Nickelodeon ready for its NFL moment
Get ready for SpongeBob SquarePants running out of the tunnel, players being covered with digital slime after touchdowns and commentary from the cast of “All That” when Nickelodeon airs an NFL playoff game.
CBS Sports and Nickelodeon revealed their plans on Tuesday for the kid-focused channel’s broadcast of a wild-card game on Sunday, Jan. 10. The Nickelodeon feed will be tailored for younger audiences with the usual broadcast airing on CBS and online at CBS All Access.
CBS and NBC got the rights to the two new wild-card games after owners voted earlier this year to expand the field from six to seven teams in each conference. There will be six games on wild-card weekend. The Jan. 9 and 10 games are scheduled to kick off at 1 p.m., 4:40 p.m. and 8:15 p.m. EST, and the middle Sunday game will get the Nickelodeon simulcast.
CBS Sports chairman Sean McManus said adding a broadcast for families with young children was part of the discussions with the NFL when negotiations began on which networks would receive the additional games.
“The minute we brought it up to the NFL, they thought it was really a good idea because they are trying to reach a younger and more diverse demographic,” McManus said. “This was a great way of adding to the presentation without in any way shape or form harming the CBS broadcast.”
A trial run took place during the Dec. 6 Philadelphia Eagles-Green Bay Packers game to test graphics, animation and filters. Shawn Robbins, who will be the game’s co-ordinating producer, said Nickelodeon animators were able add their touches to certain plays and get them ready to go in less than 5 minutes.
“We had a live feed coming out of the Green Bay rehearsal and I was really blown away. It was so entertaining, fun and innovative,” McManus said. “We’re going to be able to respect the integrity of the game, but all the animations and the fun stuff is really going to make it look and feel very, very different than a CBS broadcast, which it should. I think it’s really going to be fun.”
Noah Eagle, the radio voice of the Los Angeles Clippers and son of longtime CBS play-by-play announcer Ian Eagle, will call the game along with “NFL Today” analyst Nate Burleson and Nickelodeon’s Gabrielle Nevaeh Green. Lex Lumpkin, who stars with Green on “All That,” will be a field reporter.
Nickelodeon will air “The SpongeBob SportsPants Countdown Special” before the game. The 30-minute show will be hosted by Denver Broncos linebacker Von Miller and features SpongeBob’s best sports moments.
“When Sean told us that this is really going to happen, we were thrilled and excited. But the next day after that was, well, how do we make this different? So we really put our creative teams together,” said Brian Robbins, the president of ViacomCBS Kids & Family Entertainment. “I think we’ve come up with a really fun and differentiated broadcast, that we know that our kids, you know, the Nickelodeon audience should really enjoy along with their parents.”
CBS, which will broadcast this season’s Super Bowl, and Nickelodeon are under the same umbrella after last year’s ViacomCBS merger.
CBS isn’t the only network doing something extra on wild-card weekend. NBC’s prime-time broadcast on Jan. 10 will air on Telemundo and stream on Peacock. ESPN’s broadcast will also air on ABC.
Nickelodeon renews partnership with NFL for 2021 season, will broadcast 2022 Wild Card round again
During last season’s NFC Wild Card Playoff game between the New Orleans Saints and the Chicago Bears, primetime became slimetime as Nickelodeon broadcasted an NFL game for the first time, presenting it in ways only they could. Now, the partnership between the National Football League and Nickelodeon is set to expand with both a reprise of their Playoff broadcast and new content geared towards kids and families.
On Friday, Nickelodeon and CBS Sports announced a new partnership with the NFL for the 2021 season, which will see Nickelodeon once again broadcast an NFL Wild Card Playoff game as well as the launch of “NFL Slimetime,” a new half-hour weekly series on Nickelodeon.
Hosted by CBS Sports’ Nate Burleson and Nick star Young Dylan, “NFL Slimetime” will feature Nick-ified highlights and game footage, youth football spotlights, special guest appearances by Nick stars, interviews with NFL players and segments highlighting players and teams on and off the field. In addition to Burleson and Young Dylan, Dylan Schefter and Lincoln Loud (star of “The Loud House”) will serve as teen sports correspondents.
“NFL Slimetime” will premiere Wednesday, Sept. 15 at 7 p.m. ET, with episodes available to stream on Paramount+ starting on Sept. 16.
“Our coverage of the NFL Wild Card game was literally a game-changer in so many ways, and the sensational response absolutely proved there’s huge demand for sports content with the kind of kids and family point of view that only Nickelodeon can deliver,” Brian Robbins, President and Chief Executive Officer of Nickelodeon and Chief Content Officer of Kids & Family for Paramount+, said in a statement. “In this next stage of our tremendous partnership with the NFL and CBS Sports, we’re going to raise the bar again and help innovate sports programming to bring the whole family together for one-of-a-kind viewing experiences.”
Last season, Nickelodeon’s broadcast of the NFC Wild Card Game between the Saints and the Bears was a resounding success — complete with slime-filled touchdown celebrations . It was the network’s most-watched program among total viewers in nearly four years and the number one cable telecast of the week among kids ages 2-11 and ages 6-11. The program, which aired alongside the standard CBS Sports broadcast, generated more than two billion social media impressions and made Nickelodeon the top trending topic in the U.S. on Twitter during that afternoon.
“Together with Nickelodeon, CBS Sports is cultivating the next generation of NFL fans,” said CBS Sports Chairman Sean McManus. “Our inaugural NFL Wild Card Game on Nickelodeon was an outstanding display of the power and the ability of ViacomCBS to continue to reach broader and younger audiences. We are thrilled to team up with the NFL and Nickelodeon this season, offering kids and families a full season of unique and unparalleled NFL content, including our second edition of the NFL Wild Card Game on Nickelodeon.”
The NFL Wild Card Game on Nickelodeon was the recipient of two Sports Emmy Awards in the categories of Outstanding Playoff Coverage and Outstanding Live Graphic Design.
Nickelodeon aired an NFL game and proved technology can make football way more fun
If people tuned into the Chicago Bears vs. New Orleans Saints game on CBS, they may have missed all the slime. In a play for a broadcast aimed at a younger audience, the NFL aired the Wild Card matchup simultaneously on Nickelodeon, with its own announcers, goofy on-screen animations, and touchdown celebrations featuring SpongeBob SquarePants characters and, of course, green slime.
From the minute the game kicked off at 4:40PM ET to the second it ended, Nickelodeon’s broadcast was chaotic absurdity and a total delight. Whenever a player scored a touchdown, slime cannons would erupt in the end zone. Digital art, like clouds appearing at players’ feet or lighting across their chest, appeared often during replays. Nickelodeon stars — including 15-year-old Gabrielle Nevaeh Green — reported from the sidelines, making references to the network’s shows. Everyone involved seemingly embraced the utter silliness of it all.
Part of the novelty was the spectacle of it all; Nickelodeon doesn’t air NFL games (this was a special effort organized by ViacomCBS, which owns Nickelodeon) and its characters are so well known that seeing Squidward and Patrick Star emerge from a dog pile works across a number of different audiences. Part of it, however, is also a testament to how technology can do more than just enhance the visual quality of games (yes, the 8K camera footage was unsettling) — it can make them way more fun.
Like something out of a fever dream, the broadcast walked a fine line between feeling like a video game simulation of an NFL Wild Card game and an actual NFL Wild Card game. It was more colorful than a standard NFL game, and having Young Sheldon appear to explain the rules quickly to viewers managed to stay cute instead of creating an abysmal, eye-rolling experience. As Sports Illustrated’s Conor Orr wrote, “To have the game stripped of all its self-importance and hubris was an absolute delight.”
Despite the zany graphics and color overload not typically present in an NFL match, the broadcast succeeded because it never talked down to its audience. It didn’t feel dumber on Nickelodeon, or even more immature. The game felt vibrant, fun and — for people who spend their Sundays, Mondays, and Thursdays hunkered down in front of a television set to catch whatever games are on — refreshingly new.
Technology doesn’t just have to provide the clearest or sharpest viewing experience. It can also create the most innovative, inventive, and downright fun. A quick Twitter search reveals that I’m not the only person who enjoyed seeing the end zone splattered with slime when Drew Brees hit Michael Thomas for a touchdown.
Here’s hoping that ViacomCBS figures out a way to do it again in the 2021-2022 season, or at the very least, continues experimenting. Also, just tossing it out into the universe, but considering that Disney owns ESPN and has experimented with simulcasting games on its ABC network, why not find a way to broadcast a game on Disney Channel? Elsa and Olaf can provide live commentary! Captain America and Iron Man can represent the two opposing teams and fight! Lightsabers can light up in the end zone when touchdowns happen!
NFL games don’t have to be serious all the time. Nickelodeon proved there’s an excited audience, of kids and adults, who would take a little SpongeBob throughout the four quarters.
Super Bowl 55 Halftime to Feature Nickelodeon ‘Slime-Lights’ of Chiefs vs. Bucs | Bleacher Report
Gregory Payan/Associated Press
CBS announced Wednesday it will showcase Nickelodeon-style highlights from the first half of Super Bowl LV between the Kansas City Chiefs and Tampa Bay Buccaneers during Sunday’s halftime show.
Richard Deitsch of The Athletic noted the “slime-lights” will be presented by former NFL wide receiver Nate Burleson, who was part of the broadcast team when Nickelodeon showed the Wild Card Round game between the New Orleans Saints and Chicago Bears on Jan. 10.
Nickelodeon aimed coverage of the Saints’ 21-9 win over the Bears at its younger audience with virtual slime cannons that shot off when a team scored a touchdown and special graphics during replays.
Bleacher Report @BleacherReport
Michael Thomas becomes the first NFL player to get slimed in a playoff game 😂
The broadcast received mostly positive reviews, especially on social media, and showed the NFL could benefit from adding variety to its telecasts without taking away from the game.
Conor Orr of Sports Illustrated reviewed the broadcast and came away with the feeling that having the game “stripped of all its self-importance and hubris was an absolute delight”:
“It made me wonder what the hell we have been doing all these years. I left Sunday’s game with no doubt that football would be completely fine if we yanked the business pants off the current operation like Nickelodeon did over the weekend and allowed the things we like about the sport to speak for themselves. If we embraced the goofiness of the entire thing. Of ourselves.”
In a year in which Fox’s new camera angle was headline news, it shouldn’t be a surprise that something like the Nickelodeon broadcast was a hit. NFL games have become very refined; that isn’t a bad thing, but seeing something different can be refreshing.
CBS will attempt to capitalize on that success during its halftime show, which could feature plenty of highlights in a potential shootout between Patrick Mahomes’ Chiefs and Tom Brady’s Bucs.
Nickelodeon’s first NFL playoff game is slime-filled fun
The first NFL broadcast on Nickelodeon is better than we ever could have imagined, and proved immediately that this needs to happen more often. The youth-focused presentation of the game made it not only perfect for kids, but anyone who wants to enjoy football without the grand seriousness of traditional commentary.
Former NFL wide receiver Nate Burleson led the charge for football knowledge in the booth, breaking down the game and trying to make kids understand the game. Sure, it was a little simplistic, saying stuff like “Allen Robinson hopes to run and catch a ball from his quarterback,” by that’s what young kids need to appreciate the game.
There were also dozens of small Nickelodeon touches, from between play graphics showing football players with cartoon elements, to the first down marker being replaced by a “slime line.” It just worked, and I love it.
It’s really nice to watch a broadcast just focused on optimism and the fun of football. I’ll take commentators discussing their favorite ice cream flavors and excitement during every play to the morose, ludicrous presentation by NBC on Saturday night that mentioned the attack on the Capitol no fewer than five times during Buccaneers vs. Washington.
There’s a bell curve to how much this kind of presentation works. If you know nothing about football it’s perfect. If you’re semi-knowledgable and want to know a little more, then you’re not going to learn much. If you’re a veteran football watcher and gain little from a traditional broadcast, then why not watch something that’s based on pure fun?
I learn a lot more about a player finding out that Bears’ tight end Cole Kmet is a die-hard Drake and Josh fan, more than knowing about the amount of receiving yards he had in an obscure college game I didn’t watch. I understand Nate Burleson a little bit better as a person knowing his favorite ice cream flavor is pralines and cream.
When the game was said and done, the Saints won easily — but in a twist Bears’ quarterback Mitchell Trubisky won the “Nickelodeon Valuable Player” award, which was an appropriately weird ending to a bizarre game.
And yes, someone got slimed. In what hopefully becomes a new tradition, Saints coach Sean Payton took a bucket of the green stuff on the head after the game.
Sure, there are some pitfalls to the Nickelodeon game too. When I heard young broadcaster Gabrielle Nevaeh Green recite a stat and say “2000, wow … I wasn’t even born then,” I felt it. I felt it in my soul — but in the end it was still worth it. This needs to be a staple of the NFL season moving forward, not just for our fun, but for the future of football fans.
Nickelodeon’s NFL playoff game broadcast featured SpongeBob, emojis and oodles of slime
Are you ready, kids?
Play-by-play announcer Noah Eagle, flanked by Nate Burleson and Gabriella Nevaeh Green, headed up an alternate broadcast of the Bears vs. Saints NFL wild-card game on Sunday aired exclusively on Nickelodeon — that’s right, the cable network for kids and home of Doug Funnie, SpongeBob SquarePants and Invader Zim.
Featuring ample references to shows past, SpongeBob and oodles and oodles of slime, the Nick production, which was designed to educate younger viewers about football, had an intriguing side effect: Football fans from all over, who were served up a bit of nostalgia on the TV, took notice of it.
MORE: Mike Vrabel’s ‘penis’ quote resurfaces after punt decision backfires
While some criticized the program for being a bit less Nick-themed than expected, there was still more than enough zany content to light Twitter abuzz.
Some of the best moments made everybody happy.
Such as SpongeBob taking the place of the kicking net:
CGI slime on touchdowns:
And, of course, everyone’s favorite fictional character, Manti T’eo’s girlfriend:
Twitter chimed in with thoughts as it watched the whole shebang unravel:
kinda warms my heart that, in 2020, nickelodeon is still sliming people.
— bomani (@bomani_jones) January 10, 2021
And it wouldn’t be the NFL if there wasn’t an unfortunate hot-mic moment, with Bears wideout Cordarrelle Patterson letting an F-bomb rip on the field.
So, without further ado, the absolute, irrefutable, de facto rankings of the 10 best Nickelodeon shows ever:
- “Hey, Arnold!”
- “The Adventures of Pete & Pete”
- “All That”
- “Kenan & Kel”
- “Rocket Power”
- “Legends of the Hidden Temple”
- “Clarissa Explains It All”
- “The Fairly Oddparents”
Just missing the cut: “Are You Afraid of the Dark?”, “Ren & Stimpy” and “The Angry Beavers.”
Drake and Josh could not be reached for comment.
Why Slime Time worked in NFL prime time on Nickelodeon
Nate Burleson didn’t waste a moment. Upon learning Nickelodeon had chosen him to be the color analyst for the network’s debut broadcast of an NFL game, the former receiver turned to his unofficial advisors: his two teenaged sons, and his 10-year-old daughter.
“I knew old shows on Nickelodeon, but I didn’t want to be Mr. Retro,” said Burleson, 39, an NFL receiver for 13 seasons. “I asked them, ‘What are the newest ones? What are they coming out with in 2021? What are the characters that really stand out to you guys?’”
Young Mia Pearl set him straight.
“My daughter’s like, ‘Alright, here’s the situation: In the Loud family, there’s 11 kids, and Lincoln Loud’s the only boy. And it’s all chaos,’” Burleson said. “Then my son jumps in and says, ‘Yeah, but all the girls are different, and that’s what makes the house so crazy because he’s always caught in the middle of everything.’
“And I’m thinking the quarterback can be Lincoln Loud, and there’s 11 kids, so that also means that the other 10 players on the field are all different, and that’s how they make it work. OK, cool.”
That’s a peek into some of the film study Burleson did for Sunday’s playoff game between Chicago and New Orleans, an innovative and delightfully goofy departure for the traditionally buttoned-down NFL, which only a few years ago didn’t as much as allow end-zone celebrations.
“The idea was to captivate and cultivate a new fan base, younger people who might not otherwise watch the game,” said play-by-play announcer Noah Eagle, 24, the Clippers radio broadcaster whose father, Ian, calls NFL games for CBS. “We wanted to explain enough so that those people, those kids watching their first football game, could have at least a general understanding of what was happening.”
At least judging by the reaction on social media, it was a smashing success. The game, which was broadcast by CBS, attracted roughly 30-million viewers, with about two million of those tuned into the kids’ network.
“I’ve done games before, and some people love you and some people hate you,” said Burleson, who co-hosts “Good Morning Football” on NFL Network. “But I’ve never seen such an overwhelming response to a broadcast like I did after this one. It was humbling. I felt so thankful and blessed to be a part of it.”
The virtual graphics for Sunday’s game included slime cannons showering the end zone with green goop after a touchdown, neon down-and-distance graphics, a giant Sponge Bob between the uprights on field-goal attempts, and a Bikini Bottom-themed first-down line. The replays were spiced up with smoke, fire and explosions, thanks to a team of animators at network headquarters in New York who augmented the footage then sent it back at lightning speed.
A graphic of Young Sheldon would pop up to explain a penalty, Saints running back Alvin Kamara was compared to Alvin of the Chipmunks, and Chicago quarterback Mitch Trubisky was likened to the aforementioned Lincoln Loud.
In the Superdome stands were cardboard cutouts of 24 Nickelodeon characters, including Sponge Bob, Dora the Explorer and the Ninja Turtles. The broadcast team included teenaged Nickelodeon stars Gabrielle Nevaeh Green and Lex Lumpkin.
“We could humanize the players more than in a normal broadcast, talking about their favorite ice cream flavor, or the fact that [Bears tight end] Jimmy Graham is afraid of heights,” said Eagle. “Things like that you don’t necessarily hear when it’s third-and-four midway through the third quarter of a one-score game.”
Burleson, always ready with the apt analogy or explanation, was the star of the show. He wasn’t condescending or patronizing, but described situations in ways everyone could understand.
“I was trying to put myself in a kid’s shoes when I was watching the game,” he said. “I was asking questions that a 10-year-old might ask, and I was just thinking to myself: ‘What if a kid is confused about why they’re marching down the field? And how hard is it to score once you get closer?’
“I said, ‘Imagine getting a first down is like little homework assignments, and then once you get close to the end zone, that’s your test. The homework assignments, they’re hard. But they’re not as hard as scoring. If you score a touchdown, that’s getting an A on a test.’”
He recounted the arc of Trubisky’s season and how he was benched.
Said Burleson: “I said, ‘By benched, I don’t mean the guy is sitting on the bench on the sideline. Put it like this, being benched by the NFL is like being grounded. When you’re grounded, you have to clean up your room, make sure you do all your homework, do the dishes and the chores around the house. It’s the same thing in the NFL. You’re benched, and then you have to prove to your coach — kind of your parent — that you’re ready to go outside.”
Eagle picked up on that thread, saying that because the Bears weren’t ready to let Trubisky stray from the conservative game plan, he wasn’t necessarily grounded anymore but couldn’t leave the yard, either.
“Nate was as perfect a choice for a main analyst that they could have had,” Eagle said. “He has a knack. He’s really smart, and explained everything in perfect terms. He had a comparison for every situation. The biggest thing was that us having fun just came through the screen.”
Both Eagle and Burleson said they spent hours after the game reading texts and tweets. One message in particular, from a Hall of Fame quarterback, was most meaningful to Burleson.
“Kurt Warner texted me right after the game,” he said. “I’m paraphrasing but he said, ‘My son, who had been in a traumatic accident, we had never watched a game together. But for the first time in his life, I was able to sit down and watch a game with him because he loves Nickelodeon.’ That was a special text for me.”
New Orleans won the game, and the Nickelodeon crew had pretty much packed up its gear when the cell phone of producer Ken Mack buzzed.
“We were heading to our cars when Ken got a call from Saints public relations,” coordinating producer Shawn Robbins said. “We thought we might have kept Cam Jordan too long for our interview. And Saints PR said, ‘Hey, where are you guys? Coach needs to get slimed. We’ve got to do this right now.’
“Our talent is gone. Our slime is packed up. We scramble and get our slime, and coach [Sean Payton] says, ‘You guys can’t get out of here. I’m going to get killed on the internet unless I get slimed right now.’”
So on camera, in front of the Saints’ locker room, Nickelodeon dumped a bucket of green goo all over the head of a crouching Payton. A messy ending to a perfect day.
90,000 Vaginal discharge, discharge from the genital tract in women – the gynecologist’s answers to questions
We observe a great interest of our patients in such an intimate topic as discharge from the genital tract . You asked us – where is the line between norm and pathology; how much discharge should be in the norm and how to determine the first symptoms of thrush . With these questions, we turned to obstetrician-gynecologist Tatyana Nikolaevna Timofeeva .Tatyana Nikolaevna is a true professional in her field and enjoys a well-deserved popularity among patients of the DoktorA network of clinics , she answered your questions in detail.
Normally, discharge from the genital tract in a woman is always present and this is good. Allocations provide the function of self-cleaning of the vagina from menstrual blood, “dead cells”, various microorganisms, mucus. And yet what should be normal vaginal discharge ? They should be transparent, practically colorless, not emit a strong odor and should not exceed one teaspoon per day in volume. Normal vaginal discharge is maintained by lactobacilli, which, forming lactic acid, create unfavorable conditions for the growth of pathogenic bacteria. But sometimes, especially in young girls, the discharge can become more intense, acquire a whitish color. This is due to the fact that young girls are still in the process of forming a normal menstrual cycle and there is still no constancy of the composition of vaginal discharge. If a woman is not worried about itching, discomfort or pain – such discharge is normal .
But often, under the influence of a number of factors, such as colds, stress, taking antibiotics, abuse of washing (after all, natural mucus is washed out) and means of “intimate hygiene”, the local immunity system of the vagina can weaken and vaginal discharge becomes white – cheery, thick, with a sour smell . At the same time, the vaginal mucosa becomes bright red, edematous, the woman is worried about itching in the external genital area ….All these are characteristic signs of “thrush” or candidiasis, a fungal disease of the vagina. This state itself cannot bring any obvious harm to the female body, but it is an indicator of trouble in the female reproductive system and “prompts” the woman to urgently consult a doctor to clarify the causes of the disorder …
Also, women may have discharge of yellowish, brown, greenish color , they become turbid …. All these are signs of obvious trouble and indicate the onset of an inflammatory process of the pelvic organs.The biggest mistake is self-medication, because this will eliminate only the external manifestations of the threat, leaving the “root of the problem” deep inside the female body and can lead to various formidable complications. In such cases, consultation with a gynecologist is strictly mandatory.
And we remind you that on our website you can ask a question to any specialist of our medical team, not a single question will remain unanswered. We will publish answers to common and most interesting questions in the news.
Stretching discharge – norm or pathology
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Date of last update: 11/15/2021
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What are the discharge women are considered the norm
Why do lingering discharge appear
Signs of pathology
The importance of maintaining high-quality intimate hygiene with lingering discharge
Stretching vaginal discharge often scares women and makes women think about the presence of inflammatory processes.In fact, viscous mucus from the genital tract does not always indicate any pathological conditions, if there are no additional complaints. The sticky vaginal discharge is protective and clears the genital tract. The mucous discharge maintains an optimal level of moisture, as well as comfort during intimate contacts. Depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle and the hormonal background of a woman, vaginal discharge can have a different volume and consistency.
Which discharge in women is considered the norm
Normal discharge has the following signs and characteristics:
- no unpleasant odor, a slight sour smell is allowed;
- at the beginning of the cycle there is a sticky vaginal discharge, which becomes dragging closer to the day of ovulation, abundant and thinner 3-4 days before menstruation;
- emissions are insignificant in volume.
Why does lingering discharge appear
Stretching discharge of increased viscosity appears as a result of changes in the body associated with preparation for conception. Increasing the amount of cervical mucus allows sperm to reach the egg and fertilize faster. The nature of vaginal discharge is influenced by the amount of estrogen and progesterone – female sex hormones. Immediately after menstruation, the discharge is slight, sticky. The first phase of the menstrual cycle is characterized by scanty transparent discharge.Shortly before ovulation, mucus liquefies, becomes stringy and elastic. Such discharge also appears within 1-2 days after unprotected sexual intercourse. This is also considered the norm. If a woman is very worried about viscous vaginal discharge, it is better to consult a gynecologist and undergo an examination. Some diseases, especially those of an inflammatory nature, can lead to increased production of vaginal secretions, but other health complaints are usually present.
Most often, the nature of vaginal discharge changes with urogenital infections.They can appear not only due to unprotected intimate contacts, but also as a result of changes in the microflora of the vagina under the influence of unfavorable external and internal factors. Hormonal disorders, prolonged use of antibiotics and a general weakening of immunity contribute to a change in the microbial balance.
Signs of pathology
When vaginal discharge is associated with gynecological diseases, additional pathological signs appear:
- pain in the lower abdomen and lower back;
- copious yellow-green discharge with an unpleasant odor or curdled consistency;
- discomfort during urination and intimate contact;
- redness of the vulva, swelling of the external genital organs;
- menstrual irregularities, etc.
In the presence of the above signs, a woman should be alert. It is recommended to make an appointment with a gynecologist, tell a specialist about your problems and undergo a comprehensive examination. Based on the results of the examination and tests, the doctor can diagnose and, if necessary, select the appropriate treatment.
The importance of good quality intimate hygiene in case of lingering discharge
Stretching vaginal discharge should not cause significant discomfort.But mucus often stains laundry. Plus, sticky vaginal discharge is a breeding ground for many bacteria and fungi. In order to prevent the development of infectious and inflammatory diseases, it is necessary to monitor the quality of personal hygiene, wash regularly and use special protective equipment. This will allow you to maintain maximum comfort in the intimate area throughout the day. When choosing personal care products, choose products with a natural and safe composition that do not irritate the skin and maintain a healthy vaginal microflora.
Carefree® panty liners help to solve the problem of non-menstrual flow, which can be quite heavy, especially in the middle of a woman’s cycle. The delicate surface immediately absorbs mucus, allowing you to feel comfortable.
Laboratory diagnostics of sputum at SZCDM
Pathological discharge from the respiratory tract is called sputum . It is a secretory product that is secreted by epithelial cells and accumulates on the walls of the respiratory system.Normally, sputum is absent, and the secret that the respiratory system produces is swallowed. During illness, it becomes too much and he clears his throat.
Sputum examination is necessary in the presence of a pathological process in the lungs and bronchi. The analysis will determine the causes of the pathology, the stage of the process and the nature of the disease. This study is assigned in dynamics, which allows you to assess the adequacy of therapy and adjust it, if necessary.
The attending physician may prescribe a sputum analysis if there is a prolonged cough, a chronic pathological process in the organs of the respiratory system, if the diagnostic picture is unclear.
Types of sputum examination
There are the following types of sputum examination:
Go to analyzes
Macroscopic analysis allows you to assess the general properties and nature of sputum.The amount of sputum, its consistency, color, odor are assessed. Also, impurities, their nature and quantity, various fibers are studied. You can determine pus, mucous particles, serous fluid, elements of a putrefactive process or tissue decay, blood, fibrin fibers. These elements can be absent, occur one by one or in combinations with each other.
Microscopic analysis gives a more accurate picture of the composition of sputum. Magnification allows you to determine the presence of cells, tissue elements.It can be traces of epithelium, leukocytes, eosinophils, erythrocytes.
Bacteriological examination helps to confirm or exclude the presence of microorganisms in the sputum. It can be bacteria, fungus, parasites. An analysis is also carried out for sensitivity to antibiotic therapy, which makes the treatment more effective, shortens its time and eliminates the wrong tactics of patient management.
Chemical analysis of sputum is less informative. A reaction to hemosiderin is carried out, which allows us to talk about an impurity of blood.Also, evaluates the acidity of the biomaterial.
Sputum can be classified according to several criteria. The main parameter is its character. There are such types of sputum:
It is observed in asthma and inflammatory processes. Has a viscous consistency, transparent color, glassy character.
Accompanies the breakthrough of an abscess or empyema into the lumen of the bronchus. Has a white color with a tint of yellow or green, opaque, thick, has a characteristic odor.
- Mucopurulent sputum is produced in inflammatory processes with a bacterial pathogen. It is a viscous mass, cloudy, heterogeneous, interspersed with pus and mucus.
May contain blood streaks or formed clots. This happens during an oncological process, tuberculosis. The blood can be scarlet or crimson, depending on the type and duration of the bleeding.
Sputum of a liquid consistency is the result of sweating of water from the capillaries into the lungs, it is observed with blood retention in the pulmonary circulation, pulmonary edema.May be pinkish.
How to prepare for laboratory sputum diagnostics?
It is necessary to collect material for analysis in the morning, on an empty stomach. Preparation for collecting sputum includes rinsing the oropharynx, spitting saliva. The task of correct collection is the selection of only the sputum that is coughing up, without impurities from the mouth or nose.
The patient is advised to draw more air into the lungs and start coughing.After that, the material is taken.
How is the material collected for analysis?
The material for research is collected in a sterile container. After coughing up the material, the container is sealed and sent to the laboratory. It is important that the sputum is fresh, otherwise the acidity changes, and some of the liquid dries out. Individual spittoon bowls are provided with a tight-fitting lid. Prior to transfer to the laboratory, the container with the collected material is stored in the refrigerator.
How are the analysis indicators interpreted?
Evaluation of the results is always carried out in conjunction with the analysis of the clinical picture, symptoms and other studies of the patient. For example, a small amount of sputum is submitted for analysis, but it is important to know the amount of excreted substance per day.
The presence of mucus is observed in acute bronchitis, asthma. Mucus and pus are secreted during bronchiectasis, pneumonia, abscess formation, and various bronchitis.Blood in sputum is observed in severe disease, with pulmonary infarction, malignant growth, tuberculosis. A dark color and an unpleasant odor, the presence of decaying tissues speaks of lung gangrene.
Sputum microscopy can be used to exclude or confirm the presence of parasites. It can be roundworm, echinococcus. Purulent plugs are formed in sputum during decay processes. Areas of tumor or lung tissue may be observed, which indicates organ decay.If a large amount of squamous epithelium appears in the sputum, it is most likely that the material is mixed with saliva and a second analysis is required. Cylindrical epithelial cells in sputum accumulate during an acute inflammatory process in the respiratory tract, asthma, or an oncological process. Leukocytes are part of purulent and mucous sputum and indicate inflammation of the corresponding nature. The presence of eosinophils is characteristic of asthma or the corresponding type of pneumonia. A study of cells for atypicality is carried out – if any are found, tumor growth may be present.Various fibers indicate tissue breakdown. Characteristic spirals and crystals are also found in asthma. These are casts of the airways that form the mucus elements.
The presence of fungus, mycelium, bacteria indicates the presence of a corresponding infection.
What diseases are diagnosed by sputum analysis?
Sputum analysis is a key step in diagnosing a number of respiratory pathologies.Let’s take a closer look at these diseases.
Sputum begins to stand out in the early stages of the disease. At first, it is slimy and viscous, but gradually acquires a mucopurulent character. The amount of material to be separated gradually increases. Under the microscope, you can find leukocytes, many epithelial cells, single erythrocytes.
Patients with chronic bronchitis note the regular expectoration of large amounts of mucopurulent sputum.Streaks of blood are rare, especially after an intense cough. Alveolar macrophages, fibrinous casts of the airways, as well as representatives of the flora appear in the sputum.
Sputum in asthma is slimy and viscous, has a glassy character. There are spiral elements of Kurshman and crystal fragments of Charcot-Leiden, eosinophils.
This pathology is characterized by a large amount of sputum, which can reach 1 liter.The discharge has a dirty, gray-green tint. If you leave phlegm in the dish for a while, it will separate into several types: mucus, pus and serous fluid. Dietrich’s plugs, a significant number of leukocytes, biochemical impurities are observed.
The characteristic sputum is produced in lobar pneumonia. It has a viscous consistency, rusty color, and stands out in small quantities. With the development of the disease, its quantity increases, and a mucopurulent character is acquired.Of the impurities, fibrin and altered erythrocytes are observed. Gradually, the number of erythrocytes becomes smaller, the number of leukocytes rises.
The sputum is two-layered, contains a large amount of pus and mucus impurities. Microscopic examination allows detecting leukocytes, tissue fibers, elements of fatty acids, hematoidin and cholesterol. Bacteriological analysis allows you to assess the nature of the flora.
Sputum is produced in the cavernous form of the disease.This is accompanied by purulent discharge, with impurities of blood and mucus. Microscopy allows you to determine the presence of oxa lenses, fibers, acid crystals. If calcified areas are observed, this indicates the decay of the old tuberculous focus.
The appearance of phlegm is observed during decay. It contains tissue sections, fibers, blood, atypical cells. The character is bloody, slimy.
As you can see, many diseases have common indicators of sputum.This once again reminds of the need for a holistic assessment of the clinical picture, in combination with symptoms and the results of other studies.
Laboratory diagnostics of urine in SZDTSM
One of the routine medical examinations is laboratory urinalysis . This technique is widely used due to the ease of collection of biomaterial and information content. A urine test can confirm or exclude a number of conditions and diseases.Thanks to the study of the analysis, it is possible not only to assess the work of the kidneys, but also the activity of the whole organism, since urine is a waste product and bears the imprint of most of the processes in the body.
All substances, the level of which in the body is increased, are excreted along with the urine, on which laboratory diagnostics are based. A general urine test is prescribed for almost every patient and is included in the number of mandatory studies. There are other methods for studying biomaterial, which are prescribed, most often, for pathology of the kidneys and excretory system.The peculiarity of urine analysis is that the technique is sensitive to changes in the body when there are no symptoms yet, which is important for making a diagnosis in the early stages.
Types of laboratory diagnostics of urine
There are the following types of urine analysis :
Go to analyzes
Depending on the pathology, one or another type of study is prescribed.A general urine test is indicated for any disease, since this is a common clinical research method that is routine. Urine analyzes must be assessed comprehensively, based on blood test data, instrumental research methods, and the general condition of the patient. If necessary, the analysis is prescribed over time. this is especially true for patients of urological, nephrological profile. Urine analysis is of great importance for those who have undergone surgery, are detoxified.Regular checking of urinalysis data is relevant when evaluating treatment, for its correction, if necessary.
Let’s consider each technique in more detail.
One of the main research methods used in medical practice. Based on the fact that urine is a complex solution of minerals, salts and organic matter. Thousands of substances are dissolved in water, which makes up the majority of urine.To a greater extent, urea and sodium chloride are excreted in the urine. Otherwise, even in healthy people, the composition of urine is constantly changing. The general analysis includes the assessment of transparency, acidity, density. The amount of basic elements of the sediment is studied – the level of protein, glucose, ketone bodies, blood corpuscles, pigments.
The general analysis of urine allows you to control and adjust the treatment, provides comprehensive information about what processes occur in the body. It is fast to execute and does not require complex equipment, therefore it is widespread and often used.
A general urine test does not require special preparation. In urgent cases, a collection is carried out, regardless of the preparation of the patient.
Urine analysis according to Nechiporenko
The technique was proposed by a specialist urologist, A.Z. Nechiporenko. The peculiarity of the technique – the calculation of the studied parameters is carried out not in the field of view, as in the general analysis, but in a unit of urine. The technique is highly informative, does not require significant costs and time, is possible with a small amount of urine and does not require special preparation.
It is used as a refinement of the general analysis if it showed deviations. Some indicators are not thoroughly covered by the general analysis and more detailed research is required. It does not replace the general analysis, but complements it. It is widely used in urology, therapy, surgery and nephrology.
A urine test according to Nechiporenko is prescribed if traces of blood, leukocytes, traces of protein are found in the general analysis. The technique is informative in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the kidneys and urinary system.The analysis changes the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, cylinders. The composition of the cylinders and their structure are assessed.
Measurement of protein level in urine
The protein that is excreted from the body in the urine is only traces of the total amount of protein that is filtered and reabsorbed back into the kidney structures every day. Sometimes, protein is elevated based on functional changes, even in healthy people. This is observed with changes in blood circulation indicators, acute diseases, changes in temperature.Functional proteinuria disappears simultaneously with the cause that caused it.
Proteinuria – the content of protein in the urine, indicates a decrease in the normal function of the kidneys to retain protein in the body. This can be increased filtration or decreased reabsorption. Also, protein can be initially increased in the body, and its excess is excreted in the urine.
Microscopic analysis of urine
This method allows you to study the organized and unorganized urine sediment, to assess the number and quality of cylinders.We are talking about more than ten indicators. We take into account epithelial cells and casts, blood cells. From unorganized sediment, the level of salts, ions, minerals is measured. Most often, the level of urates, phosphates and oxalates is studied. An increase in these indicators may indicate serious metabolic disorders and diseases.
The casts mean casts of the urinary tract, which are formed from various substances – hyaline, erythrocytes, epithelium.They are formed in the renal tubules and speak of impaired renal function, as well as general changes in the body.
Evaluation of urine glucose
Normally, urine contains a low concentration of glucose. It is not detected with the standard research method, because the norms of the indicators correspond to the absence of glucose in the urine. If glucose is detected in urine, it is called glucosuria. Most often, this is associated with an increase in glucose in the body (hyperglycemia).It is not scary if glucose rises with a high intake of carbohydrates, taking certain medications. It happens that glucose in the blood is at a normal level, but its concentration in the urine is increased – this happens in some pathologies, during gestation. Be sure to take into account the consumption of carbohydrates and the volume of urine that is excreted from the body per day, this makes the analysis more objective.
Basic properties of urine and pathology in which they change
The main indicators of urine include:
Let’s consider these indicators in more detail.
Normally, the volume of a portion of urine is 100-300 ml. A low amount of urine volume indicates kidney failure, dehydration. Polyuria is an increase in the volume of urine, which may indicate the presence of diabetes, pyelonephritis and other conditions. Distinguish oliguria – the daily amount of urine up to 500 ml. It occurs with pathologies of the heart, kidneys. There is also anuria – the daily amount of urine is up to 200 ml. This is a serious condition that occurs in cancer, meningitis, and acute kidney failure.
In addition to the volume of urine, the nature of urination is assessed. This may be the predominance of nocturnal diuresis over daytime, although normally it should be the other way around. Abnormalities include small and frequent portions of urine, painful urination, involuntary acts, and false urges. It is necessary to assess these indicators in a comprehensive manner, because they form a complete clinical picture.
Normal urine is straw yellow in color.A lot can be said about the color change. For example, bile pigments, which increase in urine with hepatitis, cirrhosis, disorders of bile outflow, give an orange hue. Red color is observed with an increase in erythrocytes in the urine. It accompanies pyelonephritis, passage of kidney stones, cancer, tuberculosis. A greenish-white color is observed with blotches of pus. Black urine occurs in case of poisoning. intoxications. Urine can be brown, it is also compared to the color of beer – this happens when there are disorders in the metabolism of bile pigments, dehydration, the use of certain foods and chemicals.
The color of urine may vary depending on food, medication. A normal color does not exclude changes and pathology, but a violation of this indicator clearly speaks of the problem.
In some conditions, urine changes its odor. For example, when it is inflamed, it smells like ammonia. Diabetic patients have a slight acetone odor. Normal urine odor is specific, but not harsh, without additional shades.This indicator is not specific and is not widely used. Rather, it is an indicator that can alert the patient and serve as a reason to see a doctor.
There should be no foam in the urine. It can appear with jaundice, increased protein, diabetes and other metabolic disorders.
Normally, the urine should be clear. It becomes cloudy if it has impurities of pus, salts, a large amount of mucus or corpuscles.This is observed in infectious diseases. In the laboratory, different reagents are used and they study which one will make the urine clear. For this, acids, alcohol, heating are used. The effectiveness of a particular method indicates what caused the clouding of urine.
An increase in the indicator indicates a decrease in water in the body, and a decrease in kidney pathology. The norm is 1018-1025 units. The level of density is influenced by the amount of protein, glucose, sediment, and the presence of bacteria.Low density is observed with diabetes, renal failure, hypertension, and the use of diuretics. High density is observed with various intoxications, edema.
Acidity of urine
The norm of urine pH is 5-7, that is, slightly acidic or neutral. A more acidic environment is observed with tuberculosis, nephritis, gout, acidotic changes in the body. Also, acidic urine is observed with an increased use of animal proteins, some medicines.
An alkaline reaction accompanies a high amount of vegetables in the diet, the use of alkaline mineral waters, hyperkalemia, alkalosis, and inflammatory diseases.
Standards and interpretation of research results
Norm – up to 0.033 g / l
Reasons for the increase: diabetes, pathology of the cardiovascular system, amyloidosis, metabolic disorders.
Norm – absent
Increased in diabetes, urinary tract disorders, inflammatory processes in the kidneys.
Normal – absent
Increased in pathology of the liver, biliary tract.
Normal – absent. Appear with diabetes.
Norm – no more than 2 in the field of view
They appear with urolithiasis, pyelonephritis, infectious diseases, systemic pathologies and poisoning.
Normally, 3-5 cells may be present in the field of view.
An increase in the indicator occurs with cystitis, prostatitis, urethritis and other inflammatory processes.
Normally should not be detected.
They appear in renal pathology, cardiovascular diseases, hyperthermia.
Appear with pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis, nephropathy with diabetes, some infections and poisoning.
Normally, they shouldn’t be.
Appear with changes in diet, severe physical exertion, gout, kidney failure.
How to Prepare for Diagnosis
For the study, the morning urine portion is used. It is necessary to conduct a thorough toilet of the external genital organs, as this makes the diagnosis more accurate.There is no collection of urine during menstruation. On the eve, it is necessary to limit the use of vegetables, fruits that have a bright color. In the evening, you cannot eat spicy marinades, sauces, smoked meats, honey. Also, it is worth limiting the use of certain medications. Check with your doctor in advance. It is advisable to avoid strenuous physical activity before collecting urine. Limit consumption of alcohol, strong tea, coffee.
How to properly collect material for research?
After appropriate preparation, the urine is collected in a dry sterile container.To do this, you need to use a special container designed for single use. It is better not to collect the first portion of urine, as it may contain traces of flushing from the external genitalia. It is best to start collecting with a clean, second portion of urine. The container should not touch the body during the collection of material. It is better to stop collecting until the end of the act of urination. After collecting the required portion, the container is tightly closed with a lid.
Please note that urine collection should be done shortly before the test.Do not store the container for more than 2 hours and keep it in a cool place.
Collection of daily urine
If you are scheduled to collect your urine for 24 hours, follow your normal lifestyle and drinking routine. The first portion of the morning is poured out, and all the rest of the urine is collected throughout the day. It is necessary to collect in a dish with a wide mouth and sufficient volume. All the time during the day, the dishes should be in a cool place, but it should not be allowed to freeze.The start time of the collection and its end must be the same.
Analysis according to Nechiporenko
For analysis, it is necessary to collect the average portion of the first morning urine. During urination, a man should pull the skin fold over the penis and release the opening of the urethra. Women need to part their labia.
The beginning of urination occurs in the first channel, the next portion is collected in the second, and the last in the third.The second portion should prevail in volume.
Analysis for bacteriological research
The collection is carried out in the morning, after a thorough toilet of the genitals. The second, middle portion is collected.
General rules for any analysis are clean dry dishes, proper storage conditions and fast delivery to the laboratory.
Terms of results readiness
Urine test results can be ready the next day.It may take time for the chemicals to work, but in general, urinalysis is not time consuming.
It is advisable to take tests in the same laboratory, especially if there is a chronic pathology and it is necessary to monitor the condition.
Discharge during pregnancy: types of discharge
Discharge is one of the intimate topics that worries many expectant mothers. What is going on “there”? What is causing all this discharge? In the early stages of pregnancy, vaginal discharge may increase, and at the end of pregnancy, mucus with traces of blood may be one of the signs of an impending birth – this is how the mucous plug that protects the entrance to the uterus during pregnancy comes off.Some secretions that have a specific odor and color may be a sign of infection. In this article, you will learn about the types of discharge you may encounter during pregnancy, which ones are harmless, and which ones require medical attention.
Which discharge during pregnancy is normal?
Normally, discharge during pregnancy is transparent or white, usually sticky, without a pronounced odor. If the discharge leaves a yellowish mark on your linen or pad, don’t worry.During pregnancy, levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone rise and blood flow to the vagina increases, so there may be more discharge, especially in the second trimester. In fact, the discharge protects the fetus from infection, because this is how the vagina naturally cleans itself and removes dead cells. After the full period of gestation (at the 39th week), the discharge may become mucous. This is a mucous plug, which we will discuss in more detail below.
Is the discharge a sign of pregnancy?
As a rule, the discharge does not belong to the signs of pregnancy, but at the very beginning, spotting is sometimes noted.This is implantation bleeding that occurs when a fertilized egg is attached to the lining of the uterus. In early pregnancy, such discharge is usually pink in color, slightly paler than menstrual bleeding.
By the way, if you recently found out that you will become a mother, we recommend calculating the approximate date of birth using our calculator.
What is leucorrhea?
Leucorrhea (leucorrhoea) is the medical term for all types of vaginal discharge, not just those that are characteristic of pregnancy.Typically, it is a clear or whitish mucus-like substance that begins to be produced during puberty. The color, consistency and amount of discharge depends on the day of the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, there may be more discharge than usual, but this is completely natural.
What discharge during pregnancy is a sign of infection?
Unfortunately, during pregnancy, the body is more prone to vaginal infections. The reason is that, due to pregnancy hormones, the composition of the vaginal flora changes, so the body is more susceptible to diseases such as thrush and bacterial vaginosis.
Any change in the color, odor, or consistency of vaginal discharge can indicate an infection, so be alert during pregnancy. Changes also occur with bacterial vaginosis – because of it, the discharge, as a rule, acquires a pungent fishy odor and a gray, white or green color. With thrush, the discharge can be viscous, lumpy, white. If you notice these symptoms or something else is causing you concern, talk to your doctor, who will find treatment.Untreated vaginal infection can spread to the uterus, and this is already dangerous for the health of the fetus.
When should I see a doctor?
If the color or consistency of the discharge changes, or if an unpleasant odor develops, consult a doctor. Also, you should consult a doctor if you experience itching or pain when urinating. Wateriness or traces of blood in your discharge may mean that you are leaking water or a mucus plug. If your due date is less than 37 weeks, this may indicate the onset of premature labor.In this case, you should consult a doctor at the first symptoms. If at any stage of pregnancy you experience vaginal bleeding (more severe than minor bleeding), see your doctor right away or call an ambulance.
How to avoid a vaginal infection during pregnancy?
In order not to bring bacteria from the intestines into the vagina, wipe should be done from front to back. Wash yourself regularly with water and neutral soap. It is recommended to wear underwear made of cotton or other natural breathable fabric and not wear tight clothes (save your favorite leggings for later).
If an unpleasant odor appears, do not use syringes. Treatment for such symptoms is prescribed by a doctor.
What other changes in the nature of the discharge are worth paying attention to?
Immediately before the onset of pregnancy, during it and immediately after, women sometimes experience the following changes in the nature of the discharge:
Discharge during ovulation. The volume of discharge (leukorrhea) depends on the day of the menstrual cycle. The amount of secretions increases immediately before ovulation (the most favorable time for conception), while they usually have a liquid consistency.Immediately after ovulation, the discharge becomes thicker and less noticeable, and its volume decreases. These fluctuations are usually noticed by women who purposefully plan pregnancy and monitor the periods of ovulation.
Mucous plug. Mucous plug, as the name suggests, consists of mucus that accumulates in the cervix, closing the entrance to the uterine cavity. Its purpose is to protect the fetus from infection. Just before labor starts, the cervix dilates and the plug comes out of the vagina.The color of this mucus is usually clear or slightly pinkish with traces of blood, and its consistency is usually thicker than that of normal pregnancy discharge.
Amniotic fluid. A few hours before the start of the contractions, the fetal bladder breaks through and water leaves. This does not always happen on the same scale as in the movies: some have a small trickle of water, others may have a larger volume of water, and still others do not notice anything at all.
Lochia. Immediately after natural childbirth or cesarean section and separation of the placenta, new discharge appears – lochia. It is a bloody mucus that is secreted for several days after giving birth. At first, it is a thick red discharge, which gradually turns pale and becomes yellowish or white. After cesarean section, the volume of lochia is slightly less than after natural childbirth. Lochia usually lasts four to six weeks after delivery.
During pregnancy, many amazing changes take place in the body.To find out what’s next for you and your baby, download our special pregnancy guide.
color will tell you the state of immunity and the method of treatment
Nasal mucus changes color and consistency for various reasons. In any case, it clearly reflects the state of health.
They are also called vitreous. And it is the safest nasal discharge because it reflects the well-being of the body: there are no respiratory infections.Healthy nasal secretions are made up of water, proteins and dissolved salts. And our body produces it constantly, keeping the mucous membranes moist. This is how they perform their protective function.
Nasal discharge thickened, became “gelatinous”, became cloudy or whitish – this is the first signal of immunity: a cold or ARVI begins. At this point, the development of the disease can still be avoided by helping the body. Drink more fluids, avoid hypothermia, and include more fruits and vegetables in your diet.
It is the color of dead immune cells. Immunity actively fights against pathogenic microflora that has entered the body.
This color of discharge appears when the disease is gaining strength. Viruses or bacteria have taken root in the body, and the immune system is working at full capacity.
This is a signal to visit an otolaryngologist.Such secretions appear in diseases of the respiratory tract, for example, inflammation of the sinuses (sinusitis).
A nasal secret of this shade is quite normal if you have been in a rather dusty place for some time. Once in the nose, the dust is captured by the cilia and settles in the mucus. This does not threaten health.
Traces of blood
Particles of blood can appear in nasal discharge due to a cold or flu.In most cases, this indicates a microtrauma of the mucous membrane. Strong and frequent blowing of your nose can cause nosebleeds. A single rupture of the vessel is safe for health, but if bleeding recurs and does not go away, see your doctor.
Cough? Note the color of the sputum
Sputum is the mucus that is produced in the lungs and bronchial tree. Sputum is known to play an important role in preventing the entry of germs that can cause an infection in the respiratory tract.
Changes in the color of sputum can provide a large amount of information about what happens to the respiratory system during colds and other diseases. Below are the possible color options for sputum:
- sputum is normally transparent, liquid and excreted in small quantities. It consists of water, salts, and a small number of cells of the immune system. Sputum production is not normally felt by a person;
- White sputum signals the occurrence of an inflammatory process in the respiratory tract.Initially, the mucous membrane swells, which slows down the passage of mucus through the airways. When this happens, the mucus becomes more viscous and turns white;
- Yellow mucus means that an active immune response to an infection in the respiratory tract begins. Leukocytes, cells of the immune system that are responsible for fighting bacterial infection, arrive at the site of inflammation;
- green sputum indicates a widespread and strong immune response.A mixture of a large number of white blood cells, bacteria and other cell components, gives mucus a green color;
- sputum of red and brown tint can signal the presence of blood in it. Bleeding can be caused by rupture of small blood vessels in the respiratory system during coughing. But often the presence of blood in the mucus, especially with heavy or prolonged bleeding, may indicate a disease with a severe course. A bright red or pink tint in the sputum means that the bleeding is more recent, while the brown color of the mucus suggests more recent bleeding;
- A black tint of mucus may indicate a fungal infection in the airways and a weakened immune system.In this case, you should immediately seek the advice of a doctor.
Infection is not the only reason for changes in the consistency and color of sputum. The phlegm may be thicker if you are dehydrated, after sleep, or after severe stress. Allergic reactions can also change the color and texture of mucus.
The foamy structure of mucus indicates the presence of air bubbles in the sputum. Whitish-gray, frothy mucus can be a sign of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and should be seen by a doctor.