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Local history: Akron sailor’s rescue at sea in 1942 was nothing short of miraculous – Sports – Akron Beacon Journal

Bleeding from shrapnel wounds, Akron sailor Elgin Staples tried not to panic in the shark-infested water. He bobbed beneath the stars as the dark ocean swelled with the bodies of shipmates.

When all seemed lost, his hometown threw him a lifeline and it was nothing short of miraculous.

Staples, 19, a signalman third class, had enlisted in the U.S. Navy in May 1941 following his junior year at South High School and trained at Pearl Harbor, going to sea aboard the cruiser USS Astoria on Dec. 5 only two days before the Japanese attack.

As the ship evacuated Americans from Wake Island, Midway and Guam, the Akron youth tried to accentuate the positive. The water out there is clear and blue and the sunsets at Midway are the most beautiful in the world, he mused.

In a 1942 note to his mother, Vera Staples Mueller, the sailor tried to downplay the perils of the Pacific during World War II. War isnt so bad and theres still plenty to eat, he wrote.

Staples didnt tell his mother that he was ready to die for his nation, and it might come any day.

They prepare us in a wonderful way for battle, he told Beacon Journal reporter Helen Waterhouse. They give us a pretty good idea of what is going to happen to us. They tell us there will be some of us who will die, they outline the plan of battle and they make us feel that death in that way is glorious.

Before this war, I was afraid of death. Now I dont feel that way any more. I am ready for it if it comes.

USS Astorias battles

The USS Astoria had seen its share of action in the Battle of the Coral Sea and the Battle of Midway. Staples described the war in a matter-of-fact manner as if he were talking about a baseball game at Akrons League Park.

When the thing finally happens and the battle is upon you first, you see the planes a long ways off, he said. Then our fighters get into action and you have a feeling of great pride when you see the enemy planes go down like balls of fire in the distance. You feel like cheering and sometimes you do cheer.

The little specks of planes grow bigger and bigger and fewer and fewer. When they finally are above you, you are so busy passing ammunition and manning guns that even when your best buddies fall all around you, you dont have time to be afraid. You just go right on working. Afterwards, well, afterwards, is when you begin to feel it.

The Astoria traveled to the Solomon Islands in August to provide support during the Marine landing at Guadalcanal Island. Staples had retired to his cabin after midnight Aug. 8 when Japanese shells struck the cruiser, turning the night into fiery chaos.

Staples put on his inflatable life belt and raced to the deck, but another explosion rocked the ship and the sailor lost his balance and fell 30 feet into the dark ocean with shrapnel wounds to his leg and shoulder.

I began treading water, trying to stay calm as I felt things brushing against my legs, knowing that if a shark attacked me, any moment could be my last, he later wrote. And the sharks werent the only danger: The powerful current threatened to sweep me out to sea.

Staples floated four hours in the darkness until a U.S. destroyer plucked him out of the water at dawn and returned him to the damaged Astoria. Sailors tried to make repairs, but the doomed vessel slowly sank and the crew abandoned ship.

Still wearing his life belt, Staples jumped into the Pacific until another U.S. ship rescued him. More than 200 men were lost aboard the Astoria in the Battle of Savo Island.

Staples kept the khaki belt as a memento and was surprised to see the Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. logo on it. How about that? His hometown company had saved him.

Back at home

The sailor returned to Akron to recuperate from his wounds and enjoyed an emotional reunion with his mother at her West Market Street home. As Staples told his story, Vera Mueller gasped.

The former waitress explained that she had taken a wartime job at Firestone. Staples pulled the life belt out of his duffel bag and placed it on the table in front of her.

As Staples later recalled: When she looked up at me, her mouth and her eyes were open wide with surprise. Son, Im an inspector at Firestone. This is my inspector number, she said, her voice hardly above a whisper.

She had inspected, stamped and packed the belt for the Navy.

We stared at each other, too stunned to speak, Staples recalled. Then I stood up, walked around the table and pulled her up from her chair. We held each other in a tight embrace, saying nothing.

After the Beacon Journal published its article, Staples and Mueller traveled to New York to appear on the CBS radio program We the People on Oct. 18, 1942, where they recounted their tale.

It was like having my mothers arms around me, Staples said of his Firestone life belt.

Calling forth others

Mueller, normally a quiet person, delivered an impassioned plea.

There are millions of women whose sons are in the fighting forces right now, she said. Millions more will have to see their husbands leave. But we women cant afford to sit at home and just pray that our menfolk come back safe. Weve got to help them come back. And the best way is to get into war work.

In Akron, the two were the guests of Firestone Chairman John W. Thomas and Harvey S. Firestone Jr. at an Oct. 20 luncheon.

The production workers on the home front must supply the arms and munitions of war, and fast, Staples told the audience. We are all in this fight together and if we are going to win, we must all work together for the final victory.

He returned to active duty one day later.

Vera Staples Mueller was honored Dec. 4, 1942, by the War Congress of American Industry in New York for initiative, skill and constructive aid in industry.

She moved from Ohio and was only 56 when she died in Nevada in 1960. She is buried in Las Vegas.

After the war, Elgin Staples moved to California, where he studied accounting under the GI Bill, got married and raised a family. A former firefighter and postal worker, he became a stockbroker and money manager. He died in 2009 in San Diego at age 86.

Over the decades, their story has been told in religious tracts, inspirational books and naval tributes.

Its the amazing-but-true tale of an Akron mother who reached halfway around the world to save her sailor sons life.

Mark J. Price can be reached at 330-996-3850 or [email protected]

9200 Staples Dr, Streetsboro, OH 44241

The Cooper Commercial Investment Group has been exclusively retained by ownership to sell the 100% fee simple interest in the Market Square Corporate Park, a 100% occupied medical/office building anchored by Fresenius Kidney Care. The asset has just been reduced to $1,325,000, representing a highly attractive 8.11% CAP Rate and low price point. The property features anchor tenant Fresenius, who is an original tenant to the building (1999) and recently executed an extension through 2024 including mid-term rental increases during the term. Fresenius, a recession proof medical provider of dialysis care is the worldwide leader in the treatment of renal disease and an innovative leader in kidney disease research with approximately $22 billion in annual revenue and the LARGEST operator of outpatient dialysis clinics WORLDWIDE serving over 2. 5 million patients in 3,800 clinics. The office building also includes Edward Jones, who also recently extended their lease and newly executed leases to Pivot Staffing (3rd largest staffing firm in Northeast Ohio) and Freya Salon, adding a nice level of diversification to the featured property. With both Fresenius and Edward Jones who have been at the property for years and have executed term-over-term renewals, along with the recent leasing traction, the tenants have proven their desire and commitment to the building/market. The offering also includes an additional 1.91 acres of vacant land that can be used for future development creating future additional income possibilities. The property has monument signage and sits in the heart of the business corridor and has been the retail hub for Portage County and the surrounding communities with many national retailers including, Target, Lowes, Walmart Supercenter, The Home Depot, Giant Eagle, Staples and many more. In fact, Streetsboro Office Center is positioned off Staples Drive, next to the Staples store but also being surrounded by high-traffic generators, Rockne’s, University Hospital’s Urgent Care, Harbor Freight Tools, Streetsboro Market Square, all while being directly across from Bob Evans, Applebee’s and Streetsboro Crossing, which features Target, Lowes, Giant Eagle, Pet Supplies Plus and GetGo. Furthermore, the office/medical center is positioned in a growing manufacturing/distribution mecca creating even more residents to the area. Streetsboro is home to three large industrial parks with two of them notably being some of the largest in the Cleveland market. Interstate Commerce Industrial Park contains Best Buy, Automated Packaging, Chrysler, PODS, Aurora Plastics, Spectrum, Kraft Foods, Walco Industries, American Heritage Billiards, Schwan’s, MicroPoise, Classic Kia, Classic Honda, Classic Nissan, and International Paper. Frost Road Commerce Center contains L’Oreal, A.Duie Pyle, Soft-Lite Windows, Automated Packaging, Yard Metals, Deluxe Business Systems, Lange Grinding, and Venture Lighting. Finally, Streetsboro Industrial Park contains Commercial Turf, Protocoplas, Viking Forge, J&S Packaging, R. R. Donnelly, Aero Mark Inc., St. Lawrence Steel, Cardinal Packaging, Safeguard Technology, Artisan Industries, Natural Essentials, Olympic Steel, Schmolz + Bickenbach USA, Onex, Kaelin Corp. , Agrotronix and Singer Steel. While 32% of the industry is in manufacturing, the area also supports 42 restaurants and 9 hotels providing over 550 rooms. Streetsboro is a strong residential community with average household incomes over $115,000 within 5-miles. The city is central to Cleveland (32 miles), Akron (17 miles) and Youngstown (40 miles) and is a destination point with the city’s advantageous highway access. Route 14 is one the most heavily traveled roadways in the region and has direct access to I-80 (the Ohio Turnpike, 1 mile), I-480 (2 miles), Route 303, and Route 43 (direct roadway to Kent State University, 7 miles, ~40,000 students). The intersection of Route 14 and Route 43 is the busiest intersection in the county and is just 0.3 miles from the featured property. The intersection is surrounded by 54,000 VPD. Additionally, 40,000 VPD can be found along I-80 and 41,000 VPD along I-480. The Streetsboro trade area offers best-in-class retailers and steady high volumes of traffic in the corridor, which makes this a destination point for all surrounding communities and with the number of employees in the area. With the strategic placement, solid construction, quality tenants and proximity to employees, and residents; the asset is positioned as a high-quality investment for many years to come.

90 000

English translations, synonyms, antonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, transcription, meaning, collocations

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Heavenly giants

The heyday of the airship era falls on the 1920s and 1930s.And, perhaps, the most unusual representatives of the giants are aircraft carriers.

But first, briefly about the essence of the “flying mastodons”. Jean Baptiste Marie Charles Meunier is recognized as the inventor of the airship. The Meunier airship was supposed to have the shape of an ellipsoid. The controllability was planned to be carried out with the help of three screws, driven into rotation by muscular efforts of 80 people. By changing the volume of gas in the airship by acting on the ballonet, it was possible to change the flight altitude of the balloon, and therefore the project provided for two shells – an outer main and an inner one.

The first French airship “La France”, equipped with an electric motor, flew first in the world. It happened at Chal-Mudon on August 9, 1884. The second aeronaut was the German doctor Welfer, who installed a gasoline engine on an apparatus of his own design. But in June 1897, Welfer’s airship exploded in mid-air, leading a sad and long list of disasters. And nevertheless, gas ships invariably attracted the attention of inventors and designers.

At that time, the speed of airships reached 135 km / h and differed little from the speed of aircraft.The flight altitude reached 7600 m, and the maximum duration was up to 100 hours. The payload mass was about 60 tons, which included the mass of the crew, water and food supplies, ballast, and weapons.

With the increase in the experience of operating aircrafts, the reliability and safety of their flights, including in adverse weather conditions, have significantly increased.

By the end of the war, airships flew in any weather and performed combat missions in the clouds day and night, as they began to use a special device – light gondolas launched from the side.There were one or two crew members, and the airship was above the clouds. Communication with the gondola was maintained by telephone. It is almost impossible to detect a tiny gondola against the background of clouds, while two observers located in the cockpit could successfully conduct reconnaissance, adjust the fire of naval artillery and conduct bombing at targets themselves.

By the beginning of the First World War, Russia had built 9 airships, the best of which was the Albatross with a volume of 9600 cubic meters. m, 77 m long.By the end of the war, 14 more aircraft were purchased. Then there was no time for balloons. It was only in 1920 that small airships began to be built in Russia again. In the USSR, the first airship was manufactured in 1923. Later, a special organization “Dirigiblestroy” was created, which built and put into operation more than ten balloons of soft and semi-rigid systems. The indisputable achievement of domestic airship builders was the world record for flight duration – 130 hours and 27 minutes. airship V-6, with a volume of 18,500 cubic meters.m. Later, in 1938, the B-6 crashed on the Kola Peninsula, when in the fog it collided with a mountain not marked on the map.

The Albatross airship.

Controlling an airship, contrary to the existing simplistic opinion, on the ground and in the air is much more difficult than flying an airplane. On the ground, the airship is moored with its bow to the mast, which is a rather complicated procedure. In flight, in addition to controlling aerodynamic rudders and several engines, it is also necessary to monitor the carrier gas and ballast.The airship takes off as a result of the release of ballast, and the descent is due to the partial release of the lifting gas and the action of the elevator. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the change in temperature and air pressure, especially with a change in altitude, as well as the state of the atmosphere – precipitation, icing, wind.

Before talking about American naval aircraft carrier airships, it should be noted that it was the Germans, with their special technical literacy and intuition, who became the progenitors of the post-war British and American large-volume rigid airships.The fact is that in 1916 the German Zeppelin LZ-3 was hit by anti-aircraft fire and landed in the British Isles. Its design was thoroughly studied, literally “bone by bone”, and it became a prototype for all combat airships of our allies at that time.

Zeppelin LZ-3.

Later, according to the Versailles Treaty, Germany was prohibited from building military airships for personal use, but they could legally produce them as reparations. So, in 1920 at the Zeppelin shipyard in Germany, a giant sea airship L-72 was built and handed over to France.It was one of the three newest airships 227 m long and with a shell diameter of 24 m. Its payload was 52 tons. The power plant consisted of six Maybach engines of 200 hp each. The French gave him the name “Dixmude”. On it, the crew of Captain Duplessis successfully completed the tasks of the command of the Navy, and also set a number of records that can still amaze our imagination: the flight duration is 119 hours and the length of the route is 8000 km.

After the end of the First World War, about 300 airships remained in service.First of all, with their help, the competition for the conquest of the world’s oceans by air began. The first flight across the Atlantic Ocean was made in July 1919 on the R-34 airship from Great Britain to the United States. In 1924, the next transatlantic flight was made on the German airship LZ 126. In 1926, the joint Norwegian-Italian-American expedition under the command of R. Amundsen on the airship “Norway” designed by U. Nobile performed the first transarctic flight of about. Svalbard – North Pole – Alaska.By 1929, the development of airship technology had reached a very high level. In September of that year, the airship “Graf Zeppelin” began regular transatlantic flights. And in 1929, the LZ 127 made a round-the-world flight with three landings. In 20 days, he flew over 34,000 km at an average speed of 115 km / h.

The Americans, given their geographic location, have not abandoned the military use of airships. They saw the as yet untapped military potential of these enormous aircraft in the conduct of reconnaissance at sea, in coastal protection, escorting ships, in the search and destruction of submarines and in the implementation of long-distance military transport.

Initially, the Americans began to build airships like the German LZ and even purchased German airships for their Navy. The period from 1919 to 1923 was the time when rigid airships entered the US Navy. During these years, the fleet received the first three rigid airships and the US Navy aeronautical base was established at Lakehurst, New Jersey. Congress allocated funds for the construction of the ZR-1 and ZR-2 airships.

The first flight of the ZR-1 under the name “Shenandoah” took place in 1923, only after the construction of the boathouse at Lakehurst.A second airship, numbered R-38, was built in Great Britain, but never got to see America. On August 24, 1922, the airship crashed on a test flight, killing 44 US Navy personnel. The third airship ZR-3, purchased in Germany, was named Los Angeles. Both airships were training aircraft and flying laboratories.

ZR-1 Shenandoah.

For the development and construction of new airships of the Navy in 1923, the Goodyear-Zeppelin corporation was created jointly with the Germans.The Bureau of Aeronautics immediately began preliminary research to create a reconnaissance airship. So, for the first time, the unclear contours of the ZRS-4 and ZRS-5 (S – reconnaissance) vehicles appeared on the corporation’s papers. In one, the customer was categorical: the airship should carry on board aircraft that will protect the airship and expand its reconnaissance capabilities.

All this led to the creation of an airship with a volume of at least 20,000 cubic meters. m. The project provided that such an aircraft carrier would be able to carry from three to six aircraft.The second innovation is the replacement of the hydrogen carrier gas with non-combustible helium. The latter significantly expanded the combat capabilities of the airship.

When military specialists discussed the future class of aircraft carriers, radical opinions were also expressed. Considering the great vulnerability of aircraft carriers and the exclusive dependence of carrier-based aircraft on hydrometeorological conditions, it was proposed to replace the naval aircraft carriers with air ones based on the ZRS-5 airships built in the USA. The aircraft carrier with an average displacement of 19,000 tons had a maximum speed of 27 knots and could take on board 31 aircraft.To place them on aircraft carriers required 5-7 airships.

In the United States, work was carried out to create two airship-aircraft carriers for the Navy. By April 1924, preliminary work was completed. The development was named “Project-60”. But a tragic incident unexpectedly stood in the way of the implementation of the plan.

On the night of September 2–3, 1925, the Shenandoah airship was torn apart by a hurricane over Ohio. The crash claimed the lives of 14 crew members. Another disaster led to a crisis in aeronautics, and the ZRS-4 and ZRS-5 programs were postponed for a year.

Four and a half years passed before the Shenandoah disaster settled in public opinion, and it became possible to implement Project 60.

The designers of the corporation did not waste time during the period of raging public passions, but continued to work hard on the project and managed to equip the Akron and Macon airships with onboard aircraft. In the lower part of the airship hull, a T-shaped hatch-entrance to the hangar for four aircraft was cut out. At the beginning of the hatch, a so-called trapezoid was hung, to which the planes should cling when “landing” under the airship.A monorail system was installed on the ceiling of the hangar for the suspension and release of aircraft from the airship.

A special hook was installed on the plane, with which it clung to the trapezoid, and then moved to the airship hangar. The designers spent three years to finalize the landing system to a working condition.

The first person to land on the trapeze was Lieutenant Clloyd Finter. But this was not easy; when approaching the trapezoid, it was difficult to hook onto the bracket with a hook due to the wake stream from the airship body and the working engines.A very precise movement of the steering wheel and the throttle sector was required for a seizure to occur under turbulence. Finter only from the third approach, breaking the wake from below, was able to catch on the trapezoid bracket.

When the pickup and takeoff from the airship were mastered, the pilots of the aircraft carrier began experiments to expand the combat capabilities of their aircraft carrier. At the presidential review of the fleet, pilot Nicholson took off from the deck of the aircraft carrier Saratoga and, gaining the height of the Los Angeles airship, landed on the trapeze of the airship and disappeared into its hatch.Then the airship planes were used to deliver the mooring officer to the ground when the airship landed at the new base. In the future, a special glider was used to deliver the officer to the ground, which was attached to the bottom of the airship hull.

In November 1931, the first of the two newest airships in the United States was finally ready for testing. Akron’s crew and maintenance personnel rushed to their posts in the hangar to prepare it for its maiden flight as a naval vessel. Finally, the engines are warmed up, the control system has been checked, more than 350 kg of food is loaded, the balancing springs that hold the airship in the center of the hangar are weakened, and the bow of the aircraft is fixed in the ring of the movable mooring mast.Everything was ready, and a small diesel locomotive began to move the quay mast forward, and with it the apparatus itself.

The airship was freed from the cables, the tail boom was removed and the mooring mast was towed further to the mooring circle. Akron was now ready to take off. And if you consider what a huge structure the hangar itself had, where a monster with a length of 240 m could be stored, then one can imagine how difficult the operation of such air ships was. For takeoff, the airship was disconnected from the mast, the propellers of the engines were turned down to create vertical thrust, and the ship took off.

Acron’s entry into the US Navy was particularly grandiose. Until the end of 1931, this gigantic apparatus was undergoing tests, and in January it already participated in the fleet’s exercises on reconnaissance of ships in the ocean. During this flight, Akron got into difficult weather conditions with snow and icing, about 8 tons of ice formed on the hull in the aft part, but no difficulties in controlling the ship were felt, it passed the first unfavorable tests in the sky.

Akron is the seventh rigid airship built in the world since 1919 and the third in the United States.The new airship was the prototype for a detachment of ten rigid airships intended for combat in the US Navy.

Concerns have increased: for mooring airships, it is necessary to build mooring masts with a supply of fuel, water for ballast, electricity. Before docking, the airship must be accurately balanced horizontally, and then, under the control of the crew, keep to the mast until a large ground team, taking hold of the guiderops (cables released from the ship), brings its bow to the top of the mast.Previously, high mooring masts were used, but in 1926, the Los Angeles airship moored to the “long” mast was picked up by a gust of wind and stood vertically at the top of the mast. With great difficulty they managed to save him. The damage was minor, but this incident revealed a lack of high mooring masts.

There were difficulties in choosing places for the construction of an aeronautical base. In addition to the construction of huge boathouses (hangars), a mooring mast and mooring circles on the ground, significant reserves of water were required for ballast and a device for storing lifting gas.

There is no doubt that airships with such high data and at that time were the best tool for conducting reconnaissance in large oceanic expanses, especially in the Pacific Ocean, where the US was suspicious of Japan’s military preparations.

Rigid airships had three important advantages over ships and airplanes: they moved at a speed three times the speed of sea vessels, had several times the carrying capacity compared to the planes of that time, and no less than ten times greater range.And in the late 1920s, a fourth factor appeared – the ability of airships to carry aircraft on board.

The main argument of the opponents of airships was their vulnerability. I recalled the incidents of the First World War, when the zeppelins easily knocked over London. But at that time, airships were filled with explosive hydrogen, and non-combustible helium gas was produced in America. Therefore, the new American airships ZRS-4 and ZRS-5 were not so easy to shoot down by fighters of the thirties. The lifting gas helium was not filled into the compartments under pressure and therefore could come out of the hole only in the upper part of the hull.In addition, helium was in separate ballonets and an attack by an entire squadron of fighters (armed with rifle-caliber machine guns) was required to cause serious damage to the airship. On board there were up to five fighters capable of repelling an air attack, In addition, several rifle installations were also located here. But it was smooth on paper. Shells from an anti-aircraft gun or rocket from a fighter could easily send a ship to the ground. And getting into a large and sedentary target was not difficult.

In addition, the aircraft on board were used to expand the field of view when conducting reconnaissance in the ocean, and not for air combat. With stable radio communication and a reliable radio drive on the airship, the view of the two aircraft expanded to 370 km along the front. For a more efficient operation of aircraft in the air, it was necessary to provide for the position of a flight director on the airship, who, in combat conditions, would also perform the functions of an information center. In my dreams there was a project of refueling an airship in the air from a tanker aircraft, which could take off both from the airfield and from an aircraft carrier.In the future, they wanted to have a small transport aircraft on board for servicing the airship (changing the crew on a long flight, replenishing food supplies, ammunition).

Soon Akron’s ZRS-4 armed with new Curtiss XF9C-1 aircraft. But trouble is difficult to predict. On April 4, 1933, a thunderstorm, playfully, dealt with the “lord of heaven” “Akron”. Here helium was no better than hydrogen. A powerful cold front with thunderstorm activity and heavy rainfall attacked the “air whale” off the coast of New Jersey.The descending air flow threw it to the water, no efforts of the crew could keep the airship from descending, it continued to fall with its tail part down at a speed of 4 m / s. To stop the descent, the ballast was dropped, the elevators were completely shifted to the ascent, as a result, the aft part dropped even lower, increasing the inclination of the airship to a dangerous value of 25 °, until the lower keel touched the water.

A huge blow shook Akron. Eight of its engines were working at full power, but they could not pull the tail section, filled with water, out of the ocean.With the sinking of the tail section, the Akron’s movement slowed down, and the nose lifted up. Then the nose began to descend until the entire apparatus was in the water.

While Akron was making its last minutes, the German ship Phoebus was slowly sailing through a strip of fog and a wall of rain. The Febus was already floating among the wreckage of the airship, the smell of gasoline was felt in the air. The destroyed ship was not visible on the surface. Only three of the 76 crew members on board were rescued that dark night.This is how the largest American airship crashed.

But Akron was the pride of the United States. An unusually expensive apparatus – more than $ 5.3 million (full-weight, at that time) was spent on its creation and another $ 2 million to provide infrastructure. After construction, the airship specially flew over large cities so that taxpayers could see that the money was well spent. After the death of Akron, America experienced a shock. This influenced the government’s decision: to urgently complete the construction of the second giant, an exact copy of the deceased, which is already underway.Let the whole world see that we are still strong. The Macon became the new ship.

The deaths of the Shinandoa and Akron airships have taught nothing to the US Navy. In late 1934, Macon was caught in a tropical storm en route to the West Indies. This time there were no casualties, but the structure of the hull was badly damaged. They decided to carry out the repairs without placing the airship in the boathouse, and the crippled Macon continued to fly, receiving patches from time to time on the damaged places.

In the winter of 1934, the Macon participated in naval maneuvers off the west coast of the United States. The dawn on February 12 was as gloomy as the day before. Cruising at an altitude of 770 m, the Macon sank and fell into clouds with heavy turbulence and rain. Following the coast, the crew felt a sharp blow, and the airship banked sharply to starboard. Helmsman Clarke lost control of the wheel and the airship began to spin rapidly.

At 05.05 pm the sailors on watch inside the upper keel discovered a strong destruction and a breakthrough of the gas chambers, from where helium began to escape.As they approached the coast, observers from the ground noticed how the upper keel began to collapse in the air.

Having dropped all possible ballast, the airship took off in less than 2 minutes. Macon, breaking through the clouds, continued to climb to 860 m, and beyond the height limit all the valves on the gas cylinders automatically opened, releasing the remaining gas into the atmosphere. However, despite this, the airship took off at 1480 m.

By that time, so much gas had been lost that the airship could only descend.A distress signal was sent. Commander Wylie decided to make an emergency landing on the water, because the coast was mountainous and also covered with fog. With the rapid rise of the airship upward, due to the loss of gas in the tail section, the balance was disturbed, and the airship flew with a raised nose.

The crew, having got over to the bow, could not balance the ship. By the time the tail touched the water, the crew members had time to put on life jackets and inflate the rafts. Of the 83 people on board, only two were missing.

The death of Macon came from a relatively minor design flaw. In a lateral gust of wind, the upper keel with part of the frame was torn off, debris damaged three gas cylinders in the aft part of the airship, the lift due to the loss of helium decreased by 20%, which led to trouble. The survivability of American airships did not allow them to survive even in peacetime. The idea of ​​combat aircraft carriers turned out to be a utopia.

The era of large airships was ended by the disaster of the German airship “Hindenburg” in 1937.It was the Titanic of the sky – the most expensive and most luxurious airship ever built by man. The main “killer” of the hydrogenated zeppelin was the fire. At the “Hindenburg” measures were taken that seemed to completely exclude the appearance of even a spark. There was a strict smoking ban on board the aircraft. Everyone who came on board, including passengers, were required to hand over matches, lighters and other things that could form a spark. And nevertheless, this 240-meter giant, the most perfect in the entire history of aviation, died precisely from the fire.

On May 6, 1937, thousands of New Yorkers witnessed the rare and majestic sight of the arrival of the Hindenburg airship from Europe. This was the eleventh transatlantic voyage by the famous airship. The captain of the ship Pruss specially brought his mastodon close to the Empire States Building so that reporters and photographers could better see the German “flying miracle”.

248 people of the mooring crew were already ready to take the mooring lines and bring the Hindenburg to the mooring mast, but the sky was covered with thunderclouds and, fearing a lightning strike, Captain Pruss decided to wait aside until the peals of the May thunderstorm died down.By 19 o’clock the lightning had gone beyond the Hudson, and the Hindenburg, buzzing with 1100-horsepower diesels, began to slowly pull up to the mast. And when the guide rope dropped from the airship fell on the wet sand, the body of the zeppelin, struck by a discharge of static electricity, glowed brightly from the inside. Its tail section, engulfed in raging flames, went down sharply. 62 passengers and crew members managed to get out of this hell, 36 people were burned to death.

A high accident rate has always been inherent in this class of aircraft.So, for example, in Germany, out of 137 airships built in 20 years at the beginning of the century, only 30 had a happy fate, 24 burned in the air and on the ground, the rest were lost for other reasons.

In World War II, airships were used for military purposes only by the USA and the USSR. Large losses of the fleet prompted the US Congress to adopt a program for the construction of semi-soft airships for escorting ships and protecting the coast. After the war, the US aeronautical fleet was significantly reduced.In the USSR, during the war years, only one airship was used. The B-12 balloon was manufactured in 1939 and entered service in 1942. This airship was used for training paratroopers and transporting goods. Until 1945, 1432 flights were made on it. On February 1, 1945, the second airship of this class, the Pobeda airship, was created in the Soviet Union. It was successfully used as a minesweeper in the Black Sea. Another device, the V-12bis Patriot, was commissioned in 1947 and was intended to train crews, participate in parades and other propaganda events.

Currently, the leading countries of the world are working on airships, including unmanned high-altitude ones, capable of flying for a long time at altitudes of 18-21 km.

Sources:
Shuvalov D. Falcons of the Three Elements // Aviation Review (AVIO). Number 3. S. 3-14.
Richard K. Smith. Aircraft carriers are lighter than air. M .: PK Vozdukh, 1999.S. 90-103, 121-128, 150-152.
Vyatkin L. Helmut, we are on fire // Technology for youth. 1993. No. 2. S.18-20.
Taras A. Airships in the war. Minsk: Harvest, AST.2000.S. 24-25, 391-405, 408, 414-415, 419-420. 426-447.
Beloborodko A. Actors of romance and heroism // Wings of the Motherland. 2000. No. 6. S. 17-20.
Ionina N. One hundred great catastrophes. M .: Veche, 2001.S. 133-136.
Zhuchkov Yu. Airship raids // Aviation and Cosmonautics. 1998. No. 2. S. 27-33.

★ 12 shorter national and state parks near Ohio ★

7 leaf fall 2016 p

National and state parks in Ohio – the city of natural parks in the state of Ohio for the entusies from the lane, in the beginning of 484 at the party.Rіznomanіtni geographic regions to the state of Ohio to understand the richly rich speeches, how to work with the ric, from the walks, golf discs, canoeing and paddling on paddleboards to rolling on snowmobiles, big licks and wards

With two national historical parks, three national business parks and 83 state parks, you can see how the seasons change in the state of Ohio, to shy away from the lovers of busyness on the new home.

1 Cuyahoga Valley National Park

Cuyahoga Valley National Park

Cuyahoga Valley National Park is responsible for one of the first trips to recover from nature in the state.The natural beauty of the park will burst into breath, if you see pagorbi, fools and active Richka Kuyakhoga will make your way through the park. It is important to believe that a natural paradise is found in all decilkokhvili and in every world activity in Cleveland and Shidniy Europe Akron .

The Ohio and Epi Canal Tovpat Trail travels through the park in 20 miles and is the main highway for bikers and bikers and one of the five main bike routes. The mountain bike route “Skhidny Rome” is a sign for off-road bicycles, and a road for bicycles and hikes has been laid. “Summit Metro” Summit of the best for families.Oskіlki bicycles are very popular in the park, in the whole area it is easy to know bike shops if you need repairs. If you plan to build a large-scale drive on the Towpath road, you should go to the center of the park, so your car is not designated as abandoned. Pishokhidnі stitches in the national park of the Valley of Cuyahoga hunt leather rіven of maisternostі. You will know 125 km of trails on vibir.

Krykhitne Misto Rossii Pivostriv is located in the borders of the National Park, you can zupinitisya for a bite or be ready to go to your own way.You can also go aboard Malovnichi road Cuyahoga Valley here for one of the three thematic excursions stretching out to the rock.

Addresses: 1550 Boston Mills Road, Pivostriv, Ohio

Official Website: https://www.nps.gov/cuva/index.htm

2 National Historical Park Hopewell

Culture Park

Hopewell Historical Park

The Hopewell National Historical Park of Culture near Chilikote, Ohio, has become a holy city.The Indians of the indigenous peoples inspired the earthlings of the mounds of 2000 years, and I will hand it over. Tsі kurgan – tse coronation characteristic of the park.

The area is stored with gray earthlings in geometric shapes, with 12 feet and more, less than 1000 feet. The park is full of earthlings’ robots, as they can move. The stinks represent the important spiritual and ceremonial halls of Hopewell’s culture.

Public visits will be held at the park, however, independently introduce one of the best ways to enter the site.Before your visit, please, correct the aviacyynu map of earthlings’ robots, so you knew you were using the earth.

Addresses: 16062 OH-104, Chillicote, OH

Official Website: https://www.nps.gov/hocu/index.htm

3 Wayne National Lis

Rocklenther

The Wayneskiy National Forest is one of the most beautiful places in May Day in Ohio. Rosetting at the front of the Appalachian city, the 12th arrondissement and more than 833,000 acres.One of the most popular speeches among many people on excursions, such as conducting tours on the Uzbek coast and waterways. The land is private to move across the entire park, so it is important to follow the signs of private power, if you plan to spend more money.

The park offers great opportunities for walks and bicycles, with more than 300 miles of trails. Everywhere (ATV) and top performers are allowed on the bagatioh routes, albeit for the cichs entering the necessary permissiveness.

Camping at the national forest Wayne can borrow a few forms.Bagato camping places near the park are not vimagag armor. Approximate camping is also permissible from private campings. You will be able to pack all the necessary speeches, including water, by extending the term of the transfer. Through the majesty of a number of lands, which is covered with a cim park, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the routes before the layout of the model, or be vimogami until you are allowed to visit.

Addresses: 13700 US Highway 33, Nelsonville, Ohio

Official Website: http: //www.waynenationalforest.com /

4 Holland State Park

Upper Waterfall in the Old Cholovik Cavern

One of the most popular state parks in Ohio State for the recovery and recovery – Central Hoydai Park. Vona roztashovana in one of the most remote areas in the state and is caused by waterfalls, peppers, peaks, wild growth. Autumn is the most popular hour for returning to the park, so that, if you plan to visit on weekends and transfer to the side cabins, make a reservation for your trip.Deyakі cabins armor rіk zzdalegіd.

The park has five great tourist routes for vivchennya, skinny routes for different routes, which show the development of different types of routes. An old stove call it є the first zupinka for new tourists on the place, that the routes are more re-entangled, especially on the outgoing ones. Some of the most popular sites for audition include Skeli Cantwell, Polony Concle, Cedar Falls, and Rockhouse .

Hawking Hills has a menu for exploring the outdoors, including canoe, pads on motocross, horse riding and skeleton.Tsi come in for a proponyuyutsya independent operators in the whole district.Varto zupinitisya at the center of the drive to your way to the park, and make out pictures and recommendations for reputable excursion companies.

Addresses: 19852 State Route 664 S., Logan, Ohio

Official Website: http://parks.ohiodnr.gov/hockinghills

5 Maumee Bay State Park

Maumee Bay State Park | Photo Copyright: Anietra Hamper

The State Park Maumee Bay has been planted on the birch trees of Lake Erі, which is one of the most natural and diverse cities in the country, with swamps, wetlands and bows.Vidnі see sports, such as katannya on chavnya, ribolovlya, swimming and paddling, it is a great experience to get along with every hour. The stately park has є number of stitches for active repair, winter weather, routes for tourism, horse bicycles, pozashlyakhovikov (ATV) and snowmobiles. Walking on bicycles and walking is easy to know, as well as on the Maidan for golf.

One of the most popular visits to the sovereign park є to watch for birds, some 300 species of birds were found in the whole area, including the big eagles.Park sit bridged part 312 miles Lake Erі Birding Trail. The skin spring of a thousand spasters for birds come to the whole area The most long time for an American poultry is the status of a tramp migration.

Addresses: 1400 State Park Road, Oregon, Ohio

Official website: http://parks.ohiodnr.gov/maumeebay

6 Salt Fork State Park

Salt Fork State Park Photo Copyright: Anietra Hamper

Ohio’s largest state park is Solona Fork, Guernsey, with more than 17,000 acres of land.People will get more expensive here for numerous hikes, horse riding, ribolovli, camping, swimming and horse riding. One of the unique possibilities here is a route with a bow shooting for 10 stations, as you can easily move and easily know near the entrance to the park.

Salt Fork Reservoir is a 3,000 acre lake that can be used by one of the headlands in the region. There are two marinas for yachts, and the lake is quite a place for walks on the chambers, water slides and ribolovli. Salt Fork is also one of the greatest indoor beaches in Ohio, hunt for 2,500 feet, and because of the funniest things like souls and shaffs, it’s a great day to spend.

In the park 14 dry stitches with a small folding step. Deyakі z cikh dorіg are transformed on snіgohіdnі stitches together.

Addresses: 14755 Cadiz Road, Lore City, Ohio

Official website: http://parks.ohiodnr.gov/saltfork

7 John Bryan State Park

Park John Bryan rayb777 / photo modifications

One of the most small-sized parks in Ohio – John Bryan, who prikhovuє hostile vapnyaku gorge, virizane Little river Miami .Dekilka pidglyadiv allow you to see with the root ball near the water, to throw more and more below 100 feet below. The part of the Bula gorge is designated as a national monument.

The park is a quiet backdrop for pics and golf on discs on 18 holes, albeit with the main rice and the reason for the hedge of pishokhidnyh roads. With nine trails in the 752-acre park, it is easy to spend another day, enjoying nature and wild nature. John Bryan is one of the best winter hiking parks in the country, you can get frozen waters in the middle of the slope.

Whenever you see it on a daily basis, park at the entrance to the Zhovty Springs, then go to the head stitch, as you lead you through The coastal reserve of the Klifton gorge . Kinets follow the road to the road Clifton Mill, you can see it and go back. Plan chotiri days for your trip.

Addresses: 3790 State Route 370, Yellow Springs, Ohio

Official website: http://parks.ohiodnr.gov/johnbryan

8 Malabar State Farm Park

Malabar State Farm Park | Photo Copyright: Anietra Hamper

Malabar Farm is the most popular state park for the state of Ohio and one of the most unique ones to be introduced to.The story of the author Luy Bromfield, who received the Pulitzer prize, was the main reason for this. The park is for the sake of a farm with a head booth and gospodar sporums. Quite a bummer – tse mіsce, de 1945 rock was exchanged by the funniest things of Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall. In all 32-room booth you will know the memory of Hollywood’s relish.

The Malabar Farm lands are suitable for vivchennia, with numerous buds and fields with thinness, chickens and goats. With a hand to the rock, special come in for a wide zagala, and summer tours around the whole farm will be promoted.

Є Two main parts to open the farm: during the fall, if the leaves change color on the rolling hills of Richland County, and on the outskirts of the maple syrup festival, if the tree sips the juice, you can drink it.

Addresses: 4050 Bromfield Road, Lucas, Ohio

Official Website: http://parks.ohiodnr.gov/malabarfarm

9 Kellis Island Park

Kellis Island Park

Accessible Kellis Island – a very geologically pristine state park, discharge by Lake Eri, which is the ideal place for recovery and recovery.Camping promotes electric and non-electric sites, a pier for pikniks, a volleyball maidan and a child maidan. Rent gris is available in the office of the tabor. As long as you shukakite spraved unikalne zhitlo, in the park you can take the fate of a series of great yurts.

Walking on the island is easy with the new routes. Є Chotiri miles of bike trails. A 100-foot private beach is popular with warm people. Rolling on chambers and kayaks is also provided with lithium braces.

Walking around the island to the ideal place, it is also great during winter.As long as the weather permits with warm balls, the islands can be moved by the seasonal ice ribs, rolling on kovzans and big licks.

Addresses: 920 Division Street, Island of Kellis, Ohio

Official website: http://parks.ohiodnr.gov/kelleysisland

10 Park to the State of Dir-Krik

Park Dir Krikiv / photo Sam Hozoniy

The versatility of the scenery and wild nature in Oleri Krik is a great way to create the most beautiful stately park for its development in Ohio.The landscape around the park with an area of ​​2,300 acres is stored in bows, leaves and a great number of Polish houses. It’s no wonder that you can hike in the mountains – there are seven great routes. The park also has a 17-mile knuckle stitch. The Deer Creek Gromadske Golf Course is located on a foldable 350 acres of 10 stakes. A nine-hole golf course is also available on stag nights.

For the main foals in the park є “Dir-Krik” water reserve, which is popular for kayaking, kayaking, paddling on kayaks, ribolovli and swimming.The great beach is very crowded, so it is quite crowded. You will know a helpless grill and a capital for a picnick.

Campsites, cottages, cabins and booths to smell a wide variety of SILs’ places for everyday pawns, and in two unique campings there are large groups, up to 100 people, and also tops.

Addresses: 20635 State Park Road 20, Mt. Sterling, OH

Official Website: http://parks.ohiodnr.gov/deercreek

11 Geneva State Park

Geneva State Park | Photo Copyright: Anietra Hamper

The Geneva State Park on the perennial Uzbek shore of Lake Eri, one of the most active people for an active follow-up, there are some examples of tourist attractions not far from this one.Marina in the borders of the sovereign park is located in the decimated withers of walking from a large number of living primitives, so ribolovets charters for sea and perch are easy to book, do not give it far. Marina rent a kayak paddle and jet licks on the ice.

A six-billion-dollar trail leading to all aspects of the park, which leads to a 300-foot huge beach, with great people just for an hour. Walks and walks on bicycles allow you to get more expensive on snowmobile and hiking on the road.

Accommodation options include camping, cabins, booths and cottages, all smells have easy access to the stately park. If you need to see from hikes, Geneva on the lakes is a small resort town, which is located on the road, which can be seen for dinner. Dovzhina smuga on a mile is packed with old arcades and electric everyday shops, restaurants and shops of donuts, which have lived for more than 60 years.

Addresses: 4499 Padanarum Road, Geneva, Ohio

Official Website: http: // parks.ohiodnr.gov/geneva

12 Tar Porozhniy

State Park in Ohio, which has the best opportunities for vivchennya – Tar Hollow for his lively roads through the pagorbi, lisy and steep The whole park of Ohio is hunted to see the wilderness in the thick woods.

Tar Hallow is the nicest for African tourists, moreover, there are more routes in the middle reach of decilkokh kilometers. High-price-pochatkivtsi You can walk behind the worlds and get cold with crabs, a little bit of a map, persh nizh robit trails.Special routes for bicycles and 25-km long stitches penetrate through the park until the end of the stitch. Seryoznі tour operators can cover 21 miles Track Logan Backpacking for a folding trip through the line. Camping for tourists is available at Logan Hallow Camp is less for previous replacements.

Pine Lake is not a large 15-acre lake in the park, yak є a haunted expensive camera for canoeing, canoeing for canoeing.There is also a swimming beach. The finest hour of fate, when you see Tar Hallo, the price of the day, if a great fox will be transformed into a species of colora.

Addresses: 16396 Tar Clay Road, Laurelville, Ohio

Official Website: http://parks.ohiodnr.gov/tarhollow

New World. 1977. No. 6

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    Students for a Democratic Society – gaz.wiki

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    90,000

    Challenger crashed.The tragedy of the Challenger shuttle. Was there a catastrophe

    I think almost all those who read this site, at least once in their lives have heard about the US space program, called “ Space Shuttle
    “. It was a program for launching space planes, reusable shuttles for research and transport purposes in Space, which could then land on the runway of the airfield themselves, and did not fall into the sea or steppe, like an ordinary tin can, which is practiced to this day.Oddly enough, huh?

    Challenger
    “- it was the 2nd (second) shuttle built of 5 shuttles. Here they are below.

    1. Colombia.

    2. Challenger
    .

    3. Discovery.

    4. Atlantis.

    5. Endeavor.

    So that you understand what a “Shuttle” is – it is a type of rocket with wings, which looks like an airplane, lands like an airplane, but takes off from a place vertically upwards.

    Also, it’s not that small.The length is 37 meters. As a Soyuz rocket in length, 1967 version.

    Here he is on the back of a special Boeing carrier, whose length is 70 meters. In short, it is a very big plane.

    But, today we are interested in 1 of 2 Shuttle disasters, which happened to them for the entire time of use.

    This is the explosion of “ Challenger
    “, his disaster, in January 1986. In that year, they also joked that the United States had its own disaster with the letter “ H
    “in 1986, and the USSR has its own” H
    “, in the same 1986, so it wouldn’t be so funny.

    And now all the fun.

    Topic 1

    … “Was the crew killed or not”?

    Topic 2

    … “An In-depth Study of the Case of Commander Richard Scooby.”

    Topic 3

    … Why is NASA always lying. Versions.

    So, what interests us: in January 1986 there was a rocket explosion at 73 seconds of flight. 7 crew members killed
    . This is the official version
    on Wikipedia
    .

    Everyone saw the explosion, the crew was officially killed, he was buried, they were given a couple of medals, the president let a tear on the camera.The topic is closed.

    has been closed.

    Before 2015

    Because in 2015 someone leaked information to the network that all the crew members are now alive, employed and doing great as normal members of American society. They work in prestigious companies, earn their money, and don’t even change their names. They left their “dead” initials.

    Want to see Ghosts from the Grave
    ?

    Crew Challenger
    “: 7 people.5 men and 2 women.

    1. Commander – Francis Richard Scooby
    (bottom center).

    2. Co-pilot – Michael J. Smith
    (to the left of the commander).

    3. Scientist – Allison Onizuka
    (Japanese on the left).

    4. Scientist – Judith Resnick
    (Jewess on the right).

    5. Scientist – Ronald McNair
    (negro on the right).

    6. Load Specialist – Gregory Jarvis
    (top between women).
    7. Load Specialist – Sharonne McCollife
    (top between men). In general, she was a teacher at school, but for her they came up with some kind of left position on the ship “ load specialist
    “. Probably because she was – “ load
    “.))

    Okay.

    Who did you find on the Internet? See below. And make a discount that they all have been +30 years old since 1986.

    Now the points:

    1.Commander – Francis Richard Scooby
    (bottom center). To his right is Richard Scooby
    . Permanent head of advertising company Cows & Trees
    in Illinois, USA. Batrachit has been there for 10 years already. We will talk about it in detail in the second part. Profile page on
    LinkedIn
    .

    2. Co-pilot – Michael J. Smith.
    To his right
    professor
    Michael J. Smith
    University of Wisconsin at Madison, USA.Specialty – Industrial and System Engineering.

    3. Scientist – Allison Onizuka
    (Japanese on the left). To his right is his twin brother (well, of course, of course :))))) Claude Onizuka
    .

    First American-Japanese Astronaut Challenger
    , which has an identical twin brother. Now, at 68, it would look like this, right? The same eyebrows, eyes, wrinkles at the corners of the eyes, a wide nose, the same hairstyle. Working
    at Alcohol Control in Hawaii.

    4. Scientist – Judith Reznik
    (Jewish woman on the right in the group photo). Right in the photo – Judith Reznik
    ,
    law professor
    at Yale University. She is also an actress in the films Fair Game, Born Survivor: American Hero.

    5. Scientist – Ronald McNair
    (the black man on the right in the group photo).On the right is his twin brother (the second is already a twin brother) Karl McNair
    . Direct coincidence on coincidence with twins :))))

    Karl McNair
    – Author, Educational Consultant, Mouthworker. Honorary President of the Foundation named after himself, in honor of himself, that is, the Rondald McNair Foundation. Page on
    LinkedIn
    .

    I worked in my specialty for 2 years, and then for 23 years I went to lectures and read from the Foundation named after Myself about science and space.

    6. Load Specialist – Gregory Jarvis
    (top between women). Not found under my name and surname. maybe died, maybe changed his initials. At least one of the entire crew.

    7. Load Specialist – Sharonne McCollife
    (top between men). She was a history teacher at school, passed the national selection and was supposed to teach 1 lesson from orbit over the Earth. Right – Sharonne McCollife
    , Professor of Law at the University of Syracuse, USA.

    So, what do we have in the end.

    January 1986
    – The shuttle exploded. Everyone saw it. Have people died? Of course not. There were no people in it, at least those who were officially declared dead. Because 6 out of 7 with the same names and surnames live and work in serious jobs, do not hide, do not avoid publicity. In short, they lead a normal active life.

    Either, it’s just 16 matches in 6 people at the same time

    …?

    1. Name –
    Richard
    (same)
    2 . Last name – Scooby
    . (matches)

    3.
    Appearance
    – Richard Scooby. (+30 years old)

    4. Name – Michael
    (same)
    5 . Surname – Smith
    . (matches)

    6. Appearance –
    Michael Smith. (+30 years old)

    7. Astronaut profession
    – “engineer”. Profession “alive” – ​​”Professor of Engineering” at the University of Wisconsin with living Michael Smith.

    8. Japanese twin brother
    Claude
    Allison Onizuki
    . (match 2 twins in a group of 7).

    9. American twin brother
    Karl
    , identical in appearance (+30 years old) to that of the deceased astronaut Ronald McNair
    . (coincidence, 2 twins in a random group of 7).

    10. Name – Judith
    (matches).
    11. Last name – Reznik
    .(matches).

    12.
    Appearance – Judith Resnik
    . (+30 years)
    1
    3

    Astronaut Profession
    – electrical engineer, was interested in
    public speaking, public speaking
    .
    Profession “alive”
    – Yale University Lecturer in Law, public appearances in courts.

    14. Name – Sharonn.
    (same)
    15. Last name – McCollife
    . (matches)

    16. Astronaut profession
    – teacher. Profession “alive”
    – Lecturer in Law at Syracuse University. (matches).

    Do you know what it’s called? It is called “too many matches to be a match.”

    1 fact
    randomness!


    2 facts
    matches

    3 facts === >>>
    REGULARITY
    !

    And we have – 16 facts coincided?

    Conclusions
    :

    At first I thought it was a joke, for fools on the Internet who do not check anything, but eat everything.

    At least 1 fact can be explained by computer modeling of appearance, such as through programs that are now even on smartphones. There you can age your face in 1 second. Here are examples from FaceApp
    :

    But this is if we take 1 specific photograph and age it
    . What if there are hundreds of photographs of a person? Do you have to age them all too? And if there are still records in other sources, in databases, if there are references to other people about you? What then?

    In short, we have before us either some terrible coincidence, or the Challenger crew in 1986, did not die
    .But, for this you need to find something more than 1 photo.

    I decided to study Crew Commander – Richard Scooby
    . Here is this handsome man.

    Topic 2

    “Detailed Study of the Richard Scooby Case”
    .

    So, I decided to start by searching on Google. What he will give us upon request – Richard Scobee
    . In the age of the Internet, EVERYTHING can be found

    He gives us several pages at once. Let’s take turns and check if this is not a fake.

    Announced – “ Astronaut Ghost Hunt
    “.

    Let’s go.

    Google gives us.

    1. Page on the social network
    Facebook
    .
    2. Page on the social network
    LinkedIn
    .

    1. Name – Richard Scooby.
    There is a photo.

    2. Works for a marketing company Cows and Trees
    . Executive Director. CEO
    .

    3. On his page there is a comment from a woman named Jill Friedman
    .Remember this fact.

    4. Last post for September 2015
    , in which he says that he prohibits Facebook from using any materials on his page without special permission.

    P.S.
    In 2015, the Internet Storm just started, that this whole Challenger disaster of 1986 is a fake from NASA and the crew is alive. After 2015 – not a single post on the page anymore.

    5. He writes that he loves a certain Linda! Remember this fact

    August 4, 2012
    writes that he has been married to Linda for 38 years, and she is the best that he had in his life.That is, Linda is his wife. And they got married in 1974.

    Posts for December 29, 2011
    . He writes that he is posting a photo of his granddaughter Reese Christina Friedman
    , which was born on his birthday. And their next birthdays will be “ R in the Square
    “(his name is Richard, and his granddaughter is Reese).

    From here. He has a daughter or son who bears the surname Friedman. The first post features a woman named Jill Friedman. So, most likely she changed her last name from Scooby to Friedman, and is his daughter.

    Here we are waiting for this
    page
    .

    Both of them work at Cows and Trees
    “Since May 2007,
    both are directors. And before that, he was the director of Marketing Edge, Inc

    » from January 1982
    to 2007. Here are their photos side by side. Is this the same person?

    Cows and Trees directors.

      No, these are different directors. 15%, 86 votes

    Poll Options are limited because JavaScript is disabled in your browser.

    We go to the American service
    InstantCheckMate
    – (translation. “Instant Check and Checkmate”).

    A service created in order to track if the person you are interested in was not prosecuted, if he was, is there an extract from the court, what is his real age, what relatives, etc. In short, a lot of information about every resident of the United States. We drive in “Richard Scobee” and see the results. Found 12 people with the same name and surname. We study all 12 people.

    One suits us according to the description.

    1. Richard Scooby. From Illinois, USA. (suitable for a person on facebook).

    2. Age 65 years.

    3. Born in December 1951. (a Facebook entry is suitable that his granddaughter was born in December).

    4. His Relatives Jill Friedman
    (suitable), Brian M
    , Christina A
    , and Denon
    . Also Linda Scooby
    (suitable).

    There is already something to start from! Whether they are alive or are all fictional.

    So Jill Friedman
    .

    Facebook gives us a photo of her. After all, it was she who commented on the posts on Richard Scooby’s page
    . It means that it is she who knows him. Facebook also said that she worked for Children’s Memorial Hospital. No more information available.

    Here, under the number 3 – of her photo
    . Apparently, yes?

    How do you like this choice of animation? Norm?

    Topic 3

    …Why is NASA always lying. Versions.

    We have already written that
    was not there. There was an article analyzing a lot of evidence. The most obvious proof is right in front of you, though. Can we go to the moon now? Not. Where are the successful technologies of the 1960s? If this were true, then in 50 years after the successful Lunar landings there would have already stood there!

    We have already written about
    that
    – is also a lie. And no rovers flew anywhere, but are in the hangars of NASA.And photos are riveted on Earth from Earth photos, only processed in a red background.

    We have already written about
    that
    – fakes. They told how they are made, what they are made of, and provided evidence.

    So another fact in the piggy bank, that explosion and the Challenger disaster
    is a fake and a grandiose deception – it won’t change anything. NASA has been lying since its inception. And also other “national space agencies” lie, covering up each other’s lies.

    Even if only 1 of these living “astronauts” turns out to be the guy or girl who was in the crew of the Challenger, it still puts an end to ALL
    stories. Because they buried EVERYONE
    without exception!

    Why such problems and endless lies about the Cosmos?

    Versions:

    First. one
    . Well, maybe because
    and there is no Space with millions and billions of planets? Because going beyond the Dome is unrealistic.It’s like Rybka trying to escape from the Aquarium with a glass lid on top. It is impossible in principle. The aquarium was not built for this.

    Second. 2
    . The prosaic version of the explosion of the Challenger. You just need to show a couple of “ unsuccessful launches
    “. Because when everything goes smoothly, smoothly
    , no hitch, then it raises minimum suspicion
    in people
    . Since there were only 2 disasters for 135 Space Shuttle launches, this is an excellent result for NASA. 1% marriage!

    Third. 3
    . It was military special launch.
    shuttle with classified cargo for testing. Therefore, there could not be an official crew with civilians, such as teacher Sharon McCollife
    , but there was a completely different crew from the professional military, which died. And the civilians were left alone, just before that they “buried” them for show.

    4. Your version
    . Write what you think. Send links and comments, if they are interesting, I will add them to the article.Pointing to you

    This is where our Moon theme comes to an end, and if you still have questions, please voice it.

    And to those who still want to believe that you have never been deceived The government, NASA, Roscosmos and the Military
    , with Space, with flights to the ISS, with flights in zero gravity, you can watch this video.

    All the best on the Flat Earth.

    Shuttle Challenger crash
    occurred on January 28, 1986, when the Space Shuttle Challenger at the very beginning of the STS-51L mission collapsed as a result of the explosion of an external fuel tank in the 73rd second of flight, which resulted in the death of all 7 crew members.The disaster occurred at 11:39 EST (16:39 UTC) over the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the central part of the Florida Peninsula, USA.

    The destruction of the aircraft was caused by damage to the O-ring of the right solid propellant booster at launch. Damage to the ring caused a hole in the side of the accelerator to burn out, from which a jet stream was beating towards the external fuel tank. This led to the destruction of the tail mount of the right solid propellant booster and the supporting structures of the external fuel tank.The elements of the complex began to shift relative to each other. The destruction of the external fuel tank led to the detonation of the fuel components. Contrary to popular belief, the “shuttle” did not explode, but collapsed as a result of abnormal aerodynamic overloads. An instant explosion of all the fuel also did not happen: the combustion of the propellant components continued for some time after the complete destruction of the tank and the “shuttle” itself. The side boosters survived and continued to fly around until they were destroyed by the team from Earth.The cockpit, sealed and more durable than the orbital module as a whole, also remained intact, but, most likely, it was depressurized. The wreckage of the shuttle fell into the Atlantic Ocean.

    Collegiate YouTube

      1
      /
      5

      ✪ “Seconds to Catastrophe” – Space Shuttle Challenger HD 1080p

      ✪ Disaster of the shuttle “Challenger” 1986

      ✪ The Last America’s Shuttle

      ✪ They did not return from space: Soyuz-1, Challenger, Soyuz-11, Shuttle Columbia

      ✪ Space accidents (narrated by Ivan Moiseev)

      Subtitles


    Crew

    The Challenger shuttle’s crew consisted of seven people.Its composition was as follows:

    • Crew captain – 46-year-old Francis “Dick” R. Scobee
      ). US military pilot, US Air Force lieutenant colonel, NASA astronaut. Spent 6 days 23 hours 40 minutes in space. For him, this was the second flight on the Challenger – before that he was in the crew of the STS-41C mission as a co-pilot.
    • Co-pilot – 40-year-old Michael J. Smith
      ). Test pilot, US Navy captain, NASA astronaut.
    • Scientist – 39-year-old Allison S.Ellison S. Onizuka
      , Template: Lang-jp). Test pilot, US Air Force Lieutenant Colonel, NASA astronaut. Spent 3 days 1 hour 33 minutes in space. For him it was the second flight into space – before that he was part of the crew of the STS-51C mission of the shuttle “Discovery”.
    • Scientist – 36-year-old Judith A. Resnik
      ). NASA engineer and astronaut. Spent 6 days 00 hours 56 minutes in space. For her it was the second flight into space – before that she was in the crew of the STS-41D mission of the shuttle “Discovery”.
    • Research Specialist – Ronald E. McNair, 35
      ). Physicist, NASA astronaut. Spent 7 days 23 hours 15 minutes in space. For him, this was the second flight on the Challenger – before that he was part of the crew of the STS-41B mission.
    • Payload Specialist – 41-year-old Gregory B. Jarvis
      ). NASA engineer and astronaut. It was his first flight on the Challenger.
    • Payload Specialist – 37-year-old Sharon Christa Corrigan McAuliffeSharon Christa Corrigan McAuliffe
      ). The winner of the competition from Boston. For her, it was the first flight into space as the first participant in the “Teacher in Space” project.

    Timeline of events

    Structural deficiencies

    For the launch of each shuttle, two solid-propellant boosters were used, consisting of seven sections, six of which were connected in pairs at the manufacturing stage. The resulting four parts were put together already at the space center of the Space Center.John F. Kennedy at the Tower Assembly. The factory joints of the sections were covered with an asbestos-silicate coating, and the joints carried out at the cosmodrome were closed with two rubber sealing rings (according to the results of the investigation of the causes of the disaster, the number of rings was increased to three). The coating was required in order to exclude the breakthrough of high-temperature gases and to ensure the normal operation of the accelerator during the entire acceleration stage.

    During the development of the Space Shuttle in 1971, a McDonnell Douglas report discussed the safety of solid-propellant rockets.One of the most dangerous moments of using this type, according to the report, was the situation of hot gases bursting through the burn-through in the rocket shell. The report mentioned that “ if a burn-through occurs near the [liquid hydrogen or oxygen] tank or shuttle, early detection and emergency stop will be impossible.
    “.

    The contract for the development and delivery of accelerators was won by Morton Thiokol. In developing the booster body, wishing to save on time and cost, the engineers borrowed many parts and assemblies from another solid-propellant rocket, the Titan III, which had proven itself well in the US Air Force.However, engineers at Morton Thiokol proposed joining sections of the sections using two O-ring joints that were different from those used on the Titan. Tests in 1977 showed that the water used to simulate the operation of the accelerator bent outward the metal walls of the section, which caused the joint to bend inward, and the O-rings ceased to provide tightness. This effect, called “joint rotation”
    ), could cause a sharp drop in pressure and destruction of the O-rings, and then – a breakthrough of a jet of hot gases and destruction of the connection, which ultimately could lead to the destruction of the accelerator and shuttle.

    Signs of serious damage to the O-rings were already evident during the second STS-2 mission of the Columbia space shuttle. Contrary to demands, Marshall Space Center engineers did not report the problem to NASA officials this time, deciding to fix the problem directly with contractor Thiokol. Even after the O-ring problem was rated at the highest level of severity, no one from Marshall Center came up with the idea of ​​ending shuttle operation until the problem was completely resolved.

    By 1985, a redesign process was initiated to increase the thickness of the joints by three inches (76 mm) to prevent bending of the joints. However, all this time, the shuttles were operated with potentially dangerous accelerators. Thiokol went even further by convincing NASA executives that the O-ring problem was “solved.”

    Pre-flight preparation

    While checking the systems, there was a problem with the external shuttle hatch hardware.While the technicians were fixing the problem, the weather on the launch pad deteriorated so much that it was not possible to use the launch window that day.

    The morning of the next day, January 28, turned out to be unusually cold – the temperature dropped to -1 ° C, the minimum allowable for a launch permit. The previous coldest start was at 12 ° C. The low temperature has raised concerns among Thiokol engineers. During a private televised conference between Thiokol and NASA executives, they expressed concern that such extreme conditions could adversely affect the elasticity of the O-rings of solid propellant boosters, since the joints were not tested at temperatures below 12 ° C, and recommended that the launch be postponed.However, the problem of sealing rings had not yet been resolved and was of the highest criticality, engineers doubted that both rings would be able to maintain the tightness of the joint at low temperatures.

    Thiokol management supported its engineers, but due to constant delays, NASA management was vehemently opposed. They brushed aside concerns about the inelasticity of the ring, groundlessly arguing that if the main ring cannot provide tightness, the backup will do it.Seeing the categorical nature of NASA, the leadership of “Thiokol” gave in and gave permission to start.

    In the meantime, ice accumulated on the launch site, which in itself was an insurmountable obstacle to launch. There were concerns that icing could damage the shuttle’s thermal insulation tiles. Rockwell International agreed that the launch should be postponed, but the management did not express a firm ban on the launch, and the head of the mission, Arnold Eldrich, was able to insist on continuing preparations, postponing only the launch for an hour for re-examination.During this inspection, the ice had already begun to melt, and the ice team gave the go-ahead to launch the shuttle at 11:38 am.

    Launch and crash

    After preparation, everything was ready to start. The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) started working 6.6 seconds before the scheduled liftoff.
    ) that ran on liquid fuel and could be stopped at any time. At 11: 38: 00: 010 the engines of the solid-fuel boosters were turned on and started working.

    Analysis of the shuttle launch survey showed that 0.678 seconds after the launch, gray smoke escaped from the base of the right accelerator in the area of ​​attachment to the external fuel tank.The smoke emitted intermittently for about 3 seconds. Later it was found that the smoke emissions were caused by the depressurization of the connection of the accelerator sections from the shock load during the start of the engines. The joint bent inward, loosening the fastener and opening the way for gases heated to 2760 ° C to the outside. This has happened before, but in the past, the main O-ring was knocked out of its seat by impact and pressed tightly against the walls, providing reliable insulation during the operation of the accelerator.However, this time, due to the low temperature, the main O-ring became harder and lost its elasticity, due to which it could not form insulation in time. The second ring, due to the bending of the connection, could not provide insulation at all. A leak of hot gases formed, which literally evaporated the rings at the point of attachment to the external tank. However, a plug of aluminum oxides formed during fuel combustion temporarily sealed the burn-through in the damaged joint.

    Starting from the 37th second after the start and within 27 seconds, the shuttle was influenced by several gusts of crosswind.At the 58th second of the flight at an altitude of more than 10 km, the shuttle experienced the strongest effect of a gust of side wind, which deflected it from the course by 2 degrees. This knocked out the plug from the oxides, and the hot gases began to burn a hole in the wall. 58.788 seconds after the launch, the surveillance camera recorded a plume of flame escaping from the base of the right accelerator. The pressure in the accelerator began to drop, which was recorded by the instruments. The operation of the engines was completely controlled by the onboard computer systems, which compensated for the imbalance in the operation of the engines.60.238 seconds after the start, a jet of gases began to beat into the external fuel tank.

    The security camera filming the shuttle’s flight recorded a change in the shape of the flame emission at 64.66 seconds of flight, which indicated that liquid hydrogen began to flow out of the external tank. At 66.764 seconds, the pressure in the external fuel tank began to drop. Catastrophic changes in the operation of the engines were not noticed either by the crew or by ground control. At 68 seconds, the last words of the Challenger crew member were transmitted: dispatcher Richard O.Covey
    ) sent a message about the start of acceleration: Challenger, increase power
    Challenger, go at throttle up
    ), the reception of which was confirmed by the commander of the shuttle: Got it, increasing the power
    (English Roger, go at throttle up
    ).

    At 72.284 seconds, the right-hand accelerator broke away from the mount at the base of the fuel tank, causing a sharp lateral acceleration to the right, which was likely felt by the crew.
    At 73.124 seconds, the shell of the liquid hydrogen aft tank was broken, which caused it to come off the mounts and hit the liquid oxygen tank with force.At the same time, the right booster rotated along the upper mount and pierced the shell of the external fuel tank with its bow. The outer tank collapsed, the released oxygen and hydrogen mixed and detonated. A huge fireball engulfed the Challenger.

    The destruction began at 73.162 seconds of flight at an altitude of about 15 kilometers. After the destruction of the external tank with the accelerators not separated and still working, the Challenger experienced an overload of 20 g (4 times stronger than the 5 g foreseen in the development) and was literally torn to pieces.The boosters finally detached from the base of the destroyed tank and for some time continued uncontrolled flight around the collapsed shuttle until they were destroyed on command from Earth for safety reasons.

    The sealed shuttle cockpit, made of reinforced aluminum alloy, and therefore more durable, survived and continued to move along the ballistic trajectory. Its exit from the cloud of gases and debris was recorded by a security camera for 75.237 seconds at an altitude of 20 kilometers.According to rough estimates by NASA, the cabin experienced overloads from 12 to 20 g, after which it went into free fall. At least three astronauts were alive at the time of the fall and were awake for a while, as they had their Personal Egress Air Packs (PEAP
    ). Also, when analyzing the dashboard, it was revealed that several toggle switches of the electrical system in the place of co-pilot Michael J. Smith were moved from the positions usually set during the start.Since these switches have safety interlock brackets to prevent accidental switching, it is likely that Smith was trying to use them to restore the power supply to the cabin after it was separated from the shuttle remains.

    How long the surviving astronauts were awake depends on whether the cockpit was able to be sealed. In the case of near-instantaneous decompression, the astronauts could be awake for only a few seconds, since the personal air supply does not provide inflation.If the cockpit had minor holes, the astronauts could remain conscious until they hit the water. The cockpit hit the surface of the Atlantic Ocean at a speed of about 333 km / h with an overload of over 200 g, leaving 7 Challenger crew members no chance of escape.

    Investigation

    Search for wreckage and bodies

    Search for debris and bodies began a week after the crash by US Department of Defense forces with support from the Coast Guard. On March 7, a shuttle cabin was found on the ocean floor, along with the bodies of astronauts inside.

    An autopsy was performed by pathologists, but due to prolonged exposure to seawater, the exact cause of the death of the astronauts could not be found.

    Investigation of the recovered wreckage has refuted several hypotheses previously advanced. So the hypothesis that the cause of the catastrophe was the charges of the self-destruction system located on the external fuel tank was rejected – they turned out to be intact. The shuttle’s main engines were also found relatively intact. They showed signs of thermal damage caused by exposure to a mixture of liquid oxygen rich.An analysis of the microcontrollers of the first and second engines showed that they worked in normal mode until the 72nd second of flight, when, due to a leak of liquid hydrogen, the pressure dropped and the temperature in the engine chambers rose, due to which the engines were automatically shut off by the computer. Analysis of other parts of the shuttle revealed no signs of premature failure or factory defect.

    The fragments of the solid-state accelerators had no traces of explosions (with the exception of the self-destruct system that was triggered on command).At the same time, traces of severe burn-through were found at the junction of the aft sections of the right-hand accelerator. According to telemetry data, after the destruction of the lower attachment, the right accelerator began to beat its head against the external fuel tank.

    As the wreck was analyzed, most of the hypotheses about the destruction of the shuttle were discarded. The collected materials concerning the right-hand accelerator became enough to identify the exact cause of the crash. By May 1, the main recovery activities were completed.In total, about 14 tons of debris were raised. About 55% of the shuttle, 5% of the cockpit and 65% of the payload remained at the bottom of the Atlantic.

    After analysis, the wreckage of the Challenger was buried in a former missile silo at Cape Canaveral (Launch Complex 31).

    Rogers Commission

    NASA officials did not disclose details of the crash, and the agency’s senior management team was not available to reporters. In the absence of official information, versions circulated in the press about a malfunction in the shuttle’s external fuel tank.At the same time, an internal NASA investigation immediately focused on solid fuel boosters.

    The report also contained an analysis of the situation that led to the disaster. In it, the members of the commission stated that neither NASA nor “Thiokol” could adequately respond to a possible failure of the O-rings due to a miscalculation in the design of accelerators. The report indicated that the Marshall Space Center management knew about this miscalculation as early as the design stage in 1977, but the discussion of the problem in violation of NASA rules did not go outside the organization, and comments on elimination did not reach the contractor Thiokol.Rather than redesigning the junction of the booster sections, NASA saw the problem as an acceptable risk of hardware failure. Even when it became clear that the elimination of this problem was of the highest priority and urgency, no one from the Space Center advocated the immediate suspension of the Space Shuttle program until the constructive flaw was corrected. On the contrary, after six successful shuttle launches, the center management was confident that the problem of o-rings was not serious.

    The Committee believes that the main problem leading to the Challenger’s disaster is not the lack of communication between services or compliance, as outlined in the Rogers Commission’s opinion.The main problem was the weak policy of decision-making on technical issues that had been practiced for several years at NASA and its contractors, who were unable to proactively act to solve a serious problem in solid fuel accelerator connections.
    .

    Original text
    (English)
    :

    The Committee feels that the underlying problem which led to the Challenger accident was not poor communication or underlying procedures as implied by the Rogers Commission conclusion.Rather, the fundamental problem was poor technical decision-making over a period of several years by top NASA and contractor personnel, who failed to act decisively to solve the increasingly serious anomalies in the Solid Rocket Booster joints
    .

    Consequences

    Following the Challenger disaster, all shuttle launches were suspended pending the announcement of the results of the Rogers Commission. The report outlined 9 requirements for improving the safety of the space shuttle program.President Reagan demanded that NASA give an answer within thirty days on how the organization plans to fulfill them.

    The first requirement was to rework the connection of the solid propellant booster sections under the supervision of an independent group of experts. As a result, the connections were redesigned to include three o-rings, an O-ring for the bottom section, and eliminated bending of the connection. In addition, the system for attaching the accelerator to the external fuel tank was changed. As a result, the finished accelerator began to weigh 200 kg more than

    In compliance with the commission’s requirements, NASA created an office for safety, reliability and quality control (eng.Office of Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance
    ), led by the NASA Assistant Administrator, who responds directly to the Agency Administrator. The first head of the new department was George Martin of Martin Marietta.

    The overly optimistic shuttle launch program has been criticized by the Rogers Commission as a possible reason for contributing to the haste and crash of the Challenger launch. NASA has made adjustments to the schedule to reduce the load on the shuttles.The Endeavor shuttle was built to replace the Challenger, and the launches of military satellites, which were planned to be put into orbit by shuttles, began to be carried out using disposable launch vehicles. In addition, in August 1986, Reagan announced that the shuttles would not launch commercial satellites into orbit. As a result, the launch of the next STS-26 mission under the Space Shuttle program was allowed only after a 32-month pause, on September 29, 1988.

    The US Air Force rebuilt the SLC-6 launch pad at Vandenberg to launch shuttles with classified military satellites.The first launch of the “shuttle” for military purposes was scheduled for October 15, 1986, but the disaster led to the fact that the leadership of the Air Force chose to abandon the launch of military satellites using the Space Shuttle program in favor of Titan IV launch vehicles.

    Despite NASA’s efforts to address the problems that led to the disaster, many experts expressed the view that the changes affecting the organizational structure and culture of decision-making failed to gain a foothold. After the crash of the shuttle “Columbia” in 2003, the Commission of Inquiry into the causes of the crash (eng.Columbia Accident Investigation Board
    , CAIB) concluded that NASA was never able to learn from the Challenger disaster. In particular, the agency never created a truly independent safety oversight agency. The Commission noted that “NASA’s response was not in line with the Rogers Commission’s vision.” The Commission was convinced that the organizational problems that led to the downfall of the Challenger had not been corrected, and that the same fuzzy decision-making process also influenced the collapse of the shuttle Columbia 17 years later.

    . After the disaster, the concert was not canceled and became a tribute to the Challenger team.

    In December 2013, the song “XO” of the famous singer Beyoncé, which was released, was heavily criticized in connection with the use in this composition of the well-known six-second excerpt of live coverage in the United States during the disaster. The widow of Challenger commander Francis Scobie June Scobie-Rogers said it was emotionally difficult to hear the words “ major malfunction
    “( major malfunction
    ).She likened this to the use of audio recordings of the assassination of John F. Kennedy or the September 11, 2001 attacks, and stated that such techniques should not be used “to shock pop music.”

    On January 28, 1986 at 11:38 am ET, Space Shuttle Challenger lifted off from platform 39B at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The entire crew of seven died 73 seconds later in the explosion. Today, 25 years after this tragedy, America honors the memory of the members of the brave crew who gave their lives for the dream of going into space.Sharon Christa McAuliffe, a teacher from New Hampshire, was selected by NASA in a nationwide competition for the right to fly into space. January 28, 2011 is a dark anniversary of a terrible tragedy.

    (Total 34 photos)

    1. Space shuttle Challenger crew members. From left to right: Allison Onizuka, Mike Smith, Christa McAuliffe, Dick Scobie, Greg Yarvis, Ron McNair and Judith Resnick. (NASA / 1986)

    2. Christa McAuliffe at the Johnson Space Center in Houston.An entire generation, including McAuliffe’s students, has grown since she and six astronauts died on January 28, 1986 – a quarter of a century ago. The former students wanted to make sure that people who were not yet born when their beloved teacher died could learn about her and her dream of going into space. (AP / 1985)

    3. Christa McAuliffe at the Lions Club parade in front of New Hampshire City Hall with her daughter Carolyn and son Scott. McAuliffe was a sociology teacher at Concord High School.NASA selected it for space flight. (The Boston Globe / Janet Knott / 1985)

    4. McAuliffe, the first American teacher in space, conducts his volunteer orchestra, The Group Never, on the City Hall lawn. The school hosted Christa McAuluff Day and she sang the anthem Stars and Stripes Forever with the orchestra. (The Boston Globe / Janet Knott / 1985)

    5. Christa McAuliffe jogging with her friends in Concord, New Hampshire. (AP / Jim Cole)

    6.Christa McAuliffe notes with friends the news of the flight into space the day after the visit to. (The Concord Monitor / Suzanne Kreiter)

    7. McAuliffe aboard a test aircraft on January 2, 1986, during a test landing the day after arriving at NASA from Houston.

    8. McAuliffe prepares for a test flight in a T-38 fighter in September 1985. This was part of her preparation for a flight into space in 1986.

    9.McAuliffe aboard a T-38 fighter jet over Galveston Bay during a test prior to the launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger. In the background, on the left, you can see parts of Galveston Island and Houston. McAuluff presented the Master in Space Project aboard the shuttle. (AP / 1986)

    10. Christa McAuliffe controls the manipulator arms aboard a space shuttle simulator at Johnson Space Center in July 1985. (UPI)

    11. McAuliffe during a training flight in zero gravity in October 1985.(UPI)

    12. McAuliffe signs autographs ahead of the honorary announcement that she was selected as the first teacher for space travel. The city officials presented her with an engraved plate and a city flag. (AP / Suzanne Kreiter / 1985)

    13. McAuliffe at the Space Shuttle Challenger on Platform 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida in October 1985. (AP / Jim Neihouse)

    14. Christa McAuliffe and Barbara Morgan (right) during training in 1986.(NASA)

    15. McAuliffe is at the van that will take her to the launch platform. (The Boston Globe / Janet Knott)

    16. The crew of the Space Shuttle Challenger enters the launch pad at Kennedy Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida. Foreground Commander Francis Scobie, Specialist Judith Resnick, Specialist Ronald McNair, Instrumentation Specialist Gregory Yarvis, Specialist Allison Onizuka, Teacher Christa McAuliffe, and pilot Michael Smith.(AP / Steve Helber)

    18. Classmates of Christa McAuliffe’s son rejoice at the start of the shuttle. Their joy soon gave way to horror – the entire shuttle crew died in the explosion 73 seconds later. (AP / Jim Cole)

    19. Sequential photographs of the Space Shuttle Challenger crash. Ignition in the solid propellant booster resulted in an explosion that killed all seven crew members. (HO / AFP / Getty Images)

    20. Explosion of the shuttle 73 seconds after takeoff.This photo has become a symbol of the tragedy of the entire American nation. (Bruce Weaver / AP)

    21. McAuliffe’s family just heard NASA’s speakerphone warning that tragedy had occurred. (The Boston Globe / Janet Knott / 1986)

    22. The teachers and students of the school where McAuliffe worked are shocked by what is happening: before their eyes, the wreckage of the shuttle fell from the sky. (The New York Times / Keith Meyers)

    23. NBC news anchor Tom Brokaw reports the dire news: The Challenger exploded, killing all seven of the crew.(NBC News)

    24. US President Ronald Reagan, surrounded by officials, watches a replay of the shuttle explosion on TV in the White House. Left to right: White House Deputy Press Secretary Larry Speaks, Presidential Aide Dennis Thomas, Special Aide Jim Kuhn, President Reagan, White House Communications Director Patrick Buchanan, and Chief of Staff Donald Regan. (AP / Craig Fuji)

    25. Buyer David Kimball and shopkeepers Lynn Beck and Lisa Olson after watching a memorial service for the astronauts who died at the launch of the Challenger.On the screen are relatives of one of the astronauts. (AP / Charles Krupa / 1986)

    26. A huge piece of the Challenger shuttle on the beach in Florida. It was washed ashore on December 17, 1996. (AP / Malcolm Denemark)

    27. Cross and wreath depicting a shuttle on the shore, in front of a Coast Guard boat looking for the wreckage of the shuttle, in Cape Canaveral. (AP / Jim Neihouse / 1986)

    28. Sailors of the Preserver pull out from the sea part of the hull of an inertial upper stage rocket after the explosion of the Challenger.The stage was supposed to lift the satellite tracking data into a higher orbit. The debris was found at a depth of 21 meters, 32 km northeast of the space center. (AP)

    29. Members of the Presidential Commission of Inquiry into the Explosion on the Challenger walk past the solid propellant booster and the outer tank of the shuttle in the apparatus assembly building in downtown Kennedy. (AP) 32. Headstone at the grave of Christa McAuliffe. She earned the title of “first teacher in space” posthumously, but for many she remained a beloved energetic teacher who gave herself all her education.(AP / Jim Cole)

    33. Students walk past the Christa McAuliffe memorial booth in February 2003 at an exhibition on the history of space shuttles. McAuliffe and six other Challenger crew members are remembered for their courage and desire to explore space. (AP / Mike Roemer)

    34. A wreath commemorates the seven astronauts who died on the Space Shuttle Challenger at Memorial Grove during the annual memorial ceremony at Johnson Space Center in Houston on January 27, 2011.(AP / Houston Chronicle / Smiley N. Pool)

    “(Challenger”) was built in 1982 under the US Space Transportation System program, better known as the Space shuttle. The shuttle was named after the British naval vessel, which in 1870 The first comprehensive oceanographic expedition was carried out

    Structurally, the shuttle consists of three main components – an orbiter (orbiter), which was launched into low-earth orbit and was a spacecraft, a large external fuel tank and two solid-propellant rocket boosters, which worked for two minutes after launch.After entering space, the orbiter independently returned to Earth and landed like an airplane on the runway. Solid-propellant boosters were splashed down on parachutes and then used again.

    External fuel tank burned out in the atmosphere.

    On April 4, 1983, the Challenger made its maiden flight into space. In total, the space shuttle has completed nine successful missions.

    The tenth start in January 1986 was the last for the Challenger. The flight was scheduled for six days.The crew was to launch a communications satellite into space, as well as the Spartan scientific apparatus for observing Halley’s comet, which, after two days of autonomous operation, was planned to be picked up and returned to Earth. Astronauts also had to carry out several experiments aboard the ship.

    The crew included: the commander of the ship Francis Scobie; pilot Michael Smith; three scientists – Judith Resnick, Ronald McNair, Allison Onizuka; two payload specialists – Gregory Jarvis and Sharon Christy McAuliffe.

    McAuliffe was a teacher and it was her first space flight as the first member of NASA’s Teacher in Space Project. She was to give two lessons live.

    The Challenger spacecraft expedition, codenamed STS-51-L, has been repeatedly postponed. Initially, the launch was scheduled for July 1985, then it was postponed to November 1985, later it was postponed to the end of January 1986.

    Start was scheduled for January 22, 1986, but was repeatedly postponed due to technical problems and adverse weather conditions, as a result it was scheduled for January 28.

    On the night of January 28, the air temperature dropped below zero. This caused serious concern among the leaders of the firm engaged in the development of solid fuel boosters for the shuttle. The fact is that structurally each solid-fuel accelerator consists of several sections, the tightness of the joints of which is ensured by powerful sealing rings and a special sealant. At low temperatures, the material of the intersection gaskets lost its elasticity and could not ensure the tightness and protection of the connection from the effects of hot gaseous combustion products at the joints of the sections.The company’s executives reported their concerns to NASA, but problems in the accelerators arose on other flights, so the launch was not canceled.

    On the morning of January 28, all the structures of the launch complex were covered with an ice crust, so the launch time was postponed a little – they waited for the ice to melt. On January 28, 1986 at 11:38 am ET, the Challenger took off.

    From takeoff until the instrumentation installed on board the shuttle stopped sending electronic pulses to Earth (73.6 seconds after launch), it seemed that the flight was proceeding normally.At the 57th second of the flight, the control center reported: the engines are working at full load, all systems are functioning satisfactorily. Voice communication with the crew worked. There were no emergency signals from the cockpit. The first signs of the disaster were noted not by devices, but by television cameras. 73 seconds after the launch, the trajectories of numerous debris falling into the sea were clearly visible on the radar screen, and the NASA officer on duty stated: “The ship exploded.”

    The external fuel tank exploded on the Challenger, after which the orbiter was destroyed due to strong aerodynamic loads.The two solid-propellant rocket boosters that flew out of the fireball continued to fly until they were given the command from Earth to self-destruct.

    Subsequent analysis of the video recording and telemetry data showed that immediately after the launch, a jet of gray smoke appeared, beating from the aft joint of the right solid propellant booster. The more speed the shuttle picked up, the larger and darker the plumes of smoke became. The smoke turned black, indicating the destruction of the insulation of the assembly and the O-rings that sealed the assemblies.At the 59th second of the flight, a small flame appeared in the place where smoke was breaking through from the accelerator, then it began to grow.

    The air flow directed the tongues of flame to the lining of the external fuel tank and to the attachment of the accelerator to it. Inside the fuel tank was divided in two by a thick partition: on one side there is liquefied hydrogen, on the other – liquefied oxygen (together they formed a combustible mixture that powers the Challenger engine). At the 65th second, the fuel tank was damaged, and liquid hydrogen began to flow out of it.

    At the 73rd second of the flight, the lower attachment of the accelerator was disrupted. It turned around the top mount and damaged the bottom of the fuel tank. The liquid oxygen that was there began to flow out, where it mixed with hydrogen. After that, the fuel tank exploded. At this time, the “Challenger” passed the zone of maximum aerodynamic pressure. Due to overloads, it broke up into several large parts, one of which was the nose of the fuselage, where the astronauts were. The remains of the shuttle fell into the Atlantic Ocean.

    As a result of the search and rescue operation, many fragments of the ship were raised from the ocean floor, including the crew compartment.

    It was revealed that some astronauts survived the destruction of the orbiter and were conscious – they turned on personal air delivery devices. Since these devices do not supply air under pressure, in the event of a cabin depressurization, the crew soon lost consciousness. Astronauts could not survive the impact of the living compartment on the water surface at a speed of 333 kilometers per hour, when the overload reached 200 g.

    The commission investigating the disaster named the main cause of the tragedy as a malfunction of the O-ring of the solid propellant booster. Due to the burnout of the O-ring, which did not provide the necessary tightness of the joint at low temperatures, a breakthrough of hot gases occurred. The development of burnout began immediately after the ignition of the solid-fuel accelerator at the start.

    While investigating the disaster, NASA engineers discovered several more problems that could lead to trouble, so the rest of the shuttles were modified.The most important change was the development of a new connection of the accelerator segments with three o-rings and more efficient fastening. In addition, new reporting methods were introduced that encouraged employees to contact senior management if they believed there was a threat to flight safety.

    Tragedy led to the termination of shuttle flights for 2.5 years.

    Material prepared on the basis of information from RIA Novosti and open sources

    On January 28, 1986, at the 74th second after launch, the American spacecraft Challenger exploded.7 astronauts were killed.

    The Space Shuttle program has become the most difficult program for NASA. Already the first start of “Columbia” was postponed three times, achieving flawless operation of the systems. The launch of the first reusable spacecraft in manned mode took place on April 12, 1981. On board the Columbia, the two astronauts worked for two days and six hours.

    Astronaut Sally Ride participated as flight engineer on the Challenger’s maiden flight in the summer of 1983. She specialized in working with a mechanical manipulator – a giant arm, launching and capturing artificial satellites from orbit.Together with flight engineer John Fabian, using a 15-meter electronic-mechanical manipulator equipped with two television cameras, they launched a communications satellite into orbit, and then returned it to the cargo hold.

    The Challenger reusable spacecraft is a bundle of a manned orbital stage (space plane), two identical solid-propellant rocket boosters (TTU) and a liquid fuel tank. Rocket boosters are designed to accelerate at the initial stage of the trajectory, their operation time is a little more than two minutes.At an altitude of about 40-50 km, they separate and then, by parachute, splash down in the Atlantic Ocean. An outboard fuel tank in the shape of a giant cigar supplies liquid oxygen and hydrogen to the main propulsion system located at the tail end of the orbital stage. Having emptied, it separates and burns up in the dense layers of the atmosphere. The most difficult part of the complex is the orbital stage, which outwardly resembles an airplane with a delta wing. Each ship in the series is capable of flying from 100 to 500 times.The most dangerous part of the flight was considered the moment of landing. The speed of the ship upon entering the atmosphere is several times greater than the speed of the fighter. It is necessary to land the first time.

    “Challenger” impressed with its size: its mass at the start of 2000 tons of which 1700 tons – fuel.

    The launch of shuttle spaceships, as well as the entire United States space program, are provided by NASA. This decision was made back in the 50s. But almost the lion’s share of space shuttle flights was funded by the American Air Force.Initially, they saw the shuttles as an ideal vehicle for launching military satellites into orbit. But later, due to frequent malfunctions in the systems of shuttle ships, the Air Force command again tended to launch some especially expensive satellites using rockets and thus keep in reserve a spare means of launching various objects into orbit.

    The US space program for 1985 was extremely ambitious, and in 1986 it became even more intense. NASA will never agree to a launch if there is no complete certainty that everything is carefully prepared for launch.At the same time, the Aeronautics Directorate was required to adhere to the officially announced flight schedule at all costs. But they did not manage to withstand it, there was a lag, and for this the NASA leadership was sharply criticized both from the pages of the press and in Congress.

    Under increasing pressure from above, NASA leaders were forced to demand from all divisions to accelerate work as soon as possible, while ensuring maximum flight safety. But NASA is a very conservative organization, they do not tolerate even the slightest deviation from the instructions.Until 1986, 55 launches of American manned spacecraft were carried out – and not a single disaster in the air. In 1967, the ship burst into flames at the launch pad, killing three astronauts. Twenty-four flights of the shuttle ships were successful. Everyone was waiting for the twenty-fifth.

    What was the purpose of the next flight of the Challenger? It was planned to launch and then, after meeting with Halley’s comet, again take on board an artificial satellite. It was also planned to launch a communications satellite into orbit.Special attention was paid to the teacher Christa McAuliffe. Two years before the start in the United States, a competition was announced on the initiative of President Ronald Reagan, for which eleven thousand applications came. The Teacher in Space program dealt with mechanics, physics, chemistry, space technology. It was supposed to consider in zero gravity the action of Newton’s laws, simple mechanisms, the passage of processes of hydroponics, foaming, chromatography. Christa McAuliffe was preparing to teach two lessons, which on the fourth day of the flight, the non-profit PBS broadcaster was going to broadcast for hundreds of schools.

    The Challenger was crewed by seven: Francis Dick Scobie, 46, commanding officer, Air Force Major from Auburn, Washington; Michael Smith, 40, co-pilot, served in the United States Navy in Morehead City, North Carolina; Ronald McNair, 35, Ph.D., Lake City, South Carolina; Allison Onizuka, 39, Air Force Major, Kilakekua, Hawaii; Christa McAuliffe, 37, teacher, Concord, New Hampshire; Gregory Jarvis, 41, satellite equipment engineer, Detroit, Michigan; Judith Resnick, 36, Ph.D., Akron, Ohio.

    The Challenger Expedition, codenamed STS-51-L, has been repeatedly postponed. The first time this happened on December 23, 1985. The launch was postponed to January 22, but complications with a similar type of the Columbia spacecraft forced the flight to be postponed for another day. On the eve of this date, a new one is set – January 25. Then, due to unfavorable weather conditions, the launch is scheduled for January 26. However, experts again assess the weather as unsuitable for the start – there was an unexpectedly sharp cold snap.January 27 is the first day when the launch was recognized as feasible and the pre-launch tests of the ship’s systems were carried out. After midnight, fueling of the outboard tank began.

    At 7.56 the astronauts take their places aboard the Challenger. But at 9.10 am, the prelaunch timing is unexpectedly interrupted: one of the handles of the side hatch has jammed, and it is not possible to close it tightly. While the malfunction was being rectified, in the area of ​​the runway intended in case of an emergency landing, the wind increased so much that at 12.35 launch, it was decided to postpone the next day.

    The weather forecast foreshadowed a cloudless sky and temperatures below zero for the night. At half past one in the morning, a special de-ice team went to check the surface condition of the spacecraft installed on the launch pad. At 3.00 am, the team returned to base and warned that three hours before launch it was necessary to check the degree of icing of the Challenger again.

    At 07.32, due to low cloud cover and expected rain, the time for the crew to board the shuttle was postponed for an hour.This “extra” hour allowed the astronauts to have breakfast without haste and with all the comforts. At 08.03, the astronauts boarded a minibus. At 8.36 we took seats on board the Challenger. The launch was planned at 9.38, however, yielding to the request of the ice-clearing team, the flight directors were forced to postpone it for another two hours.

    During an enforced delay, Judith Resnick, the second female astronaut in US history, gave a short interview. Despite the fact that the crew consisted of seven astronauts, Judith emphasized that there are six of them, which means that she bears a sixth part of the responsibility for the success of the entire space expedition.Professional Resnick defiantly refused to recognize her equal Christa McAuliffe, a teacher who was just lucky. Still, Judith had been preparing for her first flight for six years.

    On January 28, 1986, at 11.38.00.010, the Challenger finally took off. Among those who watched the launch were students from Christa McAuliffe’s class. The rest of the students at the Concord school where she taught watched the start on TV. And at Cape Canaveral, among other guests – her father, mother, husband, lawyer Steve McAuliffe, and their two children – nine-year-old Scott and six-year-old Caroline.

    The flight seemed to be proceeding normally in all respects. At the 57th second, the control center reported: the engines are running at full load, all systems are functioning satisfactorily.

    The last words spoken from the Challenger and recorded on the magnetic tape belonged to the commander of the ship, Francis Dick Scobie: “Roger, go at throttle up”, which means something like this: “It’s okay, we go at full speed.”

    No cockpit alarms were received; The first signs of a catastrophe were noted not by devices, but by television cameras, although the control and measuring equipment installed on board the spacecraft was in good order, until the very last moment sent electronic impulses to the Earth.73, 618 seconds after the launch, the trajectories of numerous debris falling into the sea were clearly visible on the radar screen, and a NASA officer on duty stated: “The ship exploded.”

    What the people who watched the launch did not see, and the instruments did not record, became obvious when they developed the films taken with automatic cameras and, using computers, analyzed the video recordings in super slow motion.

    Through 0, 678 seconds after the start, a cloud of gray smoke appeared in the area of ​​the lower junction of the sections of the right solid propellant booster (TTU).The accelerator consists of eleven basic sections; smoke appeared where the Challenger’s engine is almost close to its hull.

    Between 0.836 and 2.5 seconds, eight plumes of smoke are clearly visible, taking on an increasingly dark shade.

    In 2, 733 seconds after the start, the jets disappear: by this moment the spacecraft develops such a speed that it breaks away from its smoke plume.

    Flight time 3.375 seconds. Behind the Challenger, at some distance, gray wisps of smoke are still visible; according to experts, its black-gray color and density may indicate that the insulating material is burning at the junction of the accelerator sections, where two so-called O-rings are located.

    58.788. In the place where smoke was breaking through from the accelerator, a flame appears.

    59.262. From this moment on, the fire is clearly visible. Simultaneously, computers for the first time notice the different thrust forces of the right and left accelerators. The thrust force of the right one is less: burning gas escapes from it.

    64.60. The color of the flame changes as hydrogen begins to leak from the huge outboard fuel tank, to which both the two boosters and the Challenger are attached.Inside the tank is divided in two by a thick partition; on one side there is liquefied hydrogen, on the other – liquefied oxygen; together they form the combustible mixture that powers the Challenger’s engine.

    72.20. The bottom mount connecting the right solid fuel booster to the outboard tank breaks. The accelerator begins to rotate around the top mount. At the same time, liquid hydrogen continues to leak through the hole in the tank body; that part of it that still remains in the tank turns into a gaseous state and with increasing force presses on the internal partition.Turning around the upper attachment, the right booster rocket strikes the wall of the fuel tank with its tip, pierces it and gives out now oxygen, as evidenced by a white cloud. This happens 73, 137 seconds after the start. At an altitude of 13,800 meters, the Challenger turns into a flaming torch, speeding about twice the speed of sound. After five tenths of a second, it falls apart.

    The explosion occurred when the Challenger passed the zone of maximum aerodynamic pressure.At this time, the ship is experiencing very large overloads. The commander of the fifth expedition under the Space Shuttle program said that at that moment it seemed to him that the ship was about to fall apart. Therefore, when passing through this zone, the engines should under no circumstances operate at full power.

    The crash occurred as the ship’s commander, Dick Scobie, turned on top speed. Once, in an interview with a reporter, he said: “This ship is bound to explode someday.” Dick Scobie, a test pilot, later served in Vietnam, where he took part in many operations and received several awards.The structure of the ship is extremely complex, he said, and at the same time it is literally stuffed with explosive substances; take at least one solid-propellant rockets, capable of giving the ship a speed of 17 thousand miles per hour; and there is also a drop tank with several hundred thousand pounds of highly explosive liquefied gases. It is enough to break down some insignificant system for this whole colossus to be shattered to smithereens. It happens in aviation that out of many equally reliable aircraft, one suddenly suffers an accident and crashes.

    At the same time, Dick Scobie stressed that, even if this happens, the disaster should not become an obstacle to the further implementation of the space program. And the flights, of course, will continue, although a certain time will surely pass before their resumption.

    Leo Krupp, a former Rockwell test pilot and an expert on shuttle spacecraft, when asked if the astronauts could have escaped, replied: “You know, all these events developed so quickly that they probably noticed nothing. did not make it.In general, if, for example, a ship deviates from a given trajectory, then the head of the flight control center group for trajectory control immediately sends a signal to the ship about this, and the corresponding indicator on the dashboard in the cockpit lights up. The ship commander has a few seconds to activate the emergency shuttle release system from the external fuel tank and booster rockets. To do this, it is enough to move one lever to the lower position and press the button.If the commander had done it today, the Challenger would have remained intact. But before the commander does this, so that there are no misunderstandings, he must wait for the confirmation of the alarm by the head of the flight safety team. However, as far as I know, in this case a critical situation arose so quickly that the head of the security group simply did not have time to realize anything and make a decision … ”

    President Ronald Reagan and his senior staff were in the Oval Office preparing to meet with reporters and television editors when Vice President Bush and National Security Adviser Poindexter entered.It was they who informed the president about what had happened. The meeting was immediately interrupted, and everyone went to the president’s study, where there is a television set. Reagan, alarmed, upset, looked forward to new information. Several hours later, he tried to comfort the saddened country with a heartfelt speech. Addressing American students, the President said: “I understand it is very difficult to realize that such bitter things sometimes happen. But all this is part of the process of research and expansion of the horizons of mankind. “

    The Americans were shocked. Over the past quarter century, US scientists and astronauts have completed 55 space flights, and their successful return to Earth was taken for granted. It began to seem to many that in America almost every young man, after training for several months, could go into space.

    The tragedy of the Challenger was especially hard at Concorde. After all, there, in the school auditorium, McAuliffe’s colleagues and students who knew her well gathered in front of the TV.Oh, how they expected her performance, how they hoped that she would glorify their town throughout America! When the tragic news of the death of the Challenger spread, all thirty thousand Concorde residents plunged into mourning.

    Soviet radio broadcasts condolences to the American people. Moscow announced that the names of the two women who died on the spacecraft – McAuliffe and Reznik – will be named two craters on Venus.

    In the Vatican, Pope John Paul II asked thousands of people gathered to pray for the dead astronauts – in his soul the tragedy caused a feeling of deep sadness.

    Mourning was declared in the United States. In New York, the lights went out in the tallest skyscrapers. On the Florida seaside, twenty-two thousand people were holding burning torches. In memory of the fallen astronauts, the Olympic flame was again lit in Los Angeles, the capital of the 1984 Olympic Games.

    And at Cape Canaveral, the US Coast Guard and NASA teams were searching for the wreckage of the Challenger. They began work only an hour after the explosion, because the fragments were all falling. The search area covered about 6 thousand square meters.miles of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Despite the enormous force of the explosion, search parties found large fragments of the Challenger scattered across the ocean floor.

    Perhaps the most dramatic thing was that the bow of the Challenger with the crew was intact – it just fell down into the sea, and only collapsed when it hit the surface of the water. The wreckage of the cockpit was found at the bottom of the sea only a few months later, at a depth of 27 m. The remains of the crew were removed from the water and identified within a few weeks.

    Four days later, on Friday, America said goodbye to the brave seven. Relatives of the victims, congressmen and about six thousand NASA employees gathered in the vicinity of Houston. President Reagan delivered the speech.

    On February 6, a commission of inquiry was sworn in to investigate the disaster, chaired by former Secretary of State William Rogers. Among the thirteen members of the commission are General Chuck Yeager, the first supersonic pilot; Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk on the lunar surface; Sally Ride, the first female astronaut in the United States.

    A specially formed commission began to vehemently interrogate, in closed meetings, senior NASA officials and engineers at Morton Thiokol, a supplier of solid propellant launch vehicles, that were believed to have caused the tragedy.

    In the materials of the commission for the investigation of the disaster, the principle of connecting the sections of a solid-propellant booster rocket is described. The edge of the edge of one of the sections forms a clamp, into which the pin of the other section tightly fits. A similar principle is applied when gluing a model, where the protruding part of one part fits into the groove of another.The peculiarity of this connection is that the groove and the pin are located in a circle, and the function of the glue is performed by a special insulating sealant. To ensure greater safety, two O-rings made of dense rubber are installed at the joints of the sections; in the event of gaps, the seals move and cover them. Among the debris of the booster rocket raised from the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, there were two nodes, damaged to a critical degree. Between the clamp no. 131 and the trim of the pin no. 712 fitted to it, there is a gaping hole, which was burned out equally both from the outside and from the inside.This fragment is a part of the right accelerator, charred up to the lower intersection joint. The insulation failed in the most dangerous place – where the accelerator is attached to the fuel tank. Having lost the lower attachment, the accelerator turned around the upper one and, like a spear, plunged into the fuel tank.

    It has been experimentally established that when a solid fuel accelerator is started, a gap of 0.17-0.29 inches (0.42-0.73 cm) is formed between the clamp and the pin, depending on the traction force of the accelerator. This gap must be bridged with an elastic O-ring.The latter, however, functions differently at normal and low temperatures. Experiments carried out by order of the Rogers Commission showed that at a temperature of plus 25 degrees Celsius, the seals take their original shape in times faster than at a temperature of zero.

    Twenty-one times the shuttle spacecraft took off at air temperatures above 17 degrees Celsius, yet on four occasions one of the O-rings burned out. Three times the launch was carried out at temperatures below 17 degrees, and two times one of the seals was completely destroyed, and in one case the second, the safety seal, was also seriously damaged.But in such cold weather as the STS-51-L was before the flight, shuttle spaceships have never been launched. When the Challenger was launched, the air temperature was only plus 2 degrees Celsius; on the shadow side of the right solid propellant booster (where the insulation later failed), the outside temperature of the steel sheathing did not exceed minus 3 degrees.

    The decision to launch the “Challenger” was erroneous – this was the conclusion of a commission to investigate the causes of the disaster.The documents say: those who made this decision are unfamiliar with the features of the functioning of the O-rings; they do not know that the instructions of the manufacturer of the seals do not recommend starting at an air temperature below plus 11 degrees; They also did not know that the representatives of the Rockwell International Corporation (which developed the shuttle spacecraft system) had paid attention in advance to the possible dangerous consequences of icing of certain nodes of the Challenger before launch.Those who knew all this did not decide anything, more precisely, they considered that these issues were not significant enough, were too private in nature to report them to their superiors.

    The first document that rejected the principle of connecting sections of solid-propellant booster rockets was dated October 21, 1977. Since then, twenty-two memos have been drawn up on the inherent shortcomings of O-rings and hermetic sealing. The last date is October 9, 1985. The notes circulated mainly through the shops and departments of the manufacturer, some ended up in the NASA space center in Alabama, but never once reached the top of the management pyramid.

    On January 27, 1986, the day before the Challenger launch, one of the engineers of the Thiokol concern, which produces solid-propellant rockets, namely, a specialist in insulation materials, draws the attention of his superiors to the fact that, according to meteorologists, the air temperature in Florida through 11 o’clock will drop below zero – launching a spacecraft in such conditions is extremely dangerous. CEOs of the concern contact senior NASA officials and hold a lengthy telephone meeting with them.Engineers protest the launch planned for the morning and state their arguments, but NASA declares the discussion inappropriate, since there is no actual evidence that O-rings will inevitably fail in the cold. As a result, one of the representatives of the J. Marshall Space Center in Alabama exclaims indignantly: “What are we going to – wait until the temperature rises to eleven degrees? And if this does not happen before April ?! ” The Vice President of the Thiokol Concern asks for a five minute grace period to consult with employees.However, he calls again only two hours later. Now its engineers believe that if the first O-ring fails, the second will most certainly work and provide sufficient safety. The concern gives the go-ahead for the launch, and a facsimile copy of the corresponding document is immediately transmitted by phototelegraph.

    What happened at the Thiokol concern during these two hours?

    Quarter to nine in the evening on January 27, specialists from the concern, a manufacturer of solid-propellant missiles, are still vigorously protesting against the risky launch of the Challenger.However, by eleven, they assure in writing that they do not see anything dangerous. After interrupting the telephone meeting, the vice president of the concern, Gerald Mason, first listens to the opinions of subordinates, and then invites them to leave the office, stating that in this case it is not so much an engineering solution that is required as a business solution. He asks chief engineer Robert Lund to stay and severely punishes him: “Take off your engineering hat and put on a businessman’s top hat at least for a while.”

    The government commission examined more than six thousand documents published in the form of four-volume case materials.The summary of Rogers’ report reads as follows: “The Commission found that the administration of the Thiokol concern changed its position and, at the insistence of the Marshall Space Center in Alabama, agreed to carry out the STS-51-L flight. This contradicted the opinion of the engineers of the concern and was done solely with the aim of pleasing a large customer. ”

    In a public hearing before the Senate Science, Technology and Space Subcommittee, Senator Ernest Holdings said of the disaster: “Today it looks like it could have been avoided.”He would later bring charges against NASA, which “apparently made a political decision and rushed to launch despite strong objections.”

    The forced timeout in the shuttle launch lasted two and a half years, which experts assess as the most difficult in the history of American astronautics. In general, the entire Space Shuttle program was revised. While the investigation was underway, the ship’s systems were being finalized, numerous checks were made on the operation of units and systems. One and a half billion dollars was spent on modification of the shuttle.According to the engineers’ calculations, the new design required a fourfold increase in the volume of work compared to the base model. NASA has tried to present Discovery to the public as if it were a brand new ship. Engineers have made 120 changes to the orbital design and 100 to its perfect computer hardware.

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