Staples feedback: Staples Customer Feedback Survey

Staples Customer Feedback Survey

What have you purchased recently from Staples? Are you satisfied with the service and products of Staples? Tell Staples what you like and what you don’t, your candid feedback will help Staples make improvements to provide you with better products and service for your next shopping.

Staples Customer Satisfaction Survey Guide

  • Visit Staples Contract customer satisfaction survey page
  • Enter the survey code. It is the 12 or 13 digit order number located at the top of your packing list
  • Choose the primary source you used to locate the item(s) you ordered
  • Rate your satisfaction of your overall purchasing experience
  • If you have encountered any problem with your pruchase, answer some questions about it

About Staples
Staples is a large office supply chain store that sells supplies, office machines, promotional products, furniture, technology and business services both in stores and online both at home and abroad.

Reference Links

  1. Staples Contract Customer Satisfaction Survey Link:
  2. Staples Official Site:
  1. Rated


    Stuart from Union Square Staples was very helpful to me concerning my printing needs, and went out of his way to take care of me. Code 3008100129202153050

  2. Rated


    I have tried repeatedly to access the customer survey to no avail.

  3. Rated


    He was so helpful kind and wouldn’t give up! I was so happy to find someone so enthusiastic about there job! (From the Staples in Beverly)

  4. Rated


    Terrible service. I asked for someone to help me and on his way back to me he helped 2 other people before he got back to (10 min later) and then he did not have any knowledge on powerstrips and told me to got the most expensive one so that it would suit my needs. Also, I told the cashier Allison I could not pull up my coupon from my app on my phone so she called over the manager John (and I’m not sure if that was his name tag on) but he just stood there waiting for me to pull up the coupon and when I could not do it he said there was nothing he could do. If im telling you what the coupon said and another employee said to him he could just override it he did nothing.The cashier apologized but he just stood there. Very disappointing experience in this store.

  5. Rated


    rude management no customer services merced store

  6. Rated


    Colby was most helpful yesterday when I was school shopping for church youth. He was very energetic and had a positive attitude. He commented loving his job and the customers. He thanked me for shopping at thus store and said he wanted the shopping experience to be positive and one of many many more. Bruce Sanford

  7. Rated


    I would like to compliment your employee Jesus he is fabulous very upbeat and personable. I know when I visit your store and Jesus is there I will leave with a smile on my face. He us a very nice nan. Thank you, Debby

Other Opinion: Staples-Motley returning to in-person learning

We didn’t come to this decision lightly. In fact, over the past two months, as mandated by the Minnesota Department of Education, we have spent many days planning for reopening in one of three models: a return to in-school learning, distance learning from home, and hybrid learning, where we adjust student schedules to reduce in-person attendance to 50% maximum occupancy of our buildings.

As part of our planning, we assessed our facilities, our curriculum and our protocols, so that we can meet the needs of each student. This encompasses a wide range of matters, including physical distancing procedures, proper sanitation, transportation, how meals will be served, as well as student, parent and staff feedback from spring surveys.

With each of the three plans developed, we watched last week as the Minnesota Departments of Health and Education unveiled Minnesota’s Safe Learning Plan. This plan provided local districts the opportunity to consult with local health officials and decide the best reopening model for their individual district.

Part of the Safe Learning Plan guidance included a table of rates of community spread at which districts should consider moving between learning models. This data supports a full return to in-person learning. We know families are preparing for the coming school year, so we communicated our plans in a timely manner, notifying family and staff last week.

No matter how daunting the challenges, we are determined to make sure that this public health crisis doesn’t interfere with the safety and education of our students. This commitment reflects our ongoing mission to serve, which has guided our continuous improvement plan that debuted last year.

At the heart of this initiative, community members, business owners, parents, district staff and students are collaborating to shape a better future for Staples- Motley ISD. We resolve to provide the support and services our children need to grow and thrive through an ambitious curriculum, arts, athletics and community spirit.

As always, we will remain focused on our core Cardinal Commitments:

  • Student experience – diverse opportunities and support for success,
  • Climate and culture – optimal teaching and learning environment,
  • Value – guided management of district assets,
  • Operations – service, collaboration and facilities maintenance,

Looking ahead, our planning for the school year is not complete. Even with the governor’s guidance, we still have work to do to ensure the district will be in a strong position on Sept. 8th, the first day of classes. During this time, we will continue to have discussions with local health officials and monitor COVID-19 spread in our communities. If there is evidence of significant increase of community spread before or during the school year, we may have to transition to the hybrid or distance learning models.

My commitment to you is that we will make these decisions locally. In the event we must shift to hybrid or distance learning, these decisions will be based on the local data and in consultation with our local health officials, so that our students can have the best educational experience in a learning model that prioritizes their safety.

I recognize that, despite our best efforts, not everyone will be happy with every aspect of our reopening plans. I promise that we will do all we can to keep you informed, listen to your concerns, remain open to your ideas and answer all of your questions. We are humbled by your trust in our work and are grateful for your encouragement and support. By working together, we will get through this, and our children will have a safe and successful year of learning.

Security | Glassdoor

We have been receiving some suspicious activity from you or someone sharing your internet network.
Please wait while we verify that you’re a real person. Your content will appear shortly.
If you continue to see this message, please email
to let us know you’re having trouble.

Nous aider à garder Glassdoor sécurisée

Nous avons reçu des activités suspectes venant de quelqu’un utilisant votre réseau internet.
Veuillez patienter pendant que nous vérifions que vous êtes une vraie personne. Votre contenu
apparaîtra bientôt. Si vous continuez à voir ce message, veuillez envoyer un
email à
pour nous informer du désagrément.

Unterstützen Sie uns beim Schutz von Glassdoor

Wir haben einige verdächtige Aktivitäten von Ihnen oder von jemandem, der in ihrem
Internet-Netzwerk angemeldet ist, festgestellt. Bitte warten Sie, während wir
überprüfen, ob Sie ein Mensch und kein Bot sind. Ihr Inhalt wird in Kürze angezeigt.
Wenn Sie weiterhin diese Meldung erhalten, informieren Sie uns darüber bitte per E-Mail:

We hebben verdachte activiteiten waargenomen op Glassdoor van iemand of iemand die uw internet netwerk deelt.
Een momentje geduld totdat we hebben bevestigd dat u daadwerkelijk een persoon bent. Uw bijdrage zal spoedig te zien zijn.
Als u deze melding blijft zien, e-mail ons:
om ons te laten weten dat uw probleem zich nog steeds voordoet.

Hemos estado detectando actividad sospechosa tuya o de alguien con quien compartes tu red de Internet. Espera
mientras verificamos que eres una persona real. Tu contenido se mostrará en breve. Si continúas recibiendo
este mensaje, envía un correo electrónico
a para informarnos de
que tienes problemas.

Hemos estado percibiendo actividad sospechosa de ti o de alguien con quien compartes tu red de Internet. Espera
mientras verificamos que eres una persona real. Tu contenido se mostrará en breve. Si continúas recibiendo este
mensaje, envía un correo electrónico a
para hacernos saber que
estás teniendo problemas.

Temos recebido algumas atividades suspeitas de você ou de alguém que esteja usando a mesma rede. Aguarde enquanto
confirmamos que você é uma pessoa de verdade. Seu conteúdo aparecerá em breve. Caso continue recebendo esta
mensagem, envie um email para
para nos
informar sobre o problema.

Abbiamo notato alcune attività sospette da parte tua o di una persona che condivide la tua rete Internet.
Attendi mentre verifichiamo che sei una persona reale. Il tuo contenuto verrà visualizzato a breve. Se continui
a visualizzare questo messaggio, invia un’e-mail all’indirizzo
per informarci del

Please enable Cookies and reload the page.

This process is automatic. Your browser will redirect to your requested content shortly.

Please allow up to 5 seconds…


Code: CF-102 / 6846faa37a30cc7b

What, No Staples!?! – Feedback

Dear Editor,
    Really? The first major physical format improvement in years (stapled newspapers) and it’s already gone? I had even been glancing at some of the letters on the subject soon after the change, but didn’t think that the few disgruntled voices would ever prevail over the wave of relief from not having Chronicles falling apart all over the place. Then, voila, between February 17 and 24, the staples disappeared. Please, please, please bring them back!

   [Creative Director Jason Stout responds: The many recent letters regarding the presence of staples in our issues demand answers, and I feel I can be silent no longer.

In July of 2011, I was approached by a major manufacturer of staples (for discretion’s sake, let’s call the company “Shwingline”). Shwingline inquired about supplying staples for issue stitching (as it’s known in the business). Before I had a chance to bring their offer to Publisher Nick Barbaro and Editor Louis Black, I also received a call from a leading pet supply manufacturer (let’s call them “PetShmart”). PetShmart had somehow found out about Shwingline’s move, and wanted to see if “there was anything they could do to make sure the Chronicle would never have staples,” as a large portion of their customer base used the paper as cage lining. I did not take this information to Nick and Louis. I did not even consider the fact that staples would clearly be better for our readers, making the paper easier to read, and keeping racks neat. Instead, I started a bidding war between the staple and pet supply lobbies.

What followed was two weeks of wining and dining, clandestine meetings in border towns, drugs, women – my greed had consumed any rational action, and I fell head first into a whirlpool of bribery and embezzling. By the beginning of August, I had worked out deals with both companies that would net me several hundred dollars over the next 10 years.

Eventually the tables turned. PetShmart could tell I was leaning toward a deal with Shwingline. After a sordid night at a local gentlemen’s club, I was approached in the parking lot by a PetShmart thug, and told at gunpoint that I should end my negotiations with Shwingline. I was terrified. My shame is such that I will admit to you now that I evacuated.

Then it was Shwingline’s turn. The following morning as I left the house, there was an image of my family, a large “X” drawn over them – stapled to my front door.

Finally it dawned on me how low I had fallen. Only a month ago, I was simply the art director, celebrated throughout my chair. Now, I was a white-collar criminal fearing for my family’s safety.
I have since confessed all of this to Nick and Louis. They listened patiently and took notes, gathering details and information about my contacts. I did notice a long, awkward glance between the two of them, but I can only assume that was a shared disappointment in my behavior, and my hubris in thinking that the Chronicle would ever change its long-standing tradition of printing loose papers that leave local coffeehouses strewn with crumpled piles of newsprint. I apologize to you, the reader, for all the confusion this has caused; the Chronicle has never been stapled, never should have been, and never will be again. If you ever pick up an issue with staples, well … there’s no telling how high this goes.]

Staples Customer Satisfaction Survey: $500 Win Gift Card

Difficulty Level : Very Hard ( 9 out of 10 )

Customer satisfaction is very important for any business. So, Staples is inviting its customers to express their opinions, complaints, and feedback about its products and services in the Customer Satisfaction Survey. As a token of gratitude for your precious time, you will be entered for a chance to win a $500 Staples Gift Card.

Your genuine and honest feedback helps Staples to evaluate its performance, and find loopholes so it can enhance its product quality and services in the future. You can freely leave negative feedback about your experiences as it doesn’t affect your winning chances.

To take the survey, you just need three things: time, an internet connection, and a laptop or a phone. Just, share your shopping experience about your recent visit to the Staples store by answering all the online questionnaires. As soon as you complete the survey, you will get entered into the Staples sweepstakes monthly drawing for a chance to win the Staples Gift Card

Staples Store Receipt Survey Rules

  • Staples store receipt with survey invitation code
  • You must be 21 years or more
  • Only legal residents of the 48 contiguous United States, including the District of Columbia, are allowed
  • Staples employees are not eligible to take the survey
  • The survey must be taken within 7 days of purchase
  • You can participate in the survey only a single time with one receipt.
  • Each Receipt can be used only one time during the Sweepstakes Period
  • Only one entry per person per Monthly Entry Period is allowed
  • The prize is transferable or exchangeable for cash
  • Purchase is not mandatory
How to Enter the Staples Customer Satisfaction Survey 2021 – 2022

Staples Feedback Survey Entry Methods

  • Online (with purchase)
  • Email (without purchase)
  • Mail (without purchase)

Receipt Invite Entry

1. Visit and click on the “Begin Survey” button.

2. After that, select the “Survey Code” option to enter the 19-digit survey code from your receipt. If you don’t have a receipt or it’s old, choose the “My survey code is expired/invalid” option.

3. Then, rate your overall experience at Staples and provide genuine feedback for the given score

4. Now, answer the survey questions and rate some services based on your recent shopping experience at Staples

5. If you are 21 years or above then, you can enter the sweepstakes to win a $500 Staples gift card

6. Lastly, provide your personal information for the $500 gift card sweepstakes

Email Invite Entry:

If you have received an email survey invitation, click on the link to access the survey page, and complete the survey by answering all the questions. At the end of the survey, complete the entry form to receive one Sweepstakes entry.

Mail-in Entry:

To enter without making a purchase at a Staples store or without completing the survey, handprint your name, complete address, city, state, zip code, daytime phone number, and birth date on a 3” x 5” card and mail it to: Staples Customer Satisfaction Survey 2021/2022 $500 Monthly Sweepstakes Entry, PO Box 728, Social Circle, GA 30025-728.

Entering the survey and the sweepstakes online, email or mail method does not affect your chances of winning.

Staples Store Survey Sweepstakes Winner Selection

At the end of each monthly entry period, four winners will be selected via random drawing from all the eligible entries received within the corresponding Monthly Entry Period. The drawing dates are 03/10/21, 04/14/21, 05/12/21, 06/09/21, 07/14/21, 08/11/21, 09/08/21, 10/13/21, 11/10/21, 12/08/21, 01/12/22, and 02/09/22. The winner will be notified by email or phone and he/she must confirm the mailing address within 5 business days to qualify for the prize. If not done, an alternate winner will be selected.

Staples Client Survey Sweepstakes Prizes:

There will be a total of 48 winners (4 per monthly entry period). Each winner will receive a $500 Staples Gift Card

About Staples:

Staples is a one-stop destination for office supplies and related products It sells the latest and greatest office supplies, machines, business services, furniture, and more in over 2,000 stores and online.   


Arthrex – Low Profile Ligament Staples

Use of Cookies

This website uses its own cookies and cookies from analytical services to provide its services, personalize advertisements, and analyze traffic. Data on your use of this website will be passed on to the providers of the analytical services. By agreeing to the use of these cookies, you also consent to processing by the cookies. You can revoke this consent at any time and delete the cookies at any time. For additional information, see our Data Privacy Statement. Below you can either accept all cookies and directly visit our website or edit the cookie settings individually.

Required Cookies

Always Active

These cookies are necessary for the functioning of our website and cannot be deactivated in our systems. Typically, these cookies are only set to meet a service request in response to actions you take, such as setting your privacy preferences, signing up, and completing forms. You can set your browser to block these cookies or to notify you about these cookies. This may cause some areas of the site not to work.

With these cookies, we can count visits and identify traffic sources to help us determine and improve the performance of our site. They help us identify which pages are the most popular, which are the least used, and how visitors move around the site. If you do not allow these cookies, we will not know when you visited our website. Performance cookies may be set by us or third parties whose services we use on our sites. For more information about the third-party vendors we work with, read the section “Data collection when visiting our website” in our Data Privacy Statement.

These cookies enable the provision of advanced functionality and customization. Your language settings, for example, are stored as functional cookies.

Has PepsiCo (PEP) Outpaced Other Consumer Staples Stocks This Year? – August 23, 2021

Investors focused on the Consumer Staples space have likely heard of PepsiCo (PEP Quick QuotePEP – Free Report) , but is the stock performing well in comparison to the rest of its sector peers? One simple way to answer this question is to take a look at the year-to-date performance of PEP and the rest of the Consumer Staples group’s stocks.

PepsiCo is one of 187 companies in the Consumer Staples group. The Consumer Staples group currently sits at #10 within the Zacks Sector Rank. The Zacks Sector Rank includes 16 different groups and is listed in order from best to worst in terms of the average Zacks Rank of the individual companies within each of these sectors.

The Zacks Rank emphasizes earnings estimates and estimate revisions to find stocks with improving earnings outlooks. This system has a long record of success, and these stocks tend to be on track to beat the market over the next one to three months. PEP is currently sporting a Zacks Rank of #2 (Buy).

Over the past 90 days, the Zacks Consensus Estimate for PEP’s full-year earnings has moved 3.07% higher. This is a sign of improving analyst sentiment and a positive earnings outlook trend.

According to our latest data, PEP has moved about 6.78% on a year-to-date basis. In comparison, Consumer Staples companies have returned an average of 5.32%. As we can see, PepsiCo is performing better than its sector in the calendar year.

Looking more specifically, PEP belongs to the Beverages – Soft drinks industry, which includes 13 individual stocks and currently sits at #177 in the Zacks Industry Rank. On average, stocks in this group have gained 9.06% this year, meaning that PEP is slightly underperforming its industry in terms of year-to-date returns.

PEP will likely be looking to continue its solid performance, so investors interested in Consumer Staples stocks should continue to pay close attention to the company.

90,000 Feedback as a management tool.

Feedback as a management tool.

Feedback is a tool for managing personnel and improving the efficiency of business processes that must be taken into account in every aspect of any organization. It is a powerful tool of influence through which information exchange between the manager and subordinates is carried out, and allows the manager to receive up-to-date information on the consequences of management decisions. , adjust the work of individual employees and entire departments.

An experienced leader uses feedback in order to maximize the effectiveness of interaction and the effectiveness of his subordinates: directs their efforts, identifies the causes of failures and low motivation of employees, spurs and inspires. Feedback allows employees to make the necessary adjustments to the process of performing work, and also acts as a powerful motivator, contributing to the manifestation of satisfaction with the results of work.

As practice shows, many managers do not attach much importance to how exactly they provide feedback to subordinates, often doing it on the fly.And often top-class experts in their profession become managers, but they do not have managerial knowledge and skills. It can be difficult for such managers to competently build communication with subordinates.

But feedback should be a natural working tool of daily work.


Feedback is informing the interaction partner about the perception of his activity by others, the reaction to it, the results and consequences of this activity; it is the transmission of estimated or corrective information about an action, event or process to an original or control source.

The need for feedback is natural for any person, be it a top manager or an ordinary employee. Doing what the company needs? Right or wrong? Will my efforts be recognized? Lack of feedback, as well as a gross violation of the rules for submitting it, deprives a person of orientation in the organization and reduces his desire to work.

For a manager, feedback is a tool that allows:

  • Express recognition to the employee and support his high motivation;

  • Change employee expectations, assessment and self-assessment;

  • Increase productivity and efficiency of work;

  • Clarify the goals and clarify the tasks facing the employee;

  • Understand the reasons for the employee’s undesirable behavior;

  • Adjust employee behavior and expectations in order to more efficiently use the opportunities of the situation;

  • To direct the employee to development in a specific direction;

  • Develop mutual understanding and mutual trust;

  • Maintain a positive atmosphere in the organization;

  • To develop the cohesion and harmony of employees, forming a team approach to work;

  • Reveal that any process or tool does not provide the desired result;

  • Identify areas requiring modernization, change or development in order to ensure the sustainable growth and progress of the organization;

  • Reveal the level of employee satisfaction with work in the company, team.

As a result of feedback, the manager receives information about the progress of tasks, which allows him to timely identify and solve organizational problems that arise. He can judge subordinates (their moods, expectations, abilities, motivation, plans for the near and distant future, assessments, etc.) and how they assess the style and quality of management, the personal contribution of managers, their authority and influence on organizational and business processes.

To maintain feedback, the manager requires certain experience and skills in the constructive use of the information received; implementing appropriate organizational procedures and setting standards; allocating time to maintain feedback and reflect on its results; making changes based on feedback.

Common Feedback Errors

The following mistakes should be avoided when providing feedback to the manager:

  1. Non-constructive criticism. Rude and aggressive condemnation of the actions of a subordinate, excessive emotionality, which manifests itself in the form of sarcasm, arrogance, disrespectful attitude can shake the employee’s self-confidence and undermine his morale. For example, if a manager instructed a subordinate to draw up a report and was dissatisfied with the result, in this case, instead of direct criticism (“this report does not contain the information I need”, “this needs to be completely redone”), you should ask what, in his opinion, was the purpose assignments, whether the employee managed to achieve it, how the result can be improved.Before moving on to the subject of criticism, recognize the specific merits of the subordinate, his positive contributions and achievements, start with praise.

  2. Transition to personality. The manager should ensure that the feedback he provides to subordinates is solely about their actions, and not about personal qualities. A manager who gives a negative assessment of an employee’s character (say, “you are too harsh”) makes this person want to be defensive and mentally contradict.Criticize the actions of the person, not himself. It is one thing to say “You are an intelligent, thinking person, but you did not act prudently”, another thing “You are an idiot, you did such a stupid thing!”

  3. Use of generic phrases only . A manager who provides an employee with feedback in the form (“you are a good leader,” “you have done serious work,” etc.) may not achieve the desired result. Perhaps the subordinate will be flattered by the compliment, but this will not give him useful information about what exactly he did right and what needs to be improved.


For the feedback to be effective, you should not resort to it if you have not prepared for the meeting, if you are in a bad mood, or if you have no free time.

Before giving feedback, you need to understand what result you want to get from a conversation with an employee. Then it will be much easier to build the right conversation. Regardless of the purpose of the conversation, it is useful to observe the following rules:

  1. Review all information about the question and prepare to provide feedback using the following algorithm .Table 1.

Table 1. Preparation for providing feedback


Answer (to be completed before meeting with the employee)

Remarks (to be filled in during and after the meeting)

What do you intend to achieve by providing feedback?


2 ..

What exactly in the actions of employees would you like to improve?



What questions do you want to get an answer from your subordinate?

1 … ..


What difficulties can arise during the meeting and how to deal with them?



How long will it take for the meeting?

  1. Feedback should be carried out in a suitable environment, in a friendly environment and free of external interference. Avoid interruptions, phone calls, etc. if possible.

  2. Feedback should be constructive. Talk first about what is good, what is bad and why, and how to fix it. Feedback should ideally contain the identification of strengths in the activities, behavior of the employee and weaknesses – places that require correction, reserves for improving the employee. Talk about what can be changed / added at the action level to achieve a result close to the ideal.

  3. Feedback must be timely and factual.
    Provide feedback shortly after the event you are discussing with the employee. It is not necessary to carry out “Debriefing” two or three months ago, it will cause a defensive reaction of the subordinate. Talk about a specific event. For example: You showed up for work today at 10:45 am. This is the second time in a week, can we discuss it? Not like this: Do you always sleep until eleven and are constantly late?

  4. Feedback should be specific, clearly expressed and understandable to your interlocutor. It should contain examples of behavior, and not describe its general patterns. Do not use general phrases and do not use hints.

  5. Discuss events and activities. Not a person.

  6. Strike a balance between positive and negative evaluations. Start with the “good” part.

  7. Involve the employee in the discussion, let them speak. It is important for you to know his opinion! Ask your subordinate for suggestions. What do you think the Client who wanted to place an urgent order, but could not get through to us at 9:30, will do? What can be done to prevent the recurrence of such situations?

  8. Articulate conclusions clearly and record the agreement reached in writing.

  9. Regularly check that the agreements are being followed.

  10. Immediately support any positive change.Get them fixed.

  11. Do not forget to give feedback not only on the result of the assignment, but also in the course of your activity.

Your meetings with employees will be more productive if you start using these rules.

So, developing the skills of giving and receiving feedback helps the leader to create an atmosphere of mutual trust and openness, which contributes to constructive change in the work.

A manager must remember that with effective communication and constant feedback, there is unlimited potential for improvement in all areas of business and people management.

Classification of feedbacks in amplifiers, circuits, types of connections

The concept of “feedback” (OS) is widely used both in technology and in other fields of knowledge. Feedback is the influence of some output value on some input value, which in turn significantly affects the output value (determines this output value).In amplifiers, as a rule, the so-called negative feedback (NF) is used, which will be discussed below. In the presence of negative feedback, the output signal thus affects the input signal that the input signal decreases and accordingly leads to a decrease in the output signal.

When an attempt was made to patent negative feedback in 1928, experts did not see its usefulness and gave a negative answer. Indeed, at first glance, negative feedback only decreases the amplifier’s gain.However, as is often the case in technology in general and in electronics in particular, one drawback of a particular solution can be significantly outweighed by its merits.

Although negative feedback reduces the gain, it has an extremely beneficial effect on many parameters and characteristics of the amplifier. In particular, signal distortions are reduced, in a much larger frequency range the gain turns out to be independent of frequency, etc.

There are 4 types of feedback in the amplifier (Fig.2.9):

  • current parallel (g).

In Fig. 2.9 denoted:

  • K is the forward transmission coefficient, or the gain of the amplifier without feedback;
  • β – feedback loop gain.

To determine the type of feedback (feedback), you need to “short-circuit” the load. If in this case the feedback signal turns to zero, then this is the voltage feedback, if the feedback signal does not vanish, then this is the current OC.

Vasiliev Dmitry Petrovich

Professor of Electrical Engineering, St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University

Ask a question

With voltage feedback, the feedback signal coming from the amplifier output to the input is proportional to the output voltage. With current feedback, the feedback signal is proportional to the output current. Serial (voltage addition) feedback uses a voltage that is subtracted (for negative feedback) from the external input voltage.Parallel feedback (with current addition) uses the current as the feedback signal, which is subtracted from the external input current.

Positive and negative feedback [examples]

How I lost 24 kg

Let’s start with the story of how I lost 24 kilograms in 7 months. Without smart diets, willpower, torment and stress. In one simple exercise. Although it is a lot of loud to call it an exercise, “habit” is more likely to be used.On one condition, though – I really needed it. If it seemed to me that it was necessary, but in fact it was not necessary, nothing would come of it.

Lovers of training, ay! Now you will hear about the super method for free. Maybe, having overcome laziness, I will create a small HEALTHY sect around this trick. So far, the method is for everyone, for nothing, and let no one leave offended.

Just in case, if anyone is wondering if the excess weight has returned? In such cases, this is important. He slowly crawls back. Again, without torment and tension, sluggishly holding the defense, in four years, about half of what was dropped returned.Those who know statistics should applaud: this is not a bad result.

Somewhere at the end of 2014, I accidentally climbed on the scales (a good verb ascended, solemn: usually they ascend to the scaffold or at least to the podium) and found 113 kilograms in myself. For a height of 188 centimeters, this is not monstrous, but already a lot. For some reason, for the first time in my life, I felt sad about this. I decided to do something.

I bought the scales that I accidentally climbed in the supermarket in order to climb this scaffold as often as possible.

This was the only conscious decision. I reasoned that my body would handle everything further.

I hate to see the numbers on the scales, right? If this number grows, it will be pain and suffering, right? Previously, I rarely saw this figure by chance, once every couple of years. And she certainly grew. Very robust, from 70-80 kilograms in 1999 – this was the peak of my emaciation. Then everything slowly rolled in which direction. Once every couple of years, the number hurt me. Apt, but rare.You can endure.

And now I have condemned myself to endure often. Twice a day, and if a masochist or a perfectionist is found in me, more often. The only way to replace pain with something pleasant is to reverse the number. But how exactly she will chase, I was too lazy to think and plan. After all, I have a body, it’s not that stupid. I made it clear to him exactly how I would hurt him. You can clarify that I intended to torture the brain, but the brain is a part of the body. I also made it clear how to avoid this.Just reduce the number, and how you will do it is up to you, brother. I trust you.

It quickly became clear that some of the food could be easily missed. The very first meal or the very last.

The body has figured out how to deceive itself.

For example, waking up – to do something important. Or, instead of supper, to pass out, when it is not clear what you want more – to eat or sleep – it is not easier to eat. In situations of doubt “want to eat or not?” always assume no. Never eat just like that, out of habit, because they are treated, always wait for the feeling of hunger.After waiting – play with him, pull an hour or two. As it turned out, a slight feeling of hunger can be loved. You can still walk it. You can literally take a walk, go wander around the city with a good person (provided that it will be interesting for you to wander). You can walk in a figurative sense. The main thing is to be interesting, to be bored hungry.

Further, the body understood about itself more and more.

For example, that a few pieces of dark chocolate suppress the feeling of hunger for a couple of hours.A pack of chips or a handful of nuts sometimes replaces a meal, and this is not 1500 calories, as usual, but only 500. Somewhat counterintuitive, right? Saves extremely high-calorie food, which prohibits any diet. But it is also possible according to the classics: soups, vegetables – almost unlimited.

However, we will not go into details. They are not very intimate or secret, I’m just not sure that everyone has it. Maybe dark chocolate is killing someone. The principle is important. The body, left to itself, quickly realizes that it all comes down to mathematics: what is in and out.At the same time, it’s not a good idea to “burn calories” – to burn one modest chocolate bar, you will have to run for a very long time. I won’t last that long, and neither will most of the townspeople. So in this sense, forget about physical education and sports. You just need to eat less, as it seems, Faina Ranevskaya said. And how you implement it is not so important.

If anything, the amount of food is measured in calories, not grams. Their number is always written on the food. If tomatoes from the market are not written on them, look on the Internet.

Just in case: I didn’t compile calorie tables, menus, all the more didn’t think how carbohydrates differ from proteins (these are already particulars and difficulties – and these are fragile systems, ambiguous).Just “eat less”, descended from top to bottom as a task for the body. And in general it coped well. By August 89 was displayed on the scales.

I cannot guarantee that this will help everyone, but I suppose it will help many. You only need one thing – to get involved in the game. There should be emotion from looking at the scoreboard. Reality gamification, small victories every day.

I’m not even sure if I can do it again. Maybe I’ll end my days with a shamefully overweight hippopotamus – why not? But this will not cancel the former feat.

If I fail to repeat, what will it mean? Which I really don’t need anymore. If the body felt real discomfort from the feedback, believe me, it would have coped.

So the main thing flashed through: feedback. I’m not writing a nutritional science textbook, but I’m sharing an example.

Doing something efficiently requires effective feedback: simple, fast, accurate and clear.

The number on the scale met all the conditions.It is always accurate and clear. Getting it is easy. As for the speed, this is great: a piece of cake eaten at night will always be highlighted in the morning.

And this kind of feedback is needed in any business.


Why are sports, stock trading, computer and board games so wonderful? Prompt and honest feedback, among other things. The world relatively quickly returns your mistakes to you, and thanks you for your good behavior.Everything is tough, honest and revealing. It is impossible to engage in self-deception for a long time. “We remain the best team, even though we lost eight games out of ten.” This is not the way to say it. “Despite losing half of my capital, I have a great business.” You will not meet such a crazy businessman. Therefore, in business, you can manage efficiency, just like in sports.

Once again about the parameters.

1. It is best when the result is a number.

Earned so much money.We ran at such and such a speed. This is better than “I am approaching harmony and find the inner light in myself.” If you want a working criterion – bring it up to date. You can tell how many watts the internal bulb is, take pride in your light.

2. There must be a verdict from the authority that has the right to give such verdicts.

If you got checkmated on move 15, you are probably a bad chess player. But if the critic doesn’t like your book, that’s more his business than yours.If you listen to each critic and take his opinion into account, this is the path not so much to success as to schizophrenia – they will give not just different, but opposite advice.

3. Get feedback quickly.

Decision in the morning – in the evening for him on the head. Not seven years later due to complex side effects.

4. The answer should be your action or inaction, not something else.

The advertiser brought an advertising layout for approval.The customer scolded him because he had snot, a divorce from his wife and his beloved animal died. Alternatively, he asked the advice of his drinking companion, and the animal died at that one. Alas, the performer will never know to the end, for which they did not actually accept the layout. That’s why I got it in the face, it’s understandable better. Because he missed a beat. In this sense, the fight is fairer than services that serve monoclients. The word “monoclient” is important here. For example, a governor evaluating the work of his PR manager. When there are a thousand clients, this is already a statistical array, all stains, snot and dead hamsters are smoothed out there.

In what areas is the feedback problem? For example, in art. You did something. Is it brilliant or pathetic? Unfortunately, there is no scale that will tell you, and there is no authority to replace such a scale. Most of all, the widest possible audience resembles them. Alas, you still have to get to her. On the way to it, they will be weighed, the weight will be assessed by just anyone and with whatever – for hours, with a compass, with an inner instinct.

Not so good with feedback in macroeconomics and politics. The most popular solutions are often the most harmful, but their harmfulness is not obvious the next day.The voter loves it when social benefits are raised, benefits are given, prices are fixed. As a rule, he is not embarrassed by such things as “growth of the national debt”, “deterioration of the investment climate”, etc. Feedback happens sooner or later. But its delay may be such that it is not the government that should be hated at all. The team of medical reformers, bringing the economy out of drug withdrawal, will be remembered as evil, by association with the breakdown itself. And those who put on the needle have already entered history as a people’s government.

This is not the worst case yet. The word “voter” means democracy, when power can be changed without a coup. Feedbacks are late, but at least they are not eliminated.

And then there is socialism. Not in the sense of a “welfare state” like the current European Union. And in the sense of those theories that Karl Popper analyzed, starting with Plato, and those practices that were implemented in the USSR and its satellites. One of the main problems there is in the feedback loop. More precisely, in their absence where necessary. For example, an enterprise produces something.People go to work, get paid, ship goods somewhere. It feels good. But at the same time, it is not clear whether an enterprise is needed. It may be consuming more resources than it produces. In the system of directive prices, it is not immediately visible, it can be calculated in different ways, if an enterprise has a strong lobby, it will cover up any inefficiency. Under capitalism it is simpler, there is the concept of “profitability”. If you are producing something unnecessary, you will quickly understand it. And here it is not.

An independent manufacturer and a mercenary in the labor market see what they are doing, who needs it and how much it costs.Feedback hits or strokes the head, responsive to what you are offering the world. It’s kind of a compulsion to be efficient. But if your workplace is created by a dump of laws, directives and instructions without communication with the end customer, you can go crazy in it without consequences.

Moving from theory to practice: create these consequences. There is a difference what to be responsible for. At best, for their actions. In the worst case, for the actions of someone else or the game of chance. In a system with bad feedbacks, you can fly from anywhere, it is impossible to predict, understand, gain experience.You can only leave such places. Where feedbacks work.

Alternatively, you can create such places from scratch. It is not difficult to buy a scale, I tried it.

Core Philosophy Question

Let’s go back to the “cut the risk, save the chance” rule. If you look closely, this is the way in which the universe as a whole survives and develops.

An old question that some philosophers (Martin Heidegger, Merab Mamardashvili) considered the main one: “why is there something and not nothing”? Nothing is easier, but simple things are more likely.The simplest thing – the absence of anything – should be the most likely. Meanwhile, we are surrounded by so many different things … Moreover, different and everyone – multiplies. According to science, over the past four billion years, existence has multiplied here in an amazing way. The question is how? Or, less philosophically, how does the world avoid risks?

First, thank you negative feedbacks. Although the word “negative” is alarming to those who first hear it, it is they who are usually responsible for safety.

An example of positive feedback: the arms race. If the enemy is building up its military potential, we do the same. He sees what we are doing and continues to build up, in turn pushing us towards symmetrical behavior, etc. As long as resources permit, a step back is impossible, only forward. As a result, half of the entire economy can start working for a potential war until the poorer one breaks down (one of the versions of why the USSR lost the Cold War could neither get off the race, nor continue it).

The consumption race works in a similar way. In developed countries, all material needs, strictly speaking, have already been met. People have no unmet need for food, clothing, and household items. A representative of the middle class lives in conditions inaccessible to the earl of the 17th century. But he, bypassing the graph, can increase consumption endlessly, moving into the realm of the comparative and symbolic. Not just clothes, but branded clothes, not just food, but food from a restaurant, not just a car, but a car better than a neighbor’s.It’s the comparison that makes it clear what’s cool. A 17th century count would not understand why some jeans are 10 times more expensive than others, and, perhaps, would be satisfied with a cheap analogue (if, of course, he agreed to wear jeans).

An absolute need expressed in natural quantities, whether it be the number of pants and calories, can be absolutely satisfied. More than 3000-4000 calories per day is definitely harmful for you, more than ten pants are definitely a lot. The saturation limit is approaching. There is no limit to symbolic consumption.You can always find a more prestigious analogue, and that’s it, the race is running, everyone is in the game. There are usually enough people willing.

Another positive feedback: an occasional conflict that escalates into a fight. Vasya looked askance, Petya snapped. The next move is for Vasya: he must raise the stakes so that he will not be counted as a loss, and he already snapped back with a mate. Submission for Petya, he is looking for the most powerful insult. Words are exhausted, Vasily, as he believes, is forced to hit him in the face. The next step is, perhaps, Peter will get a knife.

These are examples of nightmarish scenarios (including branded pants not available to the graph). When two related variables reinforce each other, disaster takes out of the endless process. In the event of an arms race, for example, either a war or the collapse of one of the economies.

Negative connections save. A classic example: populations of wolves and hares. If there are more hares, it means more food supply and more wolves. But the more wolves, the fewer hares. Fewer hares – fewer wolves.But fewer wolves mean more hares. The process is looped around equilibrium. There is no dispersal of the population into infinity, fraught with disaster.

An example of a mixed situation of positive and negative relationships: binge. Positive feedbacks (withdrawal syndrome) are always for drinking more today than yesterday. Remove the withdrawal and add more. If we drink strong drinks, then 500, 600, 700 grams and further, that-that, our train leaves for infinity and stops somewhere under a dropper.

Positive feedback is what distinguishes a real alcoholic from a drunken person.

An ordinary drunkard immediately finds himself in the realm of negative connections and does not particularly risk anything there. He has no withdrawal symptoms, only intoxication. And this is the opposite: the more you drank yesterday, the more your aversion to alcohol today. An alcoholic, in order to slow down before the dropper, must fall into the circuit of some of his negative connections. For example, the more you drank yesterday – the more embarrassing – the less you will drink today. Another option: the more you drank, the more cases are hanging, the more cases hang on you, the less you will drink.But I drank less – I did more – I drank more – I did less, etc., life begins around balance. The classic situation “hares-wolves” on a different material. You can also drink to the point where intoxication outweighs withdrawal symptoms, and you will be forced to reduce the dose, because “you can’t already” (but this is a bad option, really painful, the dropper is somewhere nearby).

To summarize, positive feedbacks carry the risk of the world being torn apart. Negative bonds hold and balance.

This is a common place, already evident in the middle of the 20th century. Let’s move on from a banal thesis to a more interesting one. I cannot prove it, but I believe that the world works more like this.

If we take a system of positive feedbacks and move up the levels, sooner or later we will see what keeps the system: negative connections.

If we don’t see them, we’ll see how the system is going around, and we do not have to admire it for long. Consider a stock market bubble. It doesn’t matter which asset is inflated beyond reasonable expectations: stocks, real estate, oil, bitcoins, tulips.Today it is necessary to buy, because today it is more expensive than yesterday, and we believe that tomorrow history will repeat itself. If everyone thinks so, it will be so. This is a self-fulfilling prophecy. The price rises as long as there is liquidity in the system that can be turned into this growth. If you ran out of your money, you went to the bank, borrowed money and bought an asset, playing to increase the price, and thereby increasing it. This is classic positive feedback. If this game were everlasting, a square meter would be worth like an annual salary. Instead of a meter, you can substitute a barrel, bitcoin or tulip.It would be a crazy world. But fortunately, negative connections only slumber for a time. When the system runs out of liquidity, as well as the patience of a few large players, the trend breaks down. Markets are starting to fall to a reasonable level. Equilibrium prevails. Millions of people are ruined, but the world is saved.

If you don’t see any negative connections, it means they didn’t get it. They cannot but be. Left to their own devices, positive feedbacks would finish off the system – they can’t do anything else in the long run.Any system where it was so would not have survived and could hardly transmit to the future what created it. You can say she has a bad chance in the evolutionary race. For example, the “stock market bubble” system has no chances to survive. If the race lasts a long time, we will not see such systems. They can arise by chance, but then, no longer by chance, they will be eliminated by selection. The higher the level, the worse their chances are – systems fraught with disaster rarely grow to universal proportions.

At some level, positive ties will give way to negative ones.

May I ask, what about progress? What about the growth of our knowledge? The more knowledge, the more its potential to become even more knowledge. Who has the best chance of learning something new and important – the great scientist or the narrow-minded man in the street?

Likewise with civilizations. The traditional agrarian civilization, where there is little knowledge, develops slowly, the technological high-tech civilization develops rapidly, passing into a state where it should develop even faster. It seems that this is a universal process leading to infinity in the foreseeable future.Hence all theories about the singularity.

Perhaps it is. Perhaps negative feedbacks will turn on. Soon. Then the growth of knowledge will result in the destruction of the motivation to create it. About this, just in case, there was my text “We will like the end of the world.”

Why the world is still alive

What other properties of the world give it, as Nassim Taleb would say, antifragility? I recall what sociologist Niklas Luhmann likened to a submarine.The principle of isolation of compartments: if one floods, the rest will survive.

Until the era of the great geographical discoveries, mankind was not a single system. While individual civilizations are not bound by a common destiny, each of them is an experiment. If he survives, he will go to the next round. Will not survive – in a sense, too good. So something was wrong with her.

In a single humanity, the principle continues to work. Political ideologies and subcultures group their supporters. If there is something “wrong” with them, it will be checked first of all on them.The main thing is not to interfere with each group to decide, taking on their own risks and chances. “Let all one hundred flowers bloom.” At least for security reasons. We cannot take into account all the factors, we simply do not know them. The maximum we can do is break up into groups and try our luck. It has been so with people for thousands of years, before them millions. Everyone who needed to disappear could disappear to their heart’s content – the world was left with experience, free space and new chances.

Centralization and unification is always a risk.Natural Risk Management: Divide and Survive. The mycelium and the network are more stable than the tree and the hierarchy.

If you want to ruin the world, create a Global Committee to Defend Against All Risks. Collect all the powers in one room. Assign the most important person. Give him a remote control from everything (in the name of protecting it from everything, of course). Further, if you are a villain, relax and wait, there is no need to spoil anything on purpose. All the necessary villainy has already been done, then people will cope on their own, it is enough to make a mistake once, and we are good at this, give time.

It would be worthwhile for the global security system to learn to evolve. Not to think about what to do according to the mind, deciding for everyone. On the contrary, proceed from stupidity. To think that anyone can make a mistake in any way – and, despite this, the system must survive. This is how evolution works with risks, and she is an excellent risk manager, judging by the fact that we are alive and contriving to develop.

And here’s another property of evolution: it bets on random processes with non-random filtering. An example of such a process is natural selection in biology.Any kind of mutation arises, but not anything survives and is fixed. There is a version that human culture works in a similar way. The more crazy ideas you start with, the better. At the first step, anything arises, fortunately, we cannot forbid thinking. And then life will figure out what we are left with. You can argue about the terms, sometimes such processes are called stochastic.

Stochastic processes are better managed with risk than design, planning and safety.

Errors are critical in planning and step-by-step algorithms, but not in stochastic processes. If mistakes are inevitable, it is best to agree to them in advance.

Imagine that a methodologist, project manager, and engineer are tasked with optimizing the reproduction of intelligent beings. Probably, there would be a lot of project documentation, instructions, areas of responsibility. For a long time we would discuss functional places, resource base, and analyze the concept of “activity” (otherwise, what would a methodologist do in this company?).There would be a lengthy discussion of what breeding activities are and an answer to several volumes. The output would be a state corporation: cumbersome, corrupt, and defunct after a couple of crises.

Compare how elegantly this problem is solved in nature. The creatures are simply divided into two sexes, sex is rigidly spelled out in the motivation block, and some redundancy of the resource is provided (any female can give birth to much more than two cubs in her life, and sperm is usually orders of magnitude in reserve). Nature did not say anything to anyone about the need for reproduction itself! Animals have no moral duty to “continue the race”, as well as a moral duty in general.The genus continues successfully for millions of years. In this case, you can make any mistake. A dog, for example, may consider the owner’s shoes as a sexual object – this is not a problem. All deviations, including the pervert dog, are taken into account in advance. The main thing is that the solution is simple, and there is a resource with a margin, and you can lust for a boot as much as you like.

There is a suspicion that thinking proceeds in the same way as evolution: a random process with enumeration and further selection, and not according to some supposedly the best algorithm. The correct algorithm is wrong because it cannot cope with the change in the environment, it is fragile and unstable.Only that which itself is based on chance can survive in a random world. There is a hypothesis that if the AI ​​is good at thinking, it will think that way. However, wait and see. I am not afraid now to make a mistake, precisely because the fear of making a mistake is one of the most terrible mistakes.

The same principles play not only in defense, but in attack. Let’s remind: negative connections, decentralization, stochasticity.

Why didn’t Columbus happen in China, because the Chinese could technically swim to America? Because China is a centralized, orderly country.The expedition could be authorized and invested in one and only place. In the palace of the emperor. The navigator would have come there, received a refusal, and that was the end of his navigation. Such ideas are usually rejected.

In Europe, Columbus was denied in Genoa, Portugal, England and several times in Spain (once before that they had sat for four years). The poor man wandered around cities and countries, and wherever he wandered, he sent letters. We can say that Columbus, before discovering America, first starved out Europe.But for this he had to be born on a continent with different centers and the right to a second chance. In the end, luck smiled at him not because he found the best arguments or the best king. It’s just that the number of failures has become enough for good luck. Be like Columbus – this is what you can wish for people, and be like that Europe – for large systems. Once again: sensitivity to feedback, decentralization, stochasticity.

If the world has this set of properties, you can worry less about it.You can save the world, but there is a suspicion that he will be saved himself, according to the old habit. He has more experience in this than we do. Many people say that the world is close to disaster, but look back: this is its usual state. Life is not that far from a catastrophe, unlike inanimate matter. But somehow it survives, that’s what life is for.

What does it mean – survives? The only winnings are access to the next round with an increase in rates. Life, to reach us, has already gone through many tours, it is difficult to argue that she succeeds.

Sources: Part 1 , Part 2 , Part 3 , Part 4 .

90,000 Positive Feedback

Added on December 2, 2018 at 08:29 AM

Save or Share

As we have seen, negative feedback is an incredibly useful tool when applied to operational amplifiers. It allows us to create all of these practical circuits with the ability to precisely set gains, speeds, and other relevant parameters with just a few resistor changes.Negative feedback makes all of these circuits stable and self-correcting.

The basic principle of negative feedback is that the output tends to move in a direction that creates an equilibrium (balance) condition. In an open-loop op-amp circuit, there is no corrective mechanism, and the output voltage will saturate at the minimum value of the differential voltage applied between the inputs. The result is a comparator.

With negative feedback (the output voltage is somehow fed back to the inverting input) the circuit tends to prevent the output voltage from reaching full saturation. Rather, the output voltage goes so high or low as to balance the voltages of the two inputs:

Negative feedback

Whether the output is connected to the inverting (-) input directly or through a set of components, the effect is the same: extremely high differential The op-amp’s voltage gain will be “tamed” and the circuit will respond as instructed by a feedback “loop” connecting the output to the inverting input.

Another type of feedback, positive feedback (PIC), is also used in op amp circuits. Unlike negative feedback, where the output voltage is fed back to the inverting (-) input, positive feedback in some way directs the output voltage back to the non-inverting (+) input. In its simplest form, we could just connect a piece of wire from the output to the non-inverting input and see what happens:

Positive Feedback

The inverting input remains disconnected from the feedback loop and can accept external voltages.Let’s see what happens if we connect the inverting input to ground:

Positive feedback, inverting input is connected to ground

When the inverting input is connected to ground (held at zero volts), the output voltage will be determined by the magnitude and polarity of the voltage at the non-inverting input. If this voltage is positive, the op-amp will also deliver a positive voltage, injecting that positive voltage back into the non-inverting input, resulting in full positive saturation at the output.On the other hand, if the voltage at the non-inverting input is negative, the output of the op-amp will also have a negative voltage, which will be fed back to the non-inverting input, and the result will be complete negative saturation.

Here we have a circuit whose output is bistable: stable in one of two states (saturated positive or saturated negative). Once he reaches one of these saturated states, he will remain unchanged in that state.What is needed to switch it is a voltage applied to the inverting (-) input with the same polarity, but slightly higher in magnitude. For example, if our circuit is saturated with an output voltage of +12 volts, then a voltage of at least +12 volts at the inverting input is required to change the output voltage. When the output state changes, it will be a fully saturated negative state.

Thus, a positive feedback op-amp tends to remain in whatever output state it is already in.It “latches” in one of two states, saturated positive or saturated negative. This phenomenon is technically known as hysteresis.

Hysteresis can be a useful property for a comparator circuit. As we saw earlier, comparators can be used to create a square wave from any type of waveform (sinusoidal, triangular, sawtooth, etc.). If the AC input signal is silent (that is, a “clean” signal), a simple comparator will work fine.

“Clean” AC input produces predictable transition points in square wave output

However, if there are any waveform abnormalities such as harmonics or “spikes” that cause significant voltage rises and falls in one cycle, the output Comparator can switch states unexpectedly:

Comparator Response to Dirty Sine Wave

Every time a voltage reference transition occurs, no matter how tiny the transition may be, the comparator output will toggle state, creating a square wave with glitches …

If we add a little positive feedback to the comparator circuit, we introduce hysteresis into the output signal. This hysteresis will cause the output to remain in its current state, unless the input AC voltage undergoes a significant change in magnitude.

Inserting positive feedback into the comparator circuit

What creates the feedback resistor is the two reference levels in the comparator circuit. The voltage applied to the non-inverting (+) input as a reference level, which is compared to the AC input voltage, varies with the value of the op-amp output voltage.When the op-amp’s output is positively saturated, the reference voltage at the non-inverting input will be more positive than before. On the other hand, when the op-amp output is negatively saturated, the reference voltage at the non-inverting input will be more negative than before. The result is easier to understand in the graph:

Positive feedback comparator response to a dirty sine wave

When the op-amp output is positively saturated, the upper reference voltage acts and the output voltage will not drop to negative saturation level unless the input voltage rises above this upper reference level.On the other hand, when the op-amp output is negatively saturated, the lower reference voltage acts and the output voltage will not rise to the positive saturation level unless the input voltage falls below this lower reference level. The result is a clean square-wave output despite a significant amount of AC voltage input signal distortion. In order for the “surge” to cause the comparator to switch from one state to another, it must be at least as large (high) as the difference between the upper and lower reference voltage levels and occur at the right time to cross both of these levels. …

Another application of positive feedback in op amp circuits is in generator circuits. A generator is a device that produces an alternating or at least pulsed output voltage. It is technically known as an unstable device: it has no stable output state (there is no equilibrium of any kind). Oscillators are very useful devices and can be easily implemented with a simple op-amp and a few external components.

Generator circuit using positive feedback

When the output is saturated positive, V of reference will be positive and the capacitor will charge in the positive direction. When V slope exceeds V of reference by the minimum difference, the output will saturate negatively and the capacitor will charge in the opposite direction (polarity). Oscillation occurs because positive feedback is instantaneous and negative feedback has a delay (using the RC time constant).The frequency of this oscillator can be adjusted by changing the size of any component.


  • Negative feedback creates condition equilibrium (balance). Positive feedback creates a hysteresis condition (a tendency to “lock” in one of the two extreme states).
  • The generator is a device that generates an alternating or pulsed output voltage.

Original article:


Generator Comparator Feedback Learning Op amp Positive Feedback Electronics

Save or Share

Feedback Mechanism

Feedback Mechanism is a system that is used by the body to control certain functions and maintain a state of constancy in the body.The feedback mechanism uses one of the products of the metabolic pathway, usually the end product, to control the activity of the metabolic pathway and regulate the amount of this product. Feedback can be negative or positive.

Feedback Mechanism is a system that is used by the body to control certain functions and maintain a state of constancy in the body. The feedback mechanism uses one of the products of the metabolic pathway, usually the end product, to control the activity of the metabolic pathway and regulate the amount of this product.Feedback can be negative or positive.

To understand the negative feedback mechanism, imagine how an air conditioner in a home controls the temperature. Suppose we set the thermostat to the desired temperature of 23 degrees (= end product). When the temperature drops below the set point, the feedback system signals the heater and the air conditioner starts to release warm air, warming the room. When the temperature reaches 23 degrees, the system will stop heating the air.Thus, receiving a signal to achieve the desired result, the system stops a process. The negative feedback mechanism is widely used in the body. For example, when the level of thyroid hormones decreases, the hypothalamic-pituitary system is stimulated. The pituitary gland, under the influence of the hypothalamus, begins to produce more hormone TSH, which stimulates the thyroid gland. The feedback mechanism between the ovaries and the pituitary gland works in a similar way: with a high level of ovarian hormones, the level of pituitary hormones decreases, and vice versa.

Positive feedback is a less used mechanism in the body. Imagine that a person who has worked actively gets praised and works even better and harder. This is positive feedback. An example of how a mechanism works in the body is the relationship between lactation and prolactin. The more the infant consumes milk, the more prolactin is released to stimulate lactation. Prolactin levels decrease rapidly after feeding is stopped.

Other articles of section

  • A common causative agent of respiratory tract infections (pharyngitis, sinusitis, otitis media, bronchitis and pneumonia).Antibody tests are used to diagnose Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in long-term respiratory tract infections.

  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the causative agent of human pneumonia, acute respiratory diseases (ARI), upper respiratory tract diseases (pharyngitis, bronchitis), as well as some non-respiratory diseases.

  • Azoospermia (azoospermia) – the absence of sperm in the ejaculate

  • Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms, some of which can cause disease.

  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae (mycoplasma pneumonia), Chlamydohpila pneumoniae (chlamydophila pneumonia, formerly Chlamydia pneumoniae)

  • Hemoglobin (from ancient Greek Hemo – blood and Latin globus – ball) is a complex protein molecule inside red blood cells – erythrocytes (in humans and vertebrates). Hemoglobin makes up approximately 98% of the mass of all erythrocyte proteins.
  • Pituitary gland – unpaired endocrine gland located at the base of the brain in the bone pocket – the pituitary fossa of the sella turcica.The pituitary gland produces hormones that affect the work of the whole organism – growth and development, metabolism, sexual function.

  • Increased hair growth (hirsutism) may be due not only to increased levels of androgens (see “ hyperandrogenism” ), but also to high activity of 5-alpha-reductase in the skin (an enzyme of hair follicles that converts testosterone into a much more active dihydrotestosterone .

  • According to the WHO (World Health Organization), the incidence in Russia is more than 50 people per 100,000 population.It is important that women are much more likely than men (50-90% versus 10%) to have an asymptomatic course of the disease.

  • Deletion (gen.) – a type of chromosomal mutation in which there is a loss of any part of the chromosome.

Home – FSTEC of Russia

Information about material

Views: 96588

On updating the documents of the FSTEC of Russia on certification of information security means and certification of informatization objects

Information about material

Views: 250 90 235 90 236

Meeting of the Information Security Council under the Governor of the Kamchatka Territory

Information about material

Views: 4347

On the procedure for marking certified information security means in the certification system of the FSTEC of Russia

Information about material

Views: 3874

“Transport security”

Information about material

Views: 6137

On approval of the Requirements for the security of information to the means of ensuring secure remote work in information (automated) systems


In order to consider this application for the conclusion of an agreement between the Bank and the Client, as well as further execution and conclusion of the agreement, by my own will and in my own interest I give consent to JSC “GENBANK”, hereinafter the Bank, to process my personal data to an indefinite number of persons (Surname, name, patronymic, address of the place of registration, address of residence, number of the main identity document, information on the date of issue of the specified document and the issuing authority and any other information previously provided to the Bank, including information specified in the loan agreement, this Application and / or in other documents) in documentary and electronic form, with the possibility of collecting, systematizing, accumulating, storing, clarifying (updating, changing), using, distributing (including transferring), depersonalizing, blocking, destroying personal data, automated and manual method, as well as the possibility of transferring to third parties and receiving from neopr a divided circle of third parties, including the disclosure to the Bank of information about the main part of my credit history, stored in the credit bureau, from the date of signing this Consent.In accordance with Federal Law No. 218-FZ dated 30.12.2004 “On Credit Histories” I hereby give my consent to GENBANK JSC to receive credit reports generated on the basis of my credit history at the credit bureau, in order to assess my creditworthiness, check reliability, decision-making on the conclusion of the contract and its execution. For these purposes, the Bank may transfer personal data specified in this Application and received during the term of the agreement, including the Client’s information about the last name, first name, patronymic, address and phone numbers, information about property status, income, debt, information about payment cards issued in the name of the Client and accounts opened in the name of the Client for performing transactions on them, as well as information about contracts and their execution at their own discretion to insurance companies (insurer), legal entities providing the Bank with services for settlement of overdue debt, and other persons with whom the Bank has entered into an agreement.The right to choose these companies / persons is given by me to the Bank, and no additional agreement with me is required.

This consent is valid until the full fulfillment of obligations under the contract, can be revoked by me only upon the expiration of the storage period of the contract (including after its completion or termination) established by the current legislation of the Russian Federation. I have been warned that in the event of my early withdrawal of this consent, the Bank will immediately demand from me the full fulfillment of obligations under the agreement.

I have been explained my rights and obligations related to the processing of personal data, including my obligation to inform the Bank in the event of a change in my personal data, my right to revoke my consent by sending a corresponding written application. I am warned that in case of disagreement with the processing of my personal data, the Bank’s services cannot be provided to me in full.

If I indicated in the documents provided to the Bank information about my spouse, beneficiary and / or other persons, I confirm that I received their consent to the processing by me (including transferring to the Bank) and the Bank of their personal data specified by me, they were provided with information in accordance with with the requirements of the Federal Law of 27.

Related Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *