HFD869 Bluetooth Speaker User Manual Shenzhen Hi-FiD Electronics
Boombox User Manual Thank you Thank you for purchasing Boombox Bluetooth 4.0 Box Speaker. Please read this manual carefully before use. We are not responsible for any person or property damage caused by improper use of this product. We hope you enjoy the louder, richer sound, and features from your Boombox device. Box Contents * Boombox Bluetooth 4.0 Box Speaker. * User Manual with Operation Guide Information * USB Charging Cable * USB Charging Adapter * 3.5mm Stereo Cable Warning To prevent any fires or electrical hazards, do not disassemble or replace any parts of this device. Please contact professional maintenance or qualified service center if there is any damage to the device. 1. Charge the Boombox Box Speaker using the included USB charging cable and adapter for no less than 2 hours. 2. Do not expose this device to rain, water or wet places. 3. Do not place this device in or close to any liquid. 4. Do not place this device on or close to sources of fire. ( Such as : candles, fireplaces or other exposed flames or fire. ) 5. Keep this device away from any hear source, dust and vibration. 6. Be sure to place this device on stable, flat and level surfaces only. 7. Do not place any items on top of this device. 8. Do not use excessive force when using any of the control buttons. 9. Be sure to use and store the USB charging cable and adapter properly. 10. If cleaning is required, use only a dry, soft cloth or a minimally damp cloth without any corrosive solvent or cleaning agent. Technical Specifications: 1. Operation Voltage: 3.7 V 2. Charging Voltage: 5V 3. Output Power: 5 Watts * 2 4. Speaker Spec. : 50mm 2 Ohms 5W 5. Frequency Response: 60HZ ~ 20 KHZ 6. Lithium Battery Capacity: 2500 mAh 7. THD: ≤ 0.5% 8. SNR: ≥ 90 dB 9. Item Size: 60mm * 70mm* 190mm Features: 1. Advanced CSR Brand Bluetooth Version 4.0 . 2. More faster Bluetooth transmission rate and higher audio fidelity, lower power consumption. 3. Honorable person voice prompt. 4. Supports for iPhone’s Siri or Android Voice Calls . 5. Battery level shows on iPhone / iPod / iPad. 6. The indicator light will show RED when charging, and it will go out on a full charge. 7. Button Control for PREV/ NEXT; Answer/ End Phone Call ( Supports the third party call, as well. ) 8. Double 5W loudspeakers high quality stereo sound beyond imagination. 9. Two or more Box Speakers can work at the same time. Operations: Function of parts 1. Power Button Long press Power Button to turn the system on/off. The Power Indicator ( Green ) lights up when the system is turned on. 2. VOL ( volume ) ‐/ + Button Adjusts the volume. While in bluetooth mode, there will be a “ Beep ” sound alert at a maximum volume; While in AUX mode, there is no “ Beep ” sound. 3. PREV / NEXT Button While in Bluetooth mode, press PREV / NEXT Button for previous song track / next song track. 4. Play/Pause Button While in Bluetooth mode, short press Play / Pause Button for Play / Pause. Long press Play / Pause Button for first use of Bluetooth Pairing. 5. M (mode) Button Press M Button for Bluetooth/ AUX mode switching （When playing music from your Bluetooth devices, the Bluetooth mode is always given priority.）. On wired connection status, long press M button to make two devices sound at the same time. 6. Phone Button On Bluetooth connected status, long press Phone button for iPhone Siri or Android voice dial; Press twice to redial the latest call. When a call comes, short press Phone button to answer, long press Phone button to reject / end the call. 7. Earphone Jack Earphone output or AUX output ( Long press M Button ). 8. AUX IN Jack Connects to the headphone jack of a computer, portable audio device, etc. 9. USB Jack Charges the device by the USB cable. This jack is used for charging only, Audio signal, etc. cannot be sent via this jack. Power source 1. To turn the system on/ off Long press power button to turn the system on/ off. And operate according to voice prompt. 2. To charge the device. Firmly connect the supplied adapter to USB jack on the side of the device via the USB cable, and plug the adapter to a wall outlet ( mains ). Charging begins automatically, whether the system is turned on or off. The charging status is displayed on the device ( The indicator light will show RED. Once the device is fully charged, the light will go out. ) Bluetooth Connection 1. Long press Power button to turn on the system. The power indicator ( Green ) lights up. 2. Press Play/ Pause Button for 3 seconds, along with voice prompt. When the indicator light shows fast blue and red flash alternatively, the system enters pairing mode. ( Notes: Pairing mode is cancelled after 3 minutes, along with a “ Beep ” sound. If you want to enter into pairing mode again, start over from step 2. ) 3. Perform the pairing procedure on the Bluetooth device to detect the system. A list of detected devices appears on the display of the Bluetooth stereo audio source device. This system is displayed as “ Hi‐FiD Boombox ” If “ Hi‐FiD Boombox ” is not displayed, repeat from step 2. ( Notes: When pairing, be sure to keep both the Bluetooth devices within 1 m range of each other. ) 4. Select “Hi‐FiD Boombox ” shown in the display of the Bluetooth device. 5. If Passcode * input is required on the display of the Bluetooth device, input “ 0000 ”. ( Notes: Passcode may be called “ Passkey ”, “ PIN code ”, “ PIN number ” or “ Password ”. ) 6. Start the Bluetooth connection from the Bluetooth device. The system memorises the device as the last connected device. Some Bluetooth devices may connect with the system automatically when pairing is complete. Listening to the system Long press Power button to turn on/ off the system. After turn on the system, short press M button here are the cyclical patterns “ AUX → Bluetooth ” 1. Bluetooth Mode a. On the status of Bluetooth connection, you may only switch to “ AUX ” mode by pressing M Button once your Bluetooth device is paused. At this time, Bluetooth is still connecting, and bluetooth mode has a priority. When you replay the music via Bluetooth, the audio from “ AUX ” mode automatically stop. When the Bluetooth device is paused, “ AUX ” mode automatically opens after 3 seconds. b. Short press “ PREV ” / “ NEXT ” for previous & next; Short press “ V+ ” / “ V‐ ” for volume up & down ( Notes: Volume can be adjusted separately on all the modes including Bluetooth, AUX and phone call, etc. ) c. During playing the music on Bluetooth mode, if there is an incoming call, the Bluetooth music automatically stop to enter into Call Function. Short press Phone button to answer, long press Phone button to reject / end the call. When talking , short press “ phone” button to switch over if another call is coming in; Long press “ phone” button to end the call. While in Bluetooth mode, press and hold “ phone” button for 3 seconds to enter into iPhone Siri or Android voice dial; Press twice to redial the latest call. 2. AUX Mode a. Press M button to select AUX mode. Short or long press “ V+ ”/“V‐” for volume up & down. b. Earphone mode. While play music on AUX ( or Bluetooth ) mode , plug earphone cord into earphone jack. c. Two or more Box Speakers can work at the same time via a 3.5mm audio cable ( i.e. Box‐ A and Box‐ B ) . When playing the music via Box‐ A, keep one end of a 3.5mm audio cable plug into Earphone jack of Box‐ A, and the other one end into Box‐ B AUX jack. ( Ensure Box‐ B is on AUX mode ). ( Notices: The loudspeakers of Box‐ A will be automatically shut off when Earphone jack is plugged. Long press “M” button of Box‐ A for 5 seconds to open the loudspeakers again, then the Earphone output function is activated.) One by one, Box‐A‐‐‐‐‐Box‐B‐‐‐‐‐Box‐C‐‐‐‐‐Box‐D‐‐‐‐‐‐Box‐N…… So that they will make a super powerful music sound field, and take you into the atmosphere of music and passion. FCC INFORMATION This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by tuning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try correct the interference by one or more of the receiving measures: Reorient or replace relocate the receiving antenna. Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver. Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected. Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help. FCC WARNING: This equipment may generate or use radio frequency energy. Changes or modifications to this equipment may cause harmful interference unless user could lose the authority to operate this equipment if an unauthorized change or modification is made. RF warning statement: The device has been evaluated to meet general RF exposure requirement. The device can be used in portable exposure condition without restriction.
Well SPKR-BT-REBEL-WL Bluetooth Speaker Instruction Manual
Thank you for choosing WELL. Please read carefully the following instructions and keep them within reach.
Reorder No: SPKR-BT-REBEL-WL
- Never use the speaker when charging.
- Do not let children play with the product.
- Clean the exterior with a slightly damp, non-abrasive cloth.
- Do not hit the product.
- Do not use in high-temperature environments.
- Product performance will decrease when used in cold regions.
- Do not throw the product into the fire.
- Do not immerse the speaker in water or any other liquid.
- Do not wrap the cable around the body.
- Do not operate the appliance if it has a damaged cable after the device has shown signs of malfunction, has been dropped, or damaged in any way. Unit inspection and/or repair should be done by a qualified person before further use.
- Do not operate or place the speaker on or near any hot surface or combustible materials and keep it away from open flames.
- 1x Bluetooth Speaker
- 1x USB Charging Cable
- 1x Dual 3.5mm Auxiliary Cable
- 1x Instruction Manual
|1. Micro USB Port
2. Auxiliary Cable Input
3. On / Off switch
4. USB Port (USB no included)
5. Micro SD Card Port (Micro SD Card not included)
|6. NEXT / VOL “+” button
7. Play / Pause button
8. PREVIOUS / VOL button “ – “
9. Charge status indicator with LED light
Adjusting the volume
- Press and hold the VOL ”-” button to decrease the volume.
- Press and hold the VOL “+” button to increase the volume.
- Press the play/pause button only once to play or pause a song; press and hold for Bluetooth / FM/ AUX / USB mode change.
- Press the VOL ”-” button once to go to the PREVIOUS song.
- Press the VOL “+” button once to go to the NEXT song.
On / Off Switch
- Move the on / off switch to “On”, the status indicator with LED light will turn blue.
- Move the on / off switch to “Off”, the light will turn off.
When you turn on the speaker you will be in Bluetooth mode. Activate the Bluetooth connection on your phone and search or scan the Bluetooth name “BT SMILE” and press the name to connect the audio. The audio will play a “Ding Dong” sound indicating that the Bluetooth has been successfully connected. Play a song or video on your cell phone to start the speaker playing. The device that has been previously connected to the Bluetooth of the speaker will connect automatically the next time. When the cell phone’s Bluetooth is disconnected, the audio will play a “Didu” warning sound. The maximum signal reception distance is 10 meters.
When the phone’s Bluetooth is connected to audio, double-click the “play/pause” button to dial the phone’s call log number. When making a call, click (short press) the play key/pause once to connect to the call and then click (short press) the play/pause key again to hang up the call.
Micro SD card mode
Insert a micro SD card, the speaker will recognize automatically (with a voice message) And it will automatically stream music in MP3 format.
By connecting your music/phone player to the speaker via the supplied 3.5mm dual audio cable, the speaker will automatically recognize it.
Firstly, insert the AUXILIARY AUDIO CABLE as the radio antenna and then press and hold the “play/ pause” key to switch to the FM radio mode. Press the “play/pause” key for a short time to search for and store the radio station automatically. After the search is complete, go to the radio station to play. Press the previous or next music to select the radio station.
- As the product has a built-in non-removable rechargeable battery, please use the provided micro USB cable for charging. Connect the micro USB input to the Bluetooth speaker and the USB input to a computer or adapter (not included).
- The charging voltage and current are 5V / 1A, please charge the speaker with input power less than 5V / 1A.
- During the charging process, the red indicator light will turn on and then off after having the full charge.
A. Only use the charger included with the product.
B. Battery performance may decrease as you charge and listen to music multiple times. It is a normal phenomenon for all rechargeable batteries.
- Follow the instructions in the manual before operating the speaker.
- Please charge the product with input power below 5V / 1A to protect the battery.
- Do not use this product near water. Do not immerse this product in any liquid or splash any liquid on this product.
- Store or use the product in a normal temperature environment.
- Keep the product away from heat sources such as radiators, hot air regulators, stoves, or other heat-generating instruments, as it is not resistant to high temperatures.
- Do not block the product ports, such as charger port, LED port, microphone, etc.
- To protect your hearing and extend the life of the speaker, setting the volume at the maximum level for a long time is not recommended.
- Do not hit or throw the product.
- Do not use the speaker near strong electric or magnetic fields.
- Do not disassemble the speaker in any way on your own.
|Product size:||225 x 60 x 64 mm|
|Net weight:||439 gr approx.|
|Playtime approx .:||3-4 hours|
|Charging time approx:||2.5 – 3.5 hours|
|Functions:||Bluetooth, AUX, Micro SD Card, FM, USB.|
|Battery:||3.7V / 1200 mAh|
|Input power:||DC 5V / 1A|
|Output power:||3W (X2)|
Waste electrical and electronic equipment are a special waste category, collection, storage, transport, treatment, and recycling are important because they can avoid environmental pollution and are harmful to health.
Submitting waste electrical and electronic equipment to special collection centers makes the waste to be recycled properly and protecting the environment. Do not forget! Each electric appliance that arrives at the landfill, the field, pollutes the environment!
Importer & distributor:
SC VITACOM ELECTRONICS SRL
CIF: RO 214527
[email protected], www.vitacom.ro
Documents / Resources
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How to Connect a Bluetooth Speaker to Windows 10: Laptop & PC
Bluetooth speakers are great and you probably connect one to your phone all the time, but how do you pair one with a Windows PC or laptop? We’ll show you how with these easy steps.
It’s particularly handy when you don’t have permanent PC speakers or the ones built into your laptop are poor quality. We’ll be showing you how to do this in Windows 10.
How to connect a Bluetooth speaker in Windows 10
1) The first step is to open the Settings app (Start then the cog wheel) and select ‘Devices’ – make sure it’s the newer Settings app first introduced in Windows 8 and not the more advanced Control Panel.
2) In the Devices menu, select the Bluetooth tab on the left-hand side and toggle Bluetooth to with the switch on if it says off.
3) Turn on your Bluetooth speaker and put it into pairing mode. The method of toggling pairing mode on varies between manufacturers – check your Bluetooth speaker manual for more details on how this is done. Most will have a dedicated pairing button.
4) Once in pairing mode, head back to the Bluetooth menu on the PC and wait for the speaker to pop up in the list of discovered devices.
5) Click the device and then click pair – depending on the Bluetooth speaker, you may be required to enter a number to complete the pairing process, but it isn’t always the case.
6) Once it’s connected, all Windows 10 audio should be rerouted via the Bluetooth speaker.
If this isn’t the case and there is no audio playback via your speaker, left-click the volume icon in the bottom right corner of Windows and choose it as the source above the volume slider.
Otherwise, right-click and open sound settings where you can also choose the source.
It’s also worth noting that some apps may need to be restarted for changes to apply – we’ve found this to be true with the likes of iTunes and Spotify in the past, along with many PC games.
Which speaker should I buy?
Now you know how to connect Bluetooth speakers to your PC/laptop in Windows 10, the next decision you need to make is which Bluetooth speaker to buy. Don’t worry though, as the Tech Advisor team has done all the leg work and has two separate charts full of amazing Bluetooth speakers.
For those that don’t want to pay over the odds for a Bluetooth speaker, we offer you our best budget Bluetooth speaker chart. However, for those that value high-quality audio no matter the price, you should take a look at our high-end Bluetooth speaker chart. There, we explain the kinds of things you should look out for when buying a Bluetooth speaker such as waterproofing, NFC support, etc, along with a few of our personal favourite speakers that we’ve used and reviewed ourselves.
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USER MANAUAL SHKC6800 AND SHKAMP5800BT www.sharkmotorcycleaudio.com CONTENTS： FUNCTIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS……………………………………………3 FUNCTIONS KEY INSTRUCTION………………………………………………..5 INSTALLATION………………………………………………………………………6 IMPORTANT SAFETY PRECAUTIONS…………………………………………..7 2 FUNCTIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS Details functions on amplifier SD slot input USB slot input 3.5mm Aux input for any MP3 player or other audio device( even CD’s, tablet, IPad, ect.) Bluetooth indicator light z z Bluetooth function: Advanced A2DP, stereo music/ audio function (transmits from A2DP enabled cell phone, MP3, GPS, IPAD, IPAD2, Iphone, Tablet pc, computer, ect.) FM radio ( Frequency range 87-108MHz) IR indicator light z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z Wired remote control Wireless remote control External antenna interface for Bluetooth and FM radio Details functions for remote control Power/Mode Key Volume +/Next/ Last song Pause Key FM radio indicator light MP3 indicator light Wireless remote control: Wireless remote control: CHCH CH+ Next song Last song Pause key -/ Volume+/Volume+ EQ 100+ 200+ Number key ( from 0 to 9) 3 Specifications: SHKC6800 Operation Voltage---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10~10V RMS Power @4Ω10% THD---------------------------------------------------------------------------60W*4 MAX Power @4Ω10% THD---------------------------------------------------------------------------250W*4 SHKAMP5800BT Operation Voltage----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10~10V RMS Power @4Ω10% THD----------------------------------------------------------------------------60W*2 MAX Power @4Ω10% THD---------------------------------------------------------------------------300W*2 THD---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------＜0.1％ S/N-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------＞50 dB Channel Separation-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------＞50 dB Freauency Response------------------------------------------------------------------------------20Hz-20kHz Sensitivity----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------150mv Fuse Rating----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5Ag SPEAKERS Voice Coil Impedance-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 Response Frequency-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------165HZ Effective Frequency Range-------------------------------------------------------------------------FO-12kHz Input Sound Pressure Level-------------------------------------------------------------------------------88dB Rated Input Power--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------75W Max Input Power--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------100W Distortion------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------≤5％ ACCESSORIES Amplifier Loud Speaker External Antenna Wired Remote Control Wireledd Remote Control Power Cable Audio Cable Mounting Plate Screw Kit User Manual 1PC 2PCS 1PC 1PC 1PC 1PC 1PC 2PCS 1PC 1PC SHK6800 Loud Speaker Mounting Plate 4pcs 4pcs 4 FUNCTION KEY INSTRUCTION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Volume + Volume – Last song ( short press), Fast forward(long press) Next song( short press), Fast backward (long press) Play/Pause key Power on /MODE key, Power on (long press), MODE( short press) IR 3.5mm Aux input for mp3 player or audio device. Insert SD card to play USB BT indicator Insert SD card to play 3.5 mm Aux input for mp3 player or audio device.Long press Power on key to turn on the unit, short press MODE key to chose “ Audio input” on the screen, like the above picture. Then it can play the song on SD card and MP3 in 3.5mm Aux input. Play/Pause key: Long press (3 seconds) Play/Pause key to chose 1, A, R, D( play mode), “1” means one song recycle play, “A” means All song recycle play, “R” means Random play, “D” means Normal play. It shows these small 4 letters on the screen in yellow color. FM radio: from 87MHZ to 108MHZ Short press MODE key to chose FM radio, long press Play/Pause key to auto search radio station and save. Bluetooth (Wireless connect): Short press MODE key to chose Bluetooth and open Bluetooth on your cell phone(IPHONE), IPAD, Tablet pc, GPS, computer ect. To pair and connect the name of “BTA215”, press the pass word: “0000”. You can operate the control operation box to control, next last song, next song, volume control, play and pause, ect. If you do not close the Bluetooth, even you press to 5 chose other Mode, like Audio input, FM radio, ect. It auto connect to Bluetooth, no need to pair again. INSTALLATION SHKAMP5800BT 6 SHKC6800 IMPORTANT SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. Please don’t operate the unit when you are driving. Please take off external antennas when raining. Please don’t connect the wrong power, the unit working voltage 10-15V DC at 4Ohm. Please don’t touch the amplifier when it is working, to avoid hurting your hand. and install the amplifier in a safety place. 7
Oregon Scientific User Manual and Instructions
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Troubleshooting a product? Product Support
If you can’t connect a Bluetooth accessory to your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch
If your Bluetooth accessory won’t pair or connect to your iOS or iPadOS device, learn what to do.
If you can’t connect to one of these devices
To get help pairing a Bluetooth accessory—like a wireless keyboard—to your iOS or iPadOS device, try these steps:
- Make sure that your Bluetooth accessory and iOS or iPadOS device are close to each other.
- Turn your Bluetooth accessory off and back on again.
- Make sure that your Bluetooth accessory is on and fully charged or connected to power. If your accessory uses batteries, see if they need to be replaced.
- If there’s an app that you use with the Bluetooth accessory, go to Settings > Privacy > Bluetooth on your iOS or iPadOS device, and make sure that you’ve turned on Bluetooth for the app.
If you still can’t pair or connect your Bluetooth accessory
- If you previously connected your Bluetooth accessory to your iOS or iPadOS device, unpair the accessory, put it back in discovery mode, then try to pair and connect it again.
- If you can pair your accessory with some devices but not your iOS or iPadOS device, unpair the accessory from your other devices. Then try to pair with your iOS or iPadOS device again.
- Check with the accessory manufacturer to make sure that your accessory supports your iOS or iPadOS device.
- If you still have any of these issues, contact Apple Support:
- You can’t turn on Bluetooth or the setting is grayed out.
- You can’t connect any Bluetooth accessories with your device.
- The accessory manufacturer confirmed that your accessory is working correctly.
If you need help pairing a Bluetooth accessory to your Apple TV, learn what to do.
Information about products not manufactured by Apple, or independent websites not controlled or tested by Apple, is provided without recommendation or endorsement. Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the selection, performance, or use of third-party websites or products. Apple makes no representations regarding third-party website accuracy or reliability. Contact the vendor for additional information.
90,000 Beware, sharks – Society – Kommersant
For centuries, sharks have been considered the most terrible enemy of man at sea. Legends were written about them. Sharks were a nightmare for fishermen and sailors, frightening readers of books about pirates. Sharks are popular characters in horror films, starting with the iconic “Jaws”. But in our time, the sharks themselves were in the role of victims, and man became their most terrible enemy.
Shark hunting in progress
Over the past half century, the number of sharks and rays in the world’s oceans has decreased by 71.1%.This is the sad conclusion of a study published by an international team of scientists at the end of January 2021 on the website of the journal Nature.
Calculations were made based on the Global Living Planet Index (WWF) and the Red List Index of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The first measures the size of populations of living things of various species, the second determines the status of the main groups of species and assesses the risk of extinction over time.
The decrease in the population of sharks and rays, the authors of the study, are primarily attributed to overfishing. (Stingrays belong to the same class of cartilaginous fish as sharks, therefore, they are combined in many scientific publications.)
Over the past half century, the fishing effort of such fishing gear as purse seine and pelagic longline has more than doubled (most sharks are by them). As a result, from 1970 to the present, the fishing load has increased 18 times.The peak catch was reached at the beginning of this century. According to various estimates, in the early 2000s, from 63 million to 273 million sharks were caught annually in the world.
In the IUCN Red List, 24 out of 31 species of sharks and rays are classified as endangered. They have been assigned conservation status categories “vulnerable”, “endangered” or “critically endangered” (that is, the risk of extinction in the wild in the medium term is correspondingly high, very high and extremely high).Back in 1980, only 9 species were threatened with extinction.
In different oceans, the decline in the shark population took place in different ways. In the Atlantic, the number of sharks has been decreasing since 1970, and after 2000 it has stabilized at a low level. In the Pacific Ocean, the rate of decline was high until 1990, then slowed down. The Indian Ocean has experienced a strong continuous decline over the past 50 years. In tropical latitudes, the number of sharks decreased more (by 87.8% with a possible range from 79.8% to 94.3%) than in temperate latitudes (by 40.5% with a possible range from 30.4% to 50.5% ).
As a result of overfishing, the population decline proceeded according to the classical scheme: first, the number of the largest species fell sharply, then the number of medium-sized species, and then of small-sized species. In species with a longer lifespan and later maturation, the decline in numbers was at first faster than in the rest. However, two such species – the white shark and the Atlantic herring shark – have shown signs of population recovery since the turn of the century.
The only species whose population has grown in half a century is the common hammerhead shark.“We have documented an alarming, continuous decline in shark populations around the world, in the world’s largest ecosystem, for half a century, which has led to an unprecedented increase in the risk of extinction of these species,” the study authors write. They also note that the long maturation and slow rates of reproduction in many shark and ray species impede the rapid recovery of their populations.
The study advocates strict bans on shark fishing and scientifically based catch limits.Additional concerns are posed by the threat to food security in low-income developing countries, where sharks have been an important part of the diet for centuries. It is necessary to provide these people with alternative sources of income and food.
Cut and Discard
One of the reasons for catching sharks is shark fin soup. It is a popular festive Chinese dish. The growth of the Chinese economy and the growing prosperity of its inhabitants have contributed to an increase in the demand for fins.The price of fins depends on their quality, size and location on the shark’s body. When sold wholesale in China and Taiwan, the cheapest fins can cost $ 26 per kilogram, the most expensive ones can cost more than $ 600 per kilogram.
Hong Kong is the main center of the world shark fin trade. There are 76 shark species on the local market. The most popular fins are 14 species, of which 10 are endangered.In 2017, an unofficial member of the executive council of Hong Kong Martin Liao (minister without portfolio – Kommersant ) cited the following data in a request to the Ministry of Environmental Protection. Shark fin shipments have declined 50% in ten years. At the same time, the number of cases of smuggling has increased sharply. From 2013 to 2017, customs intercepted and confiscated 23 shipments of shark fins that they were trying to import in violation of the law. The total weight of the confiscated fins was about 4 tons.In 2019, customs intercepted 31 consignments of contraband fins with a total weight of 12 tons.
The coronavirus year 2020 was a year of anti-records. On April 28 and May 4, Hong Kong Customs confiscated two shipments of dried shark fins, 13 tons each. The total cost of the two consignments was HK $ 8.6 million ($ 1.1 million). Both in weight and in value, each shipment exceeded all the contraband shipments of the previous year combined.
The fins arrived in two containers from Ecuador.
According to the Hong Kong authorities, about 31 thousand fox sharks and 7.5 thousand silk sharks were killed for these fins.
Both species are endangered. In accordance with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), trade in them is only possible with the appropriate permits. Both shipments entered Hong Kong without such permits. The accompanying documents stated “dried fish”. Customs officers were alarmed by the fact that this recording was made in Spanish, not English.
Countries and territories with full or partial bans on the extraction of shark fin
Hong Kong legislation was tightened in 2018. Those guilty of trafficking in endangered species without official permits face fines of up to HK $ 10 million ($ 1.3 million) and up to 10 years in prison.Cases of bringing violators to justice are rare. According to the official version, due to lack of evidence. In August 2019, three tourists from the Philippines were arrested with 183 kg of shark fins and 560 g of dried seahorses in their luggage. In January 2021, all three were sentenced to 18 months in prison. As for the owner of a logistics company that processed a 26-ton record smuggled cargo in 2020, he was arrested, but then released from prison on bail.
In September 2020, the US Department of Justice filed charges against 12 individuals and two companies involved in drug and wildlife trafficking and money laundering.In particular, a criminal group that transported its goods from Mexico to China through the United States was charged with the extraction of 6 tons of shark fins.
Countries and territories with bans on the shark fin trade
Most often, fin fishermen simply cut them off from a living shark and then throw it back into the sea.Since a shark needs to swim constantly in order to breathe, it dies without fins. In some countries, this barbaric practice is being fought against by law.
Another way to combat shark overfishing is to ban the fin soup. A number of international hotel chains and many airlines have voluntarily made this commitment.
In 2013, the Chinese authorities decided to ban the serving of shark fin soup (as well as swallow’s nest soup and other wild animal dishes) at official receptions.
In a number of countries, there are bans on the trade of shark fins and, accordingly, soup from them – at the national or regional level.
Almost all of the bans on shark fin harvesting were adopted in the 2010s. The number of countries restricting this fishery can be expected to increase in this decade.
Coronavirus against sharks
In October 2020, Shark Allies, an American non-profit organization, posted a petition on Change.org to stop using sharks to create a coronavirus vaccine.By early February 2021, more than 125 thousand people signed the petition.
We are talking about squalene – a substance that is commercially extracted from fish liver, primarily from shark liver, and then purified for further use (squalene can also be extracted from plants, in particular, squalene is obtained commercially from olives. – “b” ).
Squalene is found in various food products, perfumes and cosmetics, over-the-counter medicines, dietary supplements.
It is also a component of several vaccine adjuvants to enhance the immune response. In a number of European countries, the influenza vaccine FLUAD has been used since 1997, a single dose of which contains about 10 mg of squalene. Squalene-containing adjuvants have also been added to various experimental vaccines.
According to the World Health Organization, as of February 5, 2021, 63 vaccines against COVID-19 are undergoing clinical trials, and 177 vaccines are undergoing preclinical studies.Shark defenders are concerned about 5 vaccines that use an adjuvant containing squalene. They are being developed by GSK, Clover Biopharmaceuticals, Seqirus / University of Queensland / CSL, Medicago Inc. and Farmacologos veterinarios SAC / Universidad Peruana Cayetana Heredia.
According to Shark Allies, 2.7–3 million sharks are killed annually just for the sake of squalene mining (according to other sources, 1 million).
To vaccinate all people on earth using vaccines with an adjuvant containing squalene, Shark Allies estimates that it will take another 490-536 thousand people to die.sharks. On the one hand, it is unlikely that all humans will be vaccinated with such vaccines, so the number of sharks killed for vaccination may be less. On the other hand, if seasonal vaccinations are required, the shark population faces a serious new threat. Shark Allies is calling for other vaccines for the new coronavirus.
Many wild animals can generate more income for people if they are shown to tourists rather than killed. This also applies to sharks.
In April 2020, a team of researchers from Indonesia and the United Kingdom published an article in the scientific journal Frontiers in Marine Science with economic evaluations of shark tourism in Indonesia.According to their calculations, at least 188,931 tourists visit this country annually, for whom the main purpose of the visit or one of its purposes is to observe sharks. In 2017, their share accounted for at least 7% of the country’s total revenues from sea tourism, amounting to $ 1 billion. In the event of a decrease in the shark population by 2027, possible losses in this tourism sector could reach the level of $ 127 million per year. Not to mention the damage to ecosystems.
A 2011 study by scientists from the Australian Institute of Marine Science and the University of Western Australia in the Republic of Palau found that one reef shark brings the tourism business $ 179,000 annually., and throughout life – up to $ 1.9 million. In the case of the sale of the dark-finned gray shark (the largest species living off the coast of Palau), the average price for meat and fins would be $ 108.
A team of scientists from the University of Western Australia led by Joanna Zimmerhackel published their estimates of the impact of shark-watching scuba diving on the Maldives’ tourism industry in 2018. According to the authors of the study, a decline in the shark population could cause damage in the amount of $ 24 million per year, and an increase in the population could bring at least an additional $ 6 million annually.
According to publications in the Egyptian press, each shark in the Red Sea helps diving operators earn $ 200,000, while shark meat costs 50 Egyptian pounds ($ 3.2) per kilogram on the market.
A 2013 study by a group of scientists from the University of British Columbia led by Andres Cisneros-Montemayor provides the following estimates of global shark tourism.590 thousand people are engaged in shark observation every year. They spend $ 314 million on their hobby per year, providing jobs for about 10 thousand people.
Due to COVID-19 quarantine restrictions on shark-watching diving, as in the entire tourism industry, a huge blow has been hit. For example, in the Seychelles, the best season to watch the whale shark, the largest shark species currently in existence, is from September to November. This year, the number of “shark” tourists in the archipelago has decreased by an order of magnitude.
Shark Recognition System
The media loves to report all incidents of shark attacks on humans, so it might seem like this is very common. But it will be wrong. According to the Tracking Sharks website, 78 cases of shark attacks on humans were officially reported in 2020. 14 of them can be considered provoked (the victim was engaged in fishing, spearfishing, feeding sharks). The death toll has become the highest since 2013 – 12 people. Of these 12, eight people died in Australia (the highest rate for the country since 1934), three in the United States and one near the island of Saint Martin in the Caribbean.
Since the beginning of 2021, 10 cases of shark attacks on humans have been registered in the world, one of them fatal in New Zealand.
The death of a New Zealand tourist in Australia was also reported, but an investigation into the circumstances of his death showed that he died in the water from natural causes, and only then a shark bit his corpse.
The Florida Museum of Natural History maintains a database of shark attacks on humans since the 16th century. The 2020 report lists 129 attacks (including 39 provoked) and 13 fatalities.
When compared with mortality from other causes, these numbers are very low. So, according to the WHO, 220-380 people per day die from the bites of poisonous snakes, that is, an order of magnitude more than from sharks per year.
But is it possible to reduce to zero or even further reduce the number of people killed by sharks? And if so, in what way? This problem was considered in their work by a group of researchers from the Australian universities of Wollongong and Newcastle under the leadership of Kai Adams. They recall that in the past, there have been campaigns around the world to capture sharks in coastal waters with their subsequent slaughter or redeployment.All of these campaigns were terminated due to “unacceptable environmental, social and / or economic costs,” the study said.
Australian scientists propose a non-lethal method of controlling sharks – using cameras mounted on airships.
The camera automatically detects the appearance of a shark and transmits the information to the lifeguard on the beach. A survey conducted by the authors on the beach showed that the majority of people rate this approach positively. 84% of respondents reported that they feel safer thanks to camera blimps.
As for sharks, it is too early to talk about their safety. Although there are places in the world where the law is on their side.
90,000 test drive “Sharks” BMW 520 E12
In the early 1970s, the requirements for business-class cars began to gradually change: buyers no longer wanted only comfort, but also dynamics, the ability to overtake a neighbor on the road. The answer to this desire is a series of BMW models.
Today we will meet a business shark: no, not a millionaire, but a Bavarian business-class sedan nicknamed Shark.This is what the E12 series was called for its characteristic “muzzle”.
The appearance of the car is really aggressive, like a predator striving forward. The French designer Paul Braque, the creator of the famous 114 Mercedes, worked on the exterior. Immediately after the resounding success in Stuttgart, he was lured to BMW. It was Braque who determined the style of the models of the Bavarian concern for many years to come. The production of a new series began in 1972, we have a copy of the 1978 release with the index 520 on our test. After restyling, its taillights shifted slightly to the fenders, and the hood acquired a proprietary stamping.Under it is a four-cylinder carburetor engine with a cast-iron block, a working volume of 1.8 liters, and a power of 90 horsepower. These engines have traveled over a million kilometers with proper care. Now, alas, they don’t do that.
Everything in the cabin is simple and tasteful: the seats with comfortable lateral support, there are already seat belts and head restraints. The back row is quite spacious. On the dashboard there is a speedometer, fuel level and coolant temperature indicators. There is a spacious glove compartment in front of the passenger.
True, from the point of view of a modern business class, the equipment is very, very modest. There is no air conditioning, the handles are mechanical, as well as the seat adjustment.
In all its glory, the E12 unfolds on the go. It is a dynamic and very comfortable car to drive. The gears of the four-speed manual gearbox are shifted clearly, and the steering wheel readily responds to any command. Maximum speed – 160 kilometers per hour, acceleration to hundreds – in less than 14 seconds.
This model was very popular.Buyers liked the combination of solidity and sport, as well as the large selection of engines. The E12 was produced until 1982, and more than half of the cars were exported. They served successfully in the police force and competed.
In general, BMW was able to adequately respond to “Mercedes”. The model will soon be 50 years old, and she still keeps on the road with great dignity.
90,000 Man – Shark – DiveLab
South African Michael Rutzen ( Mike Rutzen) made a splash at last year’s Dive Show when he talked about diving with giant white sharks without protection.He came to the UK with amazing footage of these predators, which allows him to pet and ride them. Continuing the story of Michael, marine biologist Jenna Cains examines his dives.
For most divers, a chance encounter with a great white shark may not be as exciting as it was for Michael Rutzen.
The giant white shark is fearsome. It can be considered that any person who once had a chance to see a great white shark, even through the bars of a lattice, was lucky enough.And he will be able to share his impressions with you. Giant white sharks are the lords of the sea. What if you tried to penetrate deeper into their world?
Michael Rutzen is an ordinary average person, and for sharks he is nothing special. However, the impossible is possible. Michael learned to interact with great white sharks. To achieve this goal, he watched these predators for many years. And took years to touch their face from the boat while safe. This experience ultimately gave Michael the opportunity to fully interact with sharks underwater.
Learning efficiency increased dramatically when Michael realized that sharks interacted with him as well as with each other.
Michael Rutzen came to the city of Gansbaai, which is located near the southern peak of Africa in the early 90s. In those days, giant white sharks received less attention than they do today. While working as a fisherman, Michael saw and learned a lot about the sea and its inhabitants.
After some time, the idea of creating a shark tourism industry in Gansbai was implemented by several enthusiasts, keen on sharks, on Dyer Island, a place where great white sharks are concentrated.
This new business employed locals as captains and crew, and Michael was among them. For the next several years, he spent all his days in the company of these amazing animals, studying their behavior and character. As a fisherman, he witnessed the adaptation of sharks to ocean nets.
Soon after, he was able to touch sharks. Eventually he started freediving with them. No fear, but also no bragging – when you are intensely passionate about great white sharks, just watching from the boat is not enough.
Freediving with great white sharks is not a game. Michael’s first meetings with them were introductory, and progress was slow. It was only when he realized that in freediving he was not an observer but a part of the shark hierarchy that real learning began.
On one of his first dives, Michael pushed a very curious shark away with the handle of his harpoon, after which the shark turned and opened its mouth terrifyingly a few centimeters from his face. This is nothing compared to the annoyed giant white shark.Michael provoked great white sharks to speed up the learning process.
And of course, there were times when Michael made wrong movements or was perceived as an unceremonious shark. There was even a case when one of the sharks pushed him with his muzzle to the bottom until he was lying on his back. But, fortunately, there have never been any negative clashes that Michael could not avoid.
Michael saw giant white sharks communicate using body language. They communicate their mood and danger signals to others using postures and movements that are elusive to the human eye.
This is unlike the well-known body language and swimming postures that reef sharks show threatened. It is a sophisticated language that is just beginning to be translated.
Great white sharks demonstrate this language in common situations, such as checking their surroundings and looking for food sources, and for communicating intent and responses. White sharks usually build hierarchical relationships among themselves.
Michael spied on this language, and was able to speak it back. To control his movements, he used his body in the same way as white sharks and interacted with them.
This is no small feat. This makes it possible to convince one or more white sharks that you, too, are an oceanic predator that deserves their recognition. Between Michael and the sharks, there is no predator-prey relationship, but mutual trust and equal status.
White sharks may be the dominant species in the ocean, but they are also only part of a complex marine ecosystem and their social behavior is complex. Marine animals communicate with each other and with other species of marine life, exchange information about food sources, threats and other information.
Giant white sharks are often examples of cold-blooded behavior in the company of other species, including dolphins.
They interact closely with other sharks, although they can also give threatening and warning signs and even bite each other shallowly.
They constantly study their environment – not only the obvious signals, such as smells and sounds, but also the movements of other individuals around them.
“Anything that moves in the ocean, everyone chasing someone or being chased by someone,” says Michael.“The movements of other individuals tell white sharks what is happening around them. If you want to fit into this system, you can be accepted as part of it and everyone around you, including white sharks, will behave normally. ”
People, as a rule, are visible with the naked eye, they are awkward and noisy according to shark norms. Michael is tall and wears long fins, well over 2m long. This is exactly the size of a large predator.
Scuba bubbles are too out of place in the serene underwater world for white sharks to take them seriously, but freediving allows Michael to be quiet and agile.
He feels confident in the company of sharks, as if being in their company is in the order of things. It can make physical contact by grasping its dorsal fin to take a walk, or face a shark to scratch its face. In doing so, he created several breathtaking photographs of great white sharks, and the number of such photographs has steadily increased.
These images have traveled all over the world and have done more to change the way people think about great white sharks than any research conducted.But the real reason for the change in thoughts was not that Michael was able to ride on the white shark’s dorsal fin or slide his hand along their sides, but why the shark allows him to do it.
What does this mean for sharks, why are they allowed to ride on them? Do they think another predator has caught them to ride their dorsal fin? It is definitely known that the lateral line sensitivity of sharks is especially developed for detecting fluctuations in water caused by the movements of other animals.
Is the white shark interacting with Michael just because it piques curiosity, and are there sharks open to contact? These unanswered questions require deeper research.
Freediving continues to be just one way to learn more about the social behavior of great white sharks; but it is dangerous and extreme, and Michael does not advise anyone to try to do this, just as he does not take anyone who wants to make such a dive with him.
In any case, the Coast Guard and the South African maritime authorities have banned freediving at the moment, under pressure from interested parties, due to the dangers of this type of diving.Michael’s job had to be stopped, and he jumped at every opportunity to prove to the Coast Guard that freediving, as well as being dangerous, was of immense benefit to learning shark behavior. The Coast Guard accepts this, and hopes that Michael will be given permission to freedive with sharks again.
Freediving can help provide advice to divers on the correct behavior when encountering great white sharks.
Probably the most basic rule comes from practice when meeting white sharks in the ocean – hold on to it!
Great white sharks hunt fur seals and tuna at the swift headland.If you behave like white sharks, then you will be perceived as they are. If you run away, you will behave like prey, which will provoke pursuit.
Michael also realized that it was possible to force an approaching white shark to change direction with his hand and sometimes even with no contact at all. This can also be taught to divers, leading to safer interactions between divers and white sharks.
Ultimately, it could have served the reputation of giant white sharks to be worshiped like other predators such as lions and leopards.
White sharks have recently come to be the second on the list of local attractions in Gansbai, and this will determine the trade in their area. But this does not mean that white sharks will want to become the prey of poachers. Disgusting: Great white shark jaws, and especially teeth, are still high in value.
Michael says that someone buys some trinkets that are made of white shark or some other shark species, and every tooth sold means that the fisherman will simply catch another shark to sell another.
Besides, it doesn’t take so little to change public opinion about this shark species. Michael hopes that his photographs will contribute to a more detailed study of sharks and an increase in the desire to protect them. The number of shark enthusiasts is definitely on the rise, especially in the United States of America.
What else can be done to protect sharks? “Dive with them!” says Michael. “If divers start diving with sharks wherever they go, there will be an international movement to protect sharks, because their monetary value will be very high – only that, unfortunately, matters.”
“This is especially true in developing countries where livelihoods are scrapped by all means and the tourism trade is priceless. Travel trade is a reliable way! One bite or a single accident can ruin years of positive work. ”
After Michael’s work, it is time to share the knowledge he has gained. He summarized his entire freediving experience in words, footage and photographs.
Smile for the camera, please!
Safe freediving with Giant White Sharks depends on strict adherence to instructions – and hope the sharks understand them too!
Tricks involving touching the face of white sharks when they are on the surface …
… and rolling on their dorsal fin.This is not easy to believe!
Diver March 2005. Website www.divelab.ru
shark zebra shark whale shark
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Some scientists believe that the key to understanding health is to be found in longevity. Those who live longer have better health.
Among the many theories of aging, none is convincing enough. It’s a paradox – a man ascended into space, created colossal means of destruction, but did not find an opportunity to find out the main secret of life.
If there are no good ideas, natural phenomena can help.Are there examples among people and other representatives of wildlife that will help unravel the main mystery of life extension? First of all, these are long-lived creatures, significantly superior in this to humans. How much does a person know about them?
Each species has its own lifespan. A rabbit lives for 7 years, a horse – 28, a chimpanzee – 40, an elephant – 70. For the vast majority of people, this limit, depending on natural and social conditions, is 80–90 years.The average life expectancy of the population, close to 80 years, has so far been achieved in Japan and in some countries of Western Europe. Gerontologists are of the opinion that the 80-year milestone for many countries may be the limit.
The longest living person on land is man. History knows enough cases of longevity. In 1953, Izvestia published an essay about the oldest resident of Abkhazia, Tlabgan Ketsba, who was then 132 years old. He lived for over 140 years. English gerontologists consider the peasant Thomas Parr, who lived for more than 153 years, as an example of longevity.There are plenty of other examples. However, if we take into account only correctly documented data, the record for longevity at the moment belongs to the Frenchwoman Jeanne-Kelman (died 10/17/1995) – 120 years 238 days.
Information about long-livers single record holders can give an idea of the ultimate human capabilities. But to search for reliable patterns, group cases of longevity are needed. There are three places on Earth that are best known for their long-livers: the Caucasus, Pakistan (Himalayas), and Southern Ecuador.
In the Caucasus, Abkhazia and Dagestan are primarily known for their longevity. Centenarians are found in villages located in the middle mountains, at an altitude of 1400-2000 meters above sea level. Note that the life expectancy of the population below, in the valleys, is much shorter. Examples of different life expectancy in Dagestan villages located along the same river can be cited; they always live longer in the mountains. Another rather eloquent example. In sunny Sukhumi, located on the Black Sea coast, the average life expectancy is slightly more than 60 years, i.e.That is, less than the average level of mountain villages of Abkhazians by 25-30 years. Let us point out the following features of the life of Caucasian centenarians. The food is modest, mainly vegetable, dairy food. Meat is rare and in small quantities. Fruits and vegetables take a large place in the diet. An active lifestyle, physical work in the field, in pastures, on a personal plot.
British physician McCarison investigated the living conditions of the Hunza people living in the mountains of Pakistan and the province of Kashmir. The greatest surprise was caused by the fact that the Hunzes did not have any of the diseases that are accepted by modern medicine as inevitable diseases of old age.The old people had all the organs in excellent condition, especially the teeth and eyes. In the winter months, the Hunza eat exclusively vegetarian – a meager supply of cereals (directly in grains) and dried apricots. When spring comes, they switch to “pasture” – they collect herbs until the first harvest ripens. During the 8-10 warm months, the Hunza live in the open air. They sleep, work, have fun, get married, have children, and die outside the home.
Hunza are distinguished by their high working capacity and endurance.They easily perform physical work and effortlessly climb steep mountains, carrying loads or mail. Hunza never get angry, don’t complain, don’t get nervous, don’t show impatience, don’t quarrel among themselves and endure troubles with complete peace of mind.
The reason for such health and excellent disposition of the Hunza, according to the opinion of all scientists who visited this people and studied its life and way of life, lies in the nature of the diet. Hunza rarely eat meat and drink little milk.They feed on unrefined cereal grains, potatoes, and various legumes.
But the main food element of the Hunz is fruit, fresh and dry. Even bread occupies a much more modest place in their meager diet than apples and all kinds of apricots, which they eat whole, including seeds.
According to McCarson, neither climate, nor religion, nor customs, nor race has such a noticeable effect on human health as food.
American scientist Morton Walker studied long-livers of the Vilcabamba tribe living in the Ecuadorian Andes.These people, who have already passed a hundred years, look alive and mobile and have retained all their abilities. They practically do not know such diseases as cancer, heart disease, diabetes, liver and kidney disease, cataracts, arthritis, senile marasmus. And this is mainly due to their diet and physical activity. Highlanders visit their fields six times a week, spending whole days there. One of the old men said: “… each of us has two doctors – the right leg and the left.” According to M. Walker, the physical activity of Vilcabamba is an important component of health.Like McCarison, the American researcher notes the special role of food consumed by the highlanders. Their food is somewhat reminiscent of the Caucasian, that is, mainly vegetable and dairy products, sometimes meat in small quantities. However, fresh fruits that are beneficial to health prevail: citrus fruits, papaya, avocados, bananas, pineapples. M. Walker draws attention to the low calorie diet, an average of 1200 kilocalories per day. In addition, the importance of clean water, a favorable set of minerals and chemical elements necessary for a healthy life in the soil is noted.
Most of all, the researchers were surprised by the sexual activity of centenarians. Even at the age of one hundred years or more, they contrived to conceive children. In one study, healthy sperm was obtained from an old man aged 119. Women retain their menstrual function until the age of 70.
We have no reason not to trust these studies, which, moreover, have been verified by other scientists. Let’s assess and interpret them.
Indicators of fertility are quite informative for assessing the life potential of people.With their help, we will give an approximate assessment of the phenomena of longevity, see table 1. For comparison, the table shows data for long-livers of the plain Poltava region (Ukraine), which has high rates among other regions.
Age of fertility extinction in long-livers
Poltava region, Ukraine – 50-60 years
Abkhazia, Dagestan – 70-80 years
– 80–90 years
Vilcabamba (Ecuador) – 90-100 years
If we compare the data, it is easy to conclude that there are conditions that increase a person’s life by 1.5–1.8 times.Another formulation can be given: the rates of aging and the onset of diseases in different groups of the population can differ by 1.5–1.8 times.
According to the researchers McCarison and M. Walker, such differences were provided mainly due to the following factors:
– o low-calorie diet with a low content of meat products, with the predominant use of fresh fruits and vegetables;
– o systematic work activity in the fresh air with moderate stress;
– o clean water and air;
– o favorable composition of chemical elements in soil and food.
Both researchers place special emphasis on the diet of centenarians. They believe that moderation and, in a sense, limited diet in terms of food quantity, low calorie content, the predominance of greens, fruits and especially apricots (hunza) in the diet are of leading importance for ensuring a healthy and long life.
The results achieved by the Hunza and especially the Vilcabamba are not just amazing. They are fantastic! Is it really that simple in human nature to improve it so radically? Today in the world, hundreds of thousands of wealthy health-conscious people can afford any nutrition and care.They can be provided with the most suitable food, the purest water, the most optimal set of chemical elements. This, for example, in the United States, a person with an average income can afford.
Scientifically grounded diets, food additives, which “can do anything”, have been practiced and carried away by millions of people for decades. But we see “miracles” only in advertising. So far, nothing outstanding has been observed in life.
Still, let’s put the problem from a different angle. Imagine a village in the mountains at an altitude of 1600 meters and another village at the foot of the mountains.Their inhabitants drink water from one river, which is fed by one glacier. Both here and there people of the same nationality and many have family ties, that is, they are genetically equivalent, which is also real. Both in the mountains and in the valley, people are engaged in peasant labor in the fields, in gardens, in pastures. Nutrition in both cases is moderate, no frills and close in composition, since there is an exchange of food. Why do they live in the mountains much longer than in the valley?
It really exists. At the same time, one can justify the conclusions reached by McCarison and M.Walker. Researchers construct their hypotheses according to the logic of the information they possess. At that time, and today, the concepts of the importance of optimal nutrition and physical activity for health are a priority.
And yet, is it possible to objectively assess a sharp deceleration of aging (the phrase only approximately reflects the processes), if its key mechanisms are essentially unknown?
But let us return again to Table 1. It is not for nothing that it includes data on the long-livers of the plain Poltava region.Why is there such a difference? The reader has received enough information to come to the conclusion: the answer must be sought in the conditions that are created in the mountains. What are these conditions, why and how? The questions are not easy, the answers are not straightforward. To understand them requires a lot of new information.
In the meantime, dear Reader, tie a knot in memory of the fact that you can live much longer in the mountains. And do not blame me if the answer to the question “why” appears a little later.
In the ocean
The ocean is called the cradle of life.Therefore, hopes of finding long-livers there were quite justified. Long-liver number one – a large sea turtle, deserves the closest attention. Life expectancy is 150-200 years. Today it is the ideal standard of longevity that a person can strive for. Man is limited by physiology, but not by reason. This gives hope for the process. Perhaps for health reasons “Achilles will catch up with the turtle.” But this is still beyond the horizon.
The reader has the right to argue: just think of a turtle, it is so slow.Is it correct to compare a person with her? In terms of physical activity, a large sea turtle is not inferior to a person. Turtles are the same tireless workers, like the long-livers of the Hunza mountains. Suffice it to say that these sea creatures travel 2,000-4,000 kilometers annually to lay their eggs. And this is a huge job even by land standards.
Long-liver number two can be called the great white shark. Why a white shark? For clarity. Everyone who has watched the American TV series Jaws is familiar with this shark.Researchers believe that the white shark grows up to 30 years old. Human growth stops before the age of 25. Consequently, man and shark have approximately the same calendar life span.
But the life resource of a shark is an order of magnitude superior to a person. See how dynamic and fast she is! What a lovely animal! She develops fantastic power, moving through the water at great speed. The efficiency and speed of metabolic processes in a shark is dozens of times higher than those in humans.In physiological terms, over a calendar period, the shark lives several lives of the most outstanding centenarians on earth.
Objectively, with such a measure, dolphins, whales and other sea creatures living several human life resources can be attributed to long-livers. If on land the king of nature leads as a long-liver, then in the ocean he needs to compete for a place in the top ten.
But there is another important phenomenon that distinguishes the inhabitants of the ocean from those living on land. For example, a shark does not get cancer or other diseases.Sea turtles, whales and dolphins practically do not get cancer. Note that without exception, all the inhabitants of the land, including insects, are susceptible to this formidable ailment.
Thus, the ocean posed two more riddles:
1. Why is the life of sea creatures longer than that of the inhabitants of the land?
2. Why are sea creatures practically not susceptible to cancer, while on land this disease knows no exceptions?
Perhaps there would be no answers to such a formulation of these and previous questions, if a new phenomenon called Endogenous Breath had not appeared on earth.
This text is an introductory fragment.
Continuation for liters
90,000 I pressed the ESP button – what really turned off? – Driving magazine
According to polls, two-thirds of drivers never turn off the ESP system.The reason often lies in ignorance of what exactly the corresponding button disables. “Behind the wheel” explains in what situation it is simply necessary to press the “ESP OFF” button.
Initially, the ABS system appeared on cars, which allowed the car to brake with maximum efficiency. In this case, the wheels were not locked “tightly”. The electronics allowed them to be rotated with slippage of no more than a few percent. This made it possible to maintain controllability and directional stability of the car when braking.Further, the designers added traction control and electronic stabilization systems. Since January 1, 2016, the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union do not allow a car without an ABS system to be certified for sales in Russia.
The traction control system is called differently on different cars: TCS, ASR, A-TRAC, ETS, etc., but the essence is always the same – not to let the car slip. However, it is simply impossible to do without slipping under certain conditions. For example, to get out of deep snow in winter or sand in summer, the car must be able to turn the wheels intensively enough.And with the traction control system on, sometimes cars, especially rear-wheel drive ones, get stuck even in shallow snow. The driver sees a flashing traction limit indicator on the dashboard, while the drive wheels turn in short jerks of a quarter turn every half a second. The snowdrift cannot be overcome in this way.
The traction control system works in conjunction with the Electronic Stability Program (ESP) – a system that has broader powers and more intensively intervenes in the process of driving.
What is ESP?
ESP is designed to control the lateral dynamics of the car and help the driver in difficult driving situations – to prevent the car from stalling into a skid and strong side slip. In other words, it helps to maintain directional stability, trajectory of movement and stabilize the position of the car when driving in a straight line on highly irregular surfaces, and even more so when cornering. Therefore, in the literature, and in colloquial speech, ESP is often called the “stability control system” or “anti-skid system.”
ESP, together with other systems, is able not only to limit the torque on the driving wheels of the car, but also to brake individual wheels of the car, helping it, for example, to fit into a turn. For this, the system has at its disposal longitudinal and lateral acceleration sensors and can determine the speed of rotation of the vehicle about the vertical axis.
What if ESP is disabled?
Automotive manufacturers know that the abbreviation ESP is familiar to drivers and that is why they usually write “ESP OFF” on the corresponding button.In fact, disabling security systems looks different for different cars. For example, in the super popular Hyundai Creta crossover, the ESP OFF button operation algorithm is as follows: the first press disables only the traction control system. A second press (lasting 3 seconds) disables ESP completely. That is, a temperamental driver can only turn off traction control in winter, and ESP will insure if something happens.
On some vehicles, only the traction control is deactivated.For others, ESP is partially disabled. The stability control system unfolds the “electronic collar”, but not completely. At high speeds, the electronics still intervene in the control.
The ESP system is not switched off “for life”, but until the ignition is switched off or until the car reaches a certain speed. Typically, after 40-50 km / h, the stability control is activated automatically.
Why disable ESP?
By and large, there is no need. Except for hooliganism, that is, deliberately skidding the car on a slippery surface.We do not recommend doing this on public roads. But the function of disabling the traction control system is useful for those who are stuck in snow or mud. It will be difficult to get out without a little slip.
I can give a banal advice. Even if you have owned a car for more than a month, or maybe not the first year, do not be too lazy to look in the car manual for the section on operation and features of disabling electronic security systems. Considering that it is winter outside, it is possible that the timely shutdown of the system will help you overcome the difficult section of the road.
I wish you free roads and snow-free parking places so that you do not have to use the button to disable electronic security systems.
SiROP (SiROP) – Memory Instructions (Instrukciya pamyati) Lyrics
[Text of the song “Memory instruction”]
Someone likes lilies of the valley
And someone at this time eats gruel and expands
Eats bacon or tries on dignity
After all, everyone in this life rules a holiday of the soul for himself
This is the dynamics of being
Everything was Coca-Cola, but there may be poison in the finale
You crave a yacht, and my abode is a skiff
And whoever wants can go out; I am not a fan of yachts
Conquer, dig in the hay, sew your dick, cut off the horns
You are in the subject, you will be leveled out along with everyone
Though you can mine treasures or collect vinyls, dear
Reward is a pitchfork and you will be leveled
You meet dawns in the tropics, , porter
Or calluses ripped off in blood and the face shines with sweat
All of us, exposing our eye sockets, will be silent
So black or white – what the fuck is the difference, Faulkner?
This is a memory instruction
So as not to panic, so only positive
For those who float the forest on the river
Launches wigs and maintains parity
This is a memory instruction
For those who are drowning in a backwater and realized that they have not become
Closer to the fire, pull your hands, stretch your legs
We will fly to the general gathering
The tree is not nourished by lanky roots, their juice has dried up
It doesn’t matter, but I will remember the tenth term for a long time
Where are the friends? There, hang and dry, fifty of them soon
Grandfathers! The time has come for new foxes and owls
Where did the long months of dreams come from again?
Without a word, I’ll sit down when these whores are dead?
Lick their feet, where the seal and the table, rats
Let all those who remember my hanging trunk squeak and moan
Heart rushes into battle, the cry inside became a stake
Blood oozes from the veins from battle punctures
The skull is shaved to zero, cold streams in the crack
I didn’t have time to lay down to the bottom – and right there, sharks!
I dive deeper, like an amphibian, fish, crayfish
My ears are buried, and around the hut there are barracks
Roosters, hucksters, Circle or Kuchin, and “tochi morality”
Peun, drenny wuchan qi not mayu hiba vybara?
This is a memory instruction
So as not to panic, so only positive
For those who float the forest on the river
Launches wigs and maintains parity
This is a memory instruction
For those who are drowning in a backwater and realized that they have not become
Closer to the fire pull your hands, stretch your legs
We will fly to the general gathering together
Tight? Fuck with him, don’t muddy the pool and don’t piss into the water
Keep your hand on the pulse and keep it on fire – Muziy Scovola
If you want, steal yourself, stick it out, but don’t get caught in the trap:
Maybe they’ll let you go, it’ll be fun, but not today
Your own do not look for a strip, stop, do not take things, Wotan
Votes the general collection: “Comrades, here he is!”
Fat bags, rogue – there is nothing there
Shot in the air.Well, let’s go to the paddock, goats!
You are a trump ace, but you will be in the middle of the deck
After all, you are looking narrowly, you are just ahead of someone
Who told you to wear a crown? Get a tit in your mouth
You are a mammal, she is still a “graze a cow”!
Young laughter is ringing all around, but in my life three horseshoes have been erased
Punked, famous, then parked again
Iron shackles creak, voice hoarse from a smoke
God does not regret “shaved”, but a fucking trip. And fuck us?
This is a memory instruction
So as not to panic, so only positive
For those who float the forest on the river
Launches wigs and maintains parity
This is a memory instruction
For those who are drowning in a backwater and realized that they have not become
Closer to the fire, pull your hands, stretch your legs
For the general gathering, we will all fly together
This is a memory instruction
So as not to panic, so only positive
For those who float the forest on the river
Launches wigs and maintains parity
This is a memory instruction
For those who are drowning in the backwater and realize that they have become the wrong person
Draw your hands closer to the fire, stretch your legs
We will all fly together to the general gathering