and volume requirements.
MGI Digital Graphic Technology has produced five premieres of digital solutions at once.Meteor DP8700 XL + 5th Generation Digital Transformer Wins Must see ‘ems. The format of the equipment has been increased to 119 cm. The range of compatible materials – from cardboard with a thickness of 0.4 mm to plastic 450 microns. Implemented automatic duplex printing with elements register up to 12 pt. Another feature is a fully customizable color scheme including gray, cherry red, blue and black.
Within the framework of the exhibition, the first finishing module DF Pro was announced for working in line with the Meteor digital printing machine.The module performs cutting and trimming, full and partial perforation, creasing from the front and back sides. All operations can be done in one pass of a sheet up to 1200 mm long.
Must see ‘ems awards also received modules to increase the performance of the JETvarnish 3D digital varnishing device – twice (T2) and three times (T3). The result is up to 2,400 sheets / h in B2 format with a 3D embossing effect and up to 3,000 sheets / h in conventional flat processing. The new camera for JETvarnish 3D reads the printed barcodes and locates the images on the workstation for quick varnishing.
The company has timed the world premiere of the beta version of the high-performance digital printing machine Meteor DP1000 XL, which is scheduled for release in 2015, to coincide with the exhibition. Productivity is 100 ppm A4 format with material thickness up to 0.4 mm. Visitors were also shown the first result of the strategic alliance with the Konica Minolta , the third generation JETvarnish 3DS spot UV varnishing system developed exclusively for sales through the Konica Minolta network. All JETvarnish 3D effects and features, including volumetric varnishing, are now available in half format – for digital prints up to 36 cm wide.
Scodix showcased the Scodix Ultra Pro digital inkjet system for the first time with a capacity of up to 1250 sheets / h in B2 + format. The manufacturer notes that this is the first system to work with Scodix Spot resin for spot varnishing of short runs. The machine is equipped with two sheet trays that can be operated simultaneously and four cameras that control register.Equipment maintenance can be performed automatically by running remotely. Variation of the thickness of the polymer applied in one pass is provided. The scope of application of the novelty is the widest: stationery, book covers, premium packaging, marketing and advertising products, greeting cards, photo albums. The Scodix Ultra Pro will go on sale in Q1. 2015
Highcon has announced the Euclid II series of digital die cutting and creasing machines.The second generation of equipment was shown on the example of the Highcon Euclid II + model with new options. The digital flash removal module automatically removes the smallest pieces of excess material, eliminating the need for a separate device. Another new module is responsible for optical sheet registration, complementing traditional mechanical systems. The laser is controlled by a precision die-cutting software module, which the supplier says has dramatically increased the flexibility and speed of the equipment. In addition, the Euclid II machines are equipped with an updated material handling system: paper, label media, cardboard and micro-corrugated board.
Highcon and Konica Minolta also presented a joint exhibit highlighting the potential of digital processes for commercial printers and cardboard packaging industries. Highcon showed visitors samples of packaging products printed on a Konica Minolta KM-1 (74 cm) inkjet sheet-fed digital machine, followed by digital die-cutting and creasing on a Highcon Euclid II + machine.
C. P. Bourg announced the first PUR-glue BSC for the automatic production of digital products: photo albums in paperback and hardcover, catalogs, etc.Configuration options: in-line or stand-alone with manual or automated sheet feeding. Within the framework of the exposition, the new BB3202 PUR-C system worked in line with the Xerox iGen 150 digital processing machine. Max. KBS speed – 350 items / h with formats from 100 × 100 mm to 385 × 320 mm and thickness from 1 to 60 mm. The machine automatically adjusts to the thickness of each piece by adjusting the settings as needed. It is possible to apply up to 13 scoring lines, positive and negative.
Sources: Air Motion Systems, Bodoni, Contex, CGS, C.P. Bourg, Highcon, HP, Hangzhou Cron Machinery & Electronics, KBA, MGI Digital Graphic Technology, Ryobi MHI, Scodix, Ultimate TechnoGraphics, Xerox, XMPie, Terra Systems.
90,000 Sometimes they come back … | Edward, September 26, 2020
Amazing stories of how pets found their way home despite huge distances and obstacles …
Irish Terrier Prince
How many were absent: unknown
In 1914 Private James Brown of Staffordshire was called to the front – Brown was in one of the first regiments sent to France to fight.At home he had to leave his favorite Prince. Despite the fact that the Prince was left in the care of the family, and not strangers, the dog still missed his master so much that one day he disappeared.
Brown’s wife wrote to him about this in a letter, but the letter came too late: shortly before receiving the mail, Prince and James were reunited. The dog found his master in the French trenches, having crossed the English Channel, and was ready to fight with him against the Germans. The detachment made the Prince their talisman and kept it, and the dog, in gratitude, performed the function of a postman, passing notes on the battlefield.
Metis Scottish Collie and English Shepherd Bobby
Distance: 4100 km
Absent: half a year
In 1923, while traveling in Indiana, a two-year-old dog Bobby was lost. The owners searched for him for several days, but could not find him and went home to Silverton, Oregon. Six months later, Bobby showed up at the door of an Oregon home: emaciated, with bleeding paws.
Bobby walked almost half of the country, in winter, through plains, mountains, deserts, swamps, rivers and lakes, to be with his masters – according to estimates, he had to walk about 23 km per day.His story touched the Americans so much that they even made a silent film Call of the West about Bobby and erected several monuments in Silverton, and there is still a children’s parade in his honor there.
Tony Cocker Spaniel
Distance: 400 km
Absent: Five weeks
In 1945, the Doolins moved from Aurora, Illinois to East Lansing, Michigan. It was decided not to take the black cocker spaniel Tony with him, but to leave to live with friends in his hometown.Tony, unable to bear such a betrayal, did not stay with family friends and a few days after the owners left, he also disappeared.
Five weeks later, Mr. Doolin, returning home from work, saw a disheveled, dirty and thin dog, similar to Tony: the dog wagged its tail and barked happily. At first, Mr. Doolin doubted that it was his Tony, but when he saw the address tag on the collar, there was no doubt – it was a pet, which since then has never been left behind and has always been carried with us.
Australian healer Sophie Tucker
Distance: 10 km by water
Absent: four months
Ian Griffith was vacationing with his family on a yacht and was sailing in a storm when pet Sophie Tucker fell overboard. Jan thought that the dog had drowned, lost all hope of rescuing the pet in such a storm, and went on its own course.
Sophie Tucker not only did not drown, but also experienced many adventures: she swam 10 km side by side with sharks (it was not far from the Australian coast), landed on a practically uninhabited island and hunted wild goats there for four months, to get their own food.Sophie was discovered by the rangers, worried that someone was stealing and killing the goats, and then returned home using an address tag.
Outbred cat Barsik
Distance: 200 km
How many was absent: five weeks
The owners of a three-year-old cat Barsik from Rostov-on-Don gathered to visit relatives in Ukraine in the city of Krasnodon. They decided to take their pet with them, without asking whether Barsik wants to leave his home at all.
Quite predictable, but Barsik, who arrived in Krasnodon and was released from his bag, was instantly frightened by the barking of dogs and unfamiliar terrain, escaped from the owners and ran away – and not just anywhere, but home, across the border.Five weeks later, Barsik found himself on the doorstep of a house in Rostov-on-Don, emaciated, with a slight stretching of his paws, but obviously happy.
Siamese cat Semyon
Distance: more than 2000 km
Absent: six years
In 1987, the Sinishin family of Murmansk residents lost their cat Semyon, returning from Moscow, and returned to Murmansk “orphaned”. However, the obstinate cat did not accept this course of events, spent six years in wanderings in order to return home, and finally got there.
The incident turned out to be so extraordinary that they wrote about Semyon in Murmansk newspapers, shot a short film “Love Story”, and in 2012 they erected a monument to him. Now a sad bronze cat with a bundle sits on a bench near Lake Semenov in Murmansk: they say that if you scratch it behind your ear and make a wish, it will come true.
How many absent: unknown
When the Japanese Yosuke parrot got tired of sitting in his cage, he simply flew out of it through the window.Big Tokyo, however, seemed to Yosuke less comfortable than a cage, and very soon the prodigal parrot wanted to go home. When the police found the parrot on the roof of one of the houses in Tokyo and took it to the vet,
Yosuke clearly, as he was taught, gave his name: “My name is Yosuke Nakamura”, the address, and then sang some joyful songs, adding to this request take him home. The family, when the parrot returned there, was very pleased that they had spent two years knowingly teaching Yosuke these important words.
Emily’s Domestic Outbred Cat
Distance: 7300 km
Leslie and Donnie McEleney from Appletown, Wisconsin, once discovered that their one-year-old cat, Emily, had disappeared. As it turned out later, Emily accidentally, while walking, jumped into a container with waste paper, which, in turn, stood in the back of a truck that was going to Chicago, to go from there to Belgium, and then to France.
It was there that Emily was found by the paper mill workers, exhausted and dying of thirst.Fortunately, Emily had a collar with an address tag and was quickly returned home on a Continental Airlines flight.
Jack Russell Terrier Jarvis
Distance: unknown, but used the ferry
Absent: two days
The owner of restless Jack Russell Jarvis lost him when Jarvis rushed after a bird into the bushes while she was walking with her two-year-old granddaughter through the park in Cornwall. Both looked for and called Jarvis, but to no avail, so they had to return home to Devon without a dog.
On the way, they posted notices, and one was answered by a woman who called and said that Jarvis had been seen on the ferry from Cornwall to Plymouth. Before the owners had time to hang up, they found Jarvis calmly mincing home from the ferry.
Why is this happening?
Mark Bekoff, a behavioral ecologist at the University of Colorado, cannot explain this phenomenon: “Pets have never been examined to navigate space.Migratory species are another matter: birds, turtles, insects. Yes, we know for sure that they find their way home by the sun, they are guided by the magnetic pole of the Earth, as well as using olfactory signals. ”
Dr. Bradshaw from the University of Cambridge, like his other colleagues, suggests that the fact that dogs most often find their way home is due to their relationship with wolves, and they navigate the terrain using magnetic signals. And cats, on the contrary, smell very well, even for many kilometers, and walk towards it, cutting off distances.
National Geographic and the University of Georgia in 2011 created a new study, the Kitty Cams Project, to reveal the secret life of a cat. 55 pet collars were attached to small cameras that filmed what the cat saw and where she went. In particular, in the course of the study, it turned out that some cats live in two houses (which their owners are not aware of): in one they receive food, and in the other, say, love and affection.
In 1954, another experiment was carried out in Germany: cats were placed in a round maze with exits located in it every 15 °.So most cats chose the exit from it, located closest to the house. The only problem is that if the maze was installed more than five miles from the house, the “accuracy” of the cats dropped and they began to go out into any other exits.
Friends.I decided to write a book about Needlework. I ask those who wish to take part to offer photographs of their works for illustration. A brief description of those is welcome. receptions. Indicate full name and city, briefly tell about yourself. My small but very friendly comments will be added. There is no material reward for your help, but I expect that the book will be in some demand, which will contribute to your fame. A little PR didn’t hurt anyone.
The experience of communication has shown a certain relevance and value of the accumulated materials, which I would like to summarize in one work of immediate practical importance.
Click to read more ▸
Working title: “How to Make Leather Handicrafts for Sale”
Table of Contents.
7. Auxiliary materials 4. Accessories. Types and types of fittings. Metal fittings. Wooden fittings. Accessories from semi-precious and semi-precious stones. Bone fittings. Plastic fittings. Hardware manufacturing methods. Several techniques for self-manufacturing accessories. Fittings aesthetics. Calculation of the used fittings in terms of bearing capacity and functional permissible loads.
8. Auxiliary materials 5. Fasteners. Types and types of fasteners. Zipper fasteners. Lunex clasps. Velcro. Illinois clasps. Magnetic fasteners. Distributed fasteners. Point clasps. Structural and mechanical features of Needlework in conjunction with the types of fasteners used. Other materials.
9. Hand tools. General requirements for hand tools. Cutting tool. Finishing tool. Suture tool. Layout tool.Maintaining the tool in working order. Some techniques for handling the instrument.
10. Hand tools. General principles of small-scale mechanization of manual labor. Types and types of hand tools. Classification of devices.
11. Equipment. 1. Sewing machines. Brief historical background. Classification of sewing machines. Lockstitch machines. Device, types, characteristics, scope. Chainstitch machines. Hand seam imitation machines. Programmable stitching machines.Special purpose vehicles. General information on the mechanisms of sewing machines. Care and rules for the safe operation of equipment.
12. Equipment 2. Other machines. Cutting equipment, general information. Stamping equipment, general information. WTO equipment, general information. Preparatory work machines, incl. gluing machines, tamping machines, gathering machines, leather edging machines.
13. Means of small-scale mechanization. Principles of mechanization of manual operations when working on sewing equipment.The same when working on other types of equipment. Classification of means of small-scale mechanization. Edgers. Bracers. Assemblers of parts in different seams.
14. Special devices for high productivity of handicraft labor. Building berths. Japanese type carousel slipway. Carousel building berth of the Swiss type. Matatirs. Sliding matatir. Complex matatir for setting pockets. Roller matatir. Reeld Ivarson, device features and principles of operation. Briefcase rack of the German type.Pantographs. Reisdangel. General principles for the use of special devices of high performance.
15. Types and types of manual and machine seams. Hand seams. Machine seams. Method of simulating a saddle seam by machine. Decorative stitch.
16. A brief overview of the types and types of some designs 1. Classification of small forms. Wallets. Coin holders. Purse. Frame wallets. Fermoire wallets. Business card holders. Notebooks and diaries.
17. Overview of types and types of some designs 2.Classification of medium forms. Ladies’ small-sized handbags. Men’s small-sized handbags. Borsa and Guineo. Business style men’s and women’s handbags. General purpose handbags. Business bags. Briefcases and bags. Trunks and tandreanners. Special handbags. Medium-sized frame products. Suitcases and trunks.
18. Specialized frame products. Violin trunks. Cases for woodwind instruments. Wardrobe trunks for brass instruments. Cases for string and plucked instruments.
19. Equipment. Backpacks of the advanced type. Backpacks are frame. Easel backpacks. Bag backpacks. Urban backpack.
20. Motorcycle equipment. Motorcycle trunks. Cycling trunks. The redzel wardrobe trunk is universal. Motokofr of the “Vespa” type. Design features of moto equipment. Basic dimensions and mountings for the 200 most common motorcycle and scooter brands.
21.Camping, expeditionary and hunting equipment. General principles. Bandolier. Yagdtash. Sheath. Soft weapon covers. Semi-rigid arms covers. Suspension and unloading.
22. Ethnographic features of leather products. Africa. Asia. South America. America North. Russian tradition. The main methods of stylizing souvenir products.
23. Historical costume and reconstruction. The development of equipment and accessory style in Western Europe from the Reformation to the 20th century.
24. Appendix 1. Equipment drives. Classification and characteristics. Valve motors. Stepper motors. Brief information about the programming features of electronic control units of the 25 most common types.
26. Appendix 3. Constructive diagrams of 12 portfolios. Constructive diagrams of 12 bags. Constructive schemes of 5 shoppers.
27. Appendix 4. Tables of the main characteristics of some materials.
28. Appendix 5. Tables for the selection of threads.
29. Appendix 6. Table of types of needles for sewing machines.
30. Appendix 7. Illustrative material. Examples of works by contemporary Russian masters with short descriptions.
Request – Nc to do 2021
Category: Request 2021
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Wrestling with bamboo
Removing unwanted grass Q: When we moved into our house, we had a lot of bamboo growing on a hill by the river. Every spring the bamboo is uplifted and I have to chop it down weekly. What can I do to get rid of bamboo permanently? —Kevin, Pasadena, MD A: Roger Cook replies: Too bad you can’t hire a panda to
How to pull out a gray Photo by Matt Kalinowski Q: I just bought an 1831 plaster over stone from Bucks County farmhouse with random widths of pine floors.My wife and I repaired the floors in several rooms with no problem until we got to the dining room. Gray spots appeared after sanding and sealing the floor. I re-sealed and re-sealed but the stains appeared. Any ideas? – Mike, Feisterville, PA A: Tom Silva replies: gray spots look like old
Piping Technique in Hard-to-Reach Places Q: I am a plumbing contractor and I once saw a basement at your show where there was no way to divert ventilation to the tops.As a solution, the plumber created a loop in the basement for ventilation and then tied it to the existing stack. What do you know about this type of mustache
Q: “Is there something we can apply to an interior brick wall that runs between two houses that won’t change its appearance, but will reduce the dust it emits?” Photo by Allison Dinner Q: I just bought from. Semi-detached house from the 1920s with exposed bricks along an inner wall that runs int
Construction Requirements for Boring Land
Q: What is involved in property development? Photo by Allison Dinner Q: My wife and I recently bought an 18-acre site, most of which is in the flood.Six acres can be built and we want to subdivide them and build no more than three houses. Not being a developer, I have no idea about the process involved in such an undertaking. What things do I need to consider such as pre-existing property rights and easements, change from
The best way to build a boardwalk Q: I would like to walk the classy path from my house to the outbuilding. I am thinking about using composite decking on its surface, but what is the best way to frame it? —Mark Tylkovsky, Aurora, Nebr.A: Tom Silva replies: This is a simple project that you can even build in sections if you have the time. First, remove from p
Boards with windowsills
The carpenter has replaced all of the old deck boards on our front porch with 1×4 fir fir labeled “D & BTR Mix-grain”. Then they were primed and painted. Now every winter the floor bends, and in the spring it is leveled again. What went wrong – and how can I fix it? Q: Two years ago, a carpenter replaced all the old deck boards on our front porch with 1×4 fir “D & BT
Building walls for basement
Q: “Should you build the walls yourself or leave it to a professional?” Q: My wife and I bought a two-room apartment c.1935 house. We are planning to add an add-on from the top. The problem we are facing is the basement, which was dug by the original owner himself. There is no concrete wall or floor. After m
Construction above the patio slab
One way to add a room is IF your patio can fill it Photo by Matt Kalinowski Q: I plan to attach my concrete exposed aggregate patio and turn it into a finished piece of my home. I would like to use some sheet pile oak that I saved as flooring.How am I supposed to go about this? – Mike, Jupiter, Florida. A: Tom Silva replies: I see several
Cabinet of Crown
The challenge of cutting a crown in the kitchen Q: How to cut a crown inside and outside the corners for the top of kitchen cabinets? – William, Neskeoning, PA A: Tom Silva replies: Crowning can be difficult. I like to cut it with an electric saw. The trick keeps its shape. Install the molding on the wall first so that it extends beyond the outer corner of the cabinet.Mark bottom and back
Cracks in the office
Q: “Are the cracks between the frames and doors of my new office normal?” Q: Is it a sign of poor quality or common to all wood cabinets? A: Q: I have remodeled my kitchen with premium painted maple cabinets, but there are cracks between the frames and doors of the new cabinets.
Low grade insulation
Q: How do I insulate the walls of my cold concrete block? Illustration by Harry Bates Q: My house has a finished basement with exposed concrete walls.Heating is very difficult for living quarters. What’s the best isolation strategy? – Ben Kramer, Westerville, OH A: Tom Silva replies: I would insulate the inner walls that insulate this whole hall
Burnt the lawn
How to remove fertilizer burn marks Q: How to correct yellow burn marks from too much fertilizer? – Sharon, Egg Harbor, NJ A: Roger says: Once there are burn marks, there is nothing you can do but replace the grass.I would cut out an area, remove 1 inch of soil, add new soil and seeds, or sod, whichever is faster, which is usually seed. If you have ever spilled fertilizer on a small
Can I buy a thin bathroom substrate?
Using cement board Photo by Matt Kalinowski Q: We would like to install ceramic tiles over existing vinyl floors in an old house, but we want to minimize the height of the added floors if possible.Is there a base material thinner than 1/2 inch shield? – Howard, Bonanza, Oregon A: Joe Ferrante replies: Absolutely. You can use 1-4 inch cement board, product available
Can I slide open the cabinet door?
B: “We cut one sliding wardrobe door too short. Do I need to buy a new one? ” Q: When we installed tiles on our floors, we had to cut a lot of our doors. However, we cut one sliding wardrobe door too short.Should we buy a new one? —Betty Hawley, Albuquerque, N. Mex. A: Norm
Can I combine ventilation pipes?
Q: “I have five ventilation pipes running through my roof. Can I put them together? ” Q: I have five ventilation pipes running through my roof. Can I tie them together in the attic and reduce the number of holes in the roof? – CM, St. Augustine Beach, FL A: Richard Tretvy
The best fabric for outdoor use
Question: What fabric is best for our gazebo? Photo of Sunday Hendrickson Q: Our gazebos have fabric roofs that are either disheveled or missing.My husband thinks we should replace them with metal roofing. Can you give us some ideas on what to do? – Jean Bruggemann,
Best Materials for Glass Sealing Q: I have a mountain house at 4,200 feet. On the south side of the house there are two bay windows approximately 35 feet high with individual glass panels measuring approximately 2×8 feet. Do you have any suggestions for the correct minting material? – Willis, Highlands, NC A: Tom Silva responds: silicone eye
Is pressure treated wood poisonous?
Is my CCA pressure wooden table poisonous? Q: Is my CCA pressure wooden table poisonous? – DP Krause, Delphi, Ind.A: Kevin O’Connor replies: I did a little digging and found that the EPA is conducting trials to figure out the best ways to eliminate or reduce the risk of exposure to wood treated with CCA, a copper, chromium and arsenic preservative. CCA was banned from residential use in 2004, mainly due to its arsenic content. In May, the EPA released a preliminary report proposing air risk mitigation
Ceiling joints Shoddy
Fixing bad mix after workers walk home Q: I have a textured ceiling in my living room.I recently had the lobby removed and a new Sheetrock was taken up. The new ceiling seems to match the old one except where the two meet. It looks awful. Do you have any suggestions
The Story Behind Tin Ceilings Q: While dining at a local restaurant, my wife and I marveled at the fancy stamped metal ceiling adorned with metal crown molding. What kind of craftsman could have made and installed these ceilings? Can you give us some background information? – Albert, Pittsburgh, PA A: Norm Abram answering
Cement in the kitchen
Pros and cons of an unbreakable countertop Q: What are the pros and cons of a cement countertop? – Jesse, Atlanta, Georgia A: Tom Silva replies: The top pro is that he is virtually indestructible.But it is heavy, so you have to make sure that the area you are placing the countertop on will carry the extra weight. One of the disadvantages of jav
Change in plans
Can I convert my garage to create a cathedral ceiling? Photo by Matt Kalinowski Q: We built a two-story garage with an open room on the second floor, which was supposed to have a ceiling of 8 feet. We have just finished wall insulation and would like to do something to expand the ceiling height on the second floor.Roof built from Truss 2×4 feet, 24 inches in
Choice of deck boards to prevent docking
Tom Silva explains why not using 2×10 planks for decking Q: We planned to use 2×6 for our new deck, but for some reason 2×10 was cheaper. Wider boards will have fewer joints, but will they fall out more often? – Keith Linderer, Bloomsdale, MO A: You are correct that 2
Better ventilation of the dryer
Q: “Is my vent valve letting cold in?” Photo by David Lamb.Q: This winter, our laundry was 15 degrees cooler than the rest of the house. Could the dryer vent valve be part of the problem? – Sean Crowley, via email A: Richard Trethewey reply
Selecting a new furnace
Q: It’s time to replace my gas oven. Can you give me some idea of what I should be looking for? Photo by Keller & Keller Q: I think it’s time to replace my gas oven. But before I call for estimates, can you give me some idea of what I should be looking for? Dorothy Zalewski, Rochester X
The beveled subway tiles are made correctly
Tiling contractor Marc Ferrante has some pointers to avoid uneven corners Photo by Kelly Darling Spadoni / Darling Interiors Q: We’ve got a hell of a lot of time figuring out how to install subway beveled tiles on our stovetop.Because the center of the tile is much thicker than the edges, each cut at the corner or at the ends of the cover looks uneven. Will the mortar cover the unevenness? Or are we just too obsessed? – Lillian Kr
Blueberry Care Bush
Q: Can we prune our tall blueberries, or is there another way to protect them from birds? Q: Our blueberry bushes have grown so tall that we cannot adequately cover them with bird netting. Can we prune the bushes, or is there another way to protect them? —Warren and Lorraine Dean, Milford, Conn.A: Roger Cook replies: You can prune blueberries table
Choosing the right screwdriver
What’s the best way to fit a bit with a screw head? Q: When I installed the stainless steel Phillips screws with a drill, I could not find a piece that did not strip the screw head. What’s the best way to fit a bit with a screw head? —Brad McDowell, Saranac Lake, NY A: Kevin O’Connor in charge: Kevin Encke, Bit Expert at Bitmaker
Selection of plants for a fire retardant garden
Get the garden of your dreams – minus the annoying deer Q: I dream of having a lush garden filled with deer-resistant perennials, but our forested area has heavy clay soil and many tree roots.Can You Make My Dream Come True – Deanna Lutz, Accokeek, MD.
Brave New Mowers
Q: Are robotic mowers worth it? Photo by Thomas Jackson Q: Do robotic mowers work and are they worth the money? If not, how do we know when robot day is really coming? – Jim Babcock, Omaha A: Roger Cook replies: Yes, these mowers work and I guess they cost money if you really don’t x
Refinement of home inspection
Q: “I was not there when the inspector passed through my house, but after the house became mine, many things went wrong.I thought everything would be fixed. What happened?” Q: I bought my first home in 2006. I was not there when the home inspector came through, but after the house was mine, a lot of things went wrong. I thought everything would be fixed. What am I saying
Cleaning aluminum screens
Q: “Is there a special way to clean aluminum screens?” Photo by Matt Kalinowski Q: I was wondering if you have a special way to clean aluminum screens. After a few years, aluminum oxidizes, which obstructs air flow.Any ideas? – Ted, North Babylon, NY A: Tom Silva’s answer: acid wash works great, but I wouldn’t recommend it for homeowners because most people don’t know
Cleaning Aluminum Siding
How to wash away decades of dirt, grime and mildew Photo by Allison Dinner Q: We purchased a mid-1980s aluminum-side colonial column that looks like the exterior has never been cleaned. We would like to extend the life of aluminum siding by a couple of years by flushing it.Do you have any recommendations for cleaning products? I have a sink high and
In this Q&A, we will explain how to make your marble countertops shine again Q: The marble countertops in the bathrooms at my son’s house are stained and dull. How can he bring back the glow? Claire Lovell, Littleton, Colo. A: Kevin O’Connor replies: Chuck Muehlbauer, CTO Ame
Bubbles in polyurethane
Kevin O’Connor invites a wood finishing expert to fix unsightly bubbles in the polyurethane finish Q: After I stripped, sanded and stained my solid oak kitchen counter, I cleaned three layers of polyurethane on the underside.It turned out great. The first layer on top also looked good. But large bubbles formed in the second coat about 10 minutes after application. I didn’t shake the jar and the brush didn’t leave bubbles behind.
Cleaning painted patio bricks
Solutions for moss, mold and other unsightly marks Photo by Matt Kalinowski Q: How do I clean up green and brown stains on my brick patio? I tried washing in the washing machine but it didn’t work. – Marcia, Short Hills, NJ A: Answer by Roger Cook: Powerful wash is usually enough to remove moss (probably your green spots) as well as mold spots (custom
Clogged with grain of sand
It’s sedimentary, of course. Q: I have a plumbing problem on my mid-50s ranch.The washing machine’s cold water intake screen is clogged with sand, silt and sand, often several weeks after cleaning. But faucet aerators in other parts of the house don’t clog that much. Why is this happening? – George, Gonzalez, TX A: Richard Tretevi replies: as weird as it is from
What to choose to avoid mid-summer fading Q: Do you have any suggestions for a good organic mulch that retains its color? – Danielle, Lubbock, TX A: Roger Cook answers: Aged pine bark mulch retains a great, uniform brown color throughout the season.Straight compost that is black will do the same. Light colored mulches such as cedar and hemlock quickly lose their color.
Rebirth of the butcher’s block
Q: The butcher block countertops in my kitchen are getting dirty and dull. Is there any way to trim them to make them shine again? Art by Harry Bates Q: The butcher block countertops in my kitchen are getting dirty and dull. Is there any way to trim them to make them shine again? Gertrude Satz, NY A: Tom Silva replies: Any butcher block countertop can be tweaked, but the process depends on
Clear Ready for cladding
Danish Oil Call Q: We removed the varnish from the walnut veneer wall panels in our house.Now we are wondering what kind of finish we should use. Varnish? Polyurethane? Tung oil? – Ed Sempel, Peoria, IL A: Norm Abram responds: you have already completed the hardest part of the project – removing the old trim – so the rest is
Cold crawl space
Will the heating take the cold out of the house? Q: Our house is on a creep and is constantly cold. We spent a lot of money isolating him last year and it didn’t help. Now my husband wants to run a vent into the crawl room to warm it up.Is this a good idea? – Rebecca, Pli
How to prevent ice and storm from breaking one trunk from a tree with two trunks Q: I have an old, oriental red cedar 35 feet high with a double trunk. I’m afraid the ice storm will eventually break one of the barrels. Could this prevent cables? Robert Baden, Palmyra, Virginia. A: Roger Cook replies: there is no guarantee that the weak crotch will not crack, although cab
Wardrobes in basements
Q: I would like to install cabinets in my basement, but how can I protect them from water damage? Photo by Brian Smith.Q: I have some old kitchen cabinets that I would like to put in the basement, which sometimes gets a little water after a heavy rain. How should I install cabinets to prevent damage? – Rosa Mendoza, Chicago A: Norm Abram replies: Reusing old cabinets is a great way to recycle and get extra
How much compost should I spread on my lawn in the fall? Q: How much compost should I spread on my lawn in the fall? Sue Fusconi, Stonington, CT A: Roger Cook replies: Compost is a great way to nourish roots and make your lawn stronger and greener.If you’re just spreading the compost over the surface, 1/2 inch is all you can add in one go without harming the grass. But you will get much better results if you carbonate the lawn first and lower it to
Camouflage for holes in brick walls
Q: Can I fix my worn out brick from the outside? Photo by Tom Wolf Q: Over the years, as hose reels and other items were attached and removed from the brick around my house, the number of small holes grew.What’s the best way to patch up these holes so they don’t look so obvious? – Howard Foltz, Hagerstown, MD. A: Tom Silva answers: You can fill these holes with color
Can I plant removable trees?
B: “Most of our ash trees were removed due to contamination of the emerald ash dump. Can I plant other trees in the same places? ” Photo by Brian Wilder Q: Most of our ash trees have been removed due to contamination of the emerald ash dump. The people in the trees did not remove the root system, but they grind the stumps below the grade.Can I transplant other trees in the same locations? -S. Knight, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan A: Roger Cook replies: You
Cover will do when all else fails Photo by Matt Kalinowski Q: Having removed many coats of epoxy paint from the concrete porch of our 1914 Artisan home, I can understand why it was painted in the first place. Water damage from potted plants spoiled the beautiful patina of the old concrete. Is there a way to erase the stain and even out the color? – Joan, Pasadena, CA A: Tom Silva replies: I’m not
Can I keep my parquet?
Q: “Can oak floor strips be turned over to give the underside a chance to shine?” Photo by Anthony Thiuli Q: My wife and I are remodeling an 1880s house with original oak floors.Over the years, the floors have worn down to the point that finishing is no longer an option. Viewed from below, the floor looks perfect, smooth, with no gaps in the seams
Can I recycle wood?
Q: “We have a shed in good condition. If we demolish it, can we reuse the beams? ” Photo courtesy of WGBH Q: We have a barn that is at least 75 years old and in good shape. If we break this, can we reuse the beams in new construction? —Jim and Katie Miller, Ostburg, Wisconsin.A: Norm Abram Answer
90,000 The city is called a monument of modern architecture. The architecture of the ancient civilizations of America
The most economically and culturally developed regions of South America before the Spanish conquest were the regions corresponding to the modern states of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and northern Chile. The works of monumental architecture of ancient Colombia known to date are reduced to several underground tombs between the Magdalena and Cauca rivers and the primitive sanctuaries of San Augustine.The population lived in wooden huts (not preserved). Because of this, the architecture of Colombia is not considered. Consideration is mainly subject to the architecture of the Central Andes, that is, the ancient architecture of Peru, which includes the architecture of the plateau and the Pacific coast, and the ancient architecture of the Bolivian plateau. From Ecuador to Chile, the Central Andes stretch over a strip of over 1500 km in length and 75-350 km in width. The Central Andes are separated from Southern Ecuador by several hundred kilometers of wooded mountains and deserted coastlines, in the east – the rainforests of the upper Amazon, in the south – the Atacama Desert.
By the 3rd millennium BC e. the appearance on the coast of agriculture (cotton, maize). At first, communal farmers lived in small scattered settlements, later, with the development of class society, in the 9th-3rd centuries. BC e. the first large civilization of Chavin appears, leaving monumental complexes in mountainous and lowland areas. In the IV century. BC BC – X century. n. e. there is a rapid development and spread of great civilizations on the Pacific coast (the coastal strip is 30-50 km wide), which caused the emergence of large religious and administrative complexes.These civilizations are divided into three groups: the 1st in northern Peru – the Mochica civilization, the 2nd in the center of Peru – the Lima civilization, the 3rd in the south – the Nazca civilization. In the X-XII centuries. the civilizations of the coast were suppressed by the Tiahuanaki aliens who came from the inland, mountainous regions. The Tiahuanaca civilization developed in the area of Lake Titicaca (the heyday of the 8th-11th centuries). In the XIII-XV centuries. once again, the dominant position is occupied by the coastal civilization – the Chimu civilization, which took the place of the Mochica civilization. Since 1470Chimu and with it huge territories covering modern Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and part of Chile, were conquered by the Incas, who ruled until the Spanish conquest (1533).
Unlike Central America, bronze was known in the Central Andes. Weaving reached a higher level, cotton and woolen fabrics were produced. Farming was carried out with the help of irrigation systems on the low-lying ocean coast and on artificial terraces along the slopes of the mountains. In the Central Andes much earlier than in Central America, state formations appeared covering large territories.
The coastal and mountainous regions of the Central Andes differ not only in natural conditions and methods of farming, but also in building materials: on the coast, where there is almost no rainfall, raw brick (adoba) was used for monumental construction, in the mountains – torn stone on clay mortar or hewn, laid dry. The higher technical perfection of cut stone masonry did not correspond, however, to the lower quality of architecture in comparison with Central America.The builders of the Central Andes did not create spatial complexes equal to those of Mexico and Yucatan.
Main Distribution Chavin Style
corresponds to the boundaries of the modern Peruvian department of Ansash. However, even before the spread of the Chavin culture, the area was densely populated. So, for example, in the valley of the Chikama River from 2500 to 1200. BC e. there was a settlement, the inhabitants of which lived in round and square premises, and since 2000 BC. e. dwellings were dug in the cultural layer left behind by previous generations.Nearby there is another settlement, in which houses were built from cylindrical adobes on clay mortar.
Chavin style is named after the place of Chavin de Huantar, one of the centers of development of this culture. The earliest settlement of Chavin is Cerro Sechin. Cerro Sechin is located on a long-fortified granite hill at the confluence of the Sechin and Mosheke rivers. The dwellings and temple platforms were surrounded by walls. There was a cemetery near each fence. Water flowed through aqueducts from reservoirs. The barren slopes of the hill were inhabited not only in order to protect the population from enemy invasions and floods, but also in order not to occupy the fertile lands of river valleys.The largest temple platform (1st millennium BC) lies on the northern side of the hill (Fig. 28). It is surrounded by upright hewn and carved granite slabs (1.6 – 4.4 m high). The slabs are interspersed with smaller pieces of hewn granite. The slab reliefs are the earliest examples of monumental sculpture in the Central Andes. The warriors on large slabs seem to be moving from both sides to the wide staircase of the main northern entrance. The rest of the plates are carved with the heads of defeated enemies and chains of vertebrae.The rectangular temple inside the fence had a developed symmetrical layout and was built of conical adobes.
The later temple of Chavin de Huantara (IX-VI centuries BC), located in the mountains (3200 m above sea level), has a completely different look than the temple of Cerro Sechin. The main temple, the so-called Castillo, is a three-storey rectangular building (75 x 72 m), which did not have a single opening, except for the entrance, to which a stone staircase led. Low (1.8 m high) and very narrow (1 – 4.5 m) galleries and rooms were ventilated with special channels.The floors were connected by stairs. The layout is like a maze. The base of the Cyclopean blocks is pierced with drainage channels. The walls expand towards the base. The building is faced with carved stone blocks.
(VI-IV centuries BC – XI century AD) coincides in time with the classical period of the Maya culture. It was associated with a large state entity covering the area between the Kasma and Pacasmayo rivers. The ruling elite organized large masses of people for the construction of grandiose irrigation structures: reservoirs, canals, aqueducts, dams.And now in the valley of the river. The Cumbre Chikama Canal is used for a length of 113 km. Aqueduct Ascona north of the river. Chikama was laid on a 1400 m long embankment, in the valley of the Nepenya River there are the remains of a giant dam.
The structures of Mochica were built from raw bricks. Just as in Central America, stepped pyramids (huacas) were erected, which differed in that, in addition to the cult purpose (sanctuaries were built on top of them), at the foot of the pyramids there were burials of the nobility (apparently, a relic of the community’s ancestral cemeteries).Pyramids were usually 4 to 30 m high. The largest surviving pyramid of the Sun is 90,093
(circa 100-900) is located on the banks of the river Moche
. The river washed away half of the hill, which is a crumbling pyramid, but the rest of it testifies to the grandeur of the structure. The pyramid is 41 m high and 136 x 228 m at the base. The walls of the cluster of buildings at its top were covered with frescoes. Pyramid E (Fig. 29), consisting of 7 ledges, was shifted to the corner of the large ledge (5 ledges) platform C, due to which vast terraces were formed in front of the pyramid from the south and west.From the north, a wide staircase A led to the pyramid, in front of which there was platform B. To the east, about 0.5 km from the pyramid of the Sun, there was the pyramid of the Moon (both names are modern), which is apparently a palace platform.
The dwellings of the nobility of the Mochica period are being reconstructed on the basis of ceramic vases found in burials. The houses were located on a hill, divided into terraces and surrounded by a thick mud wall (Fig. 30). At the foot of the hill, ordinary farmers settled. Inside the walls at the bottom of the hill lived servants, and at the top, wealthy landowners.Each house had a kind of large, open portico.
Perhaps the builders of Mochica were aware of the wedge-shaped vault. A tomb covered with such a vault was discovered in the Chikama Valley. However, the use of a false code remained the rule.
During the period of the Tiahuanaki conquests, the large and fortified pyramids located on the hills of the dwellings were not built. Near the roads, which by that time connected the coastal centers located in the river valleys, huge rectangular complexes surrounded by adobe walls began to be built, consisting of symmetrically located rooms, corridors and courtyards grouped around small platforms.An example is Huaca Dragon
90,094 (circa 1100) in the Trujillo Valley, whose walls, enclosing regular rows of dwellings, measure 55 x 59 m. The outer surface of the molded and painted clay walls contains repeated animal representations (Fig. 31). The platform inside the complex has two tiers, decorated with molded friezes.
The capital of the Chimu civilization
, on the territory roughly coinciding with Mochica, was Chan-Chan. The ruins of the city occupy about 28 km 2.The city had a harbor, consisting of rectangular basins, with the outside open to the ocean. The indoor pools had sluices. The city and its surrounding fields were abundantly irrigated thanks to a 115 km long canal that connected the Moche and Chikama rivers. All buildings were built from adobes. Chan-Chan was surrounded by walls and consisted of 10-11 large complexes, apparently serving, as in Tenochtitlan, for housing for noble families. Each complex was usually rectangular in plan, and the entire city was regularly planned out (Fig.32). The complexes were separated by narrow lanes. Aerial surveys make it possible to establish that the city consists of at least three superimposed networks of rectangular complexes, the existence of which cannot be suspected on the spot. New complexes were built on top of the smaller old ones, cutting them, not following them in terms of the location of the premises and along the length. The most explored are the so-called first and second palaces and the Ole group. The less preserved palaces were probably built earlier than the Ole group.The palaces are surrounded by a double row of mud walls 1.5-1.8 m high, with only one entrance from the north – the sunniest side. The walls not only isolated the group of people living in them, but also protected the dwellings from the prevailing southwestern sea wind. The structures inside the walls were regularly planned out. Large and small courtyards with open corners surrounded rows of similar, single-row, cell-like small rooms, illuminated by doorways. Their layout is close to the palaces of Central America.The prevailing north orientation of the courtyards was necessary due to the frequent fogs. In addition to the dwellings, the enclosing walls contained reservoirs, small huacas and gardens. The gardens were built in large stepped pits dug out, which are like the reverse image of a stepped pyramid. The plants were thus protected from the wind and were closer to the groundwater. In addition to the ancestral uac, as in Tenochtitlan, there were temple central pyramids. The analogies in the structures of the dwelling and the temple cannot be explained by the connections of Central and South America.The proximity is explained by the similarity of building materials, climatic conditions and the semblance of a social order.
If in the first and second palaces the accumulation of regular buildings is accidental, then the Ole group has a strict symmetry and seems to be a palace-type building, made according to a predetermined plan in one construction season. This most intricate complex appeared, probably, immediately before the destruction of the city of Inkali. The complex includes 33 houses, consisting of two to five rooms.The houses stand on a low platform around a large, rectangular courtyard. The walls of Chan-Chan’s buildings are decorated with niches, ornaments made of protruding adobas and mainly flat reliefs carved in raw clay according to patterns. Various combinations of carved patterns give the impression of Peruvian fabric, which was stronger in ancient times, since the ornament was painted. They are distinguished from the Huaca Dragon scenery by sharper outlines, rounded corners are absent.
Chan-Chan was a relatively young city, hardly more than 300 years old.The assertion is based on the fact that the number of his pyramids (uak) is relatively small and they are small. Another, secondary city of Chimu culture – Pakatnamu had six large pyramids, one of which contained the core of the Mochica culture, but only one clan complex.
Culture of Lima
in many respects repeats the structures of Mochica. It is also characterized by the erection of pyramids from adob, at the foot of which burials were arranged.
The largest city of culture in Lima, which existed during the Inca times, was Pachacamac
, the city, in the main temple of which there was a deity – an oracle.Currently Pachacamac is covered with sand. The Incas did not destroy the city, but erected two new large religious buildings in it: the Temple of the Sun and the Monastery of the Virgins of the Sun. All buildings were built of adobes, fashioned by hand or made in shapes, only the basements were made of stone. The temple of Pachacamac (lord of the world) was located on the edge of the city facing the sea, in its southern corner (Fig. 33). The temple – the most ancient part of the city – coincides with the cultures of Mochica and Nazca. Both the temple site and the city were walled. The temple was a platform of eight steps (on the north side), which had a height of about 1 m.The surface of the steps was covered with a layer of clay, smoothed and painted with mythological subjects. The painting was renewed at least 16 times. At the top of the platform were various residential and religious buildings grouped around the courtyard. Among them there was a dark sanctuary in which several people could hardly fit. There was a wooden cult statue – an oracle, with which only the priests who entered the sanctuary with the gifts of the pilgrims communicated. In front of the statue, the blood of people and animals was sacrificed.The cemetery for nobles and priests was located at the eastern side of the platform. From the east, the temple was adjoined by a wide esplanade with columnar galleries, under the canopies of which merchants and pilgrims were accommodated. On the esplanade there were also houses for their residence. Columnar galleries are a unique phenomenon in the architecture of South America, and their appearance is certainly due to the special demands of Pachacamac life. The city itself, measuring 6 x 3 km, was divided by two streets, roughly following the directions of the world. Its quarters contained palace-like structures and numerous groups of adjoining rooms, accessible only from above.The combination of an iconic center and residential buildings is consistent with the type of city represented by Chan Chan.
is also characterized by the construction of large adob pyramids. So in Cahuachi, on the middle reaches of the Nazca River, pyramidal platforms up to 20 m in height, crowned with groups of rectangular rooms, were erected. However, the most notable feature of the architecture is the construction of huge monumental images. They are located on a plateau above the Palpa and Ingenio rivers.The images are formed by a network of pedestrian paths strewn with light sand and gravel, on the sides of which there are stone pillars. The territory occupied by them is about 100 km long and several kilometers wide. The tracks did not serve to communicate between any specific points. The drawings are in the form of straight ribbons, spirals, figures of fish, insects, birds, plants, made in colossal sizes. Ritual processions apparently moved along the lines of the drawings. To some extent, the images were astronomical designations, some of the drawings are associated with stars in orientation and, possibly, depict constellations.
The construction of the figures has taken the efforts of many generations, the networks of drawings are superimposed on each other. For complex drawings, there were some auxiliary constructions such as fixed proportions, as evidenced by the traces of additional straight lines.
originally occupied the basin of Lake Titicaca. The earliest settlement was the city of Pukara in the north of the lake (5th century BC – 5th century AD). The heyday of Pukar dates back to the 1st century. n. e. Shortly before the extinction of the city, around the 3rd century., in the south of the lake, Tiahuanaku (older than Taipikala) is founded, by whose name the whole culture is called. The flourishing of the city dates back to the VIII-XI centuries. After the V century. the Tiahuanaku style spreads in the regions of the Montaro River and the city of Cuzco. The date of the fall of the city is unknown, it is unclear why it was abandoned. It can only be established that on the coast, the Tiahuanacu culture continued until the beginning of the 13th century.
The center of Pukar consisted of small, irregular, thatched chambers made of adoba, radially located along the outlines of C.Each had one or two altars. Cells surrounded a deep square courtyard. To date, only well-hewn red sandstone foundation slabs have survived.
(3825 m above sea level) for five centuries was plundered by numerous treasure hunters, in addition, after the Spanish conquest, its ruins served as a quarry. The destruction of the city is such (from the stone buildings there were scattered pieces, the earthen platforms were dug up) that only approximately on the stone foundations, in places dismantled, one can imagine the city center.Its ruins occupy an area much smaller than the corresponding ensembles in Central America and on the coast of South America (Moche). The city center consists of three groups of buildings oriented to the east (Fig. 34). They consist of earthen platforms lined with well-worked stone. Two of them – Akapana and Kalasasaya are separated by an ancient road. Both groups were surrounded by a 50 m wide moat that maintained a constant water table. The ditch, along one of the tributaries, communicated in the north with the Tiahuanacu River.The third group – Puma-Punku (the gate of the Puma) – was 1.5 km south-west of the first two and was connected with them by roads intersecting at right angles. The center of the city was in the opinion of the Indians the center of the world, as indicated by its ancient name – Taipikala – “stone in the center”.
The Akapana earthen platform measures 210 x 210 x 15 m. Based on 17th century texts. They are trying to reconstruct it as a pyramidal platform, crowned on the western side with a narrow stone building. It is believed that Akapana was a walled citadel with an entrance from the east.The citadel housed a water reservoir, housing, warehouses. The Kalasasaya appears to be a U-shaped platform 135 x 130 m. Early masonry was discovered here, akin to that of the fence at Cerro Sechin. Prismatic lava pillars stand at a distance from each other, and the gaps between them are filled dry with small pieces of lava. The stone is carefully processed with stone tools. Kalasasaya, apparently, was a building dedicated to a cult associated with astronomical observations.A wide staircase flanked by two powerful pillars leads to the platform, the opening of the entrance gate at its top is very narrow, it allows only one person to pass. On the territory of Kalasasaya, there is the Gate of the Sun, which is a monolithic structure 3 x 4 m. The gate was once surrounded by statues. The composition of the gate is monumental and extremely simple, above the opening (width 1.67 m) a wide, 0.9 m high frieze covered with a flat relief stretches. the squat figure of a god.
Puma Punku is a double pyramid. Blocks have been preserved here – parts of one or more buildings, scattered in such a disarray that some scholars considered Puma-Punku a suddenly abandoned stone workshop. The largest part measures 3.64 x 3.30 x 0.5 m. The heaviest block weighs about 200 tons. The blocks are hewn with the help of bronze tools with amazing care and precision. They were firmly held together by stone spikes and bronze brackets (a T-shaped depression remained in each block).Furrows are made on the blocks for lifting and placing stones in place. The holes for the wooden pins were used to attach strips of gold reliefs.
The best preserved, which has absorbed the traditions of previous cultures, is Inca architecture
. At the beginning of the 15th century. small state of the Incas (formed in the 12th century), concentrated around the ancient settlement of Cusco
, begins wars of conquest. The success of the wars was facilitated not only by the use of bronze weapons, but also by the centralized system of government.By the end of the XV century. the Incas possessed a vast territory from the city of Quito to southern Chile. The Inca state was the largest in ancient America. It was covered with a network of paved roads. Two parallel straight main highways ran along the mountains and along the coast for 6000 km. They were connected by cross roads. Inns were set up along the roads. Stone and hanging bridges were thrown across the rivers, stairs were cut in the rocks. A whole chain of fortresses was built, connected by fire alarms. The cities were distinguished by landscaping: drinking water flowed along the streets, in specially laid ditches.
In the capital Cusco
90 094 only the Inca gentlemen or especially noble leaders subject to them could live. The original center of the city was a small, elevated square with the Temple of the Sun and the Inca palace next to it. In the XIV century. the city is expanding (Fig. 35). Each supreme Inca no longer occupies the ancestral quarter of the ancestors, but builds its own ancestral complex. In the middle of the 15th century. in the north-west of the city, the Saksahuaman fortress was founded. At the same time, to the north of the hill, a swamp was drained and a new community center was founded with new palace quarters of the Inca rulers.Behind them is a new temple, the House of Knowledge and warehouses. Currently, on the site of this center there is a cathedral square and a cathedral. Four main roads converge to the central square, connecting the capital with the provinces. Here folk festivals took place, to which the mummies of the Inca rulers and their wives were brought from the Temple of the Sun on a stretcher. On the square in front of the Temple of the Sun, only cult ceremonies took place. The city was divided into quarters – the ancestral complexes of the Incas. Each block was surrounded by a high stone wall with only one gate.Inside were thatched one-story buildings with doors facing the courtyards. The quarters were divided by narrow streets. The main streets were wide enough; for example, in Quito the main street was 15 m wide. The walls facing the streets consisted of polygonal blocks or squares of black lava, laid dry and equipped with spikes and nests to impart seismic resistance to the masonry. The openings had a trapezoidal, narrowing stone lintel shape. Trapezoidal niches were the only decoration of the building.
Near the main square was the House of Knowledge – the Inca Academy.Here, the Inca youths were trained in government, philosophy, economic management of the entire vast territory, in order to become high officials. The professions were hereditary, in particular, only an Inca could become an architect.
In the middle of the 15th century. the Temple of the Sun was also rebuilt. The temple was 100 meters long and 80 meters wide. The foundations of the enclosing walls have survived, striking in the thoroughness and accuracy of the masonry, especially in the apse end of the temple, preserved to a height of 6 m. Outside, along the top of the wall, there was a frieze of forged gold plates.The temple, like the dwelling houses, was covered with thatch. The restrained exterior design of the temple did not match the luxury of the interiors. In the main room, the first rays of the sun through the open door fell on a huge golden disc, and on either side stood golden and silver statues of deities. The walls of this and other sanctuaries were covered with gold plates. In one of them, the mummies of the Incas and their wives sat on golden benches. Next to the temple was the Golden Garden, where all objects (trees, flowers and people) were made of silver and gold.
(Falcon’s Nest) in the northwest of Cuzco was the most significant fortress, zeichhaus and treasury of the Incas (Fig. 36). The fortress was located on a steep mountain, bounded on both sides by deep river slopes, on the third, northern, along a saddle accessible for passage, it was fenced in by three rows of zigzag walls towering one above the other. Each wall was about 3 km long and contained about 40 ledges. The walls are about 3 m thick and 6.5 – 3 m high.According to legend, the fortress was built by 20 thousand slaves over 15 years. Until now, the locals call her “Tired Stone” or “Bloody Stone”. The architects were the Incas: Guallpa Rimachi, Maricanchi, Akahuana and Calla Kunchui. The walls of the fortress were piled dry from huge polygonal blocks of gray granite, fitted so precisely that, in the words of one researcher, it was impossible to “stick a hair” between them. Some of the stones were up to 3 m wide and 6 m high. Each wall had a narrow trapezoidal passage closed by a rising stone slab.All three aisles were not aligned on the same axis. There were three towers inside the fortress: one round and two rectangular (the foundations survived). The noble Incas lived in the round tower. Inside, its walls were trimmed with silver and gold and decorated with images of animals and plants. At the base of the tower there was an abundant well, into which water was supplied from a very great depth.
Round living quarters are found not only in Saxahuaman. In one of the mountain settlements near Cusco in Runtu Rakkay, there is a round house, which encloses a round courtyard 11 m in diameter.The living quarters consist of three rooms curved in an arc of a circle, the doors of which open into the courtyard. The house is a variant of a residential family complex of large cities. Round structures appeared in South America much earlier than the reign of the Incas. Recently in the mountains east of Trujillo in the area of the river. Marañon was discovered the city of Great Pahaten, conquered and plundered by the troops of the Inca Tupac Yupanqui (1471-1493). The city has a round stone, apparently a cult building with a diameter of 14 m.Its walls were preserved to a height of 5 m and were decorated with relief images of condors. The building was cut by a staircase 4 m wide. According to the conquerors, the city had many round buildings and temples crowning the hills.
The other two towers of Saxahuaman housed the garrison of the Incas. Saxahuaman was not only a fortress, but also a place of worship (the house of the Sun), in addition, military equipment, tribute from the conquered provinces and the treasures of the Incas were kept here, hidden, according to legend, in the labyrinths of dungeons under the fortress.
The Incas not only used the terrain for their structures. Often the rocks themselves were used for the construction of buildings. So, from the north, in front of the Saxahuaman fortress, the so-called Throne of the Incas was carved out of the rock, consisting of steps leading to the platform. It was at a height of 20 m, and from it the front square in front of the fortress was perfectly visible. Behind the throne there were sacred rocks with ladders, niches and grooves carved into them near the caves. Such rocks were associated with the cult of the dead; sacrificial blood flowed down the grooves inside the caves.It is possible that the round ledge of the temple at Cuzco encompassed such a rock.
Cities, which had a shorter construction period than Cusco, and a smoother surface, were built according to a regular plan (Pikillacta and Viracochapampa
, about 1500; fig. 4 37). In the center of the city there is a rectangular square around which the family quarters are located.
Small mountain settlements had a regular layout if they were located on a flat surface. This was the settlement at the fortress Ollantaytambo
(end of the 15th century.), where the valley of the Urubamba River widens significantly. The fortress was located above the settlement. Narrow streets 2-3 m wide, it was divided into 18 blocks, enclosing a large square area (Fig. 38). The quarter contained two complexes separated by a blank wall. In the middle of each complex there was a large courtyard, into which the doors of four houses with gable roofs and stone gables opened. The houses were built of rough stone and mud. There were niches inside the walls of the houses. The mountain slopes around the settlement were broken up by agricultural terraces.
Settlement – a fortress for which it was impossible to create a flat area is Machu Picchu
(Fig. 39). It is located on a saddle (2520 m above sea level) between two mountains in the bend of the Urubamba River. The fortress was connected with the neighboring fortresses by roads laid in the rocks. The almost steep slopes to the river were covered with terraces with vegetable gardens. Higher up, in less steep terrain, were residential buildings. They either surrounded small courtyards, to which they were faced by the longitudinal side containing the doors, or were extended by a chain.The openings were trapezoidal. The roof was attached to the pediments by means of special stone ledges, to which a wooden crate was tied. Houses were built either from rubble on clay, or from well-hewn stones, without mortar.
The steep relief almost made it impossible to build streets, the buildings were connected by more than 100 staircases, partially cut into the rocks. Among the village was a large rectangular square stretching from north to south. Residential buildings surrounded it from the south and west, in the east there were religious buildings.Apparently close in type to the Temple of the Sun in Cusco was a building to the south of the square, containing a tower-like, open upward ledge. Inside it was a sacred rock, in the deep niches of the walls around it, apparently, mummies were kept. The structure was built of beautifully hewn stone blocks. Among the cult buildings on the eastern side of the square, at the highest point of the settlement, there was an inti-huatana (sun shackles) – a tall conical stone on a stone platform. Similar stones were found among the sacred rocks near Saxahuaman and in other Inca fortresses.A number of magical rites at this stone were supposed to prevent the disappearance of the sun during the long winter. The buildings at the foot of the “sun shackles” are distinguished by a special care of the masonry, the large size of the stones. If each individual building of Machu Picchu does not seem to be an outstanding architectural monument, then all together they leave a deep impression.
|42.Kacha. Temple of Viracocha, 15th century General view and plan|
Several palace and cult buildings with slightly different layouts are located on the islands of Lake Titicaca
and southwest of the lake. On Lake Titicaca on the island of the same name at the end of the 15th century. the two-storey stone palace of Pilko Kaima was erected
(fig. 40). On the ground floor, relatively small, symmetrically located chambers are separated by powerful walls and connected by very narrow corridors.A number of cameras lack natural light. The premises on the second floor are much larger. There is a terrace open to the lake. The floor slab consisted of flat, well-fitted slabs. The facades have a strictly symmetrical construction, for the creation of which false, blind openings are arranged.
Another building is Monastery of the Maidens of the Sun on the island of Coati
, end of the 15th century. (fig. 41). The building covers on three sides a large rectangular courtyard, the facades are divided by numerous niches, giving a complex pattern of chiaroscuro, reminiscent of the complex geometric breakdown of Tiahuanacu buildings.
The remains of the complex of the Viracocha Temple
, significantly different from the temples of other cities (Fig. 42). The temple looks like a long four-nave building, oriented from north to south. It consisted of three tiers, with a sanctuary in the upper one. On the longitudinal axis of the temple, there are often 15-meter-high pillars with a highly elongated rectangular cross-section. Round columns divide the space between the pillars and the outer walls. The entire building was covered with a gable roof.Its base, which is 2 m high, was built of stone slabs, above there is a masonry made of adobes. Six rectangular courtyards are located at the right angle of the temple mow, formed by rectangular buildings with a gable end, apparently, the dwellings of priests and pilgrims. Further to the south, behind the wall of the sacred site, is also a regularly planned group of circular dwellings, built on clay from torn stone.
Apparently, round and rectangular dwellings were the prototype of the round and less often rectangular tombs in the area of Lake Titicaca – chullips.Chullpa – a tall tower made of precisely fitted stone blocks, had a burial chamber at the top. Most researchers date the tombs to the time of the Incas.
The monumental architecture of the most developed countries of Ancient America is characterized by heavy, overwhelmingly massive structures with relatively poorly developed interiors, which is explained not only by the low level of construction technology. The exploiting elite, which had barely separated from the clan, needed expressive means of subjugating the ordinary population that had the greatest visibility.Giant pyramids decorated with intricate decor, long palaces piling up on high platforms, stadiums with temples made up the grandiose ensembles surrounding the inhabitants of Central America. In South America, majestic adob pyramids were built on the coast. In the mountains – the colossal, closed walls of palaces and sanctuaries, decorated with gold plates, were supposed to testify to the greatness and inaccessibility of their rulers.
Chapter “Architecture of South America (Central Andes)” of the book “General history of architecture.Volume I. Architecture of the Ancient World “. Author: E.D. Kvitnitskaya; edited by O.Kh. Khalpakhchna (editor-in-chief), E.D. Kvitnitskaya, V.V. Pavlova, A.M. Pribytkova. Moscow, Stroyizdat, 1970
The top of the flooded old church is all that remains of the sunken Brazilian city of Petrolandia after the construction of a large hydroelectric power plant. This is the story of another city that was deliberately flooded and disappeared from the face of the earth for man-made reasons.
Heading to Copacabana? If you want to take a break from the usual hotels, take a look at a peculiar little place called Hostal Las Olas Guesthouse.This is a complex of ten private villas, each of which has a different shape and unique interior (especially the sink stands out among them). Guest House Las Olas has an extravagant Gaudí style and beautiful views. What else can you dream of while traveling?
Places such as Las Lajas Cathedral in Colombia attract not only pilgrims, deeply religious people, but also curious tourists, as well as lovers of beautiful nature and connoisseurs of incredible architecture.The sanctuary of Las Lajas was built in the Gothic style and is one of the most interesting landmarks in Colombia. Such a beautiful architectural gem is located at an altitude of two and a half thousand meters above sea level – on a bridge leading over an abyss in the Guatara River canyon, near the border with Ecuador.
Each pilgrim carried a brick to the top of Montserrat to help build this historic sanctuary in Colombia. The Sanctuary of Montserrat is a religious building visible from most of Bogotá.For people from the Colombian capital, the temple is the most sacred place, symbolic of the city. The history of Montserrat Temple dates back to 1640, when it was allowed to build a sanctuary on the mountain. The small chapel was dedicated to the Virgin Morena de Montserrat, and was built in honor of a similar sanctuary that still stands in the mountains outside of Barcelona.
Curitiba Botanical Garden is a unique attraction dedicated to the natural world. Built in 1991, the garden resembles the French royal gardens – the whole area is flooded with luxurious elegance.Flowers line the paths to the garden, and each hedge is carefully thought out to resemble the gardens of a Versailles garden. The greenhouse itself is a garden highlight, gracefully set against the backdrop of the Curitiba skyline.
A stunning Catholic cathedral was built in the newly created capital of Brazil. The Brasilia Cathedral was designed by renowned Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer and is an almost hyperboloid structure that appears to be pinned to the ground. The exterior of the building, with its striking shape and magnificent glass ceiling, is as intriguing as its history.
Ghat House in Chile is striking in design and breathtakingly connected with nature. The architects have made every effort to blend harmoniously into the coastal landscape. The mansion literally merges with the coastal slope, opening access to the beach. At the same time, it does not violate the integrity of the coastline, but rather complements it. This project has received many awards at prestigious international competitions.
Someone may find it an outstanding success to successfully design a barbecue area in their own backyard.But the real triumph can be called the creation of skyscrapers and amazing buildings, architectural masterpieces, about which rumor does not stop. To honor the geniuses of architecture, we have compiled a list of the 10 most architecturally beautiful capitals in the world. We will talk about both the ancient capitals, in which the architectural monuments of ancient centuries have been preserved, and about modern megacities, surprising with their futuristic buildings, as well as cities where you can see an amazing mix of styles. We will tell you about the capitals in which we managed to maintain a balance between classic and modern.
Would you like to surprise your friends with a story about your vacation and numerous photos of the places you have been? When planning a vacation, remember our story and, perhaps, you will want to visit these particular cities and learn a lot of new things.
# 10 – Brasilia, Brazil
This city originated in the red desert and reached perfection in less than 4 years. He became the capital of the country, a living and breathing organism. This is Brasilia, the 10th item on our list. Conceived and planned by the architect Lucio Costa in 1957, this city contains many buildings designed by the world famous architect Oscar Niemeyer.From a bird’s eye view, it looks like a cross, but to many it resembles a butterfly or an airplane in shape. This layout was criticized by many, but UNESCO declared the city a World Heritage Site.
The main architectural masterpieces of this capital are considered to be the Aurora Palace (the official residence of the President of the Republic is located here), the Republican Cultural Complex, the Cathedral, the Square of Three Powers (all buildings on it are governmental). In the design of the city, the ideas of Le Corbusier, a French architect who are rightfully considered the father of modern architecture, were of no small importance.Brasilia is an amazing capital, if only because it was erected in the shortest possible time.
# 9 – Dubai, UAE
You are faced with the question of where to get a crane to implement a construction project? Blame Dubai for this. It is estimated that about 25% of all cranes in the world are involved in the construction of this Arab city, and they work around the clock. Crammed with skyscrapers, Dubai is considered the only capital to have a seven-star hotel, the Burj Al Arab, the tallest hotel in the world.This amazing structure is shaped like a sail.
But it also pales in comparison with other buildings that loom on the horizon. This is Hydropolis, the world’s first underwater hotel, Burj Dubai, the tallest structure in the world, API World Tower, which will become the tallest hotel in the world in the future, Dubailand, a Disneyland-style amusement park that is expected to surpass Walt’s creation. Disney in scope and beauty. Do you want to look into the future with one eye? Look here.
# 8 – Athens, Greece
Acropolis, the heart of ancient Greek civilization. It is here that the architects of the 21st century draw their inspiration. Perhaps the Acropolis gives the entire city an amazing solidity and power. Here you will see the classic Greco-Roman columns that once supported the Parthenon, the most significant of the ancient monuments of Athens, you will see intricate patterns and intricate carvings on their tops. Some people will want to stay here, but if you are longing for something new, turn your eyes to the building of the Athens Academy – it embodied a modern vision of the classical Greco-Roman style.There is also the recently renovated Athens Olympic Stadium. But is there any doubt that it is the ancient architecture, which has been tested for centuries, that attracts numerous tourists here. That is why we have included Athens in the list of the most architecturally interesting capitals.
# 7 – Florence, Italy
Many consider this city to be the cradle and center of the Italian Renaissance. And, of course, the architecture of most of the buildings in Florence reflects the style of the Renaissance.This is the world famous Palazzo Vecchio (Old Palace), which houses the city hall, the Academy of Arts – it is here that you can see David, the greatest creation of Michelangelo, the Uffizi Gallery – one of the oldest museums in the world, the main museum of Florence, the exposition of which consists of masterpieces of the Renaissance. These are also majestic and airy cathedrals, among which Santa Maria del Fiore is the largest cathedral in Europe, as well as the Basilica of the Holy Cross, a rather large church.A unique attraction in Florence is the Ponte Vecchio – Old Bridge – a medieval building with small shops and workshops on both sides.
# 6 – Rome, Italy
Like Athens, Rome is the cradle of Western civilization, and this is evidenced primarily by its richest architecture. These are true classics: Colosseum, Pantheon, Roman Forum, Temple of Venus in Rome. Later buildings can compete with them in beauty – St. Peter’s Square in the Vatican, the Sistine Chapel, the National Monument to Victor Emmanuel II.There are not so many modern buildings here, just a fabulous abundance of ancient ones, erected in the style of classicism and the Renaissance. It is thanks to the magnificent architecture that Rome was included by us in the list of the most beautiful capitals.
№5 – Shanghai, China
China today is actively developing its industry, and Shanghai is one of the main projects, which is an absolute evidence of its rapid growth. At the current scale, decisions on the construction of certain buildings are made in a matter of hours, and it takes no more than a week to develop a project (in the West, this will take months and years).The new Pudong district, the international business center of Shanghai, is rapidly developing: it has the most beautiful and tallest buildings, including the Jin Mao Tower and the Pearl of the East TV Tower, which houses a shopping center, a hotel and an observation deck.
Traveling along the river, you can see the past of the city – there are many buildings built in the colonial style, but they are gradually being replaced by modern structures like the Shanghai Grand Theater. Nearby is the construction of what in the near future may become the tallest structure in the world – the building of the World Financial Center.Are you still confused about which course China is heading? Then look.
# 4 – Berlin, Germany
Since 1989, since the fall of the Wall, Berlin has been actively involved in the restoration and transformation of its buildings. The most notable and famous are, of course, the Reichstag, which once housed the Nazi parliament. Today it is covered by a new glass dome; the Potsdamer Platz area – previously abandoned, but now renovated, is dominated by the impressive Sony Center and the headquarters of the DaimlerChrysler concern, built over the past five years.Among the newest can also be called the building of the new British Embassy, the Jewish Museum, designed by the American architect Daniel Libeskind.
There are also many examples of classical architecture and buildings in the neoclassical style – the Old Museum, the preserved building of the Bode Museum, and the Red City Hall (the old residence of the mayor).
# 3 – Chicago, Illinois
This is not just a city of delicious hot dogs and hot sports fans, here, in the City of Winds, the Chicago school of architecture was born and developed – the source of modern American architecture.After the devastating fire of 1871, which destroyed more than 2,000 acres of various buildings, Chicago was rebuilt. Thanks to the efforts of architects, present-day Chicago arose; there are many memorial structures that the whole world knows about. To understand what this city is like today, it is worth remembering that the very word “skyscraper” first appeared here.
The main attractions of the city are called: Sears Building – the tallest tower in the United States, Wrigley Building – a triangular office building, the headquarters of a chewing gum company, and Marina City – a complex of buildings, quite aptly called the “corncob” – his The photo graced the cover of the album by rock band Wilco called Yankee Hotel Foxtrot.Moreover, the greatest architect of America, Frank Lloyd Wright, lived and worked here, a lot of houses built according to his designs have survived in the city, another, no less famous architect, Frank Gehry, developed the city center and presented him with a huge Millennium Park.
№2 – Paris, France
Walking around this city, you catch yourself thinking that you are in the halls of a huge art museum. Here you can find the architecture of the Middle Ages, Renaissance, neoclassicism and art nouveau, it is full of ultra-modern buildings that fit perfectly into the overall picture of the city and remind that this is not a museum after all.Indeed, ex-French President Mitterrand was so imbued with the idea of renewing the city that he authorized the implementation of an architectural project called “Grands Travaux” (it was started in the 80s and its goal was to renew the classic style of the city). As a result, a glass pyramid appeared at the entrance to the Louvre, as well as a number of interesting new architectural structures.
The 2008 Pritzker Architecture Prize (equated in the circle of architects to the Nobel Prize) went to the Parisian architect Jean Nouvel, whose works include museums, in particular the Musee du quai Branly, conference rooms, office buildings and residential buildings.If you are a passionate lover of the classics, then in Paris you can appreciate it: the Arc de Triomphe, Notre Dame Cathedral, the Musée d’Orsay … To see everything, you will need to come back here again.
# 1 – Barcelona, Spain
Can your camera capture happiness? If so, it is worth buying a new memory card and coming to Barcelona. The greatest architects of the world, who have passed away and are now living, created this city and gave it a regal look. Start with the Hospital of St. Paul and the Palace of Catalan Music, the creations of Luis Domenech and Montaner.These buildings are UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Sites.
You can admire the art of another famous Catalan architect – Antoni Gaudí. Among his masterpieces are Casa Mila, Park Guel and the Sagrada Familia – Sagrada Familia. Further you can see the work of Santiago Calatrava – his Montjuic Communications tower, as well as the masterpiece of the already mentioned Frank Gehry “Fish”, which is located in Port Olympic, the city’s water gate. Finally, walk along La Rambla, the market street in the Gothic Quarter, and marvel at the abundance of ancient buildings.No wonder Barcelona, the focus of classical and modern architecture, crowns our rating of the most beautiful capitals in the world.
The architecture of a modern city is taking shape in tune with the constant development of urban culture, industry, and the growth of society. Social and technological progress accelerates and stimulates the further development of old cities and the emergence of new ones.
City architecture: some general information
Urban construction is designed to expand the infrastructure and living space of a person, to create new architectural complexes.Another, no less important, role is to preserve the historically formed appearance of the city, to maintain its original atmosphere.
The architecture of a modern city includes landscaping. Its goal is to create and improve living conditions for citizens, to preserve natural resources within a certain territory.
Many post-Soviet cities were built according to standard designs and therefore are still largely similar to each other. Monotonous Soviet buildings can be found in every CIS country, be it Kazakhstan, Armenia or Russia.But there is one city, with whose unique appearance thousands and thousands of people around the world dream to get to know – this is Moscow.
Architecture of the city of Moscow
Moscow is the “center of the world”, attracting thousands of tourists every year. Moscow architecture can be called a kind of historical chronicle that captures victories and defeats, sorrows and joys throughout the long life of the capital.
Metropolitan architecture is characterized by trends and images that have taken place over the centuries.All the events taking place on the historical stage of the country were reflected in one way or another in the appearance of our city. The 15th century captured itself for a long time with the stone architecture of the Assumption Cathedral and the Kremlin. The reign of Catherine the Great was remembered for the birth of classicism – the Senate, the Bolshoi Theater, the Pashkov House and the Tsaritsyno Travel Palace.
After the Patriotic War of 1812, the capital was rebuilt. Historical Museum, became a monument of those times. In the 20th century, Art Nouveau appeared, its examples are the National, Metropol, and Yaroslavsky railway station.The 21st century gave birth to ultra-modern architecture with its skyscrapers, shopping centers and multi-storey offices, which in their own way decorate and complement the multifaceted
Modern architecture as an art
The architecture of the modern city is engaged in shaping the outer living space of people through the construction of new buildings and the maintenance of old buildings. This art includes three main aspects:
- Urban planning – the creation and reconstruction of buildings.
- The architecture of three-dimensional structures – design of residential and industrial enterprises.
- Landscape architecture – arrangement of squares, park areas, public gardens.
In addition, the architectural environment has a strong emotional impact on residents. Along with other factors, it contributes to the development of patriotic feelings.
Directions of modern architecture
In different countries, the architecture of a modern city is called differently. We call it “modern”, in Germany “Jugendstil”, in France “art nouveau”. Art Nouveau, as an architectural trend, was formed in the late 19th – early 20th century.It is characterized by a protest against the established, archaic appearance of buildings. During construction in this style, steel, concrete, glass were first used, later plastic and other technological materials. This style is distinguished not only by external aesthetics and thoughtful functionality. The next after modernity, in the 20s of the 20th century, was formed constructivism, which absorbed the “soul” of the victorious proletariat. Its main task is to serve the new production. During the construction, reinforced concrete was mainly used.According to the projects of the constructivists, not only factories and factories were created, but also residential buildings, schools, hospitals, and clubs.
The end of the 40s was marked by the emergence of a minimalist trend in architecture, reaching its peak in the 1960s. Minimalists’ creed is “Nothing more!” The buildings of this time are laconic, they have no decor and other excesses. The main idea of minimalist designers is the search for the ideal proportion, the combination of comfort and functionality, in the understanding of that time.The development of modern architecture did not stop there. Soon minimalism outlived its usefulness, and was replaced by the modern hi-tech style, which for many years was entrenched in urban architecture.
High-tech – architecture of a modern city
The formation of this idea was influenced by new technologies accompanying Metal, glass, ultra-modern materials and structures, monolithic forms, power and strength embodied in buildings – this is the high- tech. It includes three subdirections: industrial, bionic and geometric high-tech.
The industrial direction is characterized by a kind of frankness of design. It flaunts all communications, connections, floors, creating decorative and functional structures on their basis.
Geometric hi-tech is a variety of geometric shapes, a combination and interweaving of the most unexpected and unusual configurations.
Bionic high-tech is characterized by imitation of the appearance of living nature, harmonization of the appearance of buildings and dwellings with the help of smooth transitions and lines characteristic of those that are common in nature.
Complex Fuerte de Samaipata (fortress Samaipata), also known as El Fuerte, is an archaeological site and a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Bolivia in the Santa Cruz Department of Florida. It is located in the eastern foothills of the Bolivian Andes and is a popular tourist destination for Bolivians and foreigners. The complex was not a military fortification and, according to historians, was a pre-Columbian religious site built by the Chane people, a large pre-Incan ethnic group comprising the Arawaks.There are also the ruins of the Inca city, built next to the complex during the expansion of the Incas to the southeast. The Incas and Chan were periodically raided by the Guaraní warriors who invaded the region from time to time. Eventually, the Guaraní conquered the plains and valleys of Santa Cruz and destroyed Samaipata. Guarani also dominated the region during Spanish colonization. Next to the temple complex, the Spaniards built a small settlement, in which the remains of buildings of typical Arab Andalusian architecture are now found.Over time, the Spaniards left the settlement and moved to the neighboring valley, where the city of Samaipata is now located.
Tiwanaku or Taipikala (sometimes Tiwanaku, Tiwanaku, Tiwanaku, from Aim. Tiwanaku) is an ancient city, the spiritual and political center of the Andean civilization of the same name. Located 15 km from the southern shore of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. Since 2000 it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The majority of the local population speaks Aymara (one of the three Indian languages that vaguely resembles the Quechua language), the minority speaks Uru (Uru) or a similar Chipaya.Previously, the now extinct language of Pukin was widespread. Alan Kolata believed that all of these languages were important in Tiwanaku. The name of the area in the Aymara language was consonant with Taipikala (Taypikala, Taipikala), which means “stone in the center”, since the area was, in their opinion, close to the center of the world. There is an opinion that before that there was a name in the Pukin language. It is believed that in pre-colonial Bolivia already in the II-IX centuries. Tiwanaku was the largest city in the Central Andes region and the center of the state of Pukina.At that time, the city occupied about 6 km² and had 40 thousand inhabitants. Around 1180, the city was abandoned by the inhabitants after the defeat of Pukin by the Stake (Aymara) tribes.
Chan-Chan – the former center of Chimu culture and the capital of the Chimor state formation. Located on the Pacific coast in northern Peru, west of Trujillo in the La Libertad region. The city was founded around 1300 and to this day covers an area of about 28 km². It was probably the largest city of its time on the South American continent and one of the largest adobe cities in the world.During the period of its greatest prosperity, about 60 thousand people lived in it, and gold, silver and ceramics were stored in the city in large quantities. The Chimu capital originally consisted of nine autonomous regions, each of which was ruled by a separate ruler who displayed valor in battle. These rulers were revered as kings. Each district had its own burial sites with rich investments in precious stones, ceramics and with dozens of skeletons of young women.
Humberstone Ghost Town in the Atacama Desert originated in the Atacama Desert in 1872 as an industrial city.Local residents worked in the mines of James Thomas Humberstone for the extraction of saltpeter. The demand for nitrogen fertilizers was great, the city was getting rich. There were schools, theaters, restaurants, churches, and their own customs. But over time, the reserves of sodium nitrate were depleted. In 1958, the Humberstone plant was closed, and 3 thousand people were left unemployed. In a short time, the city was deserted. Residents left in a hurry, leaving their property here. Now Humberstone is an open-air museum. It is visited by tourists, every November a festival is held in the city, which attracts people who once lived here.Since 2005, the city has been on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
No one has lived in Humberstone for more than half a century. But many tourists come here. Guided tours are held here, and once a year there is a festival.
Ciudad Perdida, or Buritaka-200, is an archaeological site representing the ruins of the city of culture Tayrona in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. The city is believed to have been founded around 800 AD. e., that is, 650 years earlier than Machu Picchu. The area is also known as Buritaka, and the local Indians call it Teyuna.The city was accidentally discovered in 1972 by local grave robbers. They found a group of stone steps climbing up the mountain, and following this staircase, they found themselves in an abandoned city, which they called “the green hell.” After gold figurines and ceramic urns from the city began to appear in the local market, authorities investigated and discovered the city in 1975. According to representatives of local tribes – Aruaco, Kogi and Arsario – they visited the city long before it was discovered by the authorities, but kept its whereabouts secret.They called the city Teyuna and believed that their ancestors, carriers of the Tayron culture, lived here. Ciudad Perdida was, apparently, a regional political and industrial center on the Buritaka River, where from 2 to 8 thousand people could live. The city was apparently abandoned during the Spanish conquest.