St David’s Dewi Sant, Cardiff
St David’s is an established shopping centre within the heart of Cardiff. Occupying over 1.4 million sq ft of retail space, the centre has helped to regenerate Cardiff and transformed the Welsh capital into one of the UK’s top retail destinations.
Pride in the community
The vast majority of our own team live nearby so have taken great pride in seeing St David’s become a success. Many have had the satisfaction of watching the centre grow from the beginning.
We didn’t build it alone, though. Development only took place after extensive consultation with local people so they could have a say in what it would include. They bought into our sensitive approach to updating what had been a dense and outdated area.
The community love pop-up shops, and over 100 of them have opened in the centre in the last eight years, with many returning at Christmas. These help local start-up businesses and ensure St David’s supports the growing independent shopping movement within the city.
Our commitment to the community has seen the centre support multiple Welsh charities. Annually, St David’s identifies a local charity to work with as their charity of the year; causes have included homelessness, LGBTQ+ rights and breast cancer care.
Every Christmas, St David’s and the local community work together on the Toy Appeal, which allows them to donate tens of thousands of presents to deserving local charities and causes. People who know St David’s know the value they put on supporting the community.
There’s also a community of 304 residential apartments sitting above the centre, surrounded by beautifully landscaped rooftop gardens – it’s a great place to live as well as visit. We’ve also benefited the local economy by creating over 4,000 jobs.
It’s little wonder locals are proud of the centre and make it their destination of choice for shopping, playing, dining or simply spending time with friends and family.
Pride of place
As well as creating a fantastic focal point for Cardiff, St David’s has breathed life back into Wales’ capital.
Visitors to the city’s heart have risen by one-third since the centre opened, drawing back footfall and spending that had previously been lost to out-of-town retail, or competitors across the bridge.
Proud to be different
Where can you find two 18-hole mini golf courses on a shopping centre roof? Where could you look up and see a life-size Great White Shark right above your head? Where could you find one-of-a-kind mini Lego figures which made national television news? Only at St David’s.
Proud to be green
There is also a library featuring an innovative sedum grass roof. It helps regulate the temperature and is part of the innovative energy efficient design that means the building needs no heating or cooling at all.
Talking of roofs, the 60,000 residents who live on top of the main centre certainly seem to like it – they’re bees, and as well as producing delicious honey they’re used to teach local children about biodiversity.
Proud to be a successful collaboration
St David’s is a 50-50 joint venture with Intu Properties (St David’s Partnership), with Landsec providing direction and management.
Everyone involved is justifiably proud of St David’s. It’s grown into a big success story. It’s one of the UK’s most popular shopping centres and home to some of the biggest brands across the industry. St David’s continues to support, inspire and be guided by the community it’s part of. It’s not just all those bees giving the Welsh capital a massive buzz.
St. David’s Cathedral – St Davids, Wales
St. David’s Cathedral in Wales, one of Britain’s oldest cathedrals, stands on the site of a 6th-century monastery founded by Dewi (David), a Celtic Christian monk.
Considered the holiest site in Wales due to its relics of St. David, the cathedral was a major pilgrimage destination throughout the Middle Ages. It remains a thriving church today.
History of St.
The city of St. Davids is in such a remote area of Britain that the visitor might well wonder why the site was chosen for a cathedral. The answer is that it all began with a monk, who chose the site for its seclusion.
In the 6th century, a monk named Dewi (David is the Normanized form of his name) founded a monastery in the once-deserted area where St. David’s Cathedral now stands. As he spread Christianity in the area, he might be considered the Welsh version of St. Patrick.
The Celtic saint soon became famous for his learned preaching, devotion to God, and extreme asceticism (he ate only bread and herbs, drank only water, and regularly stood in cold water for long periods). He was nicknamed Dewi Ddyfrwr, David the Water Drinker.
Many wonderful legends have circulated about David, including one alleging that King Arthur was his uncle and that among the “prophecies of Merlin” was a prediction that St. David would found a bishopric in Wales.
In another legend, St. Gildas (born c.500 AD) foretold David’s birth when a pregnant woman came into the church as he was preaching. He was struck dumb, and on regaining his power of speech, predicted that she would give birth to a son “with a greater proportion of the divine spirit than has ever fallen to the share of a preacher.”
It is said that during a speech at a 6th-century synod a dove descended on David’s shoulder, signifying his eloquence and guidance by the Holy Spirit. The statue of St. David in the cathedral includes the dove.
David died in old age on March 1 in either 589 or 602 AD. His last words are reported to have been, “Brothers and sisters, be joyful and keep the faith and do the little things which you heard and saw with me.”
Life in the monastic community that formed under David’s leadership was a simple one of prayer, study, and hard labor. Soon a bishopric was established at the site (according to tradition, David was the first bishop), making the monastic church a cathedral. In the centuries that followed, St. David’s Cathedral suffered more than a dozen attacks by Vikings and other marauders. Bishops of St. David’s were killed in 999 and 1080.
In 1081, William the Conquerer visited St. Davids to pray and, probably, to explore its strategic benefits due to its proximity to Ireland. The cathedral was safe under Norman rule, but at the cost of its original Welsh character. The Normans regarded their own form of Christianity as superior to the Celtic way, and soon set out to reform it. This was probably the motivation behind the Latin Life of David written by a bishop’s son in 1090, which reports that David visited Jerusalem and was consecrated bishop by the patriarch.
In 1115, King Henry I appointed the first Norman bishop of St. Davids, Bernard, who designated himself an archbishop of the surrounding area. He also appears to have been instrumental in making St. Davids a major place of pilgrimage. It was around this period that two pilgrimages to St. Davids was declared equivalent to one to Rome.
Bernard also dedicated a new cathedral (1131) to accommodate and impress the visitors, but this was rebuilt by the end of the century. The new cathedral was built in a Transitional Norman style, with a combination of rounded arches (Norman) in the nave and pointed arches (Gothic) in the triforium. The plan of this building can still be seen in today’s cathedral. In 1220 the new tower collapsed, and other repairs had to be made due to the inadequacy of the cathedral’s foundations (still seen today in the arcades’ outward lean).
The 13th century saw the additions of the Chapel of St. Thomas Becket, the Lady Chapel, the bell tower, and a new shrine of St. David (1275). The ruined base of this shrine can still be seen in its original position today.
In the mid-14th century, the cathedral and the adjacent Bishop’s Palace were transformed by Bishop Henry Gower, a former fellow of Merton College, Oxford. Gower’s accomplishments included adding an arched parapet walk to the Palace, embellishing and remodeling the cathedral interior, and building a wall around the cathedral area with four gates. The only gate that survives today is Porth y Twr (The Gate of the Tower), which was built up against the cathedral’s octagonal bell tower. The bishop’s throne seen in the cathedral also dates from this period.
Edward Vaughan was bishop from 1509 to 1522; his statue stands in the Holy Trinity Chapel he commissioned. The nave roof and ceiling were rebuilt by 1540.
The first Protestant bishop of St. Davids was William Barlow (r.1536-48). Attacking what he saw as superstition, he stripped David’s shrine of its jewels, confiscated its relics, and attempted (unsuccessfully) to have the seat of the bishopric moved to Carmarthen.
In 1550, Bishop Farrer burnt the remaining medieval service books as remnants of the old order. (He was later burned at the stake by the Catholic Queen Mary I.) In 1571, the pulpit was constructed by Thomas Huett, who was one of the translators of the Welsh New Testament (1567).
The cathedral suffered remarkably little damage due to the Reformation, but it was not so lucky a century later. In 1648, the cathedral was heavily damaged by Parliamentary soldiers dispatched to collect lead from its roof. The organ and bells were destroyed, brass tomb decorations were torn up, and all the stained glass windows were smashed. The east end, stripped of its lead, fell into decay and remained unroofed for over two centuries.
Major restorations were carried out on St. David’s Cathedral between the late 18th century and the early 20th century. The west front was given its present form by Sir George Gilbert Scott between 1862 and 1878. The medieval gate was re-roofed in 2001, and now houses a small museum of exhibitions relating to the cathedral.
What to See at St. David’s Cathedral
The following description follows the same general order as the St. David’s Cathedral Photo Gallery.
St. David’s Cathedral was built down in a hollow in order to avoid the attentions of invaders from the sea, so only its tower can be seen until you come right up on it. Once you do, it is quite a spectacular sight, especially in light of its remote location in a small town.
You must descend 39 steps through the hillside cemetery to the cathedral (unless you come from the car park and approach the southwest side).
The cathedral is mainly Late Norman (late 12th century), but 14th-century rebuilding has given the exterior a Decorated aspect. The outside of the cathedral, made of local stone, is relatively plain and austere, but the inside is beautifully decorated and evokes a medieval atmosphere.
Entrance to the cathedral is by the south door, which opens into the south aisle of the nave. Stand at the back of the nave and notice the significant outward lean of the arcades — this problem has plagued cathedral architects for centuries. It is caused by several factors, including the heaviness of the tower, inadequate foundations, and the sloping and marshy site. An earthquake in 1248 didn’t help, either. You can feel the sloping lean towards the back of the cathedral as well.
From this vantage point you can admire the finely-carved stone screen or pulpitum (built by Bishop Gower), which includes a statue of St. David, in the front of the nave.
Note the beautiful wooden ceiling, carved of Irish oak in the early 16th century and embellished with carved pendants. The carved wooden crucifix or rood suspended from the ceiling is a 20th-century replacement of a medieval version. Over your right shoulder above the baptismal font is a nice little rose window, installed in the 1950s.
Walking around the stone screen to the right, along the south aisle, you can see the battered tomb of Bishop Gower, who contributed so much to the cathedral and the surrounding area. An effigy of the bishop lies on top of the tomb and the sides feature carvings of apostles.
Next to Edmund’s tomb is the entrance to the beautiful 15th and 16th-century choir, famed for its large collection of decorated misericords. Each seat, designed out of mercy (Latin misericordia) to support the weight of priests standing throughout services, is carved from a single block of oak.
The hidden position of the misericords released the craftsmen from the forms of traditional ecclesiastical art to create an often irreverent form of folk art. The images are highly symbolic satires on the lives of laity and clergy and moral lessons. The words painted above the seats are the names and offices of those using them at the time.
Also in the choir is the cathedra, or bishop’s throne, which dates from the 14th century. Its position is unusual; normally the Dean sits on this side of the choir. The trumpeting angels on the organ are 20th century additions. High above the choir is the beautiful decorated tower lantern.
What’s left of the Shrine of St. David (1275) stands in its original position in the Presbytery. The shrine was destroyed during the Reformation and is empty; his relics are believed to be in the reliquary in the nearby Holy Trinity Chapel. The beautiful golden mosaics behind the high altar in the Presbytery are by Salviati and were added in the late 1800s.
The freestanding tomb near the David shrine is that of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond and father of Henry VII. It was transferred here from Carmarthen in the 16th century.
The Holy Trinity Chapel, built by Bishop Vaughn (r.1509-22) as his chantry chapel, is in the Perpendicular style. A statue of him stands in his chapel. The statue of Giraldus Cambrensis (1146-1227) in this chapel is modern. Note the mitre lying at his feet instead of on his head — despite his many qualifications, he was never made bishop, due to the Archbishop of Canterbury’s fears about the growing power of the Welsh church.
The chapel’s small stone altar is reconstructed from medieval framents, and the fan vaulting of the ceiling includes the coat of arms of Henry VII. The window allowed the chantry priest celebrating in this chapel to monitor the progress of the simultaneous masses taking place in the other chapels.
The Holy Trinity Chapel also contains the reliquary believed to hold the bones of St. David and other saints. These were discovered in 1866, buried under the floor of the chapel, then moved into their present oak casket behind an iron grille in 1920. In 1996, carbon-dating of the bones showed they dated from the 12th through 14th centuries.
Next to the north transept is the St. Thomas Becket Chapel, which includes a stained glass portrait of St. David. The Eucharistic elements are also kept here.
In the southeast end of the cathedral is the pink-hued marble Chapel of St. Edward the Confessor. The tomb is that of the Countess of Maidstone, granddaugther of Bishop Jenkinson (1825-40). From here an ambulatory leads to the Lady Chapel, restored in 1901.
On the wall in the south transept is a fine 17th-century Cretan icon of Elijah being fed by ravens, a rare Eastern Orthodox touch to a western cathedral.
Throughout the cathedral’s aisles are tombs and effigies of various medieval priests and knights.
Quick Facts on St.
Note: This information was accurate when first published and we do our best to keep it updated, but details such as opening hours and prices can change without notice. To avoid disappointment, please check with the site directly before making a special trip.
- Personal visit (February 12, 2006).
- Very Revd J. Wyn Evans, St Davids Cathedral: The Pitkin Guide (2001) (official guidebook of the cathedral).
- Nona Rees, The Misericords of St. Davids Cathedral (1997) (official guidebook of the cathedral).
- St David’s Cathedral – official website
St David’s shopping centre by Benoy wins BCSC highest accolade
St David’s shopping centre in Cardiff, UK designed by architectural practice Benoy has scooped the Supreme Gold Award 2010 from the British Council of Shopping Centres (BCSC).
The Supreme Gold Award is the highest honour for overall winner. The Gold Awards reward excellence in retail-led development and recognise projects that drive regeneration and improve the quality of the built environment. The judges praised St David’s shopping centre’s innovative architectural design by Benoy, which has ensured integration into the city’s established streetscape. The judges also highlighted the creation of iconic landmark buildings and new streets with public spaces for Cardiff.
St David’s covers 1.4 million square feet, anchored by the largest John Lewis store outside London, and has attracted a footfall of 36 million in the first year of trading. The development has rejuvenated the existing St David’s arcade and created a new landmark retail centre, in the heart of Wales’ Capital City.
Benoy’s design for St David’s seamlessly blends into the urban fabric, taking account of Cardiff’s geography and history. Benoy has worked with the existing contours and architectural heritage of the city, so that St David’s provides a modern adaptation of Cardiff’s Victorian arcades.
Design highlights include the new tulip tree area – the ‘atrium’ – which features a circular double height space with glazed roof and incorporates public artworks in the form of sculptural panels in the circular bulkhead and patterning in the floor in various stone finishes.
The architects aimed to echo the discreet sense of scale and texture, unique to Cardiff and South Wales by striking a balance between the engineering quality of the arcade and a lighter, more delicate touch for the finishes. Natural stone, light-coloured timbers, reflected light and other natural materials are employed to create a true sense of Welsh space. Interesting and exciting pieces of art help in creating an identity for St David’s giving it a truly Welsh sense of place.
Grand Arcade, the centre piece for St David’s creates an atmosphere that is both uplifting and inspiring – creating an almost contemporary cathedral like quality with the gentle curve of the arcade leading the eye towards the John Lewis anchor store at the southern end of the arcade.
The £675 million ($1 billion) mixed-use development includes more than 300 residential units, the environmentally leading civic library and improvements to the public realm. The new St David’s provides a uniquely engaging setting which has attracted many iconic brands and leading retailers including Apple, Hugo Boss, Radley, LK Bennett, Crabtree & Evelyn and Kurt Geiger; all of whom have opened stores in Wales for the first time.
The centre is a joint-venture between British commercial property company Land Securities and Capital Shopping Centres. Land Securities’ MD for Retail, Richard Akers, stated that it is the sixth time they have won the Supreme Gold Award since they started seven years ago.
St David’s Cardiff secures new double leasing
Landsec, part of The St David’s Partnership, owners of St David’s in Cardiff, has signed deals with two independent Welsh brands at the destination – Floris, a sustainable stationery brand, and streetwear specialists The Clothing Culture.
The Cardiff-based stationary brand Floris will open their first bricks and mortar store at St David’s later this month. Founded in August 2020, Floris is a homegrown success story for Cardiff and will now expand its online only operation into a physical showroom. All of Floris’ products are created with zero waste and are sourced from UK-based independent businesses. Their debut store will occupy almost 500 sq ft of prime space on Hayes Arcade, adjacent to the newly refurbished L’Occitane store.
Floris are joined by The Clothing Culture, Cardiff’s first dedicated streetwear retailer. The 5,500 sq ft concept store on the Upper Grand Arcade includes a range of experiential features alongside its impressive selection of menswear. In another first for the centre, The Clothing Culture has teamed up with The Vault Streetwear to launch an instore ‘resell’ department. Here, guests can shop the most in demand releases from cult brands including Yeezy, Supreme, and Jordan.
Russell Loveland, Senior Portfolio Director for Landsec, says: “We’ve seen a clear desire from consumers throughout the UK towards buying more from local independent businesses, so we know Clothing Culture and Floris will make strong additions to the variety of successful Welsh brands we have on offer at the centre. Both brands have found success online and are now taking the next step into expanding their physical presence at St David’s, and it’s great that we’re able to be part of this journey with them.”
Aoife Doherty, Founder of Floris, says: “Genuinely sustainable products can be designed beautifully, and be durable enough for everyday use. Whether it’s a gift or for yourself, Floris has all stationery needs covered. This will be my first bricks and mortar store which is incredibly exciting, and considering Cardiff is my home, I can’t think of any other place I’d rather take this massive step for my business!”
Matthew Read, Co-Founder of The Clothing Culture, adds: “Our roots are in South Wales, so naturally it’s great for us to become part of St David’s here in Cardiff. Like Landsec, we take pride in supporting ‘up and coming’ brands, and work hard to give them a chance in our stores. Our main aim is to give our customers the opportunity to buy things they can’t typically find elsewhere, be it an exclusive new release or a re-sell of a really rare product, so we are definitely adding a new dimension to St David’s.”
This news follows the recent opening of a debut bricks and mortar store for Welsh organic beauty brand, Mallows Beauty, at St David’s, as well as the launch of an experiential store for John Lewis at the centre, showcasing their ANYDAY range in a new format to the destination’s guests.
Spotlight: St David’ shopping centre, Cardiff
St David’s shopping centre in Cardiff, Wales first opened to the public in 1981 and is one of the UK’s busiest centres owing to its extension in 2009, which cost a total of £675 million.
The centre still consists of the original first phase, St David’s Centre, adjoining St David’s Hall and the second phase, given the development name of St David’s 2.
The new development added an extra 967,500sq ft of retail space to the city centre, in addition to the 260,000sq ft John Lewis department store, nine other large stores, and a further 90 smaller shops in a two-tiered shopping mall have been built.
The project hoped to make Cardiff one of the top five shopping destinations in the UK, with many of the retailers in the second phase of the centre being new to Cardiff, such as John Lewis, Apple, Hollister, and Victoria’s Secret.
St David’s, which calls itself “Cardiff’s biggest shopping centre”, has four entrances located on Queen Street, Cathedral Walk, Working Street and Hills Street.
The entrance on Hills Street connects to the northern entrance of the second phase of the shopping centre, open at street level and via an enclosed bridge on the first floor. It is also joined internally with Queens Arcade.
St David’s centre director James Waugh told Retail Gazette that St David’s has regained 80 per cent of its footfall since indoor activities were approved in May for Wales as part of easing Covid-19 restrictions.
Waugh ensured that the current mask-wearing rules are not deterring shoppers from the centre as people have become accustomed to the restrictions. St David’s also remained open throughout lockdown to serve customers due to its essential retail tenants.
Waugh said bringing in hygiene measures to the centre was a big project as retailers across the UK “went into the unknown”.
“Footfall has come back quickly,” he reflected.
“We’re still waiting for more people to come back, and that’s largely because people are still working from home and aren’t in their offices.
“We are trying to make people feel safe. Shoppers will go wherever they feel safest.”
Last year, St David’s launched “Made in Wales”, an initiative supporting local retail businesses with the opportunity to win a store and six-month lease.
The centre’s owners, St David’s Partnership, said the campaign was designed to provide an opportunity for a Welsh-based retail business to benefit from a pop-up retail space to grow its audience within the region.
Waugh said the centre was working with local retailers because “we can’t survive on our own”.
“We’re working to promote Cardiff outside Cardiff,” he told Retail Gazette.
“It’s about making people aware of our city, not just in Wales, but also within the rest of the UK as well.”
Waugh added that Cardiff’s famous Queen Street is currently being reenergised and more greenery is being added to the area – which will help draw footfall. He also ensured that St David’s has an “active leasing programme” for national and international retailers and currently has a 10 per cent vacancy rate.
“Our residential development consists of 304 flats. This was launched as part of the extension 12 years ago,” Waugh said.
He told Retail Gazette that St David’s offered the largest student night offers prior to the pandemic.
“Half of Cardiff’s population is under 35. It’s a cosmopolitan city,” he said.
He added that the centre also focuses on an international audience, and will be bringing in more luxury retailers to add it to the mix.
However, Waugh warned it was important for retail destinations to adapt and not just focus on one particular demographic.
“The biggest threat to retail right now is not adapting and being complacent,” he said.
“We recognise that we have to be part of the community.
“We recognise that we have to constantly reinvent ourselves and give people a reason for returning.
“When people visit St David’s, it’s their leisure time. We mustn’t take that for granted.
“We constantly have to surprise and delight.”
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How to get to St David’s Dewi Sant in Cardiff by Bus or Train
Public Transportation to St David’s Dewi Sant in Cardiff
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Looking for the nearest stop or station to St David’s Dewi Sant? Check out this list of stops closest to your destination:
Canal Street Jf; Hayes Bridge Road Jh; Wyndham Arcade Stop Na; Lower St Mary Street Nb; Philharmonic Jp; Westgate Street Kh; Customhouse Street Jg; Bute Terrace; Customhouse Street Jl; Royal Hotel Kj; Cardiff Central.
You can get to St David’s Dewi Sant by Bus or Train. These are the lines and routes that have stops nearby –
Bus: 136, 28, 95, C8, X1, X2 Train: TRANSPORT FOR WALES
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IT’S THE CENTRE OF ATTENTION; St David’s is world’s top retail arcade.
Byline: Abby Alford
THE arcade dominating Cardiff’s retail heart has beaten off
competition from across the globe to be crowned the international
shopping centre of the year.
The pounds 675m St David’s saw off shortlist contenders
Portugal’s Dolce Vita Tejo and Singapore’s Ion Orchard to
scoop the award eight months after opening.
The honour is given to the shopping centre offering the highest
levels of customer care and service, the widest choice of shops and
The Global Retail Leisure International (RLI) awards are judged by
an independent panel of business leaders who judged entries on their
merit and positive impact on the market.
St David’s centre director Steven Madeley said the gong
recognises the centre “has regenerated Cardiff, boosted the
economy, provided jobs and drawn more visitors to the city”.
City centre manager Paul Williams said the centre thoroughly
deserved the award for its achievement in redefining Cardiff’s
retail and leisure scene.
Although not full when it opened last October, St David’s has
attracted a host of new retailers to Cardiff.
The clothing shop Luke 1977 is the latest to announce it is opening
its first Cardiff branch in St David’s. Fashion retailer All Saints has also announced sales at its St David’s store have been so good
it is expanding into the vacant unit next door.
Further major names are expected to announce they are coming to the
centre, which attracted around one million shoppers a week in the run-up
Last month the team behind St David’s won two Purple Apple
Awards at the British Council of Shopping Centre’s marketing
awards. St David’s was also shortlisted for the Royal Institution
of Chartered Surveyors Wales Regeneration Award.
Cardiff council leader Rodney Berman said: “This award is the
icing on the cake of a development that is bringing to Cardiff pounds
250m of new annual spending each year and providing a huge economic
boost for the city.
“With the city centre’s Victorian arcades and the
popularity of Queen Street, Cardiff has a great mix in terms of the
retail experience. What St David’s has given us is a shopping
centre par excellence that is worthy of any European capital and has
turned the city into a truly unique retail destination.”
Mr Madeley said: “To receive international recognition for St
David’s by winning this award is wonderful news. It is a fantastic
endorsement which rewards everything that St David’s has achieved
so far and we hope that our shoppers and Cardiff as a whole will be able
to celebrate with us.
“The day-to-day running of St David’s aims to please
every one of our shoppers, but it takes moments such as this to stand
back and realise just what the centre has already accomplished.
What makes St David’s completely unique is the mix of top-end
brands, high street names and local independents.
“We have also been able to offer retailers the opportunity to
bring their brand to Wales for the very first time with new, flagship
“There was a lot of excitement in the build up to the launch
of St David’s and we are confident that we have exceeded
everyone’s expectations. The consistently high footfall throughout
St David’s and the trading experience of our retailers is testament
to it. The most exciting thing is that there is more to come throughout
the year with new stores opening, existing retailers expanding and great
new names being announced.”
Mr Williams said: “I’m delighted that St David’s has
won this most prestigious award. It clearly underlines the impact and
importance that the new development has had, not only in Cardiff but
“The international shopping centre award recognises the many
facets of shopping centres across the world. The result for St
David’s enhances its profile and that of the city as a UK top six
retail destination. The accolades bestowed on St David’s are
deserved rewards, for a retail centre of excellence in terms of its
branding, management and overall delivery of a multi-choice centre that
is attracting a wide audience and one that has redefined Cardiff in
terms of its retail and leisure offer. “
Cardiff Council leader Rodney Berman added: “I am delighted at
the news that St David’s has won the International Shopping Centre
of the Year Award. Since St David’s opened last year its popularity
has spread far and wide and it is very satisfying for me to see that
Cardiff council and the St David’s Partnership have delivered a
Cardiff’s pounds 675m St David’s Centre has been crowned
the international shopping centre of the year
COPYRIGHT 2010 MGN Ltd.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2010 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
90,000 SOUTH WALES. Sant.DAVIDS – veksavic – LiveJournal
In Wales you drive along the road, there are no roadsides, and the trees converge in crowns overhead, almost like in a tunnel it turns out. Very green. And often heavy rains. But short-term – in 20 minutes already a rainbow. We arrived at the farthest city in South Wales – Sant Davis. Places of pilgrimage for those who still believe in God. There is an ancient temple with a tilted floor after an earthquake. We examined the ruins of the monastery, which was closed in the 16th century.Then we examined the Cathedral – one of the oldest cathedrals in Wales.
Who was Bishop David? It is known that he lived as a hermit at the beginning of the 6th century and died in 550. At the beginning of the 6th century he was ordained an archbishop. The asceticism of this hermit is akin to Sergius of Radonezh in ancient Russia. Over the years of his life, as legend says, he traveled through the land of Wales and founded about 12 monasteries. By his humility and abstinence, he made himself many enemies among the clergy. Once they even wanted to poison him.During his lifetime, the fame of St. David spread throughout Britain. His hut became a place of pilgrimage, a visit to which four times was equivalent in importance to two trips to Rome and one to Jerusalem.
It is indisputable that Saint David was the central ecclesiastical figure of that time, and his life fell on the rise of the Christian consciousness of the Welsh. Saint David was canonized in 1120, and the saint’s day is celebrated on March 1. The daffodil has long been considered the emblem of St. David (perhaps because of the similarity of the name of the flower with the name of the saint, which in Welsh sounds like “Daphid”), on this day the Welsh wear a yellow daffodil in their buttonhole.
The Life of Saint David tells of how he visited the Patriarch of Jerusalem and how the Patriarch ordained Saint David to the Archbishop. The credibility of this story is questioned by many historians, who consider it a direct manifestation of the political struggle of the late 11th century: they see it as a desire to convince the public of Wales’ former independence from Canterbury. Perhaps this is so. But this version assumes that the Patriarchate of Jerusalem agreed to ordain a bishop from an area that at least “on paper” belonged to another patriarchy – Rome. Deep meaning can be seen in this story of the ordination of the Archbishop of Wales in Jerusalem. In 1920, Wales withdrew from the jurisdiction of the Archdiocese of Canterbury.
Since then, his diocese has been renamed St. David. The relics of St. David rest in a shrine at St. Davids Cathedral. Nearby is the sculpture of St. David with a dove on his shoulder.
Saint David himself was of royal descent: he was the great-great-grandson of King Kunedda. Being of royal blood, abbot of a large and famous monastery, archpastor, Saint David himself cultivated the depleted land of the Welsh Uplands, just as many of his compatriots did.
Bushes rushing past the car window, ravines of the field – a very dull and monotonous landscape. When traveling, sometimes you want to return, and therefore it is sad that we will never return here, there are too many countries and cities ahead. We are traveling in South Wales for the first and last time, even the excitement appears to have time to capture as much as possible, to visit everywhere and everywhere, give us 25 hour and we will devote it to the next ruins.
While we were examining the Cathedral of St. David, a child screamed in disgust.An English tourist rolled a capriciously screaming baby in a stroller around the hall, and no matter how hard I tried to get away from them, move to another wall, hide behind columns or chapels, he still caught up with me. I went to the treasury, and the carriage followed me, then to the altar, and again the child struggled somewhere nearby.It was quite obvious that the baby had decided to achieve something from his parents, apparently his mother had spoiled him and now dad is reaping the fruits of improper upbringing.
Relieved, I went out into the street.And he continued his inspection of the ruins of an ancient abbey, located nearby. A very boring sight. It is unclear why the abbey will not be restored?
There are probably the most ruins in Britain, after Greece (of course, Russia comes first). The ruins are ennobled and picturesque. The most beautiful remains of Glastonbury Abbey have been seen. They made a real monument of antiquity. The image was reproduced on postcards and booklets, the city around it turned into a tourist center. – around buses, souvenir shops (uninteresting trinkets at high prices) cafes and restaurants (bad food and meager menu).The excitement is fueled by the legends about King Arthur. So far, not a single item has been found to prove the existence of this person in reality .. But we, like tens of thousands of other tourists, do not care. After all, we rush to travel for the sake of the process itself, for the sake of a kaleidoscope of events, and spinning it faster and faster. Not for the artifacts of King Arthur’s life.
On the way we stopped at the castle Pembroke (Pembroke Castle) Founded in 1093.Now – the largest private castle in Wales. The castle has a tower with a stone dome. Standing on the floor. And above you, the space is like in a temple. And if you climb the dome, you get an amazing view of the surroundings, in the distance the buildings of the modern port, below the river, lake, ancient walls and the city. The gusts of wind are so strong that it seems they can throw you off this highest point. And it was a sunny summer day, what is the weather here in winter. The harsh gray stones of the castles emphasize the unkindness of the climate.
There is a natural cave in the rock on which the castle is built. I went down into it by a spiral stone staircase. It seemed that now I would get into the terrible casemates, but the cave has an exit to the surface – the wide gates are closed with bars – right under the walls of the castle. We drove through Wales the rest of the day. At first we chose the road along the coast, but got confused and soon found ourselves in front of the main Wells highway – M 4, and since the time was already approaching evening, we decided to go along it in order to get to the hotel before dark.Suddenly it started to rain heavily. Then it stopped, the sun came out, a rainbow appeared in the sky. Less than half an hour later, the rain began to pour down again. The weather was changing rapidly.
Before turning onto road 477, we drove into the seaside town of Tenby. Cozy resort town. I remember the beautiful view from the high bank to the bay and the green island with a lighthouse on the mountain. It was not possible to admire the panorama for a long time – heavy rain began again.
Stayed at THE BEGELLY ARMS HOTEL (65.00 GBP). The hotel did not make any impression. In the bar, several men were drinking beer, smoking and playing cards. We were given the keys to a small room on the second floor (we had to drag a suitcase up the steps). The room was stuffy and the window would not open. I decided to call the maid. “I’m afraid to break, too,” she replied. Still, she successfully coped with the transom.
When we went down to dinner, the bar was already empty. But the menu was very meager, to put it mildly. The only thing we were offered was to heat the sandwiches in the microwave. This had to be limited.
The last attraction in Wales was a kind of local stonehenge in miniature – Pentre Ifan Burial Chamber An ancient burial place of Pentre Infan (located next to the A 487 road).
We turned off the road and, according to the signs, drove for about 10 minutes along a country road past cowsheds, bushes and pastures. Finally we got to a small parking lot, there were several cars, I noticed that one of them was left-hand drive, the license plates were German, and, leaving the car, we went to the ancient stones.
The tomb was probably built in the pre-Christian period, but not earlier than 3500 years ago. A huge stone 5 meters long and weighing 16 tons is set on three other stones. The burial had an oval shape with a diameter of 36 meters. http://attractions.walesdirectory.co.uk/Historic_Sites_and_Archaeological_Sites.htm
According to the findings of archaeologists, the burial chamber was surrounded next to the stones, but now they are gone – they disappeared.Who needs to take away huge stones? And what efforts were required from the ancients to bring these stones here and install them. In general, if the ancients built tombs for the dead, it means that they believed in an afterlife, just as many living on earth now believe in it. Consequently, ancient people in their beliefs were similar to modern ones. They were not representatives of any other civilization.
CARDIGAN. ( Cardigan)
By the evening we reached the city of Cardigan, there was no time to move further to the northeast, especially since we had to return to Bristol, where the hotel was booked.Deciding to dine in Cardigan, finding a large parking lot, we went to look for a suitable restaurant. We even decided to sacrifice a visit to another castle, so we drove past Cilgerran Castle – another medieval ruins (the castle is more than 800 years old) with two huge round towers.
The central street of the town was full of signs of various shops, but surprisingly not a single restaurant, not expensive, but we did not notice anything simpler. Only from the “Fish and Chips” “Fish and Chips” eatery on the corner there was a nasty smell of fried cod. Once again, we are faced in Britain with the problem of decent catering. After walking along the main street of the city twice, we finally found an establishment vaguely reminiscent of “Burger King”.
As always, the Ibis did not disappoint ( Bristol Ibis Center hotel. (GBP 65.00 100.73). The room had everything we had hoped for. Everything is fine, there is nothing to complain about, except that a hairdryer was not given, although I asked the administrator, but he replied that they had already sorted it out, and even a drunken audience from a nearby bar under the window screamed until almost 2 am.And the rest of the hotel was quite satisfactory for us. And they found him extremely easy. We just drove through the city until we saw the sign.
While making a sightseeing tour of Bristol, I went to the house of prayer (1739) of the founder of the Methodist Church, Protestant preacher John Westley. One of the manifestations of which was the religious movement of the Pentecostals. Members of Westley’s Society for Bible Reading, Prayer, and Good Deeds led a calm, correct, methodical lifestyle.Therefore, they were nicknamed “Methodists” in a derision. Wesley gave up all the joys of life, did not drink wine, did not eat meat, slept on bare ground. With his fanaticism and intolerance, he made himself many enemies.
A monument is erected in front of the house, where the founder of a religious school slowly rides on a gelding. The monument was erected in 1930. Does the sculptor hint at the sterility of people’s lives to the following religious ideas of Methodism? It was a shame when in the Bristol Cathedral I took a flyer from the table inviting RICK WAKEMAN, the musician of the legendary Yes, to a concert this evening, and I began to dream: how wonderful it was to listen to the keyboard concert in the cathedral.Rick Whitman called one of his solo albums “The Myths And Legends Of King Arthur And The Knights Of The Round Table” – and our plans were to visit Glastonbury. This is where King Arthur was buried.
In ancient times, wandering knights wandered along the roads of England, many dragons lived in the forests and Robin Hood’s robbers hid behind the trees, and ghosts hovered in every self-respecting castle, which have not yet completely appeared. Now only memories and testimonies of contemporary eyewitnesses remain about this, but these very memories and testimonies do not allow some especially gifted creative personalities to sleep peacefully.So Wakeman with his “Myths and Legends about King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table” was among them.
Came to Glastonbury. The lifeless ruins of an abbey. Picturesque and boring. Crowds of tourists. Exclusively touristy city, promoted by advertising.
The main attraction is the very picturesque ruins of the church, next to which is the supposed tomb of King Arthur. No scientific evidence has yet been found for the existence of King Arthur, although there is no evidence to the contrary.It remains only to believe the legends composed by local monks.
Walking through the abbey, this is a very well-groomed and well-equipped attraction for sightseers, you can see the high hall located in the hotel outside the city, on which is the Well of the Cup – a round chapel. A barely noticeable path leads along the slope and lonely figures of people climbing there are visible. Legend has it that Christ drank from this cup during the Last Supper. There was no time to climb the hill, moreover, it was necessary to walk at least 3 kilometers to reach it.In general, the whole atmosphere of a commercial attraction, such as Glastonbury, said that we would not find anything original, ancient and mysterious there. And we will see a legend carefully organized and professionally designed for curious tourists.
After Glastonbury we went to Salisbury. Why Salisbury? The answer is obvious – there is a gothic cathedral of stunning beauty and grandeur. And everyone will explain the desire to admire this monument.This is why hundreds of thousands of tourists come here. However, everything is not so simple. Since Salisbury is also the name of the outstanding record of the group Urriah Heep, which was heard by the generation of rockers and fans of the 70s and 80s. We will hear this name without realizing that somewhere in England there is a city of the same name.
Perhaps it will be possible to find the answer how this city is connected with the legendary disc? Probably they recorded some compositions in the collection for the splendor of the acoustics, or named the disc inspired by a visit to the cathedral! A good explanation would satisfy everyone.However, in life everything turned out differently.
One of the explanations is that the Salisbury Plains NATO training ground is located nearby, by the way, the photograph of the cover of the plate was taken there. It shows a tank in training. This is in tune with the anti-war-hippist sentiment of the young people of the time, the main consumer of rock music. The main consumer of rock music. From the tower hatch, the crew commander watches the movement in the headphones of the radiotelephone. A metal tracked track crushes delicate flowers, which is very symbolic for the mood of the early 70s. Combat training is underway at the Salisbury training ground.So what is the connection with Juraj Hip’s music? This is already explained by Seva Novgorodtsev giving a colorful description of those places6 “Salisbury is an English city, 200 versts west of London. Having found it on the map, you see with your finger down, to the south, to the sea. Almost the entire area is called “Salisbury Plains” (Salisbury Plain). At one time I got into the habit of going there on fungi, on the buttocks. This plain belongs to the Ministry of Defense, there are no houses or fields on it. Several times a year it is closed for military exercises. You can see who from “Uriah Heep” also walked there, in the middle of a flat valley, at a smooth height.. ” It would seem a perfectly logical explanation. This version is also indirectly confirmed by the military museum. It is located on a square not far from the cathedral, and I was somewhat surprised why on earth in this historic city, tourist and shipping center suddenly a Military museum with an exposition about the British army of today? Now it is clear that the frequent guests in Salisbury are the military, heading for the training ground, and they organized the museum.
However, there is another explanation for the name. One of the band’s former musicians, Paul Newton, says “We played a concert in one of the Salisbury halls.We finish the performance, and the people demand more and more, We played a few more things and suddenly the apparatus is cut down. The bouncers from the security establishment were outraged that we had taken too much time and were still not going to bounce off. They said that you have 10 more minutes to get out of here, and if you do not have time, we will close all your equipment here. Then all the people who were at the concert rushed to the stage and began to help collect and move the equipment outside, saving us from the troubles that were clearly brewing – the bouncers were very angry, they were paid only until 12 o’clock and the men were serious about going home, driving out us on the street without equipment.Turn such a thrilling evening into a nightmare, but the audience saved us. And we decided to dedicate a track to them on the new album. They called it simply Salisbury. ” The musicians, touched by the behavior of the fans, vowed to record a song in their memory, and then they named the whole album that way. The producers, on the other hand, summed it up with the then fashionable hippie-anti-war ideological base.
After making a few circles around the city, we finally found our hotel White Horse ”( SALISBURY THE WHITE HORSE GBP 69.00 106.93). However, that was the name of the pub on the first floor, there was also the administrator’s desk, or rather, the reception and the bar were combined. In the hall, several people with mugs of ale were discussing something hotly. I was led into a room that turned out to be quite spacious with a bay window and antique furniture, in front of the window there is a wide table with a kettle, a lamp and a vase with an artificial flower. At this table we had a wonderful breakfast in the morning. We were already tired of the English breakfasts, because they did not differ in variety.The room also had a large bathroom and a narrow hallway. There was a sign on the door saying “when leaving, leave the key in the door.” Breakfast was not provided at the hotel. And they even made me happy, because they bought enough supplies. Another advantage of the hotel was the free parking in the courtyard. Considering that it was only 10 minutes on foot from the hotel door to the cathedral, we can conclude that its ideal location for car travelers.
17 Saturday – PORTSMOUTH. Portsmouth (Sevastopol, as translated by the Internet)
The Premier Inn Hotel is a three-minute drive from the highway, and this determined the choice.They also offered free parking .. Comfortable room. We didn’t go for breakfast – there is a huge supermarket opposite the hotel. Wider selection of products and cheaper. The room is planned in such a way that the door to the shower and toilet moves on slides, which is quite noisy.
To the historic docks of Portsmouth by car for about 20 minutes. And there is paid parking. There is a large shopping and entertainment center near the harbor. There are many restaurants, mostly completely uninteresting and monotonous. But they offer a beautiful view of the bay.
The entrance to the historic docks costs 19.5 pounds, for this money you can visit two museums, two ships, visit the pavilion of active entertainment (purely for children) and ride a boat along the bay. Comprehensive solution. You pay for what you know you won’t use.
We were at the docks during an active part of the day. The pride of the British Navy and of the entire British Empire is the ship “Victoria” on the stocks. It was on this flagship that Admiral Nelson won the victory at Trafalgar.By the patriotic pathos with which the British talk about this event, it can be compared with the Battle of Kulikovo and the Battle of Borodino taken together. England.
Now that the ship has finally been raised to the surface, archaeologists have discovered thousands of different items from that era. Most of them are exhibited at the Mary Rose Museum. At the entrance to the museum, there is a figure of the monarch Henry VIII (based on the painting by the medieval German artist Holbein).
King Henry VIII is known for the number of his marriages – he had 6 wives in total. As well as church reforms in England, as a result of which the Anglican Church emerged, independent of the Roman Catholic Church. It would be wrong to say that the king was a staunch reformer. His reforms were inconsistent, and Henry’s own convictions remained unclear.
Two marriages of Henry VIII ended with the execution of his husband for treason. In addition, the constant change of spouses and favorites of the king turned out to be a serious arena for political struggle and led to a number of executions of politicians, among whom was, for example, Thomas More.
At first, Pope Clement VII refused to declare marriage to his first wife illegal so that the king could marry another. Then Henry decided to sever ties with the papacy. And he appointed an English priest as archbishop, who freed him from his first marriage. Further, Parliament passed a law according to which Henry became the head of the English Church. After that, in 1535 – 39, commissions specially created by Henry closed all monasteries operating in England. Their property was confiscated in favor of the royal treasury, and the brethren were expelled (Dealt with the church property in Lenin’s way)….
During the second half of his reign, King Henry switched to the most brutal and tyrannical forms of government. The number of executed political opponents increased. The king’s most famous victim was the English religious humanist writer and parliamentarian Thomas More. For treason he was sent to the chopping block on July 6, 1535 in London. In general, the number of those executed during the reign of King Henry, according to some historians, reached 72,000 people. (Of course Pol Pot and Ieng Sari, the Marxist leaders of Kampuchea, would have laughed).
In the remaining time we managed to visit the D-day museum, which tells about the preparation and successful landing in Normandy in 1944. I wanted to compare this museum with a similar one in France, near the city of Bayeux in Normandy, where the events took place. The impression remains that the French exposition is much more preferable. There are much more German weapons, equipment, tanks, cars, self-propelled guns. There are only two tanks here – British and American. Modestly, a lot of heroic pathos.Permeated with the pathos of the great victors in the great war.
It was a sunny day, Sunday, and the local population was resting on the ocean. There were few bathers, the water seemed to us not so much cold as dirty. Therefore, swimming in the ocean was postponed until better times. With some regret, I looked at these murky waters, thinking about the British, for whom this coast is the warmest coast in their country, where else, if not here, you can do active rest. But can this coast and this sea and this vegetation be compared to the Cote d’Azur?
Having driven along the coast, we found a suitable place on a high coast with a beautiful view of the boundless ocean and ferries passing by to Normandy, and had a farewell dinner there.Southsea Castle was nearby. However, these squat stone bastions can be called a castle rather conditionally. In vain I tried to examine them, the sign said that the lock was closed. Not surprisingly, in Britain all museums close at 5 o’clock, and only a few of them in London are an exception, for example the National Museum of Art in Trafalgar Square. Having finished the dinner, we once again read the inscription on the bench, made in memory of our friend, father, brother, who died during the diving on the Isle of Wight.And went to Brighton.
BRIGHTON. The Alvia Hotel
Brighton hosts Britain’s largest Arts Festival (since 1967) every May. The meek phrase from the travel guide “Brighton is also known as one of the largest and most vibrant gay resorts in the south of Great Britain” as it turned out reflected a very concrete reality. As soon as we left the hotel, two men, hugging and kissing as we walked, walked towards us. This was not even the case at Castro in San Francisco.
The last night of the trip was spent at the Alvia hotel. They climbed the narrow stairs of an ordinary English house to the fourth floor. In a small room there is a kettle, shower, TV. Even a piece of the sea was visible from the window. Early in the morning we were awakened by the cry of seagulls. It is somewhat remotely reminiscent of the kurlykay of our cranes. Just imagine, the beginning of September: a tired wedge flies across the sky at sunset and there is a small gap in it …
It is 15 minutes from the hotel to the embankment and to the pier. The beach is pebbly, on the pier there are only slot machines and cheap cafes.15 minutes. to the Royal Pavilion. The hotel is on a quiet street, the room was small on the fourth floor. There is no elevator. City parking, paid. The hotel is housed in a typical residential building with narrow corridors and steep staircases.
Immediately they did not offer to buy a parking permit for 5 pounds for the whole day. In the evening they said that breakfast is until 10 o’clock, and in the morning, when we went down to breakfast at 9-30, they said that breakfast is until 9 o’clock, and we were late. They were treated to only coffee and toasters with jam.Refused to accept payment by credit card. And I had no cash. I had to run to the ATM.
When we went out for a walk in the evening, we were amazed at the number of men of non-traditional sexual orientation. Many of them were very drunk and openly expressed their emotions. Others in extravagant women’s outfits paraded down the street.
And although it is prohibited by law to sell alcohol in stores after 10 pm, there were surprisingly many drunk people on the streets.They behaved noisily, but within the bounds of decency, and yet this atmosphere was alarming: a seaside city, poorly lit streets and a riotous audience, with songs and shouts flowing from one bar to another, and near the doors of these establishments are negro bouncers, real hulks.
We went to the embankment and saw that some people were burning bonfires on the beach. Not for fun, but in order to warm up and fall asleep.
The next day they did not find a single restaurant – only “Fish and Chips” – cheap cafes for young people without money.Periodically, there were subjects of a homeless type, spreading a stench around them for several meters.
I thought that Brighton is an English resort for a decent public, but it so happened that on the streets there are only drunken representatives of non-traditional sexual orientation, homeless people, homeless people, loose youth and many wheelchair users with disabilities. And just elderly people, which we often see in Soviet trade union sanatoriums.
Visited only the Royal Pavilion – a beautiful palace in the Indian, oriental style.It was built by Prince George (future King George IV), while living in Brighton. He also equipped the city with special “bathing machines” that brought “beachgoers” to the coast. Of course, upon arriving in Brighton, we were already quite tired of the journey, and probably didn’t show enough enthusiasm to see Brighton at its best.
A small fishing village Brighton came to the attention of the Crown in 1724, when most of the houses were washed away by a powerful storm and the orphaned residents turned to the government for help.The money was allocated, and new buildings were erected on the embankments. And in 1750 Brighton was rediscovered by Dr. Richard Russell. He told Britain that the sea air was good for health, especially the air of Brighton had healing properties, according to the doctor. So, practically overnight, Brighton turned from a provincial town into a fashionable resort for the high society.
The city beach is a haven of all kinds of garbage, because it is free and you can stay there as long as you like.I immediately remembered the private beaches of Turkey, Greece, Cyprus, where outsiders are not allowed. Discrimination! But it’s clean. Here they collect money only for umbrellas and sun beds. A swarthy citizen with a ticket bag around his neck is walking on the pebbles. The prices are such that most people sunbathe with towels laid on, and the sun loungers are empty.
Lighthouse in the city of Portsmouth.
Monday 19 – the road to Heathrow, HEATHROW flight 7354 ( BMI) time 22-30
The final chord of the trip sounded in major.Our air carriers of the British airline did not have seats in economy class, and we were assigned to business. So we returned in a comfortable environment drinking French red wine from Bordeaux. It’s a pity, the flight is short, so I would fly to Singapore.
And so the landing in the disgusting Domodedovo at a disgusting time – 5-30 in the morning. (although the best of the worst Moscow airports). The first express train to Paveletsky railway station is 30 minutes away for smoking on an empty platform.
St Davids – Inkomartur 93 – Tour Operator, Master of excursion tours
St Davids is located on the Aline River in a scenic location on the St Davids Peninsula in the heart of the Pembrokeshire Coastal National Park.It is the smallest city in Britain with its own Cathedral. It is named after St. David is the patron saint of Wales. St.Davids is famous for its ancient monastery, medieval temple and tomb of St. David.
The city was founded around St. Davis Cathedral (XII century) in the Middle Ages. It is believed that the Christian monastery here was founded by Saint David of Wales himself, who founded here in the 6th century. the monastery community, which soon became the center of the diocese. 645 to 1097the environs of St. Davids were subjected to repeated attacks by the Vikings, in particular in 999 Bishop Moregenay died at the hands of the latter, and in 1080 Bishop Abraham. In 1081, William the Conqueror used the pilgrimage to St. Davids as the formal excuse for his trek through south Wales. In 1115 a Norman priest, Bishop Bernard, was made bishop of the diocese. He received papal privileges from Calixtus II, according to which two pilgrimages to St. Davis were equated with a pilgrimage to Rome, and three to Jerusalem.In 1181, construction began on the modern building of the cathedral. The bishop’s palace was built, which was connected to the cathedral by a covered arcade, and the territory of the cathedral was fenced in by a stone wall with four gates. St. Davis Cathedral has had a complex history. It was destroyed several times by earthquakes. During the Great Reformation of the XVI century. the cathedral lost all decorations and relics; during the civil war in 1648, parliamentary troops dismantled the roof of the cathedral in order to remove lead from it, melted down the bells, organ and copper decorations of the tombs, smashed all the stained-glass windows.Reconstruction works were carried out only in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The cathedral is famous for its amazing carvings; the relics of St. David of Wales, patron saint of Wales . Other attractions include Tower Gate XIII century, ruins of the bishop’s residence XIV century, Holy Trinity Chapel (XVI century), Celtic stone cross .
Saint David is a real person. He was born in 500 in Pembrokeshire and was the son of the ruler of Powys.There is a legend according to which the birth of David was predicted by St. Patrick an angel 30 years before his birthday. The first miracle in David’s life happened when he prayed in the midst of a crowd during a synod in Brefi, in a village called Llanddevi-Brefi. During prayer, the ground on which he stood rose in the form of a small hill and a white dove sat on his shoulder. During his life, he performed a huge number of miracles. Thanks to him, springs appeared in arid places, he healed the sick with salt water, raised the dead.
90,000 Cardiff Architecture – HiSoUR Cultural History
Architecture in Cardiff, the capital of Wales, dates from Norman times to this day. Its urban fabric is largely Victorian, then, reflecting Cardiff’s rise to prosperity as a major coal port in the 19th century. No building style is associated with Cardiff, but several arcades from the 19th and early 20th century have survived in the city center.
The city is known for its fantastic castles, Cardiff Castle and Castell Coch as the Victorian architect William Burges.The well-preserved 20th century Civic Center surrounding Catays Park has been described as one of the finest examples of civic planning in the UK.
The city contains a number of remarkable modern buildings and engineering projects. These include Millennium Stadium (1999) in the city center and several examples in a major urban regeneration project in Cardiff Bay, such as the Wales Millennium Center and Ceneda (National Assembly Building).
In the western suburbs of St.Fagan there is an open-air museum of Welsh folk architecture, St.Fagan.
Common building materials for Victorian and Edwardian buildings in Cardiff are Bath Stone, Blue Pennant Stone, and Red Brick – with the exception of Kateis Park, which is dominated by Portland stone. Lias’s gray color is heavily influenced by the construction of the city’s medieval buildings (Cardiff Castle Fortress, Llandaff Cathedral and John the Baptist Church), but is absent from later buildings. Two recent buildings in Cardiff Bay, the Ceneda and Wales Millennium Center, make notable use of Welsh slate along with glass and steel.
Early and Medieval Buildings
Perhaps the most notable individual building in the city is Cardiff Castle, a Roman foundation fortress with ruined 12th century medieval temples and outer walls. After Cardiff Castle, the oldest remaining building in the city center is St. John’s Parish Church, which dates back to the 12th century but was almost completely remodeled in the 15th century. It has a lovely perpendicular nave and tower.
The medieval city walls were removed as the city developed and currently only two very small sections remain.The modernized Whitby Street is one of the few surviving original medieval streets that lead from the city’s original waterfront to the castle.
Two monastic buildings existed in Cardiff, Greyfriar (destroyed for the Capital Tower) and Blackfriar, established in the late 13th century. Greyfriars was converted into a family mansion but was demolished to make way for a car park and office block during the 20th century. The Blackfriars Foundations can still be seen in Bute Park.
Llandaff Cathedral dates back to 1107, but was built on the site before the Norman house. This was expanded considerably in the 13th and 15th centuries. Nearby are the ruins of the Bishop’s Palace, destroyed by the forces of Owain Glyndur in 1400.
19th century architecture
With the arrival of the railways and the booming coal export industry, Cardiff changed beyond recognition in the mid-19th century. It became the largest city in Wales in 1875. From the 1840s, new residential streets were built in Buttown and Temperance (completed in 1864).
Most of the land on which Cardiff was built belonged to John Crickton-Stewart, 2nd Marquess of Bute. Much of Cardiff and many of its buildings were designed by the architect, the Marquis Alexander Roos.
New churches and chapels were created, including the new Romanesque Church of St Mary on Rue Bute. Renowned local architect John Prichard designed St Margaret’s Church, Roata and St John’s Church, Canton, and also renovated Llanduff Cathedral. Chapel (survival) Tabernacle at Hayes has been described as “the finest classical chapel of the period.”Important architects from outside Wales arrived, in particular, at St. David’s Roman Catholic Church (1887) on Charles Street.
In 1853, a new “bleak but energetic” colonnaded town hall and corn exchange (fourth town hall in Cardiff) replaced the old Guildhall on the High Street. Horace Jones in London were the winners of the design competition, controversial because the cost cap was £ 8,000, while Jones’ scheme was estimated at £ 11,690. The building was expanded in 1876 but was replaced at the end in the early 20th century.
New shops, banking buildings and hotels appeared, including the Royal Hotel (1866), the Great Western Hotel (1876), and the Park Hotel (1885). Cardiff’s “thrilling and delightful” Victorian shopping arcades were built: High Street Arcade (1885), Wyndham Arcade (1886), Castle Arcade (1887) and Morgan Arcade (1896).
Important new public buildings were created, including the Central Library, Royal Cardiff Hospital, St. David’s Hospital, Theater Royal (later renamed Prince of Wales Theater), The Bolshoi Theater (Westgate Street) and University College South Wales.
An impressive new development was built in Buttown to serve the Dockland economy. These include the Coal Exchange (1883-86) at Mount Stewart Square and the imposing French-Gothic Pleicher Building (1896) at the entrance to the docks.
Cardiff Castle was rebuilt and redesigned between 1868 and 1890. The private suite of the third Marquis of Bute at Cardiff Castle, commissioned by architect William Bourgues, is an acclaimed masterpiece of the Victorian Gothic Revival.Other Burgess buildings in Cardiff are Castell Coch Castle, a 13th century castle rebuilt (with some artistic rights) as a residence for Bute and Park House, which influenced the interior architecture in Cardiff and was the prototype for Burgess’s own house in London. Tower House,
20th Century Architecture
The Civic Center at Cathays Park, whose earliest building dates from 1901, is a prime example of Beaux-Arts urbanism in the UK.
In the 1941 Cardiff Blitz, Llandaff Cathedral received a direct hit.It was restored by George Pace, who added a white parabolic arch in the nave to support Jacob Epstein’s new sculpture, Majest.
A festival-style Imperial Pool was built at Cardiff Arms Park for the 1958 Empire Games; it was demolished in 1999.
BBC Broadcasting House in Llandaff, designed in 1967 by Dale Owen of Percy Thomas & Partners, who worked in Chicago under Walter Gropius, inspired modernist architecture in the United States, such as the Gropius’s Graduate Center and the Ludwig Mies van der apartment. Roe on Lake Shore Drive, Chicago.
Cardiff Central Police Station, built between 1966 and 1968 in the classic civilian heart of Cardiff, has been described as “The Most Successful Post-War Building in Catays Park.”
Cardiff Bay Visitor Center (Will Alsop and John Lyall, 1990) – claimed to “single-handedly put Cardiff on the architectural map.” In 2010, it was dismantled to make way for a new road.
21st Century Architecture
Cardiff began a new century in 2000 with the completion of the House of the Future at St.Faganov. It was a joint initiative between BBC Wales and Malcolm Parry of the Welsh School of Architecture and aimed to create a zero carbon base on a reasonable budget of £ 120,000 using the latest technology.
Cardiff Bay underwent an urban regeneration scheme in the late 20th century and its barrage was a major civil engineering project. New building notes in this area include:
Sened, Debating Chamber of the National Assembly for Wales (Richard Rogers, 2006), selected for the RIBA Stirling Prize.
Wales Millennium Center (opened 2004), awarded the Wales Eisteddfod Gold Medal in 2005. – This project was preceded by the Cardiff Bay scheme, which, if built, would become Zaha Hadid’s first building in the United Kingdom. The building was denied a lottery grant, as had already been granted to the Millennium Stadium (HOK Sport, 1999).
260 m. “Modern” façade in the BBC TV Production Center (2011), Fashion Architecture Taste.
Downtown Cardiff is located approximately 1 mile north of Cardiff Bay.Notable modern buildings in the city center include:
The New Cardiff Central Library (opened March 2009) is an example of sustainable architecture. The building has been specially designed to be energy efficient and includes saddle grass to improve insulation and reduce rainwater runoff, colored glass panels and solar tints to prevent excessive temperature rise and a complete building management system to provide climate control for the individual floors.As a result of these measures, the building received a BREEAM rating of “excellent”.
Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama, North Road, completed a £ 22.5 million renovation in 2011. Impressive exterior combinations with the nearby Civic Center and parks utilizing Portland cladding and vertical cedar trellises. The interior features an art gallery and a new concert hall.
Cardiff International Sports Village and St David’s 2 Mall have been major entertainment venues since 2009.
In the last decades of the 20th century, a number of important buildings were lost for development. The Institute for Welsh Affairs (IWA) mourned the “gruesome” new multi-storey car parks that replaced key Victorian buildings. For example, the classic old Westgate Street fire station was replaced by a car park in the 1960s. The white stucco Capel Ebenezer was replaced with a supermarket and the stately Wood Street Congregational Church was replaced with an office block. The IWA argued that planners are thinking more about creative re-use of “our sadly forgotten historic downtown buildings.”
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Wales – Dervish Travel
One of the main attractions of Wales is considered to be the Norman Castle of Cairfilly, near the town of Cairfilly, in South Wales.It is the second largest castle in the UK, one of the largest in Europe and the largest in Wales.
A medieval castle in Victorian neo-Gothic architecture, Cardiff Castle is another famous landmark in Wales, located in the heart of Cardiff, the capital of Wales. The original castle was built at the end of the 11th century by the Normans on the remains of a 3rd century Roman fort, if you look closely you can see old Roman masonry at the base of the walls. Snowdonia National Park
Stretching along the west coast of Wales, Snowdonia National Park is home to some of the UK’s most stunning landscapes and also encompasses the largest peaks in England and Wales.
A magical wonderland of grassy hills, medieval castles and glittering lakes, it’s no wonder Snowdonia is a hit among travel destinations in Wales. The park is the largest and oldest in Wales and encompasses the large natural lake Valais, Lake Bala, the tallest waterfall in Wales and the unique narrow gauge track through the park. Pembrokeshire Coast
Surrounded on three sides by water, Wales has more than an interesting coastline, but one of the most interesting places along the coast is the Pembrokeshire Coast, which juts out into the Irish Sea.
The Pembrokeshire coastline is interesting for its historic castles, especially Pembroke Castle, cathedrals, as well as idyllic fishing villages such as Laukhorn, perhaps the most famous and where the Welsh poet Dylan Thomas lived most of his life. Llandudno
Situated between the limestone headlands of Great Orme and Little Orme in North Wales, Llandudno is Wales’ largest and most enchanting seaside resort, also known as the “King of the Welsh Resorts”. Built in the 1950s with money from the wealthy Mostin family, it has all the trappings of a wealthy holiday destination.
The city boasts a unique waterfront, free of the usual seaside shops and cafes, which have been wisely located behind the waterfront to provide Victorian holidaymakers with a more relaxing getaway.The best view of the city and its surroundings is from the Big Orme hill. Llandudno is a great base from which to take a tour of Wales.
Located in the north of Wales, the city of Carnarvon is best known for its 13th century castle, considered one of the best preserved in all of Wales. Carnarvon Castle was built by King Edward I for the first Prince of Wales, and Carnarvon Castle is one of the largest in the country. With its 9 towers and two fortress gates, this massive castle is recognized as one of the most impressive and well-preserved medieval fortresses in Europe.
City of Conwy or Conwy, an ancient city steeped in history, Conwy is located in North Wales at the estuary of the Conwy River near the forests of Snowdonia.Conwy Castle dominates the cityscape and is the city’s main attraction. Built in 1280 by Edward I, it has survived to this day well-preserved, you can distinguish eight round towers and a beautiful view from the loopholes
St David’s Cathedral
Located in the town of St David in Pembrokeshire, St David’s Cathedral is a fine example of medieval Wales’ religious architecture. Saint David was a 6th century Welsh bishop of the Catholic Church, patron saint of Wales, and was buried in the cathedral.Construction of the existing cathedral was started in the 1180s from sandstone.
St. John the Russian, Monastery of St. David of Euboea – a trip to the Greek island of Euboea
Saint John the Russian, Monastery of Saint David of Euboea – a trip to the Greek island of Euboea
In this review, I want to tell you about our trip to the holy places of the Greek island of Euboea, which took place in November 2011. At such a time of the year, it is very good to travel around Greece, since the sun is soft and does not burn, it is still warm enough, but not hot, there is no need to hide from the scorching rays of the sun, as in summer.
Therefore, we are going to visit the village of Neo Prokopion, namely the church of St. John the Russian, a famous holy place in Greece:
Saint John the Russian ended up in Constantinople, as he was captured during the war with the Turks (even during the reign of Peter I), the saint was sold to a Turkish general from the town of Prokopion. In Greece, I heard many stories about the suffering of the Greek people from the Turkish yoke, especially the Turks tried to destroy Christianity, then divine services were performed most often at night, and children went to Sunday schools, where they learned the basics of the faith, also at night.There is even such a children’s song with the words “the moon is shining, I’m going to school …”. The Turks also tried to convert the captives to Islam, and they tortured those who were especially stubborn and did not want to betray their faith.
St. John had to endure a lot of torments, the Turks brutally beat him with iron rods, put a copper basin red-hot to red on his head, so that they burned all the saint’s hair and skin, tried to seduce him with the promise of an easy and rich life, but John remained steadfast in his desire not deviate from the true God.John’s firmness and loyalty amazed the master, and he stopped tormenting his slave, even gave him more freedom.
After the death of the saint, healings began at his grave, and later Christians found the holy relics of John incorruptible. Later, during the uprising against the Turkish Sultan, the Turks decided to burn the holy relics, a miracle happened, the soldiers saw St. John threatens them from the fire as if he were alive, they were horrified and fled. There is a fresco in the temple telling about this miracle:
The next day, the Christians found the holy relics completely intact and not burnt, only blackened.
In 1924, after the defeat of Greece in the war with Turkey, an exchange of population took place, Christians from Asia Minor moved to the island of Euboea and took with them the relics of St. John the Russian. One Turkish settlement was renamed Neo Prokopion. The modern temple in Neo Prokopion was built in 1951. The temple is beautiful, with beautiful icons and a white marble iconostasis:
I really like the interior decoration of Greek temples, everything is very beautiful – iconostases, murals, chandeliers, lamps – made with taste, unlike our Sofrino, whose products are simply awful.I like that there are many places to sit in churches, all the same, the Greeks get up at the most important moments of worship and get up very often, but if you can sit, then there are enough places, our poor grandmothers drag folding chairs to the temples.
Also, since the time of the Ottoman yoke, the Greek tradition for women has gone – not to cover their heads in the temple, since this was a sign of freedom in Christ, the Turks forced Greek women to wear headscarves, and only in the temple, during the divine service, did women feel free.
Greek women on Sundays dress up in churches, do their hair, put on suits, smart blouses and dress shoes, especially grandmothers, it’s nice to look at them.
I also like that there are no candlesticks in Greek temples, they are usually placed on the street or in the narthex, and in the temple it is always calm, there is no soot and fuss. You can take candles for a sacrifice – any amount, you can also write notes with names for the sacrifice so that they can pray for your loved ones in the temple, the names must be written in Latin.Money is usually thrown into the box, as much as possible.
There are beautiful icons in the temple, Saint Spyridon of Trimyphus, also very revered in Greece and not only in Greece, saint:
The image of Mary, the Mother of God, is similar to the image of the “Fadeless Color”, but perhaps it is a different icon:
The image of John the Russian himself, located next to the relics:
The chains and rings next to the icon are gifts in gratitude for healing, there is such a tradition not only in Greece, but also in Russia.
Despite a weekday, there were many people in the church, there was often a line to the relics, and people did not enter the church for a short time and immediately ran away, as is often the case with us, but prayed and prayed for a long time, sometimes reading the akathist to the saint. The atmosphere was extraordinary, you cease to feel the time, your soul is as good as in paradise, you just want to pray and not leave the church. I was amazed with what love and trust people relate to Saint John, how sincerely, with tears they pray, with faith and hope they touch the reliquary with the relics.
Cancer with the relics of the saint:
The Greeks do not completely cover the relics, as is often customary in Russia, St. John’s hands are open, only a mask is put on his face:
To be honest, these three days of my trip to Greece were some of the happiest in my life.
Near the temple there are many souvenir shops selling icons, olive oil, clay crafts, I did not remember much, I bought a bas-relief icon made of silver, a sample was even indicated, for one familiar blind woman, she could have such an icon to “see” the icon cost 10 euros.
From Neo Procopion we drove on to the monastery of St. David of Euboea. The monastery is located in the mountains and we drove for a long time through the autumn forest, in some places along the serpentine. The forest was very beautiful, at this time of year, after the rains begin to fall in Greece in the fall, flowers bloom in the mountains, these cyclamens grow like our grass:
The connection of Greece with Russia can be traced not only in Neo Prokopion, the monastery of the Transfiguration of the Lord (St. David) was built with donations collected by the saints in Russia, and St.David, fearing the robbers on the way, put all the collected money, donated utensils and vestments into a hole hollowed out in a tree, let the tree into one of the Russian rivers and prayed that the log would be on the island of Euboea for his return. When the saint returned to the island, he found his log, the contents of which had not disappeared anywhere, and it was possible to start building a monastery.
The monastery, built by St. David, was burned down by the Turks in the 19th century; the monastery acquired its modern look later.
When we entered the territory of the monastery, I took out my camera and took the first picture:
First of all, we went to the temple. A monk who was in the temple told me that it is not allowed to take pictures without a blessing. Thinking that the most cunning, I replied that I ask for blessings. To this, the monk remarked that I had lost my blessing when I filmed without permission. I had to put up with it, but in the twilight of the temple, the photographs would still not work, and I would not dare to use a flash in such a place.
We did not see other monks on the territory of the monastery, and the only father we met invited us to the archondarik, where we were treated to coffee with delight and cookies, everything was very tasty.
After coffee, the monk offered to show us the cell of Elder Jacob, the previous abbot of the monastery. The monk spoke with great love about his elder and abbot, who is revered as a saint in the monastery, they say that in his way of life the elder imitated the founder of the monastery, St. David. Elder Jacob treated people with such love that he never raised his voice at anyone, did not reproach, and if it was necessary to point out to someone about mistakes, he spoke about it completely abstractly, without mentioning names.If the elder gave advice to some monk, and he said that he could not do it, the elder immediately agreed with him and said – well, do everything your own way, and then you will come and tell me what happened. During the life of the elder, many sick people came to the monastery, and the monks witnessed healings similar to those of the Gospel. When the monk finished his story, he looked at me and said that he was allowing me to take pictures in the elder’s cell, it was evident that he considered this permission a great honor.
The elder’s cell is very cozy, with a fireplace and a wooden floor, good windows, from which it is not blowing, however, the whole monastery was built in such a way, very thought out, so that people would feel comfortable living in it. In the cell there are many simple, even paper icons, the elder’s epitrachelion, some personal belongings, there is an icon of the elder himself, apparently, he is already venerated as a locally revered saint or has already been glorified by the Church of Greece.
The monk, who at first seemed angry, was already showing friendliness and cordiality, invited us to stay in the monastery for three days, but, unfortunately, the trip program was already scheduled, and we refused, although I really did not want to leave, it was so warm and comfortable in the monastery , felt at home.At parting, I turned around and took the last shot.
I really love pilgrimage trips to holy places, for some time they relieve us of everyday life, help us to become closer to God, reconsider our life and simply give inspiration and strength. Sometimes it is very useful to communicate with people who live differently than we do in our cities, in order to understand and remember what is important in life and what is secondary.
Church of St. John the Russian in Neo-Prokopion on the island.Euboea
St. the Monk David of Euboea on about. Euboea
If you liked the review and you also want to visit these shrines, then we invite you to familiarize yourself with the corresponding pilgrimage tours.