Selangor royal family: Selangor Royal Family

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Selangor Royal Family

Assalamualaikum and Peace be upon all of you.
Welcome to my blog.

Finally my favorite segment of the month, Royal Family! The topic for today is the second last and only one more to go. Today, we will see the monarch of the most developed state in Malaysia, The Selangorean Royal Family. It is probably the second youngest royal family in Malaysia and has a customary relation with the Perakian Royal Family as the first ruler of Selangor is crowned by the Sultan of Perak. The Ruler of Selangor is styled as HRH Sultan of Selangor.

The current Sultan of Selangor is HRH Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Ibni Al-marhum Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah. He is the ninth Sultan of Selangor. His reign started since 2001.

The consort to the Sultan of Selangor is styled according to her bloodline. A royal born consort is styled as HRH Tengku Ampuan of Selangor (Queen of Selangor), while commoner consort is styled as Tengku Permaisuri of Selangor (Consort of Selangor). The position is currently vacant as the Sultan is divorced, unmarried and without a consort.

HISTORY

The Royal House of Selangor are descended from the Yang di-Pertuans of Riau, Indonesia (see that family). They are Bugis, originating from Luwu in the islands of the Celebes. Raja Lumu, second son of Raja Chelak, the 2nd Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Riau, conquered Selangor and established his legitimacy by being installed by the Sultan of Perak in 1766. Frequently at odds with the Dutch and native Malay rulers, his son Ibrahim, was expelled from Selangor in 1786. Ibrahim eventually reached an accommodation with the Dutch and was allowed to return, two years later. Rich tin deposits had been discovered during the sixteenth century, this lead to increasing numbers of Chinese immigrants to work the mines. Fighting between the Bugis and Chinese immigrants and the indigenous Malays became more frequent. Eventually this led to British intervention, and the imposition of a British Resident in 1874. Selangor joined the fledgling federation, known as the Federated Malay States in 1897.

The land for the new federal capital at Kuala Lumpur, being donated by the Sultan of Selangor. Economic development was quite rapid with the introduction of rubber cultivation and port facilities. The Japanese occupied the state in 1941 and deposed the ruling Sultan, in favour of his disinherited elder brother. He was deposed on the return of British troops at War’s end, and the rightful Sultan restored. The State joined the Federation of Malaya on 1948. In 1974, the Federal capital area, consisting of Kuala Lumpur and certain surrounding areas, were permanently ceded to the Federal government.

ROYAL FAMILY

Family picture, from left,

Tengku Zerafina, Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah, Tengku Amir Shah, and Tengku ZatashahSultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah married twice. First with Raja Zarina binti Raja Zainal Abidin (divorced). And second with Nur Lisa Idris, @ Lisa Davis (divorced). He had 2 daughters from his first wife and a son from his second wife.

(with Raja Zarina)

  1. Tengku Zerafina (1969)
  2. Tengku Zatashah (1973)

(with Nur Lisa Idris)

  1. Tengku Amir Shah (1990)

PALACE

The official palace for Sultan of Selangor is Istana Alam Shah (Alam Shah Palace), located at Royal Town Klang, Selangor.

The second Official Palace of the Sultan of Selangor is Istana Bukit Kayangan. Located at Seksyen 12, Shah Alam

The Istana Darul Ehsan located at Putrajaya Lake.

INHERITANCE

Male primogeniture amongst the male line descendants of Sultan Salahuddin Shah.

**line of successions

  1. Tengku Amir Shah ibni Sultan Sharafuddin Idris, Raja Muda
  2. Tengku Sulaiman Shah al-Haj ibni almarhum Sultan Salahuddin, Tengku Panglima Diraja
  3. Tengku Shakirin al-Amin Mahmud Ismail Ahmad Shah bin Tengku Sulaiman Shah
  4. Tengku Saleh ud-din Ismail Shah bin Tengku Sulaiman Shah
  5. Tengku Shahrain Ismail Ibrahim Iskandar Hisham ud-din Shah bin Tengku Sulaiman Shah
  6. Tengku Sharif ud-din Ibrahim Ismail Iskandar ‘Abdu’l Aziz Shah bin Tengku Sulaiman Shah
  7. Tengku Abdul Samad Shah al-Haj ibni al-Marhum Sultan Salahuddin, Tengku Panglima Besar
  8. Tengku Musa ud-din [Musahiddin] bin Tengku ‘Abdu’l Samad
  9. Tengku Ahmad Shah al-Haj ibni al-Marhum Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz al-Haj, Tengku Indira Setia
  10. Tengku Alam Shah Amiruddin bin Tengku Ahmad Shah

**Subject of changes

GALERIA

Some of the pictures of the royal family

I) The picture of Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah

II) The picture of the Raja Muda (Crown Prince), Tengku Amir Shah

Crown Prince with his mother, Nur Lisa Idris

III) The picture of Her Highness Tengku Zatashah and husband, Aubry Rahim Manneson

Selangor reduces funds for Sultan, royal family in state Budget 2021; raises for royal council and Orang Besar | Malaysia

State executive councillor for Housing, Urban Welfare and Entrepreneur Rodziah Ismail said the allocation for Class III for next year is down to RM6,647,877. 63 from RM7,309,831.61 ― a reduction of RM661,950.98. — Picture by Zuraneeza Zulkifli

KUALA LUMPUR, Nov 6 ― The Selangor government today approved several amendments to its Royal Allocation Enactment affecting the emolument for the state Ruler and the royal household in its state Budget for next year.

State executive councillor for Housing, Urban Welfare and Entrepreneur Rodziah Ismail read out the proposals at state legislative assembly after Friday prayers, before they were universally passed by the House.

She said the allocation for Class III for next year is down to RM6,647,877.63 from RM7,309,831.61 ― a reduction of RM661,950.98.

Meanwhile, the funds for Class IV is raised to RM16,143,993.22 RM15,214,569.20, due to changes in the instruments and allocation for contracted staff for the royal household.

The emoluments for Class VII regarding Royal Council members and District Orang Besar also saw an upward revision to RM1,462,499.79 from RM1,160,799. 79.

The final adjustment is to Class VIII for the Raja Muda Selangor’s funds, which are reduced to RM389,640 from RM492,830.

During the brief debate preceding its passage, Pakatan Harapan (PH) backbencher Saari Sungib (Hulu Kelang) said Selangor’s constitutional monarch system has been a successful model of transparency as well as providing check-and-balance to the state government.

He drew comparisons between Malaysia and the UK and Queen Elizabeth II, claiming the constitutional monarchy system in both countries are models for democracies.

“We could see how our Ruler also participated by stopping the Emergency plan by the government,” he said.

Saari was alluding the Yang Di-Pertuan Agong’s rejection of a proposal by the Perikatan Nasional (PN) federal government to invoke a state of emergency, ostensibly to cope with the third wave of Covid-19 infections that have seen daily cases rise to four-figures in the past few weeks.

Lau Weng Sang (PH-Banting) also suggested that Istana Alam Shah in Shah Alam be open to the public as a museum to emulate the British royal family.

However Mentri Besar Amirudin Shari (PH-Sungai Dua) said a royal gallery next to the Palace was already open and will be used to attract tourists and research by academicis on Selangor history and culture.

“Right now we already have the Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery next to Istana Alam Shah which also exhibits artifacts and royal documents.

“In our economic plan, we want to use it as a royal heritage to tell the history of our Selangor state,” he said.

On October 30, Amiruddin tabled the Budget for 2021 amounting to RM2.32 billion.

He said of the total, RM1.22 billion or 53 per cent was for operating expenditures while RM1.1 billion or 47 per cent was for development.

Selangor reduces funds for Sultan, royal family in state Budget 2021; raises for royal council and Orang Besar

State executive councillor for Housing, Urban Welfare and Entrepreneur Rodziah Ismail said the allocation for Class III for next year is down to RM6,647,877. 63 from RM7,309,831.61 ― a reduction of RM661,950.98. — Picture by Zuraneeza Zulkifli

KUALA LUMPUR, Nov 6 ― The Selangor government today approved several amendments to its Royal Allocation Enactment affecting the emolument for the state Ruler and the royal household in its state Budget for next year.

State executive councillor for Housing, Urban Welfare and Entrepreneur Rodziah Ismail read out the proposals at state legislative assembly after Friday prayers, before they were universally passed by the House.

She said the allocation for Class III for next year is down to RM6,647,877.63 from RM7,309,831.61 ― a reduction of RM661,950.98.

Meanwhile, the funds for Class IV is raised to RM16,143,993.22 RM15,214,569.20, due to changes in the instruments and allocation for contracted staff for the royal household.

The emoluments for Class VII regarding Royal Council members and District Orang Besar also saw an upward revision to RM1,462,499.79 from RM1,160,799.79.

The final adjustment is to Class VIII for the Raja Muda Selangor’s funds, which are reduced to RM389,640 from RM492,830.

During the brief debate preceding its passage, Pakatan Harapan (PH) backbencher Saari Sungib (Hulu Kelang) said Selangor’s constitutional monarch system has been a successful model of transparency as well as providing check-and-balance to the state government.

He drew comparisons between Malaysia and the UK and Queen Elizabeth II, claiming the constitutional monarchy system in both countries are models for democracies.

“We could see how our Ruler also participated by stopping the Emergency plan by the government,” he said.

Saari was alluding the Yang Di-Pertuan Agong’s rejection of a proposal by the Perikatan Nasional (PN) federal government to invoke a state of emergency, ostensibly to cope with the third wave of Covid-19 infections that have seen daily cases rise to four-figures in the past few weeks.

Lau Weng Sang (PH-Banting) also suggested that Istana Alam Shah in Shah Alam be open to the public as a museum to emulate the British royal family.

Story continues

However Mentri Besar Amirudin Shari (PH-Sungai Dua) said a royal gallery next to the Palace was already open and will be used to attract tourists and research by academicis on Selangor history and culture.

“Right now we already have the Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Royal Gallery next to Istana Alam Shah which also exhibits artifacts and royal documents.

“In our economic plan, we want to use it as a royal heritage to tell the history of our Selangor state,” he said.

On October 30, Amiruddin tabled the Budget for 2021 amounting to RM2.32 billion.

He said of the total, RM1.22 billion or 53 per cent was for operating expenditures while RM1.1 billion or 47 per cent was for development.

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Selangor royal family goes plastic-free at Ramadan bazaar, wins hearts on social media

Tengku Amir Shah Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah and Tengku Zatashah Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah with their tiffin carriers at the Ramadan bazaar. — Picture from Facebook/Friends Of Selangor

PETALING JAYA, May 27 — Selangor crown prince Tengku Amir Shah Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah and his zero waste habits have created a buzz on social media.

Photos of the royal shopping with tiffin carrier in hand at a Ramadan bazaar were posted on the Friends Of Selangor Facebook page, earning him the admiration of users who commended his efforts to reduce waste and save the environment.

Tengku Amir Shah was accompanied by his sister, Tengku Zatashah Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah, a long-time environmentalist and a keen advocate of the zero waste lifestyle.

The post included photos of bazaar visits made by the duo in previous years where they also brought along their own reusable containers.

Malaysians heaped praise on the Selangor crown prince and his sister for setting an environmentally-friendly example for the rakyat to follow.

“Great character of our future sultan and king. Not showing off any fancy car, expensive car, or (heavy security).

“This is the kind of royalty people have respect for,” wrote Cellent Sheilcar Petchi.

“I need to find my own tiffin carrier now. He’s setting the best example,” said user Muzeta Mahmudin.

“They are stylish, respected royals. No showing off. People love them for who they are and what they do,” Raj Dhillon wrote.

In conjunction with Ramadan, Tengku Zatashah also made an Instagram post about her efforts to spread awareness about plastic waste at bazaars.

“My friends who know me know very well how I have been advocating for everyone to bring their tiffins/Tupperwares and drink tumblers to all our foodie outings since 2016,” she wrote.

The Selangor princess added that it was no surprise that she is known as “the girl with the tiffin” as a result of her eco-friendly ways.

 

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Consort of Selangor Sultan drove herself to secret wedding, new book reveals, SE Asia News & Top Stories

KUALA LUMPUR (THE STAR/ASIA NEWS NETWORK) – Writing about Malaysian royalty has always been tricky because it tends to feel like tiptoeing through the tulips. And because royal family members have always been bogged down by strict protocol and rules, literary works on them invariably end up being stifling and bureaucratic affairs.

That results in the writing becoming stiff, rigid and lifeless, and most of us easily get lost in the monotony of these almost cut and paste, “safe” articles.

But last week, a refreshing read on Her Royal Highness Tengku Permaisuri Norashikin, made its appearance.

The book – My First Year Journey – From TV News Anchor To Permaisuri Selangor: An Anecdotal Experience – offers surprisingly interesting insight into the life of the new royal member, which I’m sure caught many Malaysians off-guard, even her former colleagues in the newsroom at Angkasapuri.

Fascinatingly, Her Royal Highness was an award-winning news presenter who joined RTM in 1996.

But here’s the gem: On Aug 31,2016, she drove herself to the mosque at Istana Alam Shah for the solemnisation ceremony, or akad nikah, where the Sultan of Selangor was awaiting his bride.

Both wanted the ceremony to be private and intimate, and His Royal Highness even ordered the news to be embargoed until Sept 2 – just before the couple left for their honeymoon in Mauritius.

Official press releases and photographs had to be held back for two days to ensure there were no leaks.

Norashikin, who came to the palace mosque as an ordinary, working journalist, had by then left the wedding venue officially as the consort of Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Al-Haj, but mum was still the word.

Upon the ceremony’s conclusion, the Tuanku joined her and the children to return to his Istana Mestika palace in Shah Alam, and then, incredibly, she went back to work, and became the first Permaisuri to read the 8pm prime news.

She parked her car at Angkasapuri, reported to the news editor, had her makeup and hair done and was at the studio news desk by 7.45pm waiting to be on air, which was just part and parcel of her daily routine.

Her main worry was the cat getting out of the bag and having to end up reading her own carefully guarded secret, and should that happen, how her body language, expression and voice would appear.

But nothing of the sort happened. No one at the newsroom had an inkling what took place earlier in the day, and when the programme ended, she received a text from her sister with the teasing message: “Your diamond ring is blinding my vision. Cover up your finger please!”

A week before the big day excitement, she submitted a leave application to her news editor, requesting a two-week break from Sept 1 “to settle some personal matters” – which meant time off for her honeymoon, moving into Tuanku’s house and running the errands of any newly wed.

The reply from the editor was a curt “I will think about it”, but fortunately, she wasn’t rostered for work in the first two weeks of September.

She left RTM for the last time as a news presenter then and began a new life and journey.

“I contemplated continuing to work while being the Permaisuri of Selangor. I know it might be hard to believe, but the Tuanku had said he would ask the Selangor Council of the Royal Court to hear their feedback,” she said.

“Unfortunately, the Royal Council was not in favour of my request. As hard as it was, I just had to respect their decision and accept it.”

Her Royal Highness also shared her experience, candidly and honestly, of her first official function, on Sept 17, 2016, at the prestigious Royal Lake Club to mark its 125th anniversary.

She spoke of how she wasn’t sure whether she had to stand or remain seated so, when the toast was made, “I followed Tuanku’s cue”.

“Tuanku stood up for the first one and I followed suit. I gave Tuanku a quizzical look for the second toast, and he signalled that I should stand up for that one while he remained seated, as the toast was for him.

“For the third toast, I watched Tuanku and stood up when he did. What a relief I didn’t mess up!”

And when the evening came to its end, the royal couple made their way out of the hall, where they met and greeted the guests. To her surprise, her secondary school headmistress from Convent Bukit Nanas was waiting. It was the first time they had met in 27 years, and the older woman looked nearly the same.

“Did she remember me? To my relief, she didn’t at all. Imagine if she had recalled all the times I misbehaved in school. I would have been in hot water,” she said, adding that those days were well behind her.

Her first official visit was on Sept 22, 2016, where she and Tuanku visited the senior citizens home funded by the Lembaga Zakat Selangor, or the Tithe Institution of Selangor.

It is home to 36 senior citizens above the age of 60 from the lower-income group.

The visit was a memorable one for her. As the visit came to an end, a resident gave her a huge smile and said: “You have the same name as my granddaughter. Her name is also Norashikin,” making the trip a perfect one for her.

Her Royal Highness also shared her experiences visiting flood victims on Oct 19, 2016, at a hall in Klang, where she and the Raja Muda (a son of the Sultan) served food to the people.

“Once everyone had been served, it was our turn to eat. I grabbed a bottle of mineral water, washed my hands, then the Raja Muda and I found a good spot to sit down and eat with the rest of the flood victims.

“I really enjoyed eating with them that night and the food tasted even better because we were eating with good company.”

But the interesting anecdote for me was her revelation of having a trace of Indian heritage from her father’s side and some Chinese blood from her mother’s.

Her involvement with the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Selangor (SPCA Selangor) is well known, and she is also the Royal Patron for the Stray Free Selangor campaign.

The Tengku Permaisuri, who keeps 25 cats at home, is a strong advocate for the well-being of animals, especially cats and dogs.

“Stray animals are a very common sight in Malaysia. My heart goes out to all of them, cats and dogs alike,” she said.

“They never asked to be born. As a developing nation, Malaysia is still far behind in championing animal rights, although all religions emphasise the importance of caring for all beings.”

My favourite chapter in her book is about her decision to drive Tuanku to her mum’s house without police outriders, while having HRH seated in the passenger seat.

“I took the steering wheel. Oh well! It sure felt good to be free to do whatever I want sometimes. And I did just that! Driving to my parents’ house as I always have during Hari Raya,” she said cheekily.

The best wrap-up in the 183-page book is her revelation that while she can no longer move around as freely as she used to, having become a public figure, there is at least one person who still has no idea who she is.

“I am very relieved that the hairdresser who did my hair on my wedding day still does not know who I am, even to this day. I still go to her sometimes to get my hair done, but with no entourage.

“She still greets me with the usual ‘Hello! How are you? Busy ah? Long time no see!'”

The book was put together by her sister, Datin Dr Norely Haji Abdul Rahman, who has done a commendable job recording HRH’s first year journey.

Educationist Dr Norely is a good storyteller who has successfully kept her readers engaged and would like people to keep turning pages to read more.

It’s a skill not every writer has, not even some professional journalists. She surely has the flair for writing and has rightly chosen simple words and clear sentence structure to make it an easy read.

She drew inspiration from her favourite writers, Mary Schneider and Ellen Whyte, both columnists with The Star, and has excelled at this project.

The writer is a columnist with The Star. The Star is a member of The Straits Times media partner Asia News Network, an alliance of 24 news media entities.

Royal Selangor | Wayfair

Royal Selangor is a fourth-generation family owned giftware business with a rich history dating back to 1885. At 130+ years young and headquartered in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, they’re distributed in 21 countries around the world. Product ranges include home décor, baby, frames, wine and spirits, and they’re ever expanding to meet the interest of today’s consumers. Some of the more popular recent introductions even include mixed mediums such as the marriage of metal and wood.

The base metal of Royal Selangor product is pewter, the world’s 4th most precious metal in use today after platinum, gold, and silver. Their designers and craftsmen have expressed their love and understanding of the material by continuously pushing the design envelope while staying true to their heritage of craftsmanship. Pewter is a softer metal thereby allowing us to craft in exquisite detail, as well as feature products with a brightly polished finish.

The Royal Selangor group is a diversified enterprise also recognized for creating customized designs for a variety of companies and events. Leading luxury company LVMH commissioned Royal Selangor to produce champagne accessories for brands such as Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin, Dom Perignon, and Krug. In the sports world, they’re proud to have created spectacular trophies for Formula One, professional tennis such as the Shanghai ATP 1000 Masters, and professional golf, most recently the Sime Darby LPGA Tournament.

If you ever have the opportunity to visit Kuala Lumpur please be sure to fit a fun factory tour into your schedule where you’ll meet people from all over the world. They’ve played host to several prominent figures, including former US President Bill Clinton, lifestyle guru Martha Stewart, actor Mel Gibson, Matt Lauer of the Today Show, and Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund, Christine Lagarde.

At Royal Selangor it’s all about design and quality.

Portal Kerajaan Negeri Selangor Darul Ehsan

DULI YANG MAHA MULIA SULTAN SHARAFUDDIN IDRIS SHAH ALHAJ IBNI ALMARHUM SULTAN SALAHUDDIN ABDUL AZIZ SHAH ALHAJ

D.K., D.M.N., D.K.(Terengganu), D.K.(Kelantan), D.K.(Perak), D.K.(Perlis), D.K.(Negeri Sembilan), D.K.(Kedah), D.K.(Johor), D.K.(Pahang), S.P.M.S., S.S.I.S., S.P.M.J.

Sultan dan Yang Dipertuan Negeri Selangor Darul Ehsan serta segala daerah takluknya

Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Alhaj Ibni Almarhum Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Alhaj dimasyhurkan sebagai Sultan Selangor ke 9 pada 22 November 2001 bersamaan dengan 6 Ramadhan Tahun 1422 Hijrah. Pemasyhuran Baginda adalah berikutan kemangkatan Padukan Ayahanda Baginda Almarhum Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Alhaj pada 21 November 2001. Baginda kemudiannya ditabal dan dimahkotakan dengan penuh Adat Istiadat Diraja di Balairung Seri,Istana Alam Shah, Klang dalam Istiadat Pertabalan dan Kemahkotaan pada 8 Mac 2003 bersamaan dengan 5 Muharram 1424 Hijrah.

Baginda adalah putera sulung D.Y.M.M. Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Alhaj dan Y.M.M Paduka Bonda Raja Selangor, Raja Saidatul Ihsan binti Tengku Badar Shah. Baginda diputerakan di Istana Jemaah, Klang yang kini dikenali sebagai Kolej Islam Sultan Alam Shah, Klang pada 24 Disember 1945. Pada September 1960 ketika Baginda berusia 15 tahun, Baginda telah diisytiharkan sebagai Raja Muda Selangor. Istiadat Mengangkat Sumpah dan Menjunjung Duli sebagai Raja Muda ke 8 telah diadakan pada tahun 1970 di Istana Alam Shah.

Baginda telah dikurniakan dengan dua orang Puteri iaitu Y.A.M Tengku Zerafina dan Y.A.M Tengku Zatashah, dan seorang Putera, D.Y.T.M. Tengku Amir Shah, Raja Muda Selangor.

Baginda telah mendapat pendidikan awal di Sekolah Menengah Raja Muda, Kuala Lumpur dan St.John Institution, Kuala Lumpur dari tahun 1954 hingga 1959. Pada tahun 1960, Baginda melanjutkan pelajaran ke Perth, Australia hingga tahun 1964 dan meneruskan pelajaran Baginda di England hingga ke tahun 1968. Pada tahun yang sama Baginda kembali ke tanah air dan berkhidmat di dalam Pentadbiran Kerajaan di mana perkhidmatan pertama Baginda di Pejabat Setiausaha Kerajaan Negeri Selangor. Baginda juga pernah berkhidmat di Pejabat Daerah Kuala Lumpur dan Jabatan Polis Diraja, Kuala Lumpur yang membolehkan Baginda memperolehi pengalaman dan pengetahuan yang begitu luas di dalam bidang pentadbiran.

Baginda telah dilantik buat pertama kalinya sebagai Pengerusi Jemaah Pemangku Raja pada 23 Februari hingga 20 September 1969 semasa Paduka Ayahanda Baginda berangkat ke England. Baginda telah beberapa kali dilantik sebagai Pemangku Raja Selangor dari semasa ke semasa, dari tahun 1972 hingga tahun 1997. Pada 24 April 1999, Baginda telah dilantik sebagai Pemangku Raja Selangor sekali lagi apabila Paduka Ayahanda Baginda dilantik sebagai Yang di-Pertuan Agong yang ke-11.

Baginda telah membuat beberapa lawatan rasmi ke Daerah-daerah untuk melihat pembangunan dan juga masalah-masalah setempat yang dihadapi oleh rakyat Baginda dan beramah mesra dengan mereka. Baginda juga telah beberapa kali merasmikan Mesyuarat Pembukaan Persidangan Dewan Undangan Negeri Selangor pada tahun 1972, 1974, 1989, 1997, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 dan 2005.

Baginda telah dianugerahkan Darjah Kerabat (Yang Amat Dihormati) Selangor pada tahun 1973 dan Darjah Kebesaran Pertama, Seri Paduka Mahkota Johor (S.P.M.J.) pada tahun 1975. Baginda juga telah dianugerahkan Darjah-Darjah Kerabat dari Negeri Terengganu, Kelantan, Perak, Perlis, Negeri Sembilan, Kedah, Johor dan Pahang.

Baginda adalah pemegang pertama Darjah Kebesaran Dato’ Setia – Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah (S.S.I.S) yang Baginda zahirkan pada tahun 2002. Baginda telah dianugerahkan Darjah Kebesaran-Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara (D.M.N.) oleh Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong semasa Pertabalan dan Kemahkotaan Duli Yang Maha Mulia sebagai Sultan Selangor ke 9 pada 8 Mac 2003.

Dalam bidang ketenteraan, Baginda telah ditauliahkan sebagai Mejar Kehormat Tentera Darat (Wataniah) Malaysia pada tahun 1974 dan Komander Kehormat Sukarelawan Pasukan Simpanan Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia pada tahun 1998. Pada tahun 2002, Baginda telah dilantik sebagai Kepten Yang Dipertua Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia.

Baginda amat berminat di dalam aktiviti sukan termasuk sukan lasak seperti mendaki gunung, memandu kereta antik jarak jauh dan belayar mengelilingi dunia dengan kapal S.Y.JUGRA. Baginda mendapat pengiktirafan sebagai Putera Inspirasi dan banyak lagi pengiktirafan yang dianugerahkan kepada Baginda berkaitan dengan “maritime”. Baginda dilantik sebagai Penaung kepada Persatuan-Persatuan Sukan dan Seni.

Hobi Baginda adalah membaca, belayar, fotografi, mengumpul setem serta sampul surat Hari Pertama, mengumpul “vintage cars” dan mengumpul senjata tradisi orang-orang Melayu. Pada 9 November 1998, Baginda telah berjaya melancarkan buku pertama Baginda iaitu “Peking to Paris”. Pada tahun 1976, Baginda telah dilantik sebagai “Honorary Member Of The Philatelic Society” di Malaysia. Yayasan Antarabangsa Rotary telah menganugerahkan “Paul Harris Fellow” kepada Baginda. Pada tahun 1998, Baginda telah menerima anugerah tertinggi dari Persatuan Pengakap Malaysia iaitu “Pingat Semangat Padi”. Pada tahun 1989, Baginda telah dilantik sebagai “Honorary Life Commodore” oleh Pelayaran Diraja Selangor “Royal Selangor Yacht Club”. Baginda berminat di dalam bidang seni dan telah mengumpul banyak lukisan-lukisan tempatan dan Baginda telah dilantik sebagai Pengerusi Galeri Shah Alam pada tahun 1991. Pada tahun yang sama juga Baginda telah dilantik sebagai Pengerusi Lembaga Amanah Yayasan Seni Selangor Darul Ehsan. Pada 11 Mei 2000, Baginda telah dilantik sebagai “Fellow of The Chartered Institute Of Transport”. Pada 25 Mei 2000, Baginda telah dilantik sebagai “Pro Canselor” UiTM dan pada 31 Mac 2001, Baginda telah dianugerahkan Darjah Kehormat Doktor Pentadbiran Awam. Pada 1 April 2002 Baginda telah dilantik sebagai Canselor Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Pencapaian tertinggi di dalam kegiatan sukan lasak ialah apabila nama Baginda telah terukir di dalam “Malaysia Book of Records” sebagai “The First To Sail Around The World” dan “The First To Complete Peking-Paris Motor Challenge” pada tahun 1998.

Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan Selangor adalah seorang insan yang peka di dalam perkembangan semasa. Baginda selalu memberi idea yang bernas di dalam mengatasi masalah-masalah kemanusiaan. Di dalam bidang agama pula Baginda sering bertitah di masjid-masjid menasihatkan rakyat jelata agar benar-benar mengikut ajaran Islam dengan penuh keyakinan. Baginda adalah seorang Raja yang berjiwa rakyat dan menitikberatkan kemajuan rakyat Baginda dalam semua bidang termasuklah ekonomi, sosial dan alam sekitar.

 


 

Lambang Peribadi Rasmi Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan Selangor

Attractions Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia, lies approximately in the middle of the western coast of the peninsular part of the country. Covering an area of ​​approximately 243 sq. km, the city is located about 35 km from the sea. Kuala Lumpur received the status of a metropolis on February 1, 1972 and was proclaimed a federal territory in 1974.

Attractions Kuala Lumpur

The capital began with a mining settlement at the end of the 19th century, after the discovery of tin ore deposits at the confluence of the Klang and Gombak.Despite the fact that the tin trade declined over time, this did not hinder the growth of the city. Kuala Lumpur is leading the rapid rise of the state in all areas – in trade and commerce, banking and finance, in the development of industry, transport, information technology and tourism.

Dataran Merdeka, Independence Square (Dataran Merdeka)

With the striking of the clock at midnight on August 31, 1957, it was in this historical place, in the very center of the city, that the national flag of Great Britain was last lowered.Dataran Merdeka is a field in front of the Royal Selangor Club, where Malaysians gather every year to celebrate the anniversary of independence. Formerly known as the Selangor Club square, Dataran Merdeka was widely used for cricket, field hockey, tennis and rugby matches until the mid-90s, when it was rebuilt with the construction of an underground car park and restaurant and shopping complex. To this day, cricket games are still held here. At the southern end of the field, the world’s tallest flagpole (100 m) rises with the national flag and flower beds at its foot.Every third Saturday of the month from 17:00 to 18:00, the bands of the Malaysian Armed Forces and the Royal Malaysian Police take turns playing in the square.

Dataran Merdeka – Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Sultan Abdul Samad Building

This most photographed building in Kuala Lumpur, designed by British architect A.K. Norman, was built from 1894 to 1897. Initially, it was occupied by the Secretariat of the British Administration. The building is a beautiful fusion of Victorian and Moorish styles, and now houses the Court of First Instance and the Supreme Court.Directly next door is the former City Hall, built in the same Moorish spirit.

Masjid Jamek Mosque

The Jamek Mosque, directly behind the building named after Sultan Abdul Samad, is a remarkable example of Indo-Muslim architecture. Designed by British architect A.B. Hubbox, it was built in 1909 at the confluence of the Klang and Gombak rivers, exactly where Kuala Lumpur came from. The mosque, set among palm trees, is decorated with onion-shaped domes, arched colonnades and shiny, cool marble floors.

Jalan Bukit Bintang

It is hard to find a better place for dinner, shopping or evening entertainment than the Star Alley or Bintang Walk on Jalan Bukit Bintang Street in the Golden Triangle of the capital. There are shopping centers, hotels, restaurants and cafes here. Fans of evening entertainment will find discos, karaoke and bars.

Sultan Abdul Samad Building – Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

National Planetarium

The planetarium is located on a hill in the Lake Park, just behind the State Mosque, Deer and Bird Parks.Premises inside the planetarium complex include a space theater, a space science exhibition, a reference center, an observation gallery, and a park of ancient observatories. A space science show and films about space are shown on two screens of the theater. There is also an observatory with a 14-inch telescope. The planetarium is open from 10:00 am to 5:00 pm from Wednesday to Saturday. Entrance fee is 3 MR for adults and 2 MR for children up to 12 years old. There is also a small fee to watch movies and shows.

Taman Tasik Perdana Lake Park

The capital’s most popular park Taman Tasik Perdana (Kuala Lumpur Lake Park) was established in the 1880s.It covers an area of ​​91.6 hectares and is equipped with a children’s play area, treadmills, warm-up areas and pleasure boats. The Jubilee Stage in the park regularly hosts music concerts and cultural performances.

Taman Tasik Perdana Lake Park – Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Orchid Garden and Hibiscus Garden

Near Taman Tasik Perdana Park is the Orchid Garden, where more than 800 species of these exotic flowers grow, including rare …Orchids are available for purchase. Nearby is the Hibiscus Garden, in which more than 500 varieties of this plant are raging in all shades of color, with delicate, paper-like flower petals.

Opening hours: from 9:00 to 17:00 daily. Admission is free except Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays.

Bird Park

Bird Park is located across the street from the Orchid Garden. Many species of birds from all over the world are collected under the huge net. For them, conditions have been created that are close to those in which they live in freedom.Here you can see the hornbill from Sarawak, rare forest dwellers and predators. The park is open from 9:00 to 17:00 daily. The entrance fee is RM 28 for adults and RM 20 for children from 4 to 12 years old.

Butterfly Park

The Butterfly Park can be reached on foot from the Orchid Garden and Bird Park. More than 6,000 butterflies belonging to 120 species create its multicolor nature. Opening hours: from 9:00 to 18:00 every day. Entrance fee: RM 5 for adults and RM 2 for children from 4 to 12 years old.

Deer Park

The park is located on a hillside where tame deer roam freely, including tiny kanchili deer.Guests are allowed to interact with these cute animals. You can come here daily from 9:00 to 17:00.

Orchid Garden – Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Tun Abdul Razak Memorial

Further down the road from Deer Park is the Tun Abdul Razak Memorial, which occupies one of the former official residences of this statesman, the second Prime Minister of Malaysia. The late Abdul Razak remained in the memory of the people as the “Father of Economic Development”. A large number of objects belonging to him are exhibited here, relating to the period of Abdul Razak’s tenure as prime minister of the country from 1970 to 1976.The memorial is open from 9:00 am to 6:00 pm from Tuesday to Sunday, Monday is a day off, excluding school holidays and holidays.

National Monument

The monument was erected in 1966 in memory of the fallen heroes of the nation. The author of the project is the famous sculptor Felix de Weldon, who created the Ivo Memorial in Washington. The 15.54 m high bronze structure depicts seven warriors who symbolize the seven leadership qualities. Opening hours: all week from 7:00 to 18:00.

ASEAN gardens

This beautifully designed Garden begins just behind the National Monument and houses a collection of award-winning ASEAN sculptors.

Tun Abdul Razak Memorial – Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Masjid Negara State Mosque

Next to the station is the State Mosque, built in a modern spirit, with elements of new Muslim art, calligraphy and decor. The building is best remembered for its folded umbrella-shaped dome and 254-foot minaret, which embodies the aspiration for the Supreme. The 18-pointed star represents the 13 states of Malaysia and the five pillars of the Muslim faith.48 smaller domes flank the courtyard. The mosque can simultaneously accommodate up to 8 thousand people. Visitors are asked to take off their shoes and be appropriately dressed.

State Palace (Istana Negara)

The official residence of the Supreme Ruler of Malaysia is located on Jalan Istana Street. Its vast territory is decorated with immaculate lawns and regular parks, blazing with flowers. Official receptions and ceremonies take place in the palace.

Kuala Lumpur Tower

This impressive concrete tower officially opened in 1996., is considered the first tallest structure of its kind in Asia and the fourth in the world. From the observation deck or from the hall of the revolving restaurant, you can admire the capital and the Klang Valley from a bird’s eye view. The tower also performs telecommunication functions for the transmission of television and radio programs.

Masjid Negara State Mosque – Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Petronas Twin Towers

Currently, the stand-alone Petronas Twin Towers are the tallest in the world, towering 452 meters into the capital’s sky.This architectural marvel, inspired by the concept of the five pillars of Islam, is the pivot of the ultra-modern business district. The sightseeing tour begins with a visit to the bridge between the towers. You can get there from the 45th floor. There is a restaurant on the same level. After that, you will go up to the 83rd floor. There, passing through the gallery, you will change to another elevator to get to the observation deck on the 86th floor. If you want to visit the towers, it is advisable to purchase tickets before ten o’clock. Otherwise, it might be too late during the day.Tickets can be purchased on the ground floor. The Petronas Towers are certainly worth a visit. At the foot of the Petronas Towers there is a fashionable shopping center “Suria KL SS”, there is also a cinema, a concert hall and a conference hall. On the top floor is the small museum of the Petronas oil company, which Malaysia is very proud of. The building was designed by Cesar Pelly and has some Islamic influences.

Titiwangsa Park

This park is located on the northwestern outskirts of the city.Visitors are most attracted by the large lake and the giant Ferris wheel “Eye on Malaysia”, which was opened on Lake Titivangsa on January 6, 2007. The park is equipped for water sports, jogging, tennis, has warm-up areas and children’s play area. The floating restaurant on the lake offers delectable local cuisine.

Royal Selangor Factory Visitor Center

Here you can get acquainted with the disappearing craft – the manufacture of pewter.Tin souvenirs from Malaysia are renowned for their excellent quality and design. Visitors can observe the work of the craftsmen who create wonderful pieces of this material.

Petronas Twin Towers – Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Sunway Lagoon Park

It will be fascinating to stay in the entertainment complex Sunway Lagoon, once in which you will involuntarily be transported to Egypt. Exciting rides, “real” surfing, stunning waterslides and entertainment will give you tons of fun.In addition, you will have the opportunity to visit the ultra-modern shopping complex “Pyramid” (Sunway Pyramid), in the center of which there is a real ice skating rink!

National Zoo

The National Zoo is located 13 km from the center of Kuala Lumpur, which contains more than 200 species of representatives of the animal world. The aquarium is home to about 80 species of various fish and marine animals. This tour is ideal for children and wildlife lovers. The staff of the zoological park takes care of their inhabitants with love and due attention.This fun tour is an opportunity to have a good time with the whole family.

Hindu Temple Batu Cave

Hindu Temple Batu Cave is located in a cave 13 km from Kuala Lumpur. The Batu Caves are a popular tourist destination, especially during the Hindu festival. Hundreds of thousands of believers flock here annually to worship the god Murgan and leave him various offerings in the temple. There are 272 steps leading to the altar of the main cave where services are held. There, in wall niches, brightly painted statues of numerous Hindu gods “live”.The road will not seem tiresome to you, because on the way you will meet friendly almost tame monkeys who are accustomed to tourists and persistently ask to treat them with some delicacies.

Batu Cave Hindu Temple – Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Malaysia is … What is Malaysia?

Federation of Malaysia, a state in Southeast Asia, a state in Southeast Asia. Country with an area of ​​329,758 sq. km, consists of two spatially separated parts, separated by approximately 640 km of the South China Sea.Western Malaysia occupies the south of the Malacca Peninsula (with the exception of Singapore), and East Malaysia (Sarawak and Sabah states) – the northeastern part of Kalimantan Island (formerly Borneo). On the mainland, Malaysia has a land border with Thailand, and on Kalimantan, with Indonesia. The Strait of Malacca separates the peninsular part of Malaysia from the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The insular part of Malaysia in the east is washed by the Sulu Sea, which separates the country from the Philippines.

Located in the center of Southeast Asia, Malaysia has an important geopolitical position.The political system is a constitutional monarchy (federation).

NATURE

Terrain relief and water resources. The coastline of the peninsular part of Malaysia is approx. 1900 km, the shores are slightly indented and characterized by smooth outlines. Nevertheless, there are quite a few convenient harbors and bays in which port facilities have been built. Most of them are located in the west and south of the peninsula. The coastline of the Malaysian part of Kalimantan is approx.2250 km, in the east it is strongly dissected. The deepest bays cut into the land are located in the northeast of Kalimantan (Darvel, Sandakan, Labuk, Marudu, Kimanis). There are many islands in the coastal area of ​​Malaysia. The largest of them are Lankawi and Penang, located in the Strait of Malacca in the north-west of the country, and Bangui and Labuan off the coast of Sabah.

Most of Peninsular Malaysia is occupied by hills and low mountains, forming several parallel chains. The longest ridge Kerbau has a submeridional strike, crosses almost the entire country and forms the main watershed of the Malacca Peninsula.The highest point in West Malaysia is Mount Tahan (2187 m). In the central and southern parts of the Malacca Peninsula, as well as along the coasts, low-lying plains are widespread. The width of the coastal plains reaches 30 km in the east and 60 km in the west. They have a flat relief and are heavily waterlogged. Much of East Malaysia is occupied by plateaus and a massive mountain range on the border with Indonesia. The highest point in the country is located in Sabah, the isolated Mount Kinabalu (4100 m). The highest point in Sarawak is Mount Murud (2246 m).A narrow strip of low-lying plains stretches along the coast, slightly widening in the mouth of the Rajang River. Small wetlands are found in Sarawak and the lower reaches of the Rajang.

The Malacca Peninsula is characterized by a dense river network. However, the rivers are short. The longest of them are Pahang (about 320 km), Kelantan, Johor, which flow into the South China Sea, and Perak (270 km), which flows into the Strait of Malacca. In Kalimantan, the river network is more sparse. The largest rivers are Kinabatangan (563 km), Lyabuk, Segama, Padas in the state of Sabah and Rajang (563 km), Baram (402 km), Lupar (228 km), Limbang (196 km) in Sarawak state.Due to the abundance of atmospheric precipitation, the rivers are full-flowing all year round and transport a significant amount of suspended material. Rivers in Malaysia, teeming with rapids and waterfalls, are a potential source of electricity. The lower reaches of the largest rivers are navigable, and the Rajang is navigable over a considerable extent.

Significant reserves of many minerals are concentrated in the bowels of Malaysia – tin, copper and iron (magnetite and hematite with an iron content of up to 60%) ore, bauxite, oil and natural gas (on the shelf of the South China Sea), coal, gold.In terms of tin reserves, Malaysia is somewhat inferior to Thailand.

Climate. On the island of Kalimantan and the south of the Malacca Peninsula, the climate is equatorial, in the rest of the peninsula it is subequatorial monsoon. On the plains, the average monthly air temperatures fluctuate in the range of 25-28 ° C. During the day, the temperature rarely rises above + 32 ° C, and at night it drops to about + 21 ° C. In the mountains, the climate is temperate, and at high altitudes it is cool.

The average annual precipitation in the plains is 1500-2500 mm in the peninsular part of the country and 3750 mm on the island.Kalimantan, rising in the mountains up to 4000–5000 mm. Precipitation occurs all year round, but as a result of the alternation of the northeastern and southwestern monsoons, they show seasonal variability (the wettest month is December, and the precipitation is less abundant from February to June). In general, in Sarawak and on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, inclement weather occurs more often than on its west coast and in Sabah. The maximum annual moisture content was recorded in the Long Atar site in Sarawak (6000 mm).

Soils and flora. In Malaysia, mainly red-yellow ferralite and alluvial soils are widespread, which, under the influence of heavy rainfall, are eroded and lose their fertility. In many areas, once fertile soils are depleted due to the continuous cultivation of the same crops.

The soil and climatic conditions of Malaysia are very favorable for the development of dense humid tropical forests. Forested approx. 70% of the country’s territory. Most of them are common in Kalimantan. The rainforests are biodiverse.They grow approx. 8000 species of flowering plants, 3000 – woody (of which 25 are conifers), 1000 – orchids, 300 – palm trees, 60 – bamboo, 500 – ferns. Among the humid tropical forests, there are low-lying (up to an altitude of 300 m above sea level) and forests of the foothills and lower slopes of the mountains (at altitudes from 300 to 750-800 m above sea level). Forests have a three-tiered structure. Usually the height of the top layer is 40-50 m, but individual trees reach 80 m (for example, Tukuang). In humid tropical forests, such valuable species of trees from the dipterocarp family as meranti, chengal, keruing, kapoor, and balau grow.In addition, kempas, merbau, nyatokh, ramin, and others are widespread. An abundance of epiphytes, climbing plants (rattan palm, etc.) and lianas are characteristic.

Above 750–800 m above sea level moist evergreen tropical mountain forests are widespread. Depending on the height, the following zones of these forests are distinguished: 750–1200 m above sea level; – mixed forests, three-tiered, up to 25–30 m high with a predominance of dipterocarp (Shorei platiklados, etc.) in the upper tier and palms, including dwarf, in the lower; 1200–1500 m – oak forests with the participation of trees from the families of laurel, myrtle, magnolia; 1500–2000 m – high-mountainous small forest (up to 10 m high) with a predominance of dwarf forms of mountain oak; above 2000 m – alpine shrubs and mountain meadows.In Sabakh and Sarawak, above the belt of oak forests, there is a belt of coniferous forests dominated by agathis, phylocladus, and podocarp. The low-lying plains are also characterized by several types of forest. Along the eastern coast of the Malacca Peninsula, a continuous 20-meter strip, and along the western coast, in separate habitats, thickets of casuarinas are common, to which such species as Penanga Laut and Ketepanga are mixed. On the western coast of the Malacca Peninsula and on the eastern coast at the estuaries of the rivers, in Sabah and Sarawak, there is a wide strip of mangrove forests, the height of the tree layer of which reaches 12 m.They are characterized by thickets of api-api, bakau, langada. In addition, tropical swamp forests occupy significant areas in some places. In Sarawak, they are dominated by such valuable breeds as Ramin and Alan, and on the Malacca Peninsula – Gelam.

Animal world. The territory of Malaysia belongs to the Indo-Malay zoogeographic area. In recent years, with the destruction of forests, the number of wild animals, especially large ones, has been reduced. There are few elephants, gaura bulls, Sumatran rhinoceros, tapirs.Sambur and muntjac deer are widespread, there are many wild boars, and a bearded pig is found in swampy forests. Among the predators in the forests are the tiger, leopard, black panther, marten. There are many monkeys in the forests: orangutan, four types of gibbons, several types of macaques, lorises. There are lemurs, bats are numerous. In total, there are approx. 240 species of mammals. The richness of the avifauna of Malaysia is striking, numbering about 600 species belonging to 70 families. Its most prominent representatives are peacocks, wild chickens, pheasants, myna, white-eyed, woodpeckers, kingfishers, blackbirds, quails, parrots and parrots, wild pigeons, Malay crow, etc.In Malaysia, there are 25 species of turtles (including the green sea turtle, which breeds offspring on the northern coast of Kalimantan), more than 100 species of lizards, 17 species of snakes (including cobra, or spectacle snake, king cobra, reticulated python). Crocodiles, once abundant in river estuaries, are now on the verge of extinction; gavial is occasionally found. The fauna of insects is especially numerous (about 150 thousand species, including 1000 species of butterflies).

Malaysia’s coastal waters are home to hundreds of species of fish and over 1,000 species of shellfish.Mackerel, bonito, tuna, sardines, spearfish, sea bass, flying fish, swordfish, sailboat, moonfish, barracuda, sharks, rays, anchovies, mussels, octopuses, squids, crabs, lobsters, shrimps, and from large animals – sperm whales, dugongs, dolphins, sea turtles.

POPULATION

Demographics. 90,083 As of July 2003, the population of Malaysia was 23.09 million. Of these, about 4/5 were concentrated in Peninsular Malaysia. In 2003, the fertility rate in Malaysia was estimated at 2.37 per 1000 people and the death rate at 5.12.The rate of demographic growth of the population was at the level of 1.86% per year. Average life expectancy in Peninsular Malaysia in 2003 reached 69.01 years for men and 74.51 years for women, which is significantly higher than the corresponding figures for the state of Sabah.

Peninsular Malaysia. On this territory with an area of ​​131.6 thousand square meters. km dominated by three ethnic communities: Malay, Chinese and Indian. The number of Malays has grown particularly rapidly over the past 30 years (c.3% per year), followed by the Chinese and Indians (on average, about 2% per year). In 2000, Malays accounted for 58%, Chinese 24%, Indians 8%, others 10%. In the early 1990s, the average population density in Peninsular Malaysia exceeded 115 people per 1 sq. Km. km. However, this indicator does not fully reflect the real picture, since only the coastal plains can be considered well-lived, while the upland hinterland covered with dense forests serve as habitat only for scattered small semi-nomadic groups that take minimal part in the economic life of the country.Meanwhile, more than 70% of all inhabitants of Peninsular Malaysia are concentrated on the developed western coastal plain. Such large urban centers as Kota Bharu in the Kelantan delta, Kuala Terengganu at the mouth of the Terengganu River, and Kuanan, to which a highway from Kuala Lumpur leads, has emerged on the east coast. Malays predominate in the countryside, where there are still many Indians. However, a significant number of Malays and Indians have firmly established themselves in cities and towns, although in large centers they are outstripped by the Chinese, who hold leading positions in the developing urban economy.
Over a thousand years (mainly over the past two centuries), migrants have arrived in the Malacca Peninsula. The population of this part of Malaysia is multicultural and speaks different languages. The Malays, united by a common language and religion, come from various regions of the Malay Archipelago (including modern Indonesia) and have preserved local dialects and customs. Likewise, the Chinese, although predominantly rooted in southern China, also speak many dialects. The Indians who settled in Malaysia belong to the Dravidian peoples of South India, but among them there are also Gujarats, Punjabis, Bengalis and representatives of other ethnic groups of the northern regions of the South Asian subcontinent.
The population of Peninsular Malaysia is distinguished by the polyphonism of a culture that has developed largely as a result of various religious interactions. Malay culture, despite having its own tradition, was formed under the influence of Hinduism, which penetrated from India, and Islam, brought from the Arab world. The influence of Islam, practiced today by almost all Malays, is manifested in the existence of Sharia courts, as well as in the peculiarities of modern Malay art and modern Malay literature.The Chinese living in this part of the country preserve a kind of religious triad that combines elements of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Natives of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka practice Hinduism, Islam and Buddhism. European civilization has also left its mark on the country’s traditions. In particular, in Malaysia, especially among the Chinese, there are many supporters of various Christian denominations.

Sarawak and Sabah. About half of the population of Sarawak and Sabah are Aborigines of Kalimantan, who belong to several ethnic groups.In Sarawak, the largest of them are ibans, or sea dayaks (30% of the population), melanau (5%) and other groups of dayaks (9%). In Sabakh, the most numerous are kadazans (25% of the population), muruts (4%), also belonging to the dayak group, and bajao (11%). Among the immigrants, the Chinese make up a significant proportion (29% of the inhabitants of Sarawak and 18% of the inhabitants of Sabah), followed by the Malays (20% and 5%, respectively).

In both states, the highest concentration of the population is on the coastal plain along the northern coast of Kalimantan.Most of the Malays live there, while the indigenous people prefer to settle in the interior of the island. The Chinese are concentrated mainly in cities and suburban areas.

Languages. The official language of Malaysia is Malay, although a significant part of the population uses English, Chinese (represented by many dialects), Tamil and other Indian languages. In addition, the indigenous people of Sarawak and Sabah speak some languages ​​of the Austronesian (Malay-Polynesian) family of languages, and the small indigenous population of Peninsular Malaysia uses the languages ​​of the Mon-Khmer group of the Austro-Asian family.Few autochthonous peoples have a written language. In this respect, the ibans stand out, the writing of which has a Latin graphic basis.

Cities. Compared to other countries in Southeast Asia, Malaysia is characterized by a very high level of urbanization. In the early 1990s, just over 50% of all Malaysians lived in cities with populations in excess of 10,000. In Malaysia, there are approx. 40 “large” cities with a population of over 50 thousand people.
90,080 In Peninsular Malaysia, 50% of the urban population is Chinese, 38% Malays and 11% Indians.Due to the increasing influx of members of other ethnic groups into the cities, the proportion of Chinese in the population is gradually decreasing.

The largest city of Peninsular Malaysia is the capital of Kuala Lumpur (1236 thousand people in 1995). Founded in 1857 as a mining town, this metropolitan city is today the country’s commercial and industrial center. The second largest city of Ipoh (about 500 thousand people) is located in the very center of the Kinta river valley.

In the south of the Malacca Peninsula is the third largest city of Johor Bahru (the administrative center of the piece.Johor, rubber processing, sawmilling, food and canning industries are developed). The fourth and fifth places in terms of population are, respectively, the cities of Kelang (the administrative center of the state of Selangor and an important port city) and Petaling, built in the 1950s southwest of the capital as its satellite. The cities of Kelang, Petaling and Shah Alam are part of the Kuala Lumpur metropolitan area. In recent years, in the northeast of Peninsular Malaysia, two cities have rapidly grown, coming out respectively in sixth and seventh places in terms of population: Kota Bharu (the administrative center of the state.Kelantan) and Kuala Terengganu (administrative center of the state of Terengganu). The port city of Georgetown on Penang Island, with its deep-sea berths, has developed rapidly since the mid-1990s. Since 1985 it is connected by a bridge with the Malacca Peninsula.

Compared to the peninsular part of the country, East Malaysia is clearly less captured by urbanization processes. The largest cities in the Malaysian part of Kalimantan are Kota Kinabalu, the administrative center of the state of Sabah, and Kuching, the administrative center of the state of Sarawak.

PUBLIC UNIT

The constitution of independent Malaya was adopted in 1957.In 1963, in connection with the unification of Malaya with Singapore, Sarawak and Sabah in the Federation of Malaysia, amendments were made to it – the Malaysia Act. The state system is a constitutional monarchy. The official ideology of the country in 1970 was proclaimed “rukunegara” (“foundations of the state”). It proclaims the desire to strengthen the unity of a mono-racial and socially just society, to consolidate democracy, respect for cultural traditions and the development of the country. To achieve these goals, the following principles are put forward: faith in God, loyalty to the monarch and the state, respect for the constitution, observance of laws, dignified behavior and observance of moral norms.
The Malay language was declared the state and official language. According to the constitution, there is freedom of religion, but the official religion of the country is Islam.

Malaysia is a monarchy with an elected head of state. The supreme ruler (yang di-pertuan agong), as well as his deputy, are elected by the council of rulers (hereditary sultans) of the 9 states of Malaysia for a five-year term from among its members. The supreme ruler performs representative functions of the head of state “on the advice of parliament and government.”It is also intended to ensure the special position of the Malays and other representatives of the indigenous population of the country (“bumiputera”) and the “legitimate interests” of other communities. The first are guaranteed positions in the civil service, allowances, scholarships and quotas in educational institutions are allocated, preferential permits and licenses for entrepreneurial activities are provided, etc. The monarch is considered the supreme commander of the country’s armed forces and appoints the prime minister. Since 2001, the Supreme Ruler is Sayed Sirajuddin ibni al-Markhum Sayed Putra Jamalullayl.
The Council of Rulers, in addition to electing the head of state, “gives advice” when appointing judges, the attorney general, members of the election commission and the civil service commission. He passes or rejects laws related to changes in the boundaries of the sultanate states.

Executive power. The head of the executive branch is the Prime Minister (since 2003 – Datuk Abdullah Ahmad Badawi). He appoints the leader of the party or bloc that wins a majority in a general election and has a majority in the House of Representatives.If he loses the confidence of the majority of the members of the House, then either the government resigns, or its head asks the Supreme Ruler to dissolve parliament (the monarch has the right to disagree with this request).

The supreme ruler appoints the prime minister and (on his “advice”) the cabinet ministers. The prime minister presides over cabinet meetings, coordinates the activities of the government, ministries and departments, and “gives advice” to the monarch when appointing judges, members of the election commission, the civil service commission and senior officials.
Legislature. The highest legislative body in Malaysia is the federal parliament, which consists of two chambers – the House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat) and the Senate (Dewan Negara). The country’s parliament develops and approves laws applicable throughout Malaysia, controls the financial activities of the government and expresses public opinion on issues of national importance. Discussion on issues related to the special rights of indigenous peoples is limited.

The Senate has 70 members.30 are elected by the legislative assemblies of the states and territories (2 from each entity), 40 are appointed by the Supreme Ruler. Senators serve for 6 years, with half of them re-elected every 3 years. The Senate has the right to propose laws itself (except for financial ones). He has the right to postpone for a year the entry into force of laws adopted by the House of Representatives. The laws relating to the financial activities of the state, the Senate cannot delay more than 30 days.

The House of Representatives consists of 193 members, elected for a term of 5 years from single member constituencies.Of these, 144 are selected in Western (Peninsular) Malaysia, 27 in Sarawak, 20 in Sabah and 1 on Labuan Island.

Judicial system. The highest court is the Supreme Court, whose members are appointed by the Supreme Ruler after consultation with the Prime Minister. This court is empowered to determine the legality of the activities of the parliament and state bodies, to resolve disputes between states, between the federal government and states. In both parts of the country (peninsular and insular) there are High Courts (respectively, in Kuala Lumpur and Kuching), dealing with cases and appeals.Their members are also appointed by the Supreme Ruler. The lower instances form magistrate and sessional courts. Cases of violation of the provisions of Sharia or Adat fall under the jurisdiction of Islamic courts.

State civil service. 90,083 In Malaysia, there are approximately 877 thousand civil servants (11.7% of the total number of employees, in 1983 they were about 25%). Their number is decreasing with the privatization of state property. Government officials include employees of the federal, state and local governments, as well as officials and employees of approximately 50 nonfinancial public enterprises.
State and local government. The Federal State of Malaysia consists of 13 states and 2 federal territories. Of the states located in the peninsular part of the country, nine – Selangor, Pahang, Negeri Sembilan, Perak, Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, Terengganu and Johor – are headed by hereditary rulers. The rest of the states – Malacca, Pulau Penang, Sarawak and Sabah – are governed by governors appointed by the monarch.

Each state has its own constitution, a unicameral legislature and an executive council headed by a first minister.State governments are responsible for managing natural resources, ensuring the functioning of local governments, enforcing Islamic and Malayan laws, and organizing public works. At the same time, each of the states receives certain financial assistance from the federal government.

The city of Kuala Lumpur and the island of Labuan have the status of a federal territory, which are governed by special commissioners responsible to parliament.

In Western (Peninsular) Malaysia, states are divided into districts (districts), counties into districts (mukims), and those into villages.Sarawak is divided into districts (divisions), and Sabah – into regions (residences). The districts and districts are headed by government officials, and the villages are headed by the elders.

Political parties. There are several dozen political parties in Malaysia. The ruling coalition National Front (NF), or “Barisan National”, was formed in 1974 and unites 14 parties and organizations. Its official goals are to strengthen the “unified and harmonious Malaysian nation”, to preserve Islam as an official religion, while at the same time freedom to practice other religions, to implement the rukunegara principles and create a “just society.”In the 1999 parliamentary elections, the front won 148 of 193 seats in the House of Representatives.

The leading role in the NF is played by United Malay National Organization ( OMNO ). UMNO was organized in 1946 by the elite of the Malay community of the country, dissatisfied with the colonial plans to create the Malay Union. Malay leaders feared that in the new formation, the political position of their community would be weakened, and the influence of the Chinese would increase. UMNO supported the creation of the Malay Federation based on the unification of the sultanates and its independence in 1957.In 1952–1954, the party entered into a bloc with the Chinese Association and the Indian Congress of Malaya. This is how the Union Party arose, in which the UMNO played a dominant role. After winning the elections in 1955, the UMNO leaders have been permanently holding the post of head of the government of Malaya, and since 1963 – of Malaysia.

UMNO proclaims its goal to protect “the good of the people, religion and country.” She defends the independence of Malaysia, the preservation of the constitutional monarchy and democratic system of government, promotes Islam as the official religion and promises “social justice.”The party is in favor of “racial cooperation” and the creation of a “single Malaysian people”, but considers the Malays and other representatives of the indigenous population (“bumiputera”) as its main basis. OMNO stands for the priority development of the “Malay economy”, the Malay language and culture.
90,080 According to its own data, UMNO has 2.8 million members. The party has 71 seats in the House of Representatives and heads the governments in 11 administrative-territorial countries. UMNO leader is Datuk Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, Prime Minister of Malaysia.
Chinese Association of Malaysia ( KAM ) was founded in 1949 by the elite of the Chinese community of Malaya, until 1963 it was called the Chinese Association of Malaya. Since 1952, it has been permanently blocked with UMNO (as part of the “Union Party”, and since 1974 – the NF), recognizing, in essence, the priority of the Malay community in the country. At the same time, she constantly tried to expand the influence of the Chinese and shift the existing balance of power in their favor. KAM is committed to “ensuring that the legitimate rights and interests of Chinese Malaysians are recognized and protected” in all walks of life.WAM speaks for the creation of a “single Malaysian nation”, strengthening the country’s independence and multiracial parliamentary democracy, for economic development and improving the well-being of citizens, for “social justice”, in which assistance is provided to “underprivileged” people and segments of the population. In 1999, KAM won 29 seats in the Malaysian House of Representatives. The party chairman is Dato Seri Ong Ka Ting.

Indian Congress of Malaysia ( IKM ) was formed in 1946, until 1963 it was called the Indian Congress of Malaya.ICM seeks to protect the interests of the Indian community in the country within the framework of a multiracial society and a course towards the creation of a “one Malaysian nation”. In the early years of its existence, the ICM was oriented towards India, but in 1954 it joined the UMNO-KAM (“Union Party”) coalition. Since 1974 the Congress has been participating in the NF. Has 7 seats in the House of Representatives.

Unlike UMNO, KAM and IKM, which operate throughout peninsular Malaysia, the rest of the NF parties function in fact only in individual states or in a group of states.
The People’s Movement Party of Malaysia (“Gerakan Rakyat”) was founded in 1968 as an organization uniting representatives of various communities in the country who considered themselves “Malaysians”. However, the mainstay of the party is traditionally the state of Penang, 80% of whose population is Chinese. She spoke in favor of a “non-racial” approach to politics, economics, education and culture, for “a united, secular and socially just Malaysia.”

Gerakan Rakyat is focused on maintaining political stability based on a system of constitutional monarchy, parliamentary democracy and peaceful settlement of disputes.While proclaiming the desire for the full expansion of civil, economic, social and cultural human rights and freedoms, the party simultaneously opposes the use of human rights topics for foreign interference in the internal affairs of Malaysia. The party advocates a free market, but with government intervention when the market fails and the poor need to be helped. The state and the market, according to “Gerakan Rakyat”, should complement and “mutually reinforce” each other on the way to “a society of justice and equality.”The party pays great attention to education, cultural integration and women’s equality. Since 1972 the party has been blocked with the Union Party, since 1974 it has been participating in the NF. Has 6 seats in the House of Representatives.

People’s Progressive Party ( NPP ) was formed in 1953 by representatives of the Chinese and Indian communities on the initiative of the brothers D.P. and S.P. Sinivasagam. Until 1956 it was called the Progressive Party of Perak, but later it expanded its activities to other states of Peninsular Malaysia (with the exception of Terengganu and Kelantan).As its goal, the NPP proclaimed the creation of a society of democratic socialism on the basis of cooperation between labor and capital, advocated the expansion of democratic freedoms and cooperation of all ethnic groups and communities. Since 1972, the NPP has been in a coalition with the “Union Party”, and since 1974 – in the NF. However, in the 1970s, the party’s influence fell sharply, and it is currently not in the House of Representatives.

The following National Front parties are active in Sarawak:

United Party of Bumiputera Traditions (Bumiputera Bersatu Party Doggie, PBBB) was formed in 1967 as a result of the merger of the Pesaka Dayak Party, which existed since 1962, and the Bumiputera Party of Malaysia.PBBB is the largest party in Sarawak and is the head of the state government. In 1999 won 10 seats in the House of Representatives.

The United People’s Party of Sarawak ( ONPS ) was established in 1959 and relies mainly on the Chinese population, partly on the Iban people. In the late 1950s – early 1960s, she sought self-government and unification with Brunei and Sabah, against the creation of Malaysia. In the mid-1960s, more balanced views prevailed in the ONPS, and in 1970 it entered into a coalition with the Union Party, and in 1974 – in the NF.Has 8 seats in the House of Representatives.

The National Party of Sarawak ( NPS ) was founded in 1961, relies mainly on the Dayaks, as well as on part of the Malays. Until 1976, the party opposed the NF, but then became part of it. In 1999, the NPC won 4 seats in the House of Representatives, but subsequently left the NF.

The Sarawak Dayak Party split from the NPC in 1983, accusing its leadership of neglecting the interests of the Dayak community. The party remained in the NF.In the 1999 elections, she won 6 seats in the House of Representatives.

There is also Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party .

SF parties operate in Sabakh: United Organization Pasokmomogun kadazandusun Murut ” (based on the indigenous population, 3 seats in the House of Representatives), representing the Chinese community Sabah Progressive Party (2 seats in the House of Representatives) and Liberal the Democratic Party (1 seat in the House of Representatives), as well as United Party and United People’s Party Sabah party (split from the previous one in 1994, in 1999 acted separately from the NF and won 3 seats).
Leading opposition – All-Alasian Islamic Party ( PAS ) was formed in 1951 on the basis of the Panmalay Theological Association, which withdrew from UMNO due to disagreement with the interpretation of Islamic principles in the draft constitution. Until 1959 the party was called the Islamic Union, until 1971 – the Panmalay Islamic Party. Until 1973, the party opposed the government of the “Union Party”, in 1974-1977 it was part of the NF, and after that it again went into opposition. In the 1999 elections, the PAS headed the opposition bloc – “Alternative Front”.
PAS stands for the creation of an Islamic state in Malaysia The party demands to change the corresponding wording of the constitution and bring them in line with the norms of the Muslim sacred texts – the Koran and the Sunnah. She is pushing for strict application of Sharia law in states with a Muslim majority, as well as for Muslims in states in which they are in the minority. The head of state and prime minister of the country, according to the PAS, must necessarily be a Muslim. The party focuses more on the Muslim faith than on Malay nationalism, but recognizes that benefits will remain for Malays and other indigenous people “until they get on their feet.”90,080 PAS is in power in the states of Kelantan and Terengganu. In the 1999 elections, she won 27 seats in the House of Representatives. Chairman – Dato Seri Abdul Hadi Awang.

Party of Democratic Action ( SDA ) – Social Democratic, formed in 1966 on the basis of the organizations of the Singapore ruling People’s Action Party. The party is part of the Socialist International. Supports “a free, democratic, socialist Malaysia for Malaysians, based on the principles of human rights, equality, social and economic justice” and the institutions of parliamentary democracy.Condemning “exploitation and privileges,” the SDA sets as its goal the achievement of a “socialist system” in which the maximum development of the human personality and a fair distribution of the products of labor take place. The party attaches “paramount importance to the expansion of democracy, the observance and development of civil and social human rights, free social creativity and equality of cultures.” In contrast to the idea of ​​”Malay Malaysia”, it seeks equality of representatives of all communities in the country. However, in reality, traffic rules are primarily supported by the Chinese population, its influence among the Malays is negligible.In the 1999 elections, the SDA entered the “Alternative Front” of opposition parties, won 10 seats in the House of Representatives.

People’s Justice Party (“ Keadilan ”) was formed in 1999 by Van Aziza Van Ismail, the wife of a prominent politician Anwar Ibrahim, who was convicted by the ruling regime on charges of abuse of power and homosexual contacts. Called the National Justice Party until 2003, Keadilan sees itself as an opposition reform movement that seeks to transcend traditional ethnic and religious boundaries.It acts from a centrist position, strives for democratization and liberalization. In the 1999 elections, she entered the “Alternative Front” and won 5 seats in the House of Representatives.

Once influential among the Chinese population The Malaya Communist Party , created in 1930 and waging an insurgency against the Japanese occupation during World War II and then against the British colonial authorities and the government of independent Malaysia, split into three opposing factions in the early 1970s , and by the 1990s it ceased its activities.
Foreign policy and armed forces. Malaysia is a member of the UN, a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), as well as various regional economic groups and international Islamic organizations. Following a policy of regional neutrality and cooperation with Asian states, Malaysia adheres to a policy of friendly relations with other third world countries, in particular with moderate Islamic regimes. Its leaders maintained a generally pro-Western orientation.In 1995, Malaysian units participated in UN military units in peacekeeping operations in seven countries. In 2003, the country’s authorities condemned the invasion of US and British troops into Iraq, and the outgoing Prime Minister of Malaysia, Mahathir Mohamad, issued harsh anti-American and anti-Semitic statements.

Malaysia has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1967).
90,080 In 1995, Malaysia had a ground force of 85 thousand.people, naval forces (about 50 ships, including 4 frigates) and combat aviation, numbering 77 fighters and 8 squadrons of transport aircraft. Under a five-sided defense agreement with Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand and Singapore, troops of the Commonwealth countries may be stationed in Malaysia. In the mid-1990s, an infantry company and a squadron of the Australian Armed Forces were deployed in the country.

ECONOMY

Malaysia is an industrial and agricultural country.The annual growth of the gross domestic product (GDP – the total cost of final goods and services) in 2002 was approx. 4.1% per year and $ 8,800 per person.

The economic recovery was accompanied by a decrease in the share of the population below the poverty line, from 20.7 to 17.1%, and in 2002 – 8%. At the same time, the incomes of 40% of the poorest families increased faster than that of other social groups.
90,080 Malaysia has achieved these results thanks to its focus on export production, which in 2002 amounted to US $ 95.2 billion.US dollars, as well as due to the sectoral diversification of production. In addition to the continuing value of traditional Malaysian exports of rubber and palm oil, important exports such as oil and natural gas have been added.

The main economic achievement of the country should be considered the development of industry, especially those of its branches that work for export. In 2002, GDP by sector was: in agriculture – 12%, in industry – 40%, in services – 48%.

“Perspective 2020”. By the second decade of the 21st century the government of Malaysia has set the task of creating a developed economy in the country; this program is called “Outlook 2020”. Among the important tasks are the introduction of modern technologies, the improvement of the personnel training system, an increase in their general educational level and a more even development of Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia.

Mining industry. 90,083 In 1985, mining provided Malaysia with a third of its export earnings, but by 1996 its share had dropped to 7.1%.The main source of export earnings is oil, the deposits of which have been discovered on the shelf of the South China Sea, adjacent to the coast of the states of Sarawak, Sabah and the northeastern part of the Malay Peninsula. Natural gas is produced in the same regions, but to a lesser extent. The extraction of tin ore has slightly decreased. However, Malaysia is still among the largest tin producers. Other minerals of less noticeable economic importance include copper ore (in Sabakh), bauxite (in Johor), iron ore (in Trenganau, Pahang, Johor), and coal.Small amounts of gold are mined in the Rauba (Pahang) and Bau (Sarawak) regions.

Manufacturing industry. Compared to most other Asian countries, Malaysia has a developed industry. In 1996, the contribution of the manufacturing industry to GDP was approximately 34.5%. About 90% of enterprises are concentrated in the peninsular part of the country, especially in the vicinity of Kuala Lumpur and in certain areas of the states of Johor and Pulao Penang. Key industries include the preparation for subsequent export of raw materials such as oil, rubber, timber, coconut and oil palm products, and pineapples.The production of fabrics, clothing, electronic equipment, electrical equipment, electrical household appliances, and vehicles is largely oriented towards export. The domestic market is supplied with food products, drinks, tobacco products, chemicals, building materials, and steel.

Forestry and wood processing. The timber industry is second only to the manufacturing industry and oil and gas production. Malaysia is one of the largest exporters of valuable tropical timber.The country has developed special programs for the protection and restoration of the country’s forest resources, for this purpose, procurement quotas have been introduced.

Agriculture. In the past, the basis of agriculture in Malaysia was made up of hevea plantations, which then gave way to the leading place for oil palm plantations. Less important crops include cocoa, coconut, black pepper, pineapple.
90,080 The main food crop of the country is rice, approximately 87% of its crops are located in Peninsular Malaysia.In 1996, approx. 2.13 million tons of rice. 0.5 million tons of rice had to be imported from Thailand, Vietnam, India and Pakistan.

To reduce the cost of importing food, the country encouraged the production of fruits, vegetables, green crops, and animal feed. The area under fruit plantations is expanding annually by more than 6%. Almost half of it is dedicated to such a traditional Malaysian culture as the coconut tree. Poultry and pig breeding are developing rapidly.

Fishing. Accelerated development of seafaring in the country began in the 1980s after the re-equipment of fishing boats. New synthetic gear has increased catches. Improvement of the material and technical base and the opened opportunities for obtaining loans helped the industry’s production to grow to 1.2 million tons in 1996. Aquaculture is becoming more widespread.

Transport and tourism. Already in the early 1990s, the car park exceeded 5 million units, and the total length of roads was 92,500 km.Most of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia.

The Malay Railway connects peninsular Malaysia with Singapore and Bangkok. In Sabah, there is one very short line, and in Sarawak, there is no railway connection at all. There are international airports in Kuala Lumpur, Georgetown, Johor Bahru, Kota Kinabalu and Lankawi. There are over 40 seaports in the country. The largest of them are Penang, Pelabukhan Kelang, Port Dickson and Malacca in the peninsular part of the country; Sandakan, Labuan and Kota Kinabalu in Sabah; Kuching in Sarawak.
International tourism is an important source of income. Tourists visit the country mainly from Singapore, Thailand and Japan.

Foreign trade. The main export items include oil, rubber, vegetable oils and fats (mainly obtained from the fruit of the oil palm), wood and plywood, tin, electronic products (mainly transistors), automobiles, industrial rubber goods, footwear, textiles, and clothing. In 1997, goods worth $ 167 billion were exported.In imports, foodstuffs (primarily grain and sugar), electrical equipment, machine tools, vehicles, chemicals, ferrous metals, optics, yarn and fabrics are especially important. Japan is Malaysia’s leading trading partner, followed by the United States, Singapore, EU countries, South Korea, and China.

Banking system. The monetary unit of Malaysia, the ringgit, is issued by the State Bank (“Bank Negara Malaysia”). Local commercial banks are controlled by Malaysian and foreign companies.Gold and foreign exchange reserves amount to $ 19 billion, external debt reaches $ 45 billion.

SOCIETY AND CULTURE

In the heterogeneity of society and the diversity of culture in Malaysia, the customs and traditions of different ethnic groups living in the country were manifested. The main mass of the population of the peninsular territory is made up of the Malay, Chinese and Indian communities. In Sarawak and Sabakh, ibans, melanau, kadazans and other dayaks predominate in numbers; there is a large Chinese diaspora. Sarawak has a large Malay population.For centuries, Malaysia was influenced by the early Buddhist and Hindu civilizations that came from India, Java and Sumatra. In the 14-16 centuries. Islam penetrated here together with Indian and Arab merchants, and the Portuguese, Dutch and British who appeared later brought elements of European culture.

Social structure of society. 90,083 Malays have traditionally been united by language, Islamic religion, loyalty to the Sultan and shared cultural values. However, the relatively recent social contradictions are acquiring more and more importance.In 1971, a new economic policy began to be pursued with the aim of restructuring society. In 1970, the Malays, who constituted 59% of the total population, owned less than 1.5% of the capital, most of which was at the disposal of foreigners and the Chinese community. Malays, Chinese and Indians are easy to identify by their occupation. The Malays were either peasants or civil servants, the Chinese were business or liberal professions, and the Indians were hired plantation workers. In 1990 the Malays already owned approx.24% of the capital.
90,080 Although over 80% of the Chinese permanently residing in Malaysia were born in this country, they invariably retain their language and occupation inherited from their ancestors. The differences acquired recently among the Chinese are determined primarily by the level of education and the degree of familiarization with Western culture. The Chinese in Malaysia remain committed to Buddhism, Taoism or Christianity.

The majority of Malaysian Indians are Hindu and, mainly from southern India, speak Tamil.Although Indians, among whom, by the way, many doctors and lawyers, are found in all spheres of economic life, mainly Indian workers work on the local rubber plantations.

Small peoples of Sarawak and Sabah, such as the Penans, live in small villages in the interior underdeveloped areas of these states and are engaged in subsistence agriculture. They grow dry rice, hunt, fish and gather. They speak vastly different languages ​​and retain traditional animistic beliefs, although many Aboriginal people have converted to Christianity or Islam.Marriages between Ibans and Chinese are common.

Social security. The Ministry of Social Security and other government departments in Malaysia provide assistance to low-income citizens. Individuals whose wages do not exceed $ 250 are exempt from income tax, and their children receive school textbooks free of charge. The country has approx. 120 hospitals, more than 500 inpatient and mobile outpatient clinics, and over 1000 rural health points. In large cities, primarily in Kuala Lumpur and Georgetown, many private and specialized clinics are open.In Sarawak and Sabah, the social security system is less developed than in the peninsular part of the country.

Education. Malaysia introduced free 11-year schooling. After completing primary school, approximately 60% of students continue their studies in secondary school. Five-year high school graduates take a matriculation exam. Students who have shown themselves well are accepted for preparatory courses for admission to the university. The official language of instruction is Malay, although some schools allow the use of Chinese and Tamil.Children from Muslim families at school are required to study the basics of Islam.

Malaysia has 10 public universities and 28 teacher training and technical colleges. The country’s oldest University of Malaya and the International Islamic University are located in Kuala Lumpur, the National University of Malaysia is located in Bangui (Selangor state), in Serdang (in the same state) – the Agricultural University of Malaysia, in Minden (Pulau Penang state) – Science University of Malaysia, in Sintok (pcs.Kedah) – Northern University of Malaysia, in Johor Bahru – Technological University of Malaysia, in Samarakhan (near Kuching) – Sarawak University of Malaysia. Among the recently opened are the University of Malaysian Sabah, Sultan Idris University, Perak and Mara Institute of Technology. Several private higher education institutions were founded in 1987: the University of Telecommunications (Unitel), the Tenaga National University (Uniten) and the Institute of Petroleum Technology.

Literature and art. There is fiction in Malay, English, Chinese and Tamil. There are many theater groups operating in Kuala Lumpur. Performances are given in both Malay and English.

Pre-Islamic literature in Malay is unknown. During the Muslim period, stories and novels on epic and historical themes, chronicles, theological treatises, poems, etc. were created in various centers of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malacca Peninsula. Since the 1920s and especially the 1930s, the Malay novel has been spreading (Abdul Samad Ahmad, Abdullah Sidiq, Mansur Abdul Qadir, Ishak Haji Mohamad).In the second half of the 20th century. Abdullah Gani Ishaq, Hamdam, Ahmad Lutfi, Chris Mas, S.I.Nour, M.Gazali, A.Samad Said, Abdullah Hussein, Shahnon Ahmad, Kasim Ahmad, Kemala, Nurdin Hasan, etc., were written in Malay. the most famous are Lin Cantian, Wang Gekong, Wu Tian, ​​Wei Yun, Miao Xu and Huang Yai, and among the Tamil – M.S. Mayadevan, M. Iramaya, K. Perumal and M. Ulaganadan. Wang Gengwu was written in English. E. Tambu, Won Fuinam and others.

Outside the country, the work of local handicraftsmen is famous – pewter dishes from Selangor, silver items from Kelantan, painted using the batik technique.The best examples of the work of Malaysian artists are presented at the National Art Gallery in Kuala Lumpur. The capital’s National Mosque, Parliament Building, TV Tower or Kuala Lumpur Tower, the National Library and the Petronas oil company two-tower buildings are examples of elegant architectural structures made in a modern style.

Museums and libraries. There are libraries in the capital cities of each state. In addition to the usual exhibition work, museums in the cities of Kuala Lumpur, Alor Setar and Kuching are engaged in archaeological and historical research.The Kuching Museum houses the world’s largest collection of Iban folklore.

Mass media. In the mid-1990s, approx. 40 daily newspapers in Malay, English, Chinese, Punjabi and Tamil. Their total circulation was approximately 2.4 million copies. The largest daily newspapers are Berita Harian (250,000 copies), Nantian Shangbao (145,000), and The New Straits Times (170,000). The news agency Berita National Malaysia (BERNAMA) operates.
State radio station Radio Malaysia broadcasts in the most common local languages. There is also a state-owned television studio. The country’s cinemas show domestic and foreign films in Malay, Chinese, English and Tamil.

Sports and Holidays. The most popular among spectators are football, auto racing and horse racing. The Malaysians themselves prefer to practice such sports as badminton, swimming, tennis, golf, basketball, ping-pong, bowling.In the state of Kelantan on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, flying kites is a popular pastime.

August 31st is a national holiday – Independence Day in honor of the proclamation in 1957 of independence from Great Britain.

HISTORY

Early period. Despite the fact that the indigenous population of Malaysia (orang asli) speaks different languages, all ethnic groups go back to the same Austronesian root. According to linguistic historians, the homeland of these ethnic groups was in the south of China, and the resettlement of the ancestors of the modern inhabitants of Kalimantan and the peninsular part of Malaysia to the islands of the Malay Archipelago occurred between 2500 and 1000 BC.NS.

At the beginning of our era, the resurgence of international trade made the Strait of Malacca an ideal meeting place for Indian and Chinese merchants. Indian merchant ships sailed with southwestern winds, and Chinese with northeasterly winds. Both those and other ships lingered for some time in the strait, and with a change in the direction of the monsoon set off on their way back. Thanks to stable commercial relations with the population of countries located on both sides of the Strait of Malacca, trading settlements began to arise, and groups of enterprising merchants acquired a dominant role in the economic life of the region.
In the period from the 7th to the 11th century. the most powerful state in the Strait of Malacca was the state of Srivijaya, located in the southeastern part of Sumatra Island. Chinese and Indian sources of that time note the wealth of Srivijaya and its fame as a center of Buddhism. Related to the 7th century. stone inscriptions found on the territory of the former kingdom represent the earliest variant of the Malay language.

Under the rule of Srivijaya. B 8 in. the city-states of the Malacca Peninsula came under the rule of the maritime empire of Srivijaya.Its center was located on the island of Sumatra, but its rulers managed to take possession of a significant part of the Indonesian archipelago, right up to West Kalimantan. Mahayana Buddhism became the religion of Srivijaya. Ancient Malay was apparently the official language of the empire. The oldest known inscription on it, executed at the behest of the ruler of Srivijaya, dates back to 682.

Chinese, Arab and Persian sources praise the wealth and abundance of the empire, describe its huge fleet and developed extensive trade.Srivijaya controlled the most important sea routes through the Malacca and Sunda straits. The vassal possessions of the state were supposed to pay tribute, supply ships and soldiers, but at the same time retained significant internal independence. Located in the north of the Malacca Peninsula, Kedah was considered the northern capital of the empire and its largest port. Under the supreme protection of Srivijaya, the city-states of Langkasuka, Panpan, Tantan, Takkola, Pahang and Loyue flourished.

In North Kalimantan from the 9-10th centuries.Chinese chronicles mention the existence of the state of Pony (Brunei), which replaced the former early principalities. During the reign of Srivijaya, Brunei and other principalities of North and West Kalimantan recognized their vassal dependence on her.

Late 10th – early 11th centuries the empire’s vassals provided it with significant assistance in the struggle against the rival Javanese state of Mataram. But after the devastating invasion of the army of the South Indian state of Cholov, from 1025 the power of Srivijaya began to decline.Unrest intensified among her vassals. In 1068-1069 Kedakh revolted. In 1230, the prince of Tambarlinga, who proclaimed adherence to Hinayana Buddhism, rebelled and subjugated the northern vassal states of the empire. From the 1280s on the Malacca possessions, the pressure of the Thai increased, and the former vassals of Srivijaya became part of the Thai state of Sukhothai, and from the middle of the 14th century. – the kingdom of Ayutthaya. In the extreme south of the Malacca Peninsula and in Brunei, the influence of the Javanese state Majapahit was felt for some time. In these troubled times, Islam penetrates the peninsula (the oldest Muslim monument is an inscription on a stone in Terengganu, dating back to 1347).In Brunei at the beginning of the 15th century. the Raja ruler converted to Islam and broke the ties that linked him with Majapahit.

Sultanate of Malacca. Around 1400 Paramesvara, a descendant of the rulers of Srivijaya, founded a small principality centered in Malacca, recognizing the suzerainty of Ayutthaya (Siam). The population of the state was engaged in fishing, growing sugar cane and fruits, and developing tin mines. Having established close ties with China and passed under its supreme power, Paramesvara was able to achieve independence from Ayutthaya.In 1414, the ruler of Malacca converted to Islam, hoping to attract Muslim merchants to the city. The new religion was not accepted without resistance. A bitter struggle unfolded between the old Hindu nobility and Muslim merchants. In 1445, the Muslims staged a coup, killed the young Rajah and elevated Prince Kasim to the throne, who took the name of Muzaffar Shah (1445-1459). An intensive Islamization of the state began.

Reconciliation between rival factions was facilitated by the invasion of Siamese troops. In 1445 and 1456 Siam twice tried to capture Malacca, but was defeated.In the war, the representative of the former Hindu faction, Tun Perak, who was appointed bendahara (first minister) and until his death in 1498, remained the de facto ruler of the country, changing sultans at his discretion, distinguished himself especially. The basis for the compromise was the recognition of Islam.

Tun Perak was the original creator of the Malaccan state. Having won victories over Siam and the states of the Indonesian archipelago, he subdued the tin-rich Dinding archipelago and the principality of Selangor, Singapore and Bintang, Pahang, Kedah and Terengganu, then Johor, Muar and the islands at the southern tip of the peninsula, as well as a number of principalities of East Sumatra.After the death of Tun Perak, the rulers of Malacca won suzerainty from Siam over the northern Malay principalities of Patani, Kedah and Kelantan. The vassal possessions of Malacca paid tribute and had to provide her with their army and navy.

By the end of the 15th century. Malacca has become the richest trade center and port in Southeast Asia. Spices were brought to the city, and Indian goods, fabrics and clothes were transported from here throughout the archipelago. Tin was exported from Malaya itself. Extensive trade was conducted with China. According to the Portuguese traveler Tome Pirisha, 84 languages ​​met in Malacca.In 1509, a tenth of the 40 thousand inhabitants of the city were foreign merchants.

Malacca was ruled by the sultan, who not only extracted huge profits from trade, but was also the supreme owner of the land, part of which he distributed to his relatives and associates. This gave them the right to collect tithes and forced labor of the peasants.

At the beginning of the 16th century. in the Malacca Sultanate, crisis phenomena began to grow. Dissatisfaction of the vassals and the population with heavy tax oppression, the struggle between rival groups of nobility and merchants undermined the state.Pressure from Siam increased. In 1509, the Portuguese appeared in Malacca, demanding permission to build a fort. Malaccan forces attacked them and forced the aliens to leave the city.

The period of Portuguese and Dutch colonialism. In 1511, the Portuguese squadron under the command of Afoncho d’Albuquerque captured Malacca, turned the city into a powerful fortress and the main stronghold of the colonialists in this region. During the assault and the massacre that followed, many Muslims were exterminated.Portugal’s rule was based on a trade monopoly and brutal terror. All the owners of ships passing through the Straits of Malacca paid high fees, and many merchants now sought to bypass Malacca. In the city itself, the Portuguese pursued a policy of forced Christianization.

Sultan Mahmud Shah (1488-1511), who fled from Malacca, unsuccessfully tried to get help from China, and then created a new state, the capital of which was alternately in Johor and on the Riau Islands.His power was recognized by most of the principalities of the Malacca Peninsula (except for the northern ones, which again submitted to Siam), the islands between Malaya and Sumatra, as well as the sultanates of East Sumatra. Pahang and Perak were also ruled by the descendants of the former Malacca dynasty. Johor’s main task was to conquer Malacca. Johor’s fleet from 1513 attacked Portuguese ships. However, sieges and attempts to storm Malacca in 1525, 1551 and 1586-1587 were repulsed. In turn, the Portuguese destroyed the capital of Johor in 1526 and 1587.
The Sumatran sultanate of Ache also intervened in the confrontation between the Portuguese and Johor. In 1537 and 1547, the colonial authorities hardly managed to repel the attacks of the Acekh fleet. In 1539 Johor and Ache started the war for East Sumatra. In 1564, Ache’s troops defeated the capital of Johor, and in 1568 the Johorians helped the Portuguese repel Ache’s attack on Malacca. In 1575, after a new siege of Malacca, the Aceh fleet defeated Perak.

At the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries. Dutch and English ships appear in Malaya.In 1606 the Dutch East India Company negotiated an alliance with Johor; the allies laid siege to Malacca. But the siege was unsuccessful, and in 1610 the alliance was broken.

At the beginning of the 17th century. hegemony in the region briefly passed to Ace. Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636) defeated Johor, captured Pahang, Kedah and Perak, and in 1629 tried to take Malacca by storm. This time the Portuguese were assisted by the troops of Johor and Patani, and Ace’s forces were defeated. Johor regained its independence, and in the 1640s the Sumatran sultanate lost all possessions on the peninsula, except for Perak.
Having renewed its alliance with Johor in 1637, the Dutch East India Company captured Malacca in 1641, subjecting the population to another massacre. The Dutch authorities strengthened the fortress, but the city lost its significance as a trade center (it was moved to Batavia in Java). The new colonialists were more interested in tin. In the 1640s and 1650s, they forced Perak and Kedah into agreements granting the Dutch a monopoly on the tin trade. The Malay states tried to resist: they repeatedly attacked the Dutch trading posts and destroyed them.
The Dutch tried to subjugate the principalities created by the people of Minangkabau, which in the 16th century. began to settle in the vicinity of Malacca. In 1641, they imposed a vassal agreement on one of these principalities – Naning.

The period 1641-1673 was the time of Johor’s hegemony. Sultan Abdul-Jalil Shah III (1623-1677) established control over Pahang, Riau, East Sumatra, the principalities of Minangkabau. The country has regained its role as a shopping center. However, in 1673 the Johor state was defeated by the forces of the Sumatran sultanate of Jambi and began to disintegrate.Minangkabau came to power in Siak. Another Minangkabau Raja Ibrahim created a strong confederation on the peninsula and attacked Malacca in 1678. However, after his death in 1679, the association fell apart.

Boogie came to the aid of Johor – a people of sailors, merchants and pirates from the island of Sulawesi, who began to move to other areas of the Indonesian archipelago after the Dutch captured their city of Makassar in 1667. In 1679, the Bug mercenaries invited by Johor captured Jambi, and after 2 years the war ended.Boogie settled on the western coast of the Malacca Peninsula, at the mouths of the Klang and Selangor rivers.

Taking advantage of the weakening of Johor, the Dutch colonialists imposed an agreement on granting them a trade monopoly to the Sultanate in 1689. In 1699, with the death of Mahmud Shah II (1685-1699), the Malacca dynasty ended in Johor, and the throne was taken by Bendahar Abdul Jalil Shah IV. However, in 1718 the Minangkabaus ruler of Siaka, Raja Kechil, who declared himself the son of Mahmud Shah, took possession of Johor and declared himself sultan.
The overthrown sultan again turned to the Bugs for help. The leader of the mercenaries Daing Parani created a strong fleet and conquered the Johor Sultanate. The son of Abdul-Jalil-shah IV – Suleiman (1722-1760) became the Sultan, and the actual power in the state passed into the hands of the Bugs. In the following decades, the Boogie also subdued Kedakh, Perak and Selangor (in the latter, the Bug dynasty of sultans came to power).

Dissatisfied with the strengthening of the Bugs, the Dutch entered into an alliance with the Malay nobility, driven back by the new rulers.Its head, Sultan Terengganu, persuaded Sultan Suleiman in 1755 to grant the Dutch East India Company a monopoly on the tin trade and the right to duty-free trade in the Johor possessions; in exchange, she promised to expel the boogs. The Boogie rebelled, but were forced to recognize the monopoly treaty. Nevertheless, they retained control of the government in Johor and established a shopping center on the Riau that successfully competed with the Dutch. In 1770-1771, the Bug generals again restored the influence of Johor in Perak, Kedakh and East Sumatra.Perak, ruled by the old Malacca dynasty, forced the Dutch to end the trade monopoly in 1783.

In 1783, the Dutch, in alliance with Terengganu and a number of Sumatran rulers, laid siege to Riau, but were defeated. The Bug commander – Raja Haji declared a holy war against the colonialists. With help from Selangor, he began the siege of Malacca in 1784. The city was saved by the arrival of the Dutch fleet on time, Raja Haji died in battle, and the East India Company launched a counteroffensive. Her forces captured Selangor and forced the Johor sultan Mahmud (1761-1812) to capitulate.Johor recognized vassal dependence on the company, and a Dutch garrison was stationed on the Riau. The Selangor Sultan was forced in 1786 to recognize the company as a monopoly on the tin trade.

In an attempt to get rid of the Dutch protectorate, Sultan Mahmud turned to the Ilanun (Filipino) pirates, but in 1787 they expelled not only the Dutch, but also himself from Riau. In 1790, the Sultan organized a coalition of Malay and Sumatran states to drive out both pirates and Europeans. But her actions were unsuccessful.The Dutch took over the Riau again. Taking advantage of the weakening of Johor, the Minangkabau principalities separated from the Sultanate in 1795 and formed their own Negeri-Sembilan confederation.

North Kalimantan remained free from European colonization. He was ruled by the Sultan of Brunei. True, in 1521 the Spaniards appeared here, and in 1526 – the Portuguese, with whom a trade agreement was concluded. However, an attempt by the Spaniards in 1580 to subdue Brunei was unsuccessful, as were subsequent efforts by the Dutch and British.But the actions of the colonialists dealt a heavy blow to the Brunei trade. Piracy began to develop.

Under British rule. In the 18th century. The British East India Company began to actively try to establish itself on the trade and sea routes leading from India to China. In 1786, representatives of Great Britain concluded an agreement with the northern Malay principality of Kedah, according to which, in exchange for a promise of aid against Siam, the British received the island of Penang. Here the British colony of Georgetown was organized, turned into a free port and trade center.In 1795, the British took possession of Malacca, taking it away from the Dutch, and in 1800 forced Kedah to cede the coastal strip on the Malacca Peninsula, where the Wellesley province was created. In 1805, Penang received the status of the presidency of British India.

The expulsion of the Dutch helped the Sultan of Johor Mahmud to return to the throne in 1795. The Malays and the Boogie agreed to share power in the Riau. After Mahmud’s death in 1812, his two sons came forward as contenders for the throne. The Boogie and the Dutch supported the younger of them, while the Malays and the British sided with the elder, Hussein.
In 1818, Great Britain returned Malacca to the Dutch. On the eve of her departure, she entered into agreements with Perak, Selangor and Riau on the recognition of their independence in exchange for granting the British the status of the most favored nation. To neutralize the influence of the Netherlands, the British authorities decided to create a new base and free port in the region. Singapore was founded in 1819. Having recognized Hussein as the ruler of Johor, the British signed an agreement with him. The Dutch and their backed Sultan Riau refused to acknowledge the move.The conflict was resolved only in 1824: the Netherlands transferred Malacca to the British and renounced any claims to the Malacca Peninsula, and Great Britain recognized the Dutch power in Indonesia and Riau. The treaty also meant the division of the Johor Sultanate.
90,080 In 1826 the British possessions in Malaya were united into the Eastern Presidency of India – Straits Settlements, which included Singapore, Penang and Malacca; to the latter, Naning was annexed in 1832. Singapore (since 1832 – the center of ownership) has become an important point of transit trade.British, Chinese and Indian merchants arrived on the island.

Until the 1870s, Great Britain did not undertake new conquests on the peninsula. She refused to help Kedah in the fight against Siam, but refused to recognize Siamese claims to Perak, Kelantan and Terengganu. After a series of uprisings, the Siamese troops in 1842 subjected Kedah to a terrible defeat, and Perlis was separated from it. With Johor in 1824 the British concluded an agreement on the cession of Singapore to Great Britain; British control was established over the foreign policy of the Sultanate.Until the late 1860s, the ruler of Johor lived in British Singapore.

B 19 c. on the territory of Malaya, tin mining began to grow sharply, which passed from the hands of the Malays to the Chinese. Mass immigration of Chinese to Malaya began. They made up the trade and craft stratum of the population of Straits Settlements, as well as the bulk of the miners in the western sultanates of Perak and Selangor. The dominant position in foreign trade was occupied by the British.

In 1867, Great Britain separated the Straits Settlements from India and granted it Crown Colony status.Soon after this, the direct subordination of the Malay states began. In 1874, the British authorities intervened in the internecine war of the nobility in Perak and imposed a protectorate on the state. The anti-colonial uprising of 1875-1876 was brutally suppressed. In 1874 Great Britain subdued Selangor, in 1874-1887 the principality of Negeri-Sembilan, in 1887 – Pahang, where the British suppressed the uprising of 1891-1895. Having abandoned the idea of ​​turning the conquered sultanates into their own colonies, Great Britain chose the model of “indirect government”: in 1896, a federation of Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang was organized, headed by the British Resident General.In 1909, Great Britain forced Siam to relinquish supreme power over the sultanates of Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah and Perlis, and a British protectorate was officially established over them. In 1914, a British protectorate over Johor was officially introduced. These new acquisitions were not included in the “Federated Malay States” list.

The economy of British Malaya was based on plantation, rubber and tin production. Railways and highways were built, and there was a right to long-term lease of land on favorable terms.At the same time, the Malay aristocracy was assigned vast land holdings, the right to collect taxes and use the labor of peasants. Plantations of export crops grew, large mines and banks appeared. trade, transport and insurance companies, industrial enterprises. At the beginning of the 20th century. the ideas of Muslim enlightenment and Malay nationalism began to take shape. The supporters of the Kuomintang and the Indian republicans, who raised an unsuccessful soldier uprising in Singapore in 1915, enjoyed great influence in the Chinese and Indian communities, respectively.
British penetration into North Kalimantan began in the early 19th century. By 1813, the British had established influence on the entire northern coast of the island, with the exception of Sabah, but left after 1824. In 1839 the Englishman James Brook assisted the Sultan of Brunei in suppressing the uprising in Sarawak and in 1841 was appointed its ruler. Gradually Brook not only achieved official independence from Brunei, but little by little captured most of his possessions. The Brooks became the “white rajah” of Sarawak, and the exploitation of natural resources and trade came under the control of the British Borneo Company.In the 20th century. oil production began. In the northeast of the island (in Sabah), the British North Borneo Company operated since 1881. In 1888, a British protectorate was officially established over both areas. If there was almost no plantation economy in Sarawak, then large British investments were made in Sabakh: a telephone line, a railway were built, tobacco and hevea plantations were created, and timber was exported. Brook dynasty.

Colonial Society. Until World War II, there were several administrative-territorial entities that were part of the British Empire on the territory of modern Malaysia.The Straits Settlements, which included Singapore, Malacca, Penang and the Wellesley province, were under direct British control. The colony was led by a governor with an executive and legislative council with the involvement of British and Chinese entrepreneurs and merchants. In the Malay states, nominally, power still belonged to the sultans, and the British formally the functions of advisers. However, Governor Straits Settlements presided over the Council of the Federation of Malay States, which was responsible for preparing the budget and drafting legislation.In each of the principalities, along with the ruler and the council of state, there were English residents, and the British were appointed to all the highest administrative posts. In the unfederated principalities, there were fewer British officials; in some top positions were Malays who received European education. However, gradually the position of the Malay nobility in government was strengthened. Sarawak was ruled by the Brook dynasty, and Sabah was ruled by the British company of North Borneo, which worked closely with the authorities of British Malaya.90,080 The ethnic composition of the population of British Malaya has changed significantly due to the massive import of labor, especially in 1911-1931. By 1941, the share of Malays among the country’s inhabitants had dropped to 42%; Chinese accounted for 44%, Indians 14%. The Malays were mainly engaged in agriculture and lived in villages, the Malay aristocracy was the lower and middle strata of the bureaucracy, and Malay entrepreneurship almost did not exist. The Chinese, who lived mainly in the economically developed regions of the west and south of the peninsula, constituted a significant part of the urban population.They worked for hire, doing physical and intellectual labor. Thriving Chinese merchants and entrepreneurs controlled much of Malaya’s industry and trade. The role of Indian entrepreneurs was more modest. There were many plantation workers among Indians and Ceylonians.

Developing Malay nationalism consisted of three main currents: Islamic religious reformers; The Malays’ unions, formed after 1926 and seeking to achieve a special position for the Malays in governing the country and economic life; the radical Union of young Malaya, which was formed in 1938 and opposed colonial rule and for unification into one state with Indonesia.
In the Chinese community, a struggle broke out between the conservative elite, closely associated with the colonial regime, and the radical representatives of the intelligentsia, small merchants and workers. Until the end of the 1920s, the influence of the Kuomintang and anarchists prevailed among the radicals, and then the popularity of the Malaya Communist Party (CPM), created in 1930, began to grow. The CPM leadership was predominantly Chinese and called for the creation of an independent “Democratic Malay Republic”.Under her leadership, general strikes took place in 1934 and 1936 and major demonstrations in 1941.

Indian organizations in Malaya were closely associated with the Indian National Congress in British India.

Japanese occupation. On December 8, 1941, Japanese troops landed in Malaya and quickly captured it. On February 15, 1942, the last British stronghold, Singapore, fell. The Malacca Peninsula came under the control of the Japanese military administration in Singapore, whose power extended to the island of Sumatra.The Japanese also took possession of North Kalimantan. The principalities of Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan and Terengganu were transferred to Thailand in 1943.

The new masters of the country unleashed repressions on the Chinese community of the country, among which the CPM, which organized partisan detachments, gained significant popularity. In 1943, the Anti-Japanese Army of the peoples of Malaya, created by her, included 7 thousand fighters. Up to 1945, up to 10 thousand Japanese soldiers were killed in the battles with the rebels. In Sabah, the resistance was led by the local branch of the Chinese Kuomintang.
The Japanese administration promised to help the Asian peoples achieve independence. In Malaya, the Indian Independence League was operating and there was a recruitment into the “Indian National Army”, which was supposed to fight against the British. Malay nationalists were promised unification with Indonesia in 1944. They were allowed to create the Union of Indonesians of the peninsula and participate in the newly created self-defense forces – the “Fatherland Defenders Army” (PETA).

After Japan’s surrender in 1945, the forces of the Anti-Japanese Army began organizing their own government bodies (people’s committees) and preparing for the convocation of the All-Malay Congress of representatives of all national communities in the country.However, British troops entered Malaya and the colonial regime was restored. Thailand was forced to return the northern principalities to British rule.

The road to independence. The British authorities have begun to reorganize the administration of the country. Sarawak and Sabah were converted into British colonies in 1946. The Straits Settlements Colony was liquidated. In 1946, the Malay Union was formed on the territory of the Malay Peninsula, which included all the Malay principalities, Malacca and Penang.Singapore was a separate territory.

The rulers of the Malay states were supposed to transfer their sovereignty to Great Britain and remain only the heads of the Muslim religion. A single executive power for the entire union was headed by the governor, under whom the Legislative Council was created. A single citizenship was introduced for all persons who lived in Malaya for at least 10 out of 15 years until February 1942.

Administrative reforms have caused widespread dissatisfaction in the country, and for a variety of reasons. The communists, as well as the public organizations created by them and the All-Malay Federation of Trade Unions formed in 1946, strove for the creation of an independent republic.On their initiative, a broad campaign of strikes and protests was launched. The Chinese-backed Democratic Union of Malaya Party was guided by left-wing Labor ideas; she sought unity with Singapore, overcoming ethnic nationalism and granting self-government. Malay radicals from the Malay National Party continued to push for reunification with Indonesia. Finally, the sultans were unhappy with their being stripped of power, and the United Malay National Organization (UMNO), formed by the community’s elite, protested against new citizenship rules that it claimed would make Malays a minority in their own country.
The British authorities preferred to agree to an agreement with the leadership of the Malay community. On February 1, 1948, after negotiations with the rulers of the principalities and UMNO, they proclaimed the creation of the Malay Federation, restoring the privileges of the sultans and the special rights of the Malays. The property was headed by the British High Commissioner. Obtaining citizenship for non-Malays was difficult. Police and troops were used to suppress demonstrations and strikes. In July 1948, the colonial administration banned the CPM and its organizations.A state of emergency was declared in the country. Having gone underground, the communists began guerrilla warfare throughout Malaya. Their detachments numbering only 9.5 thousand people. managed to successfully act against the 200-thousandth Anglo-Australian-New Zealand army. In 1951 the rebels assassinated the British High Commissioner G. Guerney.
90,080 The Chinese population initially broadly supported the partisans. But the Malays treated them negatively. The peasantry did not help the rebels. By moving many Chinese villagers to “new villages”, the administration managed to weaken the position of the communists.In addition, the top of the Chinese community preferred to negotiate with the Malay leaders. The British authorities amended the citizenship law, allowing about half of the Chinese population to become citizens of the Federation of Malay. In 1952-1954, the compromise between UMNO, the Chinese Association and the Indian Congress of Malaya was formalized in the form of the creation of a political bloc – the Union Party (SP). In 1955, elections to the Legislative Council were held in the federation: 51 out of 52 seats were won by the joint venture. UMNO leader Tunku Abdul Rahman (brother of Sultan Kedah) became the chief minister of the Malay Federation.
In 1955, the Malaya authorities tried to negotiate with the CPM to end the rebel war. However, negotiations between the leaders of the joint venture and the communists failed: the CPM sought legalization, while the joint venture was only ready to grant an amnesty on condition that the guerrillas lay down their arms. At the same time, at the beginning of 1956, a Malay delegation was negotiating in London on granting independence to the country. On August 31, 1957, the Malay Federation became an independent state; the post of prime minister remained with Abdul Rahman.The end of the British colonial presence knocked the ground out from under the feet of the rebels from the CPM. By 1960, the armed struggle had ceased. In July 1960, the Malaya authorities announced the lifting of the state of emergency.

Independent state. The compromise on which the new state was based reflected the interests of the elite of all three major communities in Malaya. UMNO agreed with the KAM requirement to grant citizenship to all children born to parents living in an independent country, but achieved the implementation of the special rights of the indigenous population, in particular, privileges in admission to studies, priority in obtaining licenses and loans for entrepreneurial activities and the introduction of a unified education in Malay language that was recognized as national.In the state apparatus, there should have been four times more Malays than non-Malays. At the same time, Chinese and Indian entrepreneurs and traders retained a dominant position in the country’s economic life.
90,080 Building on the compromise reached, the SP won the 1959 general election, winning 74 of 104 seats in the House of Representatives. The government pursued a policy aimed at encouraging the country’s economic development. It sought to diversify the economy, attract foreign investment, industrialize and expand production for export.
The foreign policy of independent Malaya in the period under review was guided by the former metropolis. The country retained British military bases and troops, British officers and officials held command posts in the army and positions in the state apparatus. Malaya relied on a defense and mutual assistance treaty with Great Britain.

In 1961, the Prime Minister of Malaya Abdul Rahman put forward a plan to unite the Malay Federation, as well as Singapore, Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei, which remained under the supreme authority of Great Britain, into the Federation of Malaysia.After lengthy negotiations, such a state was formed on September 16, 1963 (without the participation of Brunei). The creation of Malaysia caused discontent and confrontation from its neighbors – Indonesia and the Philippines, which claimed North Kalimantan. Both countries severed diplomatic relations with Malaya, and Indonesia announced the start of the “Crush Malaysia” campaign and began military operations, which were limited in nature and were suspended in 1964 after US mediation. The coup in Indonesia in 1965 led to the end of the confrontation, in 1966 Indonesia and the Philippines agreed to normalize relations.The general settlement was marked by the formation in 1967 of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) with the participation of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.

The situation in Malaysia itself remained turbulent. Soon after its formation, relations between the leaders of Malaya and the Singapore authorities, which sought equality of the Chinese population and economic benefits for their city, escalated. Singapore’s ruling People’s Action Party (MAP) sought to expand its influence throughout Malaysia and began establishing chapters throughout the country.Although the JV managed to win elections to the House of Representatives in 1963 from Sarawak and Sabah, and in 1964 – from West Malaysia (formerly Malaya, where it won 89 out of 104 seats), the Malay elite was increasingly worried about the activation of the IPA. She chose to “let go” Singapore, and on August 9, 1965, he seceded from Malaysia, becoming an independent state.

However, the intercommunal divisions in the country were growing. Malay nationalists demanded a redistribution of national income and economic power in favor of the indigenous population, and the non-Malays who demanded “Malaysian Malaysia” were protesting the political dominance of the Malays.Chinese nationalists did not agree to put up with a secondary position in the state apparatus of the country. They sharply criticized the language law passed in 1967, after a ten-year period of use of English as the official language. From now on, Malay became the official language of the country. Non-Malay parties, especially the opposition Democratic Action Party (PDA), not only demanded linguistic pluralism, but also sought to abolish the privileged position of the Malay community.
In the elections to the House of Representatives from West Malaysia on May 10, 1969, the SP won only 66 out of 104 seats, the SDA got 13. However, in states such as Perak, Penang and Terengganu, the opposition won the victory. On May 13, 1969, non-Malay communities held a major demonstration in Kuala Lumpur to celebrate the retreat of the SP. Malay nationalists organized a counter-demonstration. Bloody clashes began between the participants in the processions. They were hardly suppressed with the help of the troops and the police.

A state of emergency was declared in the country, and real power passed from the hands of the government to the National Operations Council (FNC), headed by Deputy Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak (who took over as Prime Minister in 1970).In order to restore national unity, a new state ideology was adopted – “rukunegara”, which put national goals above community goals. Directing efforts to achieve greater unity among all the peoples of Malaysia, the authorities embarked on a long-term social, economic and political restructuring of society with the goal of forming a “new Malaysian” by 1990. The instrument of implementation of this program was the New Economic Policy (NEP), aimed at ensuring economic growth, eliminating economic inequality between ethnic groups and eradicating poverty.
After the lifting of the state of emergency at the beginning of 1971, the country’s parliament passed a law on constitutional amendments. In accordance with them, the discussion of the constitutional sections concerning the state status of the Malay language and the privileges of the Malays was prohibited. The indigenous inhabitants of Sabah and Sarawak received the same rights and privileges as the Malays. Any changes to the constitution and laws on the rights of ethnic groups could be made only with the consent of the Council of State Governors and with the approval of a two-thirds majority in both houses of parliament.
The UMNO leaders managed to impose the hegemony of the Malays on the leaders of other communities in the country. On this basis, by 1974, they created a new ruling coalition – the National Front (NF), which involved not only the former partners in the joint venture, but also earlier opposition parties (with the exception of the SDA and some small organizations). A general election in August 1974 brought the front a complete victory – 135 out of 154 seats in the House of Representatives. Abdul Razak formed the NF coalition government.

In the early 1970s, the authorities faced new problems – the activation of the KPM partisan movement and student unrest in 1974-1975.The student union was disbanded and students were prohibited from participating in political activities.

After the death of Abdul Razak in January 1976, Datuk Hussein bin Onn took over as prime minister and leader of UMNO. He managed to neutralize the extreme Malay extremists in the leadership of his own party. But already in 1977 a bitter struggle broke out between him and the Islamic Party (PAS). Taking advantage of the PAS split in Kelantan, the prime minister imposed a state curfew and deployed troops and police there.Since the PAS voted against the imposition of a state of emergency in Kelantan, it was expelled from the NF and its ministers resigned. The 1978 state election brought the PAS defeat and the NF victory. The 1978 general parliamentary elections ended with another convincing victory for the NF – its parties got 131 seats out of 154. The leading opposition SDA won 16 seats, PAS – 5.

Economic and social problems of the country, the growth of property inequality caused the spread of discontent among part of the Malaysian society in the late 1970s – early 1980s.The activity of extremist Islamic sects and missionary organizations intensified, demanding the introduction of Sharia law. Muslim fanatics attacked a Hindu temple in 1978 and a police station in 1980. The PAS supported the protests of the Kedakh peasants, who sought to increase the purchase prices for rice.

In an effort to limit Islamic opposition, the authorities created a special government group on religious affairs, imposed control over Islamic propaganda, banned university teachers from politics, limited Muslim groups’ contacts with foreign organizations, and arrested some extremists.Yielding to the demands of the Chinese community, UMNO agreed to a significant increase in university places for non-Malay students.

In the second half of the 1970s, the rebels from the KPM continued to operate actively. The number of their detachments was estimated at 3 thousand people. Since 1977, the Malaysian security forces have carried out, together with Thai troops, a series of punitive operations against guerrillas in the area of ​​the common border. In 1978-1979, schoolchildren accused of belonging to the KPM were arrested. At the same time, military operations against the rebels in North Kalimantan were intensified together with the troops of Indonesia.
In July 1981, after the resignation of Hussein bin Onn for health reasons, Dato Seri Mahathir Mohamad (1981-2003) took over as Prime Minister. In 1969, he spoke from the positions of Malay chauvinism, but after coming to power, he began to continue the policy of his predecessors.

A certain modernization of Malaysian society is associated with the reign of Mahathir Mohamad. The government has embarked on a course of strengthening order in production and public life, increasing the efficiency of the administrative apparatus, and strengthening the fight against corruption.The NF won landslide victories in the 1982 and 1986 general elections, winning 132 out of 154 and 148 out of 177 seats, respectively. Measures were taken to strengthen the influence of the authorities in the Muslim environment. In 1983, the government created the Islamic Bank, the International Islamic University was organized, where research in the field of “Muslim civilization” was conducted.
90,080 Annual economic growth rates in the 1980s reached 8%. Based on the NEP program, the “Outlook 2020” platform was developed, according to which Malaysia should become one of the countries with developed economies.A fundamental feature of the new approach should be considered the shift of the center of gravity to the output of electronic products. Malaysia has embarked on a program to protect the environment and conserve natural resources. The dynamic development of the country allowed some weakening of social problems, which led to the end of the 1980s to the end of the rebel movement of the CPM. The collapse of the CPM eased internal contradictions and splits in its ranks. In 1987, one of the factions, the KPM (Marxist-Leninist), stopped fighting, and in December 1989, after the joint operations of the Malaysian and Thai troops, the main group of the KPM (1,100 fighters) laid down its arms.In North Kalimantan, a ceasefire agreement was reached in 1990 with the local Communist Party.
90,080 Parliamentary elections in 1990 brought victory to the ruling coalition again, gaining 127 out of 180 seats, but at the same time the opposition grew stronger. In the state of Kelantan, the PAS Islamic Party came to power. In Sabah, the United Party, which had ruled since 1985, announced its withdrawal from the NF. The central authorities arrested the brother of the chief minister of the state, accusing him of a separatist conspiracy, and the minister himself, Joseph Pairin Keatingan, of corruption.In response, the Sabah government announced its intention to review its presence in Malaysia; the export of timber from the state was suspended. However, in March 1994, the NF managed to regain control of the state, splitting the United Party.

In January 1993, the country’s authorities announced the abolition of the privileges of the sultans. In May 1994, the Malaysian parliament passed constitutional amendments that limited the powers of the supreme ruler. From now on, the monarch had no right to refuse to sign a law passed by parliament, or to return it for reconsideration.90,080 In early elections in 1995, the NF won 162 out of 192 seats in the House of Representatives. The SDA suffered a heavy defeat: it won 9 seats (instead of the previous 20). 7 mandates went to PAS.
90,080 In 1998 Malaysia was hit hard by the acute financial and economic crisis in Asia. The country’s exports fell by 7%, imports – by 26%. Unemployment rose from 2.5% to 8%. The government took tough measures related to the expansion of state intervention in economic life. It introduced control over the export of capital and the movement of funds and resorted to massive encouragement of domestic demand and consumption.With the help of neo-Keynesian methods, the government managed to stabilize the economic situation by 2000.

Disagreements over measures to overcome the crisis caused a sharp confrontation in the country’s leadership. In September 1998, Mahathir Mohamad fired and expelled from UMNO his deputy and alleged successor, Minister of Finance Anwar Ibrahim. Former Foreign Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi became the new deputy head of government.

After major demonstrations in support of the ousted minister, Anwar Ibrahim was arrested, charged with corruption and homosexual relationships, and in April 1999 sentenced to 6 years in prison, and in 2000 to another 9 years.The opposition rallied in support of Anwar Ibrahim and demanded the resignation of the prime minister and the implementation of political reforms. The wife of the convicted politician Van Aziz Van Ismail headed a new political party – the National Justice Party (PNS).
90,080 However, in the 1999 general election, the NF won the victory, its candidates collecting 57% of the vote (6% less than in 1995). 148 out of 193 seats in the House of Representatives went to the NF, 42 – to the opposition “Alternative Front” as part of the SDA, PAS and PNS. The PAS not only retained power in Kelantan, but was also able to lead the government in Terengganu.
Following the elections, Mahathir Mohamad’s cabinet suppressed opposition protests. In 2000, a number of its leading figures were arrested – the deputy chairman of the SDA Karpal Singh (the defender of Anwar Ibrahim), the deputy chairman of the PNS Marina Yusof and the publisher of the PAS “Haraka” publication Zulfikli Sulong. The opposition newspaper Detik was closed.

In 2003, Mahathir Mohamad condemned the US policy in the Middle East and the sending of US-British troops to Iraq. Shortly before his resignation, he also made harsh anti-Semitic statements, which provoked a protest from the opposition traffic rules.As previously planned, Mahathir Mohamad stepped down as prime minister in 2003. Abdullah Ahmad Badawi became the new head of the government of Malaysia.

REFERENCES

Tyurin V.A. History of Malaysia: A Brief Sketch . M., 1980

Revunenkova E.V. Peoples of Malaysia and Western Indonesia . M., 1980

Malaysia . Reference . M., 1987

Antipov V.I. A country divided by the sea . M., 1988 90,000 Tyurin. History of Malaysia. Chapter 4

Tyurin.History of Malaysia Chapter 4

Chapter
4

MALAYA
In the XVI-XVIII centuries.

Portuguese
in Malacca.
From 1511
history Malaya was linked with history
European colonial
expansion in Southeast Asia.
Although until the very end of the 18th century.colonialists
were content on the peninsula
only Malacca, their presence
influenced the development of the Malay
states, their economic
development, the system of political
relations in this part of Southeast
Asia.

First
colonialists in Malaya became
Portuguese. Malacca has become
to one of the strongholds of the Portuguese
colonial empire in the East
along with Goa, Daman, Diu, Hormuz and
Socotra. The city was turned into
a powerful fortress.Fort “Famosa” and
others built by the Portuguese
buildings were surrounded by stone
wall with bastions. Lived in it
Portuguese officials and
there was a garrison. Strongly
fortified (especially from the sea),
occupied a profitable strategic
the police on the hill the city was
practically impregnable for
local rulers. Weaker Malaika
was fortified from the land side, but
superiority of the Portuguese in
artillery allowed them for
almost a century and a half successfully
fight off all sieges.Achilles
the fifth city became full of it
dependence on the outside world in
food supply, and
during sieges the inhabitants of Malacca often
were on the verge of hunger
of death. Most of the population
Portuguese Malacca lived in
suburbs. South of the serfs
the walls was Ilir (Bandar-Hilir),
inhabited mainly by mestizos,
descended from marriages
Portuguese with local women;
there also lived the Portuguese, who
owned estates with gardens and
many coconut trees.African slaves worked in these estates
or inhabitants of neighboring villages. TO
east of town, upstream
R. Malacca was located poor
suburb of Sabak, where the Malays lived,
who hunted in fishing. The most
large and rich suburb was
Success that was on the other
side of the river, north of the city.
Foreign traders lived here,
the main bazaar was located here
Malacca; The success consisted of three
quarters where they lived respectively
Chinese, Javanese and Cleings (Indians).

On
throughout the XVI century. in Malacca it was
many buildings have been built,
changed the face of the city. Even under d’Albuquerque
the Church of the Assumption was built
Mother of God, which became from 1557, when in
A bishopric was established in Malacca,
the cathedral. In 1570 on
the construction was completed on the hill
churches of the Annunciation – the most
beautiful structure of portuguese
Malacca. Near her the Jesuits
built their own building in which
were their headquarters and
school.Other notable
buildings built in Malacca in
period of Portuguese rule,
were the royal hospital,
bishop’s palace, house
Misericordia (Mercy) –
city ​​shelter building
city ​​council.

Management
Malacca was organized
as follows. The main face
was the captain (commandant) of the fortress of Malacca,
who since 1571 bore the title of “governor
South “. He was appointed by the Portuguese
king for a period of 3-4 years.Governor
assisted by the city council, some
whose members were appointed by the Viceroy
Goa (chief judge – ovidor and secretary
council), some were elected (mayor-viador
and six advisers who were in charge
city ​​finance and judicial
deeds), and some were
members of the council ex officio (bishop,
Prior and Treasurer of Misericordia).
Garrisoned by the fleet of Malacca
commanded by the captain-general,
also appointed by the Viceroy
for a three-year period.To the captain general
obeyed the factor (factor), his
the responsibility was to supply
garrison and military courts.

Portuguese
retained some officials
persons of the administration of the sultanate.
Bendahara [1] was in charge of all “non-Christian
population and foreigners “,
Temengung ruled local
residents (Malays and Minangkabau)
in the vicinity of Malacca, shahbandar,
who helped bendahara, was responsible for
receipt of duties from Asian
ships and receiving ambassadors from
Asian states.Besides,
at the head of each community – Chinese,
Javanese, Tamil – stood
captain dealt with
authorities.

Home
Malacca’s value to Portuguese
colonialists was that
the city was an important trading port,
through which the flow of goods from
India to the archipelago, to China and Japan
and in the opposite direction, and one of
main sea fortresses,
supporting the Portuguese
trade monopoly in countries
South Seas.Portuguese
domination was based on
the most brutal terror that put
aim of preserving trade
monopoly. Already in 1524 the viceroy yes
Gama (son of Vasco da Gama)
ordered the execution of the owners
ships passing through Malacca
strait without permission
Malacca.

Portuguese
taxed local trade
extremely high fees.
This prompted merchants in the 16th century. avoid
Malacca and trade in ports
South Malaya, North and East
Sumatra, West Java.

Portuguese
management in Malacca very soon
found common
Portuguese colonial
administration shortcomings –
incredible corruption, violation
state trade
monopoly by officials, etc.
p.

Intolerant
colonial trade policy
combined with intolerance
religious, Medieval
fanaticism, animal hatred for
other believers were allowed
justify any atrocities in
the attitude of the local population.So,
after the storming of Malacca d’Albuquerque
ordered within a week
exterminate all Muslims
regardless of gender and age, appearing
on the streets of the captured city. On
throughout the period
Portuguese domination in
Malacca had a policy
violent treatment
population to Christianity. But,
despite the spread and even
encouraging marriages of Portuguese with
local women, Christians in Malacca
and its surroundings, there were not
more than 6.5 thousandof 20-30 thousand inhabitants.

Power
Portuguese in Malaya are practically
limited to Malacca and its
the immediate vicinity. Northern
Malay principalities after the fall
Malacca fell into a vassal
dependence on Siam. From south,
east and north, Malacca was surrounded by
Malay states – Johor,
Pahang and Perak where they ruled
scions of the Malacco dynasty,
hostile to
invaders.Portuguese
the fortress of Malacca was an island,
around which the sea raged
anger and hatred of the colonialists,
held their positions only thanks to
military advantage and
contradictions in the enemy camp.

Immediately
after the capture of Malacca
the portuguese faced
dissatisfaction with the numerous
Javanese colony. D’Albuquerque
executed the head of this rich colony
the merchant Uchimutiraju with his family,
whereupon the Javanese led by Patih
Kadir revolted, brutally
suppressed by the colonialists.In defense
compatriots spoke
Javanese Muslim principality
Japara, who played a leading role in
North Java trade interests
which were affected
approval of the Portuguese in
Malacca. In 1513 the big Japar
fleet commanded by Patih Unus
laid siege to Malacca. In the blocked
the city began to starve, but
the Portuguese managed in the sea
battle to smash the Javanese fleet, and
Patih Unus lifted the siege. Generally
Muslim sultanates of Northern and
East Java occupied a hostile
position in relation to
Portuguese aliens and
constantly threatened the trade route
from Malacca to the Moluccas –
the spice trade center.

Occurrence
Johor and his struggle with
the Portuguese.
Serious
the enemy of the Portuguese became
the sultanate of Johor, who played
leading role among
Malay principalities during the XVI-XVIII
centuries

After
the fall of Malacca, the sultan fled to
Pahang. From there he sent
embassy to China requesting
aid against the Portuguese. but
emperor of Minsk, referring to
war with the Mongols, refused
help Mahmoud, and the Chinese merchants,
assisting d’Albuquerque in the siege
Malacca, renewed ties with
city.After that, the sultan and his
the yard moved to the south of the peninsula,
where in the upper reaches of the river. Johor arose
center of new Malay
state. In 1521 Mahmud passed
to Bintang Island (Riau Archipelago) and
built a new capital there. On
throughout the history of Johor
location of the capital
constantly changing: then on
archipelago Riau-Linga, then on the river.
Johor. On the one hand, the sultans
Johor sought to revive
traditions of Malacca and create in their
possession of the port attracting
foreign traders.With another
side, constantly feuding with
Portuguese and Ache, they cared
about safety and therefore sometimes
located their capital in some
distance from the sea coast. These
circumstances and is explained
frequent change of the capitals of Johor.

Already
under Mahmud, the power of Johor
recognized the principalities of the peninsula,
except for the northern ones,
dependent on
Siam, islands between Malaya and
Sumatra (including Singapore) and
sultanates of East Sumatra, vol.e.
the sultanate of Johor spread its
impact on most of the territories,
once subservient to Malacca.
Johor led from the very beginning
fierce struggle with
by the Portuguese, pursuing two goals:
first, thwart the approval
Portuguese trade monopoly in
straits, secondly, in case of luck
capture Malacca and rebuild
Sultanate of Malacca. A hero
anti-Portuguese campaigns
Johor became Laxamana (Admiral)
Hang Nadim. Already in 1513Johor’s fleet
began to attack the Portuguese
ships in the strait. In 1521-1524.
the Portuguese suffered a few
defeat when trying to capture
Bintang, and in 1525 Laxamana besieged
Malacca. But in 1526 a strong Portuguese
the fleet attacked Bintang and burned
the capital of Johor, after which Mahmoud
fled to Kampar in Sumatra, where
died in 1528

Mahmoud
succeeded by his youngest son
Alauddin Riyat Shah II (1528-1564), in
while the elder, Muzaffar Shah,
became the sultan of Perak, putting
the beginning of a dynasty that
exists in this sultanate to this day
day.Alauddin continued politics
father, and in 1533, moving the capital to
mainland, undertook a new
attack on the Portuguese. In 1551
Alauddii attacked Malacca,
combining the forces of Johar, Perak and
Pahanga. He’s for three months
besieged the city, burned the enemy
ships in the harbor and tried to take
Malacca by storm. Excellence in
weapons, organization and
Johor-Achekh contradictions
helped the Portuguese defend
town.

Johor,
Ache and Malacca in the 16th century
Important
factor influencing the situation
Malashi and the struggle for trade routes
across the straits, became the Sultanate of Ache.
The fall of Malacui opened the way for
the rise of the North Sumatran
Ache, which in a short time
has become one of the main
shopping centers in the archipelago. Hache
subdued the ports of Pidi and Pasay pa
north of Sumatra, which led
large trade with China and
Gujarat, and then led the fight for
hegemony in the east and west
the coasts of Sumatra.Striving for
control over the path through
Strait of Malacca is inevitable
led Ache to collide with
by the Portuguese and Johor.

V
1537 Acekh fleet attacked Malacca,
and ten years later, in 1547,
repeated the attack. At a price
tremendous effort
the Portuguese managed to smash
Achekh fleet at the mouth of the river. Perlis, on
north of Malaya.

Constant
the enmity of Ache and Johor prevented them
join forces against
Portuguese.In 1539 Johor m Ace
fought each other because of
East Sumatra. In 1564, the Achekh
the army burned the capital of Johor
Johor Lamu, with Sultan Alauddin
II was taken to Acha, where he was poisoned.
When, in 1968, Ache again laid siege to
Malacca, Johor has come
help the Portuguese. In 1575
after a new unsuccessful siege
Malacca’s Acekh fleet moved to
north and captured Perak, sultan
who was killed and his family
taken to Ache.

Union
Johor with the Portuguese was
short.Hard
colonial trade policy
continued to displease
Johor, who, having improved relations
with Ache, in 1586-1587. besieged again
Malacca. Malacca was blocked
and her connections with the outside world
practically were reduced to zero. But
a fleet from Goa approached, and Admiral Paolu
di Lima Pereira undertook in July 1587
d. an expedition against Johor Lama.
The capital city of Johor was taken by storm
the Portuguese captured a huge
prey.

So
way, throughout the XVI century.Portuguese in Malacca, beating off
attacks by Malay, Sumatran and
Javanese states, at the cost
tremendous effort
kept trade and maritime
monopoly.

Appearance
the British and the Dutch.
At the end
XVI century in Southeast Asia appeared
Portugal’s European rivals and
Spain (the last from 1580 to 1640)
owned Portugal). British and
the dutch rushed to the area
chasing spices.In the fight against
they sought to
exploit local grievances
owners and populations
Portuguese and Spanish
dominion, especially their trading
monopoly and religious
intolerance.

V
1592 English expedition ship
under the command of Edward
Lancaster reached Penang Island,
located at the western
coast of Malaya. In 1598 another
English expedition led by
Woodom visited Kedakh.Both
navigator were engaged in
Strait of Malacca not so much
trade as much as piracy. In 1595
g. through the Strait of Malacca passed
Dutch expedition Cornelius
van Houtman.

Although
focus of new
colonialists were concentrated
in the Moluccas, they are quite active
operated in Western and Southern
Malaya, seeking to settle in
this strategically important area. V
1602 Dutch merchant van
Heemskirk visited Kedach and the other
Dutchman, Jacob Buiseng in 1603visited Johor and convinced the Sultan
send an embassy to the Netherlands.
In 1609, the English East Indies
the company purchased the first
batch of tin.

Especially
was active in Malaya at that
Dutch East Indies period
company founded in 1602 Understanding,
what for the final displacement
Portuguese and Spanish from the Southeast
Asia needs to destroy them
support bases, Dutch
colonialists sought to master
the most powerful of them – Malacca.Already
in 1602-1603 dutch navy
undertook a blockade of Malacca. May 17, 1606
g, Admiral Matelif concluded an agreement
on the alliance with the Sultan of Johor Alauddin
Riyat Shah III (1597-1613). Johor
provided the Dutch
monopoly trade rights in their
possessions, both parties pledged
fight Malacca. In 1606
the allies besieged Malacca, which with
with difficulty weathered this siege. Town
badly damaged by the bombing,
many buildings were destroyed.Therein
the same year Matelif inflicted a cruel
defeat of the Portuguese fleet, in
resulting in the trade of Malacca
practically stopped.
Portugal was unable to
effectively protect the stretched
line of their sea communications in
Indian Ocean. Fall of Malacca
was fringed by disagreements between
allies – the Dutch and
Johor: the latter in 1610 tore
alliance with the Dutch East India
company.

Achekhsk
conquest in Malaya.
At the beginning
XVII century the sultanate of Ache embarked on the path
broad policy of conquest,
the tip of which was directed
against Malacca and Johor –
rivals in the struggle for dominance
over the Strait of Malacca. Sultan
Iskandar Muda (1607-1636) – the most
the most powerful sovereign in history
Ache – won from Johor in 1612
the Aru archipelago near the eastern
the coast of Sumatra, and in 1613 and 1615.
plundered Johoroka twice
the capital is Batu Savar.Sultan Alauddin
III was taken to Ache and executed there.
The new Sultan Abdullah Shah was
forced to lead the life of an exile, not
being able to gain a foothold in
their possessions. In 1618 – 1620.
Iskazhdar Muda captured the Pahant,
Kedakh and Perak. Brutal politics
Acekh sultan, who created
atrocities in the captured Malay
principalities and exported thousands
people from the Ace peninsula, where
many were dying of hunger and overwhelming
labor, aroused hatred of the Achekhs
and spawned a movement for
liberation from the Achekh yoke.

V
1629 Iskander Muda laid siege to Malacca
– the only point on the strait,
who was not in Achekh
hands. Gathering an army of 20 thousand,
Sultan Ache landed in the suburbs
Ilir and defeated the Portuguese troops,
forcing them to take refuge in the fortress.
The city has undergone a brutal
bombardment of the Achekh artillery.
But they came to the aid of the Portuguese
the troops of Johor and Patani, and the Achekhs
retreated with heavy losses. Failure
Iskander near Malacca allowed
Johor regain independence, and in
40s of the XVII century.Hache lost all his
possessions on the peninsula, except
Perak.

Capture
Malacca Dutch and Dutch
politics in Malaya.
In 1637
Dutch East India Company
renewed the alliance with Johor, the goal
which was the elimination of power
Portuguese in Malacca. In June 1640 g.
the dutch navy has begun
the bombing of Malacca, at the end of July
reinforcements from Johor arrived.
The city was tightly blocked from the sea,
and in August 1640Dutch
landed in the suburb of Upeh. Defenders
were forced to lock themselves in the city,
who has been subject to continuous
shelling Dutch batteries. V
Malacca is starving
epidemics raged: towards the end
siege of 20 thousand population
only 3 thousand survived. However, from
the Dutch also suffered from diseases,
who have lost at least 1500 people from
malaria and dysentery. Finally, 14
January 1641 the allies undertook
storm of the northern, weakest wall
cities.After a fierce battle
Captain di Sousa Coutinho surrendered the fortress.

Taking
Malacca was accompanied by a general
massacre and robbery. Almost all
buildings were destroyed, estates and
the gardens around the ‘City have been destroyed. From
epidemics that broke out with renewed vigor
in ruined Malacca, perished
thousands of city residents and
surroundings.

For
Dutch Malacca represented
mainly interest in the military
point of view – how strong
fortress “and the way through Malacca
strait.The fort was rebuilt and
even fortified, in it constantly
there was a Dutch garrison.
Administratively, Malacca was
subordinated to the capital of the Netherlands
India – Batavia, which appointed
governor. Under the governor
Malacca there was a council where
included a supercargo watching
trade, garrison commander,
judge and other senior officials
persons as well as representatives
European merchants (Dutch
and the Portuguese). As in
Portuguese time, in
around the city were engaged
gardening, an attempt by the Dutch
create rice paddies around
Malacca to feed
population in case of a siege, success
was not crowned.

At
Dutch Malacca lost
the importance of a world port, since
Dutch East India Company
sought to focus
trade between the Far East,
archipelago and India in Batavia.
Malacca served as a fortress in
straits and trade center for
peninsula. The main subject
import into Malacca steel products
food from Java, Siam, Sumatra and
Benthal and fabrics from India, and the main
the export article is tin.East India
the company, like the Portuguese, sought
monopolize trade,
forced ships passing through
strait, enter Malacca and
pay high fees. Methods
maintaining the monopoly of steel
imposed on the Malay sultanates
contracts under which they pledged
sell tin and pepper companies by
low prices, blockade of the coast,
building forts, patrolling
Dutch ships in the strait.
This policy caused
resistance of the Malay principalities and
Indian merchants,
traded in Malaya, and increased
desire to use others
centers on the peninsula for
international trade.

From
Malay Dutch sultanates
colonialists of greatest interest
showed to Perak and Kedakh, where
the main export
the product of the peninsula is tin. In the 40s – 50s
years of the XVII century. they forced Perak and
Kedakh conclude a number of agreements,
gave the Dutch a monopoly on
the tin trade in these sultanates.
The Dutch have repeatedly
blocked the coast of Perak and
Kedah, hindering their trade,
created trading posts and forts in
the coast of these sultanates.

Perak
and Kadah fought incessantly against
Dutch trade monopoly.
In 1651 it was defeated
Dutch trading post at the mouth of the river.
Perak. Under the treaty of 1655, the trading post
was restored, but soon again
destroyed. In 1690 a similar
fate befell the Dutch fort
on the island of Pangkor near Perak
coast. In 1657 it happened
an attack on a trading post in Kedakh.

Besides
sultanates of northwest
the coast the Dutch tried
subjugate small
Minangkabau principalities,
located in the vicinity
Malacca.Minantka-bow of steel
move to the area in
mostly in the 16th century, encouraged
Portuguese interested in
development of gold mines and
obtaining rice from domestic
areas of the peninsula. Minangkabau
settled the old trade route
from Malacca to Pahang and created
several small holdings. Their
relations with the Portuguese were
unequal throughout the 16th century,
and in the 17th century. they openly feuded with
Malacca. Striving to strengthen their
positions in Malacca, Dutch in 1641forced their former ally
to fight the Portuguese –
Minangkabaue Principality of Naning,
located near Malacca,
sign a vassal agreement
dependencies. In subsequent years, they
sent a number of expeditions to
force the population of Naning
accept this contract. One of these
expeditions in 1644 ended
defeat of the colonialists. Although in 1647
Mr. Naning again recognized the vassal
dependence on Malacca,
in fact, the power of the Dutch, as well as
Portuguese, spread
only on the city, and their attempts
gain a foothold in other areas
Malaya had no success.

Johor
in the second half of the 17th – early 18th century.

1641 opened the period of strengthening and
prosperity of Johor. This year
power was eliminated
Portuguese, enemies of the Sultanate, in
Malaya and Sultan Ache Iskandar died
Thani, followed by Ache’s influence
Malaya weakened sharply.

Sultan
Johor Abdul-Jalil Shah III (1623-1677
biennium) managed to take advantage of
change to strengthen its
the state.He put again
Pahang under the control of Johor, his
the Riau Linga archipelago became vassals,
Bengkalis, Rokan, Kampar, Siak and
Indragiri in East Sumatra; with
Ache, Jambi and Patani were supported
friendly allies
relationship. The power of Abdul Jalil Shah
even extended to
Minangkabau principalities
Central Malaya, i.e., into areas
directly bordering
Malacca. From Pahang, from the archipelago
Riau Linga, from Sumatran
possessions in the capital of Johor Batu Savar
flocked tin, leretz, elephant
bone, camphor, copra, valuable species
trees that were sold
Dutch, and often their commercial
competitors – Gujarati,
Chinese, Portuguese and
the British.Fabrics were brought to Johor
from India, porcelain, tea, tobacco and others
goods from China. Johor in the middle of the XVII
v. thus turned into
large shopping center, successfully
competing with Malacca.

But
Johor’s prosperity lasted
not for long. Rivalry between two
palace parties led to
the collision of Johor with his
Jambi’s ally. By advice
bendahar Tun Habib Abdul Majida
– the head of one of the rival
feudal cliques – Sultan of Johor
promised that his heir would marry
on the daughter of pangeran (ruler)
Jambi.But laxamana (admiral)
Johor Paduk Tuan, who headed
a nasty party at court,
persuaded Abdul-Jalil-shah to marry
his future successor to
daughters of Laxamans. Offended
Pangeran started the war in 1673. Troops
Jambi captured Beng Kalis on
Sumatra and then ua crashed
the Johorok capital Batu-Savar,
from where 2500 prisoners were taken out and
four tons of gold. Abdul Jalil Shah
fled to Pahang, where after four
died at the age of ninety
age.Johor’s defeat
led to the collapse of the state. Siak
fell away and invited the Rajah from
Minangkabau. Another
Minangkabau Raja, Ibrahim,
appeared on the peninsula and
united under his rule Naning,
Rembau, Klang and Sungey-Ujong. In 1678 g.
Ibrahim attacked Malayuka. Although in
next year, after his death,
Minangkabau Confederation in
Malaya disintegrated, Johor lost
authority over these areas.

Laxamana
Paduca Tuan convinced the new sultan
Johor and his son-in-law Ibrahim Shah
move the capital to Bintang Island,
which was his lot.Paduca Tuan Chi
Ibrahim Shah turned to
the leader of the Bug mercenaries
Daing Mangike, who in 1679
captured Jambi. In 1681 the war ended,
and Ibrahim Shah again moved the capital
to the peninsula, to Johor Lama, where in
died the same year, poisoned
by their own wives, leaving the throne
to his son Mahmud (1685-1699),
his grandfather became regent,
laxamana Paduka Tuan. Triumph
Paduki Tuan was short-lived.
His old rival, Bendahara Tun
Khabib Abdul Majid, headed
feudal lords dissatisfied with autocracy
Laxamans, and achieved exile
the latter.

Difficulties
Johor immediately
took advantage of the Dutch,
who in 1685 began negotiations with
Johor to provide them
trade monopoly. In 1689, when
a new regent came to power –
bendahara, treaty with the Dutch
was signed. This treaty
gave the Dutch the right to duty-free
trade in Johor and prohibited
Indian merchants to settle in
possessions of the sultanate. In 1699 g.
the Johor dynasty ended,
leading from the sultans of Malacca.Her last representative, Mahmud Shah
II, was an unbridled tyrant with a bright
pronounced sadistic
inclinations that served
the reason for his murder by one of
courtiers. To the throne of Johor
ascended the bendahara of the sultanate,
who took the name Abdul-Jalil-Shah IV (1699-1718
biennium).

Position
the new dynasty was extremely
unstable, the country is not
ceased feudal strife.
New Sultan Seeking Support
even turned to english
Captain Alexander Hamilton,
offering him for this the island of Singapore.Tyranny of the Sultan’s younger brother,
who actually ruled the country,
caused new unrest and strife,
used by
shiaka ruler minangkabau raja
Kechil, who declared himself a son
Mahmud Shah II. With the support of a son-in-law
he unexpectedly captured the sultan in 1718
the capital of Johor and became the sultan.

Boogie
in Malaya and their struggle with the Dutch.

In the XVIII century. in the political arena
Malaya has a new power – boogie.Brave sailors, pirates and
traders who formed a number
principalities on the island of Sulawesi, boogie
after 1667 when the Dutch
captured Makassar, were forced
start mass resettlement in
other areas of the archipelago. Late XVII
v. they appeared in Malaya. On
West coast of Malacca Peninsula
at the mouth of the Klang and Selangor rivers
their settlements arose.

V
the beginning of the 18th century. Bug feudal lords
took an active part in the fight
for the Johor throne.One of
the leaders of the lumpy mercenaries,
Daing Parani, deceived by his
hopes of getting the post of yam-tuana
muda (“junior ruler”) when
accession of Raja Kechil, joined
conspiracy with the deposed sultan
Abdul-Jalil IV [2]. The conspiracy was exposed and the conspirators
fled from Johor. Rajah’s messengers
Kechil killed Sultan Abdul-Jalil
IV to Terengganu, but Daing Parani and his
brothers [3], having gathered a strong fleet,
captured Riau and expelled the Raja
Kechil from Johor.In 1722 g.
victorious Bug feudal lords
made Johor sultan
Suleiman (1722-1760), son of Abdul-Jalil
IV. One of the Dainga Parani brothers,
Daing Merevakh, became a yam-tuan muda
Johor. Actual power in
the sultanate passed into the hands of the Bugs.

Established
on Riau, where at that time was
the center of the Johorok Sultanate,
warlike brothers are active
intervened in political struggle
in other principalities. In 1723 boogie
invaded Kedakh, where they supported
one of the applicants for
the throne remaining vacant.Another challenger invited the Raja
Kechil. Within two years (1724-1726)
boogie and minanshabau fought in
Kedakhe. Although Daing Parani died in
this war, victory remained for
bumps.

Then
the struggle spread to Perak and
Selangor. And here the boogie brothers
turned out to be the winners. One of
Bug leaders, Raja Lumu, in 1742
became the first sultan of Selangor.
Perak also recognized authority
bugsky yam-tuana muda.

Height
influence of the Bugs in Malay
principalities, unification of sultanates
around Johor – all this caused
Dutch concern
colonialists.Much more
Dutch authorities of Malacca were
dissatisfied with trading activities
Bug feudal lords, who under
cover for the combat fleets that did not disdain
and piracy, violated the Dutch
trade monopoly. Riau in the period
the actual rule of the yam-tuan
muda Daing Cambodia (1745-1777) and
his nephew Rajah Haji (1777-1784
biennium) has become a busy port,
where did the Europeans trade,
Indians, Chinese and Malays. On the Riau
began to breed spices.

V
fight the dutch boogie
used the dissatisfaction of a part
Malay feudal lords, driven out
bumps. Head of the Malay Party
there was Sultan Terengganu Mansur,
who persuaded the Sultan of Johor
Suleiman, contact for help
to the Dutch. In 1755 in Malacca there was
an agreement is concluded between the Dutch
and Suleiman, according to which
Dutch East India Company
got a monopoly on trade
tin and duty free
trade in the domains of Johor;
other Europeans were forbidden
trade in Johor.In trade for
the dutch promised the sultan
restore his power, i.e.
expel the boogs.

Flared
war. Bug commander Raja
Haji defeated the Sultan’s fleet
Terenggan and transferred the military
actions in the vicinity of Malacca. But
in 1758, after almost two years of struggle,
Bug feudal lords were forced
sign an agreement confirming
provided by the Sultan of Johor
the Dutch have a monopoly on the purchase
tin.

V
next, 1759Raja Haji
made a coup on Riau,
forcing Sultan Suleiman to return
Daing Cambodia to power. In 1760 g.
Suleiman died and Daing Cambodia
became the guardian of the new sultan
Mahmud (1761-1812) – grandson
Suleiman, born in the year of death
grandfather. Johor started a little
recover from the aftermath of war
1756-1758 Taking advantage of the weakening
Dutch East India Company,
boogie deployed to the lively Riau
trade. English, Chinese,
Portuguese, Indian merchants, and
also traders from Siam, Ache and
other parts of the archipelago “visited
Riau to purchase opium, fabrics and
Chinese goods in exchange for their
products… and the population of Riau
sold and bought with considerable
benefit for oneself “, testifies
Dutch source of the 18th century.
Bug commander Raja Khadzhi in 1770
1771 restored Johor’s influence
in Peran, Kedakh, as well as on
East Sumatra – to Jambi and
Indragiri. In 1777 after death
Daing Cambodia he became a yam-tuan
muda.

V
1783 a new war broke out between
Johor and the Dutch who are not
could come to terms with the increase
your opponent.From Malacca to
Riau was sent strong
expedition. Dutch
supported Sultan Terengganu
Mansour and Sumatran rulers.
Raja Haji raised to the defense
the population of Riau, and the invaders
met on the archipelago
unanimous rebuff. Much success
boogov contributed
the leadership talent of Raja Haji.
Dutch lost their flagship
ship and 600 people and fled to
Malacca.

V
early 1784 Raja Haji landed
near Malacca and began the siege
cities.Simultaneously from north to
Malacca moved united
the forces of Selangor and Rembau led by
by Selangor Sultan
Ibrahim, a cousin of Rajah Haji.
Raja Haji proclaimed the sacred
war against the Dutch. Dutch
left the suburbs and fortified
the walls of the city, with difficulty restraining
onslaught of the besiegers,

Saved
Malacca the appearance of the van squadron
Braam, who came from the Netherlands to
Batavia in the spring of 178418 June landed
at night the Dutch detachment at
naval artillery support
attacked the camp of Raja Haji. Death
commander at the beginning of the battle
forced the boogs and malays to retreat
from Malacca.

After
this, in August 1784 van Braam
captured Selangor, and his sultan
Ibrahim fled to Pahang. At the end
October the Dutch fleet defeated
bugs on Riau, and on November 1, 1784 the Sultan
Mahmoud and Malay feudal lords on board
frigate “Utrecht” signed
surrender.Johor Sultanate
recognized vassalage
from the Dutch East India
the company that received the right
approve the sultan. All fortifications
pa Riau were destroyed, and the Sultan
took the Dutch garrison.
All conditions were also confirmed
treaty of 1758 on the Dutch
monopoly on the purchase of tin; apart from
Moreover, all the boogie who were not born on
Riau, were expelled from the archipelago.

However
the boogie continued to fight. In the summer of 1785Sultan Selangor Ibrahim at
the support of the Johor bendahara,
who received his inheritance in Pahang, expelled
Dutch from their principality. V
next year dutch fleet
reappeared off the coast of Selangor,
and Ibrahim was forced to sign a treaty
on the provision of the Dutch East India
trade monopoly companies
tin.

V
February 1787 the Dutch forced
Mahmoud to sign a new treaty,
who placed the sultanate under their full
control.From now on, all the most important matters
decided by the Dutch resident on the Riau,
court cases between foreigners and
locals also
were run by a resident.
Sultan Mahmud asked for help
to the Ilanun (Filipino) pirates,
who in May 1787 expelled
Dutch, and at the same time Mahmud with
Riau. The fleeing sultan began to look for
support from the Dutch in Malacca and
Englishmen on Penang, where in 1786 was
an English trading post was founded.
Having failed in these attempts,
he created in 1790coalition where
included Malay and Sumatran
states for exile as
Dutch and British. But
attack pa penang and dutch
Fort on Dinding (Perak) is over
failure, and the coalition fell apart.
The Dutch returned to Riau again,
which ilanun invasion
led to complete decline. In 1795,
after the occupation by England
Dutch possessions in the East,
Sultan Mahmud was reinstated in
throne. In 1801 t. Malay and lumpy
the feudal lords made an agreement,
sharing power in the Riau Linga archipelago.Bug leader Raja Ali became Yam Tuan
mudoy, ​​and Malay Abdul Rahman –
temengung.

Malaya
at the end of the 18th – beginning of the 19th century.
B
politically position
“In the Malacca Peninsula and.
nearby islands during this period
was very varied. North
part of the peninsula (Patani, Ligor and
other Malay principalities) firmly
became part of Siam, which
recovered from the Burmese invasion
and strengthened his power over the vassals.Northern Sultanates of Malaya (Kedah,
Kelantan, Terengganu) were also considered
vassals of Siam, but the power
the last one above them was in
largely formal:
vassal duties of the Malay
sultans were limited to more or
less regular bung
mas (“golden flower”),
symbolizing recognition
suzerainty.

K
Perak was located to the south of Kedakh,
bordering on the east with
Kelantan and Pahang.it
principality in which ruled
dynasty originating from the sultans
Malayki, intensified under the Sultan
Iskander (1756-1770), but after
death entered the streak
feuds. Despite the weakening
states, the sultans of Perak managed
oppose the Dutch
intervention and forced
Dutch in 1783 to liquidate
trading post.

River
Burnham separated Perak from
located south of the sultanate
Selangor, who, like Kedah and Perak,
also went out to Malacca
strait.Selangor continuously
feuded with Perak. In 1804
Selangor Sultan Ibrahim even
captured Perak and for two
for years kept him under his rule.

C
Selangor bordered located
to the southeast of Negri-Sembilan –
Minangkabau confederation
possessions. During the struggle of the lumpy
brothers with Raja Kechil
Minangkabau in Malaya supported
the latter – his fellow tribesman.
After the defeat of Raja Kechil
Bug feudal lords seized power
over a number of areas inhabited by
mpnangkabau; appeared in Selangor
boogie sultan, boogie founded
princely dynasties in Klang,
Dzhelebu, Tamshe and Sungey-Ujong.Defeat the boogie in a collision with
the Dutch hastened folding
states at Minangkabau Malaya.

V
1773 undangs (rulers) of the principalities
Rembau, Sungey-Ujong, Johol and
Dzheleba was elected yam-tuan (supreme
ruler) Raja Melevar,
originating from the ruling
dynasty Minangkabau in Sumatra.
Melevar settled in Srimenanti and
managed to unite Minangkabau
principalities – Ulu-Muar, Terachi,
Gunong Pasir, Jampol.Confederation,
called Negri Sembilan
(“Nine Principalities”), in 1795 broke
all the formal ties that tied
her with Johor. South of Negri Sembilan
was Naning, who recognized
formal dependence on
Dutch Malacca.

River
Moire separated the territory of Malacca and
Naning from Johor. Johor –
sparsely populated area in the south
peninsula – turned into a lot
Johor Temengungs, who
extended their power also
to some islands to the south, including
including Singapore.

Chief
stronghold of European
colonialists in Malaya was
Dutch-owned Malacca,
which by the end of the XVIII century. fully
lost its trade value and represented
for Dutch East India
company core value as
naval base on its way from
Of India to the archipelago. There were
Dutch forts for Visa and
Perake.

Public
and the political system of Malay
principalities
[4] .Malay sultanates, referred to as
negros [5], usually occupied
territory in the pool of one of
the main rivers of the peninsula. Capitals
sultanates were usually at
the confluence of the main river into the sea or,
as in Johor, on the river in some
distance from the sea coast.

Vo
the head of state was the sultan, or
yang-di-pertuan besar [6] (“the one who
is the master “),
symbolizing unity
sultanate. The person of the Sultan was considered
sacred.

Existed
complex ceremony that defined
the actions of the sultan and his behavior.
Symbols of greatness (kebesaran) of the Sultan
served as his regalia – musical
tools, scepter, box for
betel nut, seal, umbrella, weapon. Only
the sultan could wear yellow clothes
colors, certain decorations,
own some animals, etc.
When the Sultan ascended to the throne, all
the nobility of the sultanate brought him
an oath of allegiance; similar
the oath was taken by the feudal lords at
appointment or at
approval of ownership, and
also after a certain time
all the feudal lords of the principality
queue.

Real
the power of the sultan but as it gains
feudal fragmentation,
especially after weakening and
the disintegration of Johor, everything became
more ghostly. Most
Malay principalities at the beginning of the XIX century.
the power of the sultans spread
only for the domain. Central office
was weak since real
power was concentrated in the hands
large feudal lords who owned those
or other areas of the state.
There were advisers under the sultans,
whom the ruler tried to pick
from among relatives or faithful
people, most often not owning
feudal lords.

Sultanate
divided into regions (daerah,
jajahan), which were
possessions of one or another
feudal family. Theoretically
the ownership of these areas was
due to military service
to the sultan and paying him
a certain part of the income, but
in fact, especially in the 18th-19th centuries,
large feudal lords little depended on
central government.

Possessive
feudal lords who bore the titles of rajah or
tunu (if they came from
ruling family), datou or van (if
they did not belong to the Sultan
clan), governed the region, levied
taxes, judged, collected
duties, drove the peasants to
forced labor, etc.e. Around
each of the sovereign feudal lords
formed a circle of
relatives and others
aristocrats who were his
assistants, military leaders,
secretaries, ambassadors, stewards,
advisors.

Normal
the phenomenon was feudal strife.
Wars were constantly fought as between
sultans and between the sovereign
feudal lords. Feudal lords lived in
fortified residences on the banks
rivers; residences were demolished
a palisade, a moat and an earthen embankment,
at the corners of which were built
cannon bastions.The feudal lords kept
with a hired squad.

Sultan
gave land to feudal lords, giving them
also operating rights
peasants who were sitting on this land.
If in the days of Malacca
sultanate mighty
the ruler really was
has the power to take away from the feudal lords
other lands and give them, then in the weak,
fragmented states XVII-XIX
centuries feudal lords became almost
independent rulers.

Feudal lords
in Perak and Pahayat in Malay
traditions were divided into several
groups: “four”, “eight”, “sixteen”
and thirty-two.Most
influential group was the first, in
it included: bendahara – the first
minister and commander-in-chief,
bendahari – secretary and treasurer
sultana, temengung – head of police,
also in charge of military fortifications,
and mantri is the chief judge. The number “eight”
included: ma-haraja-lela – judge,
laksamana – admiral, shahbandar –
head of the customs department,
Chief Qadi – Judge for Religious
affairs and four more feudal lords –
governors of regions.Higher
nobles who were in the “four” and
G8, spread their
power over entire areas of the sultanate.

Part
income, and quite significant,
feudal lords received in the form of judicial
fines from peasants. Every feudal lord in
judged his district and collected
court fines. By law income
from court fines should have
share in a certain proportion
between the sultan and the feudal lords, but with
weakening of central authority
feudal lords sought to appropriate it
entirely.

After
large feudal lords in Perak and Pahang
stood on the hierarchical ladder
sixteen rulers of various
areas whose positions are not
were hereditary. They were appointed
large feudal lords and were often their
sons. In addition, there was
thirty-two “territorial
leader “, which, unlike
large owners did not have
the judiciary; and there were
assistants or just
rulers of small districts.
Titles, job titles and
traditional division
the ruling class is all
inherited from
Malacca Sultanate, but
responsibilities, real content
a particular position or title
have undergone significant
changes.

V
Selangore, where the Bugs ruled
rajahs, under the Sultan there were four
large feudal lords, between whom
the country was divided: two of them
ruled the coast and delta
rivers, the third – by the Klang region, and
the fourth is the inner part of the state.
A striking example of the feudal
fragmentation at the end of the 18th century.
was Johor – pathetic
fragment of the once mighty
sultanate. Here one could find
at least seven holdings,
feudal rulers who are not
wanted to obey neither the Sultan nor
to the actual head of Johor –
temengungu.

Sultans
and large feudal lords distributed land and
villages to smaller feudal lords
conditions of vassal dependence. V
Malacca Sultanate such
awards were made by the sultan
or with his knowledge, but in Malaya XVII-XVIII
centuries large feudal lords committed these
acts are already on their own. Created
more or less developed
hierarchical structure
feudal society, based on
which lay the feudal
land tenure.Each area
was under the control of one or
another major feudal lord who
turned his lot into
hereditary, and below were
non-hereditary feudal lords dependent
not from the central government, but from
superior feudal lords. Lower layer
feudal lords did not always belong to
the class of rajas; such feudal lords in
in some cases could become
village elders. So, in Lingi,
on the west coast of Malaya, in
late 18th century a settlement was founded,
and one of the settlers became the headman.Then he got rich trading
tin enough to subdue
the whole village to its influence. His
son-in-law has already extended his power
the whole neighborhood and felt
so independent that
challenged the receipt of duties on
tin from the rulers of Malay
principalities.

Power
sultans and the possibility of obtaining
their income was extremely
limited. So, the sultan in Perak
could freely
dispose of only in those areas
which did not apply
the influence of large feudal lords or any
powerful families.The last, with
on the one hand, sought
break free of control
central government, and on the other –
were interested in preserving
it as a means by which
held in obedience
the peasantry, and the state
guarded from external enemies. except
addition, the feudal lords received from
state positions that gave them
the right to receive feudal
rent.

V
conditions in Malaya, significant
government revenues were received
from duties on trade and tin mining.Receiving them was associated with that
or any other position held by a feudal lord.
If the Malacca Sultanate is almost
all fees from trade went to the sultan,
then in the sultanates of the late XVIII – early XIX
v. sultans shared income with
feudal lords. So, in Perak, the Sultan
received income from duties on tin,
tobacco, opium, indian cane,
oil and salted fish that
transported along the river. Perak; heir
the sultan received payments from gambling
houses, ooshumokurilen and wine shops;
bendahara levied in his favor
duties on goods going along the river.Quinta; temengung possessed
monopoly on the salt trade and
enjoyed part of the fees; one of
feudal lords received export duties
tin and gutta-percha in their district;
the governor of the Quinta district charged in
ten percent benefit
duty on tin.

Source
enrichment of the feudal lords also served
trade. Huge income
some of them received from the booty
and sales of tin – the main
wealth of Malaya. All this contributed to
concentration of great wealth in
the hands of individual feudal lords and
opened the way for them to political
elevation.

Malay
society was sharply divided into two
class: feudal lords and peasants (rayats).
Man from birth belonged to
one of these classes, and get into
upper class man from
the common people were practically
impossible.

Main
the mass of peasants had plots of land,
inherited. This
land could be sold, bought,
to lay.

Feudal
state ownership of
land in the Malay states
expressed in the fact that the Sultan had
the right to collect taxes and
dispose of running and
escheat lands;

Sharing
the land to the feudal lords, the Sultan handed over to them,
not ownership of land, but
the right to receive tax from it and
transfer to peasants
abandoned and empty lands.The peasant had the right to own
any piece of land that he
or his ancestors conquered the jungle.
Land rights were retained in
for the whole time until
continued cultivation of the land or
as long as the boundary marks remained,
indicating ownership
earth. There was also
the position that the peasant owns
their land to those. until part
grain goes to the ruler. One of
articles of the Malacca Code of the 16th century,
retained its significance until
until the 19th century., read; “Persons who
sit on the lands or plots of others
(meaning the peasants sitting
on the lands granted by the Sultan
this or that feudal lord. – V.T. ),
must obey orders
the owner [of the land], and if they
oppose it, then must
be fined … Duty
all who live on [his] land,
help the owner. ”

Weight
Malay peasantry
was a permanent
hereditary owners carrying
service and rent-tax payers
in favor of the feudal lords.Basic form
feudal rent in Malay
the principalities had a grocery store. Malay
peasantry (in rice-producing
districts) paid the Supreme
to the owner of the land – to the Sultan, and
in fact – to individual feudal lords,
rent-tax that bore the name
tithes. Tithing sizes were not
fixed and distinguished its
only from principality to principality, but
even in areas of the same
principality. In some areas
Malaya in-kind rent-tax
levied from peasants not with rice, but with others
products – coconuts,
fruits, species of valuable trees
etc.e. In Perak, for example, peasants
one district supplied
construction timber, which is not only
used by the sultan for
construction, but also went to the external
the market, and another county supplied
Indian reed.

Significant
development in Malaya received
pre-existing labor rent
along with the grocery. Usually,
the feudal lords did not
led, but some of them had
plots of land that
processed by compulsory
the labor of the peasants.The peasants were building
bridges, roads, canals and
carried out other public
work, were rowers on boats
feudal lords watched over the elephants
sultan, etc. Work rent in
a number of areas was so great
that the peasants were even freed
from grocery rent. English
officer Lowe who served in the 1920s
last century in Malaya, wrote: “His (peasant. –
V.T.) children were forcibly taken away from
him: girls – to the palace, and boys –
for community service or
war, where they received no
fees, but only a little food. “

V
XVIII-XIX centuries. in the Malay principalities
received some development
cash rent. So, in Kedakh at
Siamese domination could
replace rice per capita
payment of money in kind. Besides
peasants of Kedakh who owned irrigated
lands, paid cash
land tax. It is known that
coastal dwellers
Perak paid per capita tax
money. Increase in the share of monetary
rent in Malaya was associated with
the development of tin mining and the emergence
Chinese workers who bought from
malay peasants products
power supply, as well as with the establishment
over the northern principalities
domination of Siam, which levied
their new subjects in monetary
tax-rent.

Except
Moreover, there were unfixed
offerings of peasants to feudal lords.
Sources indicate that
rajahs could take “gifts” at any time
among peasants – from daughter to fruit.
Taxes and taxes in favor
states occupied a significant
place only in states
under the Siamese
control, and even then the flow
relatively short time.
In all Malay states
most of the feudal rent
collected by individual feudal lords,
without government intervention.

Centralized
tax apparatus in Malay
there were no principalities, taxes
the village headman gathered and
were transferred to the feudal lord, who, according to
disposed of
by them.

On
throughout the XVI-XVIII centuries. was happening
continuous development of new
territories. If before the occurrence
Sultanate of Malacca during
hinterland only
aborigines (senoi, semangi, jacunas),
then starting from the XVI century.Malays and
minangkabau, gradually
moving along the rivers inland,
founded new settlements.

Main
the occupations of the Malay peasantry
were rice cultivation and
fishing. The population lived in
villages along
the sea coast and rivers.
Significant place in Malaya
occupied by the slash-and-burn system
farming and cultivation
dry land rice. Many articles in
codes of Malay States
concern the cultivation of dry land
rice and vegetables cleared from the forest
earth (ladang).

Irrigation
rice was planted at river mouths, along
flooded river floodplains, as well
along narrow river valleys. V
coastal rice
cultivated in plots
formed by maritime
deposits. Irrigated rice crops
demanded an irrigation network,
which in Malaya was very
varied – from very
primitive adaptations for
flow retention and restriction
rainwater to skillful
regulatory structures
river runoff.

Draft
power to plow rice fields
there were buffaloes and Siamese oxen,
harnessed to a heavy plow.
Other agricultural
the work was done by a peasant
manually with a very
primitive tools. Manually produced
and clearing the forest for crops
dry land rice and vegetables.

More
since the days of the Sultanate of Malacca
a number of Chinese sources have noted
that sugar was grown in Malaya
reeds, fruit trees, onions,
ginger, mustard, pumpkin and melon.

Was
developed and fishing, which
often combined with agriculture.

V
some articles of codes
Malay states mentioned
clearing the forest. Community village members
were obliged to jointly clear
forest on hillsides for crops
dry land rice and vegetables. Share
each community member when clearing
was precisely determined, and in the case
setting fire to felled trees before
time by one of the community members
the last one carried for it
responsibility and reimbursed
the rest of the losses.If anyone does not
fenced off his plot, and the fields
the rest were consequently
poisoned by lamb, he also
compensated for losses. These articles, like
many others (about responsibilities
protect their plots, about
liability for injury, prohibition
owner of land located
upstream of the stream, block
water), indicate
community members’ responsibilities
relation to each other.

Conditions
business in Malaya
determined by the presence of a large
fund of vacant land.A rare population (200 thousand people in
the beginning of the 19th century) did not occupy all suitable
for cultivating the land.

Higher
the face of the Malay village was
headman (pengulu). He defined
the amount of payments due from
each court, appointed people to
forced labor, regulated
the rhythm of field work. Position
pengulu was usually hereditary.
The top of the village was
also assistants to the headman (mata-mata),
imam – clergyman
village mosque.Sometimes
the elders turned into
sovereign feudal lords. Usually this
happened when checking in earlier
unpopulated part of this or that
feudal possession.

Besides
communal peasants in Malay
principalities had other ranks
operated – debt
dependent (orang berhutang, kavan) and
slaves (abdi) sometimes combined
the general term “hamba”.

Debt
people became addicted,
laid down their land, or those who
for some reason left without
land, broke away from their village
and were forced to surrender under
patronage of the feudal lord.Such
people sometimes lived in the house of a feudal lord,
cultivated his fields, cleared
new areas from under the forest. Debt
addiction did not stop with
death of the debtor: family
inherited all the obligations of the deceased.
One of the additions to the usual
Malay law, which stated
that the widow and children of the deceased debtor
are only responsible for 1 / 3
debt, in the XIX century. served the law according
to whom the family was responsible for the debts
fully.This law, as well as
another new rule is payout
ransom for the debtor’s daughter by her fiancé
to the creditor – were innovations,
indicative of the strengthening
feudal exploitation. Debt
addicts were the most powerless
part of the Malay peasantry.

Actually
slaves in Malaya were relatively
Little. These included
prisoners of war captured
aborigines who resisted
conversion to Islam, persons
committed crimes and
under the auspices
sultan or sovereign feudal lord,
children of slaves who are not
recognized as the owner for
own.In addition, there was
a small number of African slaves,
brought by pilgrims from Mecca.
Most of the slaves lived in houses
feudal lords and did not participate in
productive labor. The main
the mass of such slaves was
women. A slave was considered a thing
property that could
sell, donate, bequeath, etc.
Many articles in the codes were
devoted to the issue of the loan of slaves and
compensation for injury or
death of a slave. Free for murder
the slave paid its value, and the slave
for insulting a free person could be
killed.For the capture of runaway slaves
remuneration was paid,
harboring them is cruel
punished. For stealing a slave,
belonging to a commoner, a thief
reimbursed the cost of the slave in double
size, for the theft of a slave of a feudal lord – in
fivefold, the slave of the Sultan – in
fourteenfold. If the thief is not
could recover the cost, then
indulged in the death penalty.

O
development of Malay craft
very little is known. The main
a lot of handicrafts
peasants made in their
farms.One of the most
significant industries in the home
industry was production
wicker products. From palm trees and
peasants made bamboo
agricultural implements and
fishing tackle, domestic
utensils, various vessels, shoes
and hats.

Chinese
chronicles note that in Johor in the XVI-XVII
centuries beautiful mats were made.
Pottery also
made by peasants.
The famous center of pottery
production in Perak was Kuala Tembeling,
where a special type of vessels was produced.Perak was also famous for his
embroidered products. There was
hand weaving.

Significant
some of the artisans also lived at
courtyards of the feudal lords who supplied
their food, materials and tools.
These artisans in Malay
states were essentially
serfs of the feudal lords,
serving the needs of their
gentlemen. Handicraft production
served as one of the sources
income of feudal lords who sold
part of the products of “own”
artisans.

Far
outside Malaya were famous
Malay goldsmiths and
gunsmiths. Jewelers products
Pahanga, Terengganu was famous in
Sumatra and Java. Rembau, Perak and
Terengganu were famous for their production
spears and daggers-kris, and Perak and
Kedakh – knives. In Perak and Pahang
made also richly
ornamented dishes. V
Kelantane and Terengganu
silk fabrics were produced, in
elsewhere – gold-woven
products, in Pahang and Selangor –
clothes.Some necessary for
artisans materials
were brought from other countries,
e.g. silk fabrics from India and
China. Talk about intense
exchange between artisans and peasants
is not necessary, because the products of these
artisans belonged
feudal lords and artisans
served either personal
the needs of the feudal lords, or
produced goods for external
the market where the same feudal lords sold them.

Defining
trend of socio-economic
development of Malaya in the XVI-XVIII centuries.It was
further development of feudal
relationship. This resulted in
strengthening the power of sovereign
feudal lords, increased exploitation
peasantry, an increasing number
debt dependent. After the fall
Malacca the ruling class has lost
a significant part of income from external
trade and sought to compensate
exploitation damage
peasantry. The emergence of Europeans
on the coast made the Malay
feudal lords move in the wake of the wave
settlers in the hinterland
country.The result was
spread of feudal
relations “in breadth”. At the same time
the feudal
fragmentation. This expressed
primarily in strengthening power
sovereign feudal lords in all
Malay sultanates. Process
feudal fragmentation
also contributed to the policy
European colonialists.

Features
social structure of Negri-Sembilan.

Minangkabau Negri-Sembilana
differed in public
device from the Malays.They
preserved remnants of tribal
relations, they were dominated by
maternal law, existed
legal lack of formalization
class differences.

Minangkabau,
moved to Malaya, brought with
a form of their tribal
organizations are a bitch. Minangkabau on
Sumatra belonged to one of the
four bitch – overgrown
the original family, and the aliens in
Malaya retained belonging to
to your bitch.Gradually in Negri Sembilan
several dozen
bitch since minangkabau,
settling in Malaya, they lost touch
among themselves and in Nepri-Sembilan
new settlers came,
who did not belong to
minangkabau. A bitch from the once tribal
organizations that
extended their jurisdiction to
all its members regardless
from the place of residence, turned into
territorial associations, in
which kept the old model
Minangkabau generic device.

Bitch
divided into clans (perut),
consisted of several families. In
The head of the Perut was an elder (ibu-bapa),
elected by the entire clan. Perut
were unequal; some of
them were subordinate
position in relation to perut, to
who owned the know bitch.

Vo
the head of the bitch was the lembaga, who
of the tribal leader
gradually turned into a feudal lord.
The bitch occupied a certain
territory and united in negros,
led by the undangs.Apparently
most of the undants were
descendants of feudal rulers,
existing on the territory
Negri Sembilana before coming
minangkabau or appearing here
in the XVI-XVIII centuries. as governors
Johor. The Undangs were not tribal
leaders, but rulers
certain territories
inhabited by members of a different bitch.
Feudalization process
Minangkabauskoto Society at the end of XVIII
– the beginning of the XIX century. ended. Remnants
generic relations persisted and
had a significant impact on
everyday life, family, laws and customs.But
the nature of Minangkabau society
was no longer determined by them, but by those
feudal relations, level
development of which was approximately
is the same throughout Malaya.

Malay
literature, historical
works and legislation XVI-XVIII
centuries
Period from fall
Malacca before the collapse of the sultanate
Johor was time
further development of Malay
language that has retained its
the most common
language of the archipelago and peninsula.

V
this period, as in the era
Sultanate of Malacca, continued
Malay translation
works of Arab-Persian and
Indian literature (“The Tale of
wise parrot “,” Tuti-Name “,” Tale
about Kalila and Dimna “,” The Tale of
Bakhtiare “and others).

Significant
works were created at that
time in theology,
historical prose and jurisprudence.
The Malay Language Center and
literature after the fall of Malacca
became the principalities of North Sumatra –
Pasay and Ache, although cultural
tradition continued in
Johor, Perak and Kedah.

V
XVII century in North Sumatra, for a long time
former distribution center
Islam in Southeast Asia,
a number of philosophical
theological works on
Malay. Most
interesting of them are compositions
mystics, adherents of Sufism,
widely spread to
North Sumatra in the 17th century.

The most
a major contributor was Hamza
Pansuri, or Hamza from Barus, who lived
in the second half of the XVI – the first
half of the 17th century.According to their philosophical
he was a pantheist and
adherent of heretical Sufism.
Hamza left two theological
prose works, but
he is best known for his
religious poems (“Shair of a stranger”,
“Shair about the bird-soul”, “Shair about the boat”),
which had a noticeable impact
for the further development of Malay
poetry.

Others
famous theologian-mystic of the 17th century,
who wrote in Malay was
Shamsuddin Paseisky, younger contemporary
Hamza.Fully preserved
only one of his books – “Mirat al-mumin”,
the rest came in fragments.

Opponent
pantheists Hamza and Shamsuddin was
Narud-din bin Ali ar-Raniri,
Gujaratian by origin, at first
who lived in Pahang and then
moved to Ache. Of the many
works of ar-Raniri the most
significant is “Bustan al-Salatin”
(“Garden of the Kings”) – encyclopedic
an essay in which, in addition to
information on world history contains
also history of Muslim
the sovereigns of Malacca, Pahang and Ache.Ar-Raniri
was a fierce opponent of Sufism,
in his many treatises
he condemned the identification of a person
and the universe with God and compared
pantheism of Hamza with theories of Vedanta and
Tibetan Mahayana. Apparently, according to his
the insistence of the book of Hamza and Shamsuddin
after the death of the patron
named after the Achekh Sultan Iskander
Mudas were devoted to burning.

Last
prominent theologian of Northern
Sumatra in the 17th century was Abdurrauf from
Sinlkel, still revered in
Ache as saint.He left
essays on Muslim mysticism
and Shafi’i law.

After
Decline Ache Study Center
Muslim theology
moved to other places, to
particular in Palembang. The most
major theologians of Palembang,
who wrote in Malay were
Abd al-Samad, whose activities
refers to the second half of the 18th century,
and Muhammad ibn Ahmad Kemas (1719-1763
biennium). Another center was Riau, where in
the era of the rule of the Bug yam-tuan
muda has moved political and
cultural center of the Malay world.

V
XVII – early XIX century a whole series of
Malay historical writings.
In the Sultanate of Johor at the beginning of the 17th century.
the revision of the version of “Sejarah
I am melting. ” The stories of the sultanate itself
were created in the Bug period.
The anonymous “Hikayat Negri Johor” (“The Tale
about the land of Johor “) describes
the story of Johor and the Bugs on
peninsula between 1672 and the last
decade of the XVIII century. Another chronicle,
“Sejarah raja-raja Riau” (“Genealogies
rajay Riau “), narrates approximately
about the same period, but unlike the “Tale”
is antibug in nature.Apparently
this chronicle was written
Malay feudal lord Angku Busu.

Interesting
historical essay left
scion of the Perak ruling house
Raja Chulan, “the most skillful man
Perak in prose and poetry “,
who in his chronicle “Misa Melaiu”
gave a detailed account of the story
Perak in 1742-1778, and reported
a lot of information about the customs of the court,
local customs, etc.

Chronicle
Sultanate of Kedakh
chronicle “, or” Hikayat Marong
Mahawangsa “, it is difficult to refer to
historical work, since
it is rather a collection of legends and
fantastic stories,
relating to Malaya, which in
much like Malay
folk novel.Created this
work, apparently at the end of XVIII –
early 19th century

XVI-XVIII
centuries were a time of intense
development of jurisprudence in Malay
principalities, which was explained
need to adapt
local law to the requirements of Islam,
occupying the dominant
position in the sphere of ideology.

Basis
all later Malay codes
served as codes of law
Malacca Sultanate 2nd
half of the 15th – beginning of the 16th century, “Malacca
code “, drawn up at
Muzaffar Shahe, and the code,
dedicated to the law of the sea, emerging
under Sultan Mahmud.

On
the base of the “Malacca Code” arose
Pahang Codex, compiled in 1596
d. by order of Abdul-Gafar Shah. This
collection bearing traces of influence
pre-Islamic law,
used as a teaching aid
not only in Pakhanta, but also in Perak and
in Johor.

Lots
codes appeared in Kedakh.The oldest of these, dated 1650
g., dedicated to port regulations,
and it can be traced
impact of similar
legislation of the Great Mughals.
Another collection of laws,
relating to 1617, concerns
penalties for criminal
crimes and immoral
misconduct. Undated vault
concerns wedding and funeral
ceremonial, and the laws of 1784
belong to court etiquette,
some issues of civil
law and trade.

V
the beginning of the 18th century. in Perak was created
code of laws “Twelve Laws”,
in which an attempt is made
adapt the laws of minavgjabau to
patrilineal system. “Ninety
nine laws “Perak, also
designed in the 18th century, are characterized by
clear prevalence of norms
Malay customary law over
Muslim.

Existed
in the 18th century. separate code and in Johor,
legislative
Malacca.

So
way, in the XVI-XVIII centuries. the culture
Malaya, subjected to strong
Islamization, developed, the main
way in the field of literature, in
close ties with Malay-speaking
areas in Sumatra and Kalimantan
(Brunei).


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90,000 Malaysian alphabet. Malay language

XI. Language in the era of “Perestroika”
“Perestroika” found the Soviet language in its entirety:
“Books about party congresses, about V.I. Lenin, revolutions <...> help to shape the moral and political image of generations, based on communist ideology, loyalty

author unknown

IN THE FIGHT FOR THE DUTCH OST INDIA AND THE MALAYS BARRIER
Having become acquainted with Japanese aviation, the Allies were forced to somehow distinguish the aircraft they encountered. The situation was aggravated by the fact that all reference books of that time (including such an authoritative English edition as

The official language in Malaysia is Malay or Bahasa Malaya.This Austronesian language is as close as possible (like Russian and Ukrainian) to. However, due to the fact that Malays make up only 50% of the country’s population, communication in the languages ​​of other large ethnic groups inhabiting this state is widespread in Malaysia – Chinese (Mandarin, Cantonese, Hokken), Indians (Tamil, Hindi), Thais, etc. …

The language of interethnic communication in Malaysia is inherited from the last colonial rulers of the country – the British.The Malay version of English (“Manglish” – Malay + English) is a kind of mixture of the language of foggy Albion with words and grammatical rules borrowed from the languages ​​of numerous peoples of Malaysia. Phrases in Manglish often end with the particles “lah”, “lo” (lor) and “one” (one), which enhance her emotional connotation.

Despite the prevalence of English in Malaysia, knowing basic phrases in Malay can help travelers traveling to Borneo, where the official language is most commonly used.

General phrases

Terima Kasi

Please

Kembali / silahkan

Kambali / silakhkan

Sorry

Maafkan Sayya

Hello

Goodbye

Slamat Tingal

I don’t understand

Saya tak faham

What’s your name?

Siapa nama anda?

Syapa nama anda?

How are you?

Apa kabar?

Where is the toilet?

Di mana kamar kecil?

Di mana kamar kesiy?

How much does it cost?

Berapa harganya?

Berapa hargania?

One ticket to …

Satu tiket ke …

Satu ticket ke …

Could you help me?

Bolehkah anda tolong saya?

Bolekhkah anda tolong saya?

No smoking

Jangan Merokok

Do you speak English?

Cakap bahasa Inggeris?

Chahap bahasa ingris?

How far?

Berapa jauh ke..?

Brapa jaukh ke …?

Hotel

I need to order the number

Saya mau bilik

Wang Persenan

I want to pay invoice

Saya Mau Bayar

Room, number

Shop (shopping)

Cash

By card

Pack

Untuk pitch

No change

Simpan perubahan

Simpan Peruban

Potongan Kharga

Very expensive

Mahal San “t

Transport

Keretapi

Stop

Stop here

Berhenti Disini

Arrival

Departure

Berangkat

Kapal Terbang

Airport

Lapangan terbang

Lapangan terbang

Emergency cases

Help me

Tolong Sayya

Fire department

Perkhidmatan bomba

Perkydmatan bomb

Ambulance

Kechemasan

Hospital

Hospital

Restaurant

I want to book a table

Saya mau meja untuk

Saya mau meia utuk

I want to pay

Sayya Mau Bayar

Language in Malaysia

Today, the language of Malaysia is heavily influenced by English.Many residents of the capital and large cities speak it fluently. There is also a manglish form. This Malaysian language is a mixture of English and local dialect. It is used in communication and business along with English.

At the same time, the state language of Malaysia is supported in order to preserve the cultural heritage. Since the Middle Ages, it has been common in the archipelago of islands, New Guinea and Indochina. Today, there could be preserved literary monuments, both local and translated.

The official language of Malaysia is also used in Brunei and Singapore. Since 1972, a new writing standard has come into force. Since that time, the Malaysian alphabet has been translated into the Latin alphabet.

Minangkabau is one of the most widespread dialects.

Along with Malay, English is taught at the school. It is also used in higher education.

Malaysia and Indonesia are two large countries located in Southeast Asia. Both countries speak Malay, or a derivative of it, and Indonesian, which has a lot in common.Many linguists believe that the Indonesian language is actually one of the variations of the Malay language. However, these closely related languages ​​have many differences, but not in grammatical but in phonetic order.

Malay language
Bahasa Melayu

is one of the Austronesian languages ​​- the Malay-Polynesian branch. The Malay language has an official status in Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. It is spoken by over 270 million people.

From the history of the formation of the Malay language

According to one of the theories, the first who began to populate the islands of the Pacific Ocean, including the present territories of Malaysia and Indonesia, were ancient people, relatives of the Denisov man, whose bones were found in Altai in one of the caves. Later waves of migration brought with them immigrants from South India, as well as migrants of the Mongoloid race from the south of China. However, unlike many other Asian languages, Malay does not have a large number of inclusions from the languages ​​of ancient India, including Sanskrit and Pali, or Chinese.In this sense, Malay is peculiar and not unlike other languages.

There are no cases, gender and numbers in Malay. The plural can be understood from the context or denoted by the word redundancy, for example shirts = shirt-shirt
. In addition, there are special classifiers to designate a plural language, as in Chinese. Auxiliary words are used to denote gender. Verbs have several conjugations – six classes.

The Malaysian language is characterized by the use of affixes, suffixes, infixes and circumfixes.This way of creating new words by adding additions to the base vaguely resembles the use of prepositions, suffixes and endings in Russian.

The basic order of words in a sentence (topology) is also original: as a rule, the predicate (C) comes first, then the direct object (D), then the subject (P). This word order is also typical for some other languages ​​\ u200b \ u200bOceania, South America and Madagascar.

    C – D – P

  • Reading – student book ( Student reading book
    )
  • Smashed – pot – man ( Man smashed pot
    )
  • Keeps – a cow – Ivan ( Ivan holds a cow
    )

Rumi Malay alphabet based on Latin alphabet

Currently, the Latin alphabet is almost universally used in the Malay language – Rumi
.To indicate all the necessary sounds, only basic Latin characters are used, without diacritics and other special characters.

Malay is the main language of the Austronesian language family, spoken in Indonesia and Malaysia, as well as by a portion of the population of Singapore and other border countries. This language is spoken by a total of 290 million people. The article will tell you about this exotic and ancient Asian language.

Where Malay is spoken

Natives of this language live in the area including the coast of the Malay Peninsula and along the east coast of Sumatra in Indonesia.Some of the population also speaks Malay. It is used as the language of commerce in the southern Philippines, including the southern parts of the Zamboanga Peninsula, the Sulu Archipelago, and southern settlements (predominantly Muslim) in the Philippines).

What is the name of this language in different countries

Since Malay is the national language of several states, the standard version of the language has various official names. In Singapore and Brunei it is called Bahasa Melayu (Malay), in Malaysia it is called Bahasa), in Indonesia Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian), and is often referred to as the unifying language or lingvo franc of this region of Asia.

However, in the areas of central and southern Sumatra, where this language is indigenous, the Indonesians call it Bahasa Melayu and it is considered one of their local dialects.

Standard Malay is also called Judicial Malay. It was the literary standard of pre-colonial Malacca and the Sultanate of Johor, and therefore the language is sometimes called Malacca, Johor or Riau Malay (various combinations of these names are used) to distinguish it from other related languages.In the west, it is often called the Malay-Indonesian language.

Classification and related adverbs

Malay is part of the Austronesian family of languages, which includes languages ​​from Southeast Asia and the Pacific. More specifically, it is the language of the Malay-Polynesian branch. The Malagasy language, which is mainly spoken in Madagascar (an island in the Indian Ocean), is also part of this language group.

Although each family language is mutually incomprehensible, the similarities are quite striking.Many root words have practically not changed and are similar to those that sounded in the Proto-Austronesian language, which no longer exist. In the vocabulary of these languages, there are many similar words denoting relatives, body parts and animals, household items.

Numbers, in particular, are basically called almost the same in all languages ​​of this group. Within the Austronesian family, Malay is part of a multitude of closely related languages ​​known as Malay, which were spread across Malaysia and the Indonesian archipelago by Malay traders from Sumatra.

A dialect or a separate language

There is disagreement as to which varieties of the language, which are usually called “Malay”, should be considered dialects of this language, and which should be classified as separate languages. For example, the native language of Brunei is Malay, but it is not always understood by native speakers of the standard variant, and the same applies to some other dialects.

According to research by scholars, some of this category of languages, which are currently considered independent, are very related to classical Malay.Therefore, they may turn out to be his dialects. There are also several Malay trade and derivations from the classic Malay.

Spread of the language

Malay is spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, parts of Thailand and the southern Philippines. Indonesia and Brunei have their own standards. Malaysia and Singapore use the same standard. The degree of use of this language in these states varies depending on the historical and cultural conditions.

Malay is the national language in Malaysia under the Malaysian Constitution and became the only official language in Peninsula Malaysia in 1967 and in East Malaysia since 1975. English is spoken in professional and commercial fields and in higher courts.

Other languages ​​are also widely spoken by the state’s major ethnic minorities. The situation in Brunei is similar to that of this language in Malaysia. In the Philippines, Malay is spoken by the Muslim population living in Mindanao (in particular, the Zamboanga Peninsula) and the Sulu Archipelago.

However, they mostly speak Creole, reminiscent of one of the trade dialects of Malay. Historically, it was the language of the archipelago before the Spanish occupation. Indonesian is spoken in Davao City in the Philippines, and common phrases are learned by members of the Philippine Armed Forces.

At the moment, thousands of people are studying this southeastern language, including the self-instruction manuals of the Malay language. Various linguistic aids and resources are also widely used.Many attend special language courses.

90,000 Malay and Indonesian languages. Malay language Malay alphabet

Home → Boilers → Malay and Indonesian languages. Malay language Malay alphabet

Malaysia and Indonesia are two large countries located in Southeast Asia. Both countries speak Malay, or a derivative of it, and Indonesian, which has a lot in common. Many linguists believe that the Indonesian language is actually one of the variations of the Malay language.However, these closely related languages ​​have many differences, but not in grammatical but in phonetic order.

Malay language
Bahasa Melayu

is one of the Austronesian languages ​​- the Malay-Polynesian branch. The Malay language has an official status in Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. It is spoken by over 270 million people.

From the history of the formation of the Malay language

According to one of the theories, the first who began to populate the islands of the Pacific Ocean, including the present territories of Malaysia and Indonesia, were ancient people, relatives of the Denisov man, whose bones were found in Altai in one of the caves.Later waves of migration brought with them immigrants from South India, as well as migrants of the Mongoloid race from the south of China. However, unlike many other Asian languages, Malay does not have a large number of inclusions from the languages ​​of ancient India, including Sanskrit and Pali, or Chinese. In this sense, Malay is peculiar and not unlike other languages.

There are no cases, gender and numbers in Malay. The plural can be understood from the context or denoted by the word redundancy, for example shirts = shirt-shirt
.In addition, there are special classifiers to designate a plural language, as in Chinese. Auxiliary words are used to denote gender. Verbs have several conjugations – six classes.

The Malaysian language is characterized by the use of affixes, suffixes, infixes and circumfixes. This way of creating new words by adding additions to the base vaguely resembles the use of prepositions, suffixes and endings in Russian.

The basic order of words in a sentence (topology) is also original: as a rule, the predicate (C) comes first, then the direct object (D), then the subject (P).This word order is also typical for some other languages ​​\ u200b \ u200bOceania, South America and Madagascar.

    C – D – P

  • Reading – student book ( Student reading book
    )
  • Smashed – pot – man ( Man smashed pot
    )
  • Keeps – a cow – Ivan ( Ivan holds a cow
    )

Rumi Malay alphabet based on Latin alphabet

Currently, the Latin alphabet is almost universally used in the Malay language – Rumi
.To indicate all the necessary sounds, only basic Latin characters are used, without diacritics and other special characters.

The official language in Malaysia is Malay or Bahasa Malaya. This Austronesian language is as close as possible (like Russian and Ukrainian) to. However, due to the fact that Malays make up only 50% of the country’s population, communication in the languages ​​of other large ethnic groups inhabiting this state is widespread in Malaysia – Chinese (Mandarin, Cantonese, Hokken), Indians (Tamil, Hindi), Thais, etc.d.

The language of interethnic communication in Malaysia is inherited from the last colonial rulers of the country – the British. The Malay version of English (“Manglish” – Malay + English) is a kind of mixture of the language of foggy Albion with words and grammatical rules borrowed from the languages ​​of numerous peoples of Malaysia. Phrases in Manglish often end with the particles “lah”, “lo” (lor) and “one” (one), which enhance her emotional connotation.

Despite the prevalence of English in Malaysia, knowing basic phrases in Malay can help travelers traveling to Borneo, where the official language is most commonly used.

General phrases

Terima Kasi

Please

Kembali / silahkan

Kambali / silakhkan

Sorry

Maafkan Sayya

Hello

Goodbye

Slamat Tingal

I don’t understand

Saya tak faham

What’s your name?

Siapa nama anda?

Syapa nama anda?

How are you?

Apa kabar?

Where is the toilet?

Di mana kamar kecil?

Di mana kamar kesiy?

How much does it cost?

Berapa harganya?

Berapa hargania?

One ticket to …

Satu tiket ke …

Satu ticket ke …

Could you help me?

Bolehkah anda tolong saya?

Bolekhkah anda tolong saya?

No smoking

Jangan Merokok

Do you speak English?

Cakap bahasa Inggeris?

Chahap bahasa ingris?

How far?

Berapa jauh ke..?

Brapa jaukh ke …?

Hotel

I need to order the number

Saya mau bilik

Wang Persenan

I want to pay invoice

Saya Mau Bayar

Room, number

Shop (shopping)

Cash

By card

Pack

Untuk pitch

No change

Simpan perubahan

Simpan Peruban

Potongan Kharga

Very expensive

Mahal San “t

Transport

Keretapi

Stop

Stop here

Berhenti Disini

Arrival

Departure

Berangkat

Kapal Terbang

Airport

Lapangan terbang

Lapangan terbang

Emergency cases

Help me

Tolong Sayya

Fire department

Perkhidmatan bomba

Perkydmatan bomb

Ambulance

Kechemasan

Hospital

Hospital

Restaurant

I want to book a table

Saya mau meja untuk

Saya mau meia utuk

I want to pay

Sayya Mau Bayar

Language in Malaysia

Today, the language of Malaysia is heavily influenced by English.Many residents of the capital and large cities speak it fluently. There is also a manglish form. This Malaysian language is a mixture of English and local dialect. It is used in communication and business along with English.

At the same time, the state language of Malaysia is supported in order to preserve the cultural heritage. Since the Middle Ages, it has been common in the archipelago of islands, New Guinea and Indochina. Today, there could be preserved literary monuments, both local and translated.

The official language of Malaysia is also used in Brunei and Singapore. Since 1972, a new writing standard has come into force. Since that time, the Malaysian alphabet has been translated into the Latin alphabet.

Minangkabau is one of the most widespread dialects.

Along with Malay, English is taught at the school. It is also used in higher education.

Malay language

MALAY LANGUAGE is a term that broadly embraces a group of closely related languages ​​with almost 50 million people.speaking, so-called. Indonesian; in more precise and modern usage, it is the name of a single language from the group of the above languages ​​with 3 million speakers.
The Malay language (in the narrow sense) is represented by a group of dialects of a more or less homogeneous nature on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Sumatra and on the adjacent smaller islands. In addition, there is a special “Lower Malay language”, or “commercial Malay language”, strongly mixed with European (Portuguese and Dutch) languages ​​and serving as a common language (Lingua franca) between representatives of different nationalities far beyond the Malay world proper.

Phonetics M. language has a very harmonious consonant system. There are only five vowels – a, e, i, o, u. Open syllables prevail over closed ones, and in connection with musical inflection, the language is considered very euphonious. Basics of words are mostly two-syllable, for example: orang – “person”, mata – “eye”; admit simultaneously both the verb and the nominal meaning, for example: mati – “to die”, “dead”, “death”. Word formation is carried out by means of prefixes, infixes and suffixes, as well as by word composition (eg.mata-hari – “eye-day” = “sun”) and repetition (eg sama-sama – “together”). The categories of gender, number, time and case are either indicated by auxiliary particles, or not expressed at all. In general, the Malay language is considered easy and quickly learned by foreigners.
The main letter is Arabic (see), and it is characteristic that such favorite repetitions are replaced by a special sign angka-dua (actually the number “2”). However, the Latin script is making great strides and supplants the Arabic even among Muslims.As the Latin alphabet, the Dutch system has taken root, where j = th, oe = y; e.g .: Soerabaja = Surabaya. The combinations tj, dj, nj express palatal stop sounds, as in Russian dialectical – tist, French – champagne; “Ng” expresses “n” posteriorly – as in German Bank. At the end of words, the letter “h” is not pronounced, and the letter “k” denotes a guttural explosion. Bibliography:


The study of M. language is carried out for administrative, commercial, missionary and, much less often, scientific purposes. Most of the manuals are written in Dutch and English.Manuals in Russian. still hasn’t been. The simplest and most widely available manual for M. lang. Seidel A., Praktische Grammatik der malaiischen Sprache, “Harteben’s Bibliothek der Sprachenkunde”, No. 34. As research works, the following works deserve special attention: Brandstetter R., Malaio-polynesische Forschungen, Luzern, 1893-1921; Kern H., Verspreide geschriften (published since 1913). For other bibliography see: Meillet A. et Cohen M., Les langues du monde, P., 1924; Schmidt P. W., Die Sprachfamilien und Sprachkreise der Erde, Heidelberg, 1926.

  • – Malay wild dog, see Adyag …
  • – the main representative of the M. group of the Malay-Polynesian family of languages. Its primary area of ​​distribution is the Malacca Peninsula and part of the Sumatra Island …

    Brockhaus and Euphron Encyclopedic Dictionary

  • is one of the Malay languages ​​on the island of the same name. The closest language to it is the Batak or Batta language. Dictionaries: in the journal. “Asiatic Researches”; Thomas, “Nias-Maleisch-Nederlandsch W.” ; Sundermann, “Deutsch-N.Wb. “Mö rs, 1892), his own,” Kurzgefasste Niassische Crammatik “…

    Brockhaus and Euphron Encyclopedic Dictionary

  • – the language of the Malays and some other peoples. The official language of Malaysia. Distributed in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia. The number of speakers of M. i. over 12.5 million people …

    Great Soviet Encyclopedia

  • – Malay language – the language of the Malays and some peoples of Indonesia. Belongs to the Indonesian branch of the Austronesian language family.Writing based on the Latin alphabet …

    Big Encyclopedic Dictionary

  • – The language used in the field of religious communication …

    Dictionary of linguistic terms T.V. Foaled

  • – …
  • – …

    Spelling dictionary of the Russian language

  • – MALAY, th, th. 1.see Malays. 2. Related to the Malays, to their language, national character, way of life, culture, as well as to their countries of residence, their internal structure, history; such as the Malays…

    Ozhegov’s Explanatory Dictionary

  • – MALAY, Malay, Malay. adj. to the Malays …

    Ushakov’s Explanatory Dictionary

  • – Malay I m. The official language of the Malays and some peoples of Indonesia. II app. 1. Pertaining to Malaysia, Malays associated with them. 2. Peculiar to Malays, characteristic of them and for Malaysia. 3 …

    Efremova’s Explanatory Dictionary

  • – …

    Spelling dictionary-reference

  • – Indo-Mal…
  • – small “…

    Russian spelling dictionary

  • – …

    Word forms

  • – adj., Number of synonyms: 1 South Asian …

    Dictionary of synonyms

“Malay language” in books

Chapter III. Fight for the Malay barrier

From book
US submarine warfare in World War II
the author

Roscoe Theodore

Chapter III. Fighting for the Malay Barrier
Squadron submarines The sinking of the destroyer submarine S-37 on February 8, 1942 was a significant success.Type S boats built in the first decade after World War I had a number of the largest

Chapter 2 Suffering EEM-29 (Battles for the Malay barrier)

From book
Stronger than the “divine wind”. US destroyers: war in the Pacific
the author

Roscoe Theodore

Chapter 2
Suffering EEM-29 (battles for the Malay barrier)
Edsall and corvettes sink I-124 (first blood)
By the beginning of the third week of January 1942, many depth charges had been dropped across the Pacific Ocean. They got the Japanese on their nerves, but did little harm as far as is known.

7.1. Malay Archipelago

From book
Requests of the flesh. Food and sex in people’s lives
the author

Kirill Reznikov

7.1. Malay Archipelago
Earth
The Malay Archipelago is the largest in the world. Its total area is over 2 million km2, equal to four France. It consists of more than twenty thousand islands located on both sides of the equator between Indochina and Australia. Archipelago includes

WEAKENING AND DISINTEGRATION OF THE PRIMORSKY WORLD OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA (MALAKA PENINSULA AND MALAY ARCHIPELAGO)

From book
World history: in 6 volumes.Volume 4: Peace in the 18th century
the author

Team of authors

WEAKENING AND DISINTEGRATION OF THE PRIMORSKY WORLD OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA (MALAKA PENINSULA AND MALAY ARCHIPELAGO)
A different fate was in store for the 18th century. a country with the same socio-political system as Burma and Siam – Javanese Mataram. Already at the end of the 17th century. Dutch

Book I. THE MALAYAN ART CHAPTER ONE

From book
Inside story. Memoirs of a British agent.
the author

Lockhart Robin Bruce

Book I. THE MALAYAN ART
CHAPTER ONE
Lockhart, Robert Bruce (1887 1970).Inside story [Text]: memoirs of a British agent = British Agent / R.B. Lockhart; Per. from English M.: Izdvo Novosti, 1991.320 p. : ill., portr. Malay art Moscow, 1912 1917 War and Peace History from the Inside (Petrograd Moscow 1918).

CHAPTER XIV. FAR EAST. CHINA. ANNAM. MALAYSKY PENINSULA. DUTCH INDIA. KOREA

From book
Volume 4. Reaction times and constitutional monarchies. 1815-1847. Part two
the author

Lavisse Ernest

Malay campaign

From book
Russian explorers – the glory and pride of Russia
the author

Glazyrin Maxim Yurievich

Malay campaign
1874, August.Maclay arrived in Singapore from the coast of Papua Coviai. N.N. Miklukho-Maclay conducted a campaign across the Malay Peninsula. In Yohor there was not a single Malay who passed Yohor across. Rusich was destined to do this. N. Miklouho-Maclay, walking

THE LARGEST SCORPIO – INDO-MALAYAN SCORPIO

From book
100 Great Wildlife Records
the author

Nepomniachtchi Nikolai Nikolaevich

BIGGEST SCORPIO – INDO-MALAYAN SCORPIO
Males of the Indo-Malay scorpion Heterometrus swannerderdami are often more than 180 mm in length, i.e.That is, from the tips of the claws to the tip of the sting. Once a specimen was found with a length of 292 mm.
There are over 1500 species in the world scorpio fauna

Malay Archipelago

From book
Encyclopedic Dictionary (M)
the author

Brockhaus F.A.

Malay Archipelago
The Malay Archipelago (aka Indian Austrasia or Nomazia) – countless islands, ranging from 92 ° – 192 ° E. (Grinich) and 11 ° S-20 ° North. lat., between southeast. Asia and Australia, with a surface area of ​​2003 208 sq. km.On the West of Sumatra Island, Nias, Siberia, Batu,

MALAYA “PRINCE OF PIRATES”

From book
Highly Dangerous Criminals [Crimes That Shook the World]
the author

Globus Nina Vladimirovna

MALAYA “PRINCE OF PIRATES”
The leaders of the bandit gangs taught the authorities more than one lesson through the actions of their intelligence and espionage corps. The Corsican bandits Romanetti, Spada and their numerous predecessors forced almost the entire population of the island to watch the gendarmes and

Malay Archipelago

TSB

Malay bear

From book
Great Soviet Encyclopedia (MA)
the author

TSB

Malay

From book
Great Soviet Encyclopedia (MA)
the author

TSB

XI.Language in the era of “Perestroika” “Perestroika” found the Soviet language in its entirety:

From book
New works 2003-2006
the author

Chudakova Marietta

XI. Language in the era of “Perestroika”
“Perestroika” found the Soviet language in its entirety:
“Books about party congresses, about V. I. Lenin, revolution <..." help to form the moral and political image of generations, based on communist ideology, devotion

IN THE FIGHT FOR THE DUTCH OST INDIA AND THE MALAYS BARRIER

From book
Aviation History Special Issue 1
the author

author unknown

IN THE FIGHT FOR THE DUTCH OST INDIA AND THE MALAYS BARRIER
Having become acquainted with Japanese aviation, the Allies were forced to somehow distinguish the aircraft they encountered.The situation was aggravated by the fact that all reference books of that time (including such an authoritative English edition as

Malay is the main language of the Austronesian language family, spoken in Indonesia and Malaysia, as well as by a portion of the population of Singapore and other border countries. This language is spoken by a total of 290 million people. The article will tell you about this exotic and ancient Asian language.

Where Malay is spoken

Natives of this language live in the area including the coast of the Malay Peninsula and along the east coast of Sumatra in Indonesia.Some of the population also speaks Malay. It is used as the language of commerce in the southern Philippines, including the southern parts of the Zamboanga Peninsula, the Sulu Archipelago, and southern settlements (predominantly Muslim) in the Philippines).

What is the name of this language in different countries

Since Malay is the national language of several states, the standard version of the language has various official names. In Singapore and Brunei it is called Bahasa Melayu (Malay), in Malaysia it is called Bahasa), in Indonesia Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian), and is often referred to as the unifying language or lingvo franc of this region of Asia.

However, in the areas of central and southern Sumatra, where this language is indigenous, the Indonesians call it Bahasa Melayu and it is considered one of their local dialects.

Standard Malay is also called Judicial Malay. It was the literary standard of pre-colonial Malacca and the Sultanate of Johor, and therefore the language is sometimes called Malacca, Johor or Riau Malay (various combinations of these names are used) to distinguish it from other related languages.In the west, it is often called the Malay-Indonesian language.

Classification and related adverbs

Malay is part of the Austronesian family of languages, which includes languages ​​from Southeast Asia and the Pacific. More specifically, it is the language of the Malay-Polynesian branch. The Malagasy language, which is mainly spoken in Madagascar (an island in the Indian Ocean), is also part of this language group.

Although each family language is mutually incomprehensible, the similarities are quite striking.Many root words have practically not changed and are similar to those that sounded in the Proto-Austronesian language, which no longer exist. In the vocabulary of these languages, there are many similar words denoting relatives, body parts and animals, household items.

Numbers, in particular, are basically called almost the same in all languages ​​of this group. Within the Austronesian family, Malay is part of a multitude of closely related languages ​​known as Malay, which were spread across Malaysia and the Indonesian archipelago by Malay traders from Sumatra.

A dialect or a separate language

There is disagreement as to which varieties of the language, which are usually called “Malay”, should be considered dialects of this language, and which should be classified as separate languages. For example, the native language of Brunei is Malay, but it is not always understood by native speakers of the standard variant, and the same applies to some other dialects.

According to research by scholars, some of this category of languages, which are currently considered independent, are very related to classical Malay.Therefore, they may turn out to be his dialects. There are also several Malay trade and derivations from the classic Malay.

Spread of the language

Malay is spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, parts of Thailand and the southern Philippines. Indonesia and Brunei have their own standards. Malaysia and Singapore use the same standard. The degree of use of this language in these states varies depending on the historical and cultural conditions.

Malay is the national language in Malaysia under the Malaysian Constitution and became the only official language in Peninsula Malaysia in 1967 and in East Malaysia since 1975. English is spoken in professional and commercial fields and in higher courts.

Other languages ​​are also widely spoken by the state’s major ethnic minorities. The situation in Brunei is similar to that of this language in Malaysia. In the Philippines, Malay is spoken by the Muslim population living in Mindanao (in particular, the Zamboanga Peninsula) and the Sulu Archipelago.

However, they mostly speak Creole, reminiscent of one of the trade dialects of Malay. Historically, it was the language of the archipelago before the Spanish occupation. Indonesian is spoken in Davao City in the Philippines, and common phrases are learned by members of the Philippine Armed Forces.

At the moment, thousands of people are studying this southeastern language, including the self-instruction manuals of the Malay language. Various linguistic aids and resources are also widely used.Many attend special language courses.

Malaysia is a small state located in Southeast Asia. It has its own traditions, culture and customs, which directly influenced the formation of speech and languages ​​in Malaysia.

The main language in the territory of the Malaysian state is Malay. In addition to it, English plays an important role, which is recognized as the second language of Malaysia. It is very different from British (Royal) English, and performs an important function in the development of business in the country.In addition, many educational institutions use Malaysian English.

Since each country has an influence on the language, the local English was also shown to be greatly influenced by the state and more familiar to all Malay language. The combination of these two languages ​​led to the formation of the third – Manglish. In addition to these two languages, it combines Tamil and even Chinese.

The indigenous peoples of Malaysia speak their own languages, especially in the east of the country.These languages ​​are related to Malay, and the most popular among them is Ibanese, which is spoken by almost 700 thousand people.

Since the Chinese language is also common on the territory of the state, the Malays use its dialects: Cantonese, Hakka, Mandarin, Hainan and so on. Natives of India speak Tamil. In some places you can even meet people communicating in the almost disappeared Penang and Selangor languages. These sign languages ​​are used by deaf and dumb people.

Malay is the official language of Malaysia

It belongs to the group of Austronesian languages, belongs to the Malay-Polynesian branch. In addition to Malaysia, it is distributed on the territory of some islands and other small states. From the middle of the 20th century it had the name “Malaysian” and only by the end of the century returned to its original – “Malay”.

It is recognized as an official language not only in Malaysia, but also, Brunei and This language in Malaysia refers to agglutinative languages ​​or “sticking”.This means that word formation occurs by adding affixes to the stem, adding words or reduplication (doubling a syllable or a whole word).

For example, different affixes and suffixes can be added to one stem, and the meaning of this word will change radically. In addition, there are infixes and circumfixes in the Malay language. Nouns in this language do not change in gender, numbers, and sometimes do not even have gender separation between men and women in speech. The only exceptions are borrowings from other languages.
The plural can be formed by doubling a word. When studying the Malay language, this creates certain difficulties, since the “double” word may not always have a plural meaning.

In our country, the Malay language can be learned only in some large universities in Moscow and St. Petersburg. It is also taught as a second to those students who are studying the Indonesian language. Of course, now there are many language schools where it is quite possible to find a teacher and learn the Malay language.

Manglish is a special language in Malaysia

This language is a mixture of English and Malay and is spoken throughout the Malay state. In addition to them, South Minh, Mandarin, Chinese and Tamil languages ​​are involved in the formation of Manglish. This language appeared during the time of colonization, when the British communicated in their own language, but the indigenous population of Malaysia – in their own. In the middle of the 20th century, Manglish became the official language, but, nevertheless, everyday speech is full of borrowings from other languages.

However, Malaysian English and Manglish are different languages. The latter is a kind of Creole language, its grammar and syntax are simpler. Malaysian English is simply a dialect of common English.

Sometimes, in communication, words or suffixes from the English language can be added to words from Manglish, in addition, archaisms of the English language and other words that are little used in literary English are preserved in speech.

In some states of Malaysia, the Ibanese language, which is part of the Malay-Dayak group, is widespread.It is also spoken in Indonesia. The total number of people using this language has already reached 700 thousand people. Ibanese grammar is based on analytical expression. The letter is carried out on the basis of the Latin alphabet.

For those who know English, it will be quite difficult in Malaysia, since the local dialect is far from the language accepted in Britain or the United States. Very often people are forced to get used to the local speech and only then take part in the conversation. Sometimes even residents of different states may not understand each other.Many people study Malay in Malaysia to easily communicate and understand each other.

Chams

9,225
Chams
Urang Kampa / ꨂꨣꩃ ꨌꩌꨚ
Cham women perform traditional dance in Nha Trang, Vietnam
Total population
c. 800,000
Regions with significant population
Cambodia 600,000 [1]
Vietnam 178.948 [2]

178.948 [2]
8,500
Thailand 4,000
United States 3,000
France 1,000
Languages ​​
Cham, Tsat, Vietnamese

Predominantly Sunni Islam (Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand, South Vietnam and Hainan, China)
Minority Hinduism (Central Vietnam), Buddhism and Animism
Related ethnic groups
Utsul people in Hainan, China and others Austronesian peoples 90,080 (especially Jaray , Rade, Acehnese)

B Chams or Cham people (Cham: Urang Kampa / ꨂꨣꩃ ꨌꩌꨚ , [3] Vietnamese: ngi Chăm or người người ជាតិ ចាម) are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia.From the 2nd to the middle of the 15th century, Cham inhabited Champa, a contiguous territory of independent principalities in central and southern Vietnam. They spoke the Cham language, as well as the Tsatsky language, their descendants called Utsul in Hainan Island [2], China, two Hamic languages ​​from the Malay-Polynesian group of the Austronesian family. The Chams and Malays are the only significant Austronesian peoples who settled in the Iron Age of mainland Southeast Asia among the most ancient Austro-Asian inhabitants. [4]

History

Historical extent of the Champa Kingdom (marked in green) around 1100 BCAD The image of the battle of the sea soldier Cham against the Khmers, the stone relief at Bayon

Austronesian origin, the patterns and chronology of migration remain a matter of controversy, and it is assumed that the Cham people arrived in the Southeast Asian peninsula via Borneo. [5] [6] The mainland of Southeast Asia was inhabited on land by members of the Austro-Asian language family such as the Mon people and the Khmers about 5000 years ago. The Cham were experienced Austronesian navigators who settled in and soon dominated from 4000 BC.maritime Southeast Asia. [7] The earliest known records of the Cham presence in Indochina date from the second century AD. Population centers around river estuaries along the coast controlled the import / export of mainland Southeast Asia, so maritime trade was at the heart of a thriving economy. [8] [9] [10]

The folklore of the Cham includes the creation of a myth in which the founder of the first Cham state was a certain Lady Po Nagar. Coming from a humble peasant background somewhere in the Dai An Mountains, Khan Hoaduhi Province helped her when she traveled to China on a floating sandalwood log, where she married a royal and had two children.She eventually returned to Champa, “did many good deeds, helping the sick and the poor,” and “a temple was built in her honor.” [12]

History of the early centuries

The Chams adorned their temples with stone reliefs depicting gods such as Garuda fighting the Naga (XII-XIII centuries AD)

Like countless other political formations in Southeast Asia, The Champa Principalities have gone through the Indianization process Since the beginning of the common era, as a result of centuries of socio-economic interaction, the cultural and institutional elements of India have been adopted and implemented.Beginning in the 8th century, Muslims from regions such as Gujarat began to appear more and more in India’s trade and shipping. Islamic ideas have become part of a huge wave of exchange, following the same path that Hinduism and Buddhism did centuries ago. The Cham people adopted these ideas by the 11th century. This can be seen in the architecture of the Cham temples, which bears a resemblance to one of the temples of Angkor. Ad-Dimashki writes in 1325 that “the country of Champa … is inhabited by Muslims and idolaters. The Muslim religion came here during the time of the Caliph.Uthman … and Ali, many Muslims were expelled by the Umayyads and by Hajjj, fled there. “ [ citation needed ]

In Daoyi Zhilue it says that in Cham ports, Cham women often married Chinese merchants, who often returned to them after trade voyages [13] [15] A Chinese trader from Quanzhou Wang Yuanmao traded actively from Champa and married Princess Cham

In the 12th century, the Chams fought a series of wars with the Khmer Empire to the west.In 1177, the Cham and their allies launched an attack from the lake. Tonle Sap and managed to sack the Khmer capital. However, in 1181 they were defeated by the Khmer king. Jayavarman VII.

Encounter with Islam

Islam first came to Champa around the ninth century, but it did not become significant among the Cham people until the eleventh century. [17]

Cham who moved to Sulu were Orang Dampuan. [18] Champa and Sulu traded with each other, with the result that the merchant Chams settled in Sulu, where they were known as Orang Dampuan from the X-XIII centuries.The Orang Dampuan were killed by the envious natives of the Sulu Blizzards because of the wealth of the Orang Dampuan. [19] Then the blizzards were slaughtered by the orang dampuans. Harmonious trade between Sulu and Orang Dampuan was later restored. [20] The Yakans were descendants of the Orang Dampuan from Taguim, who arrived in Sulu from Champa. [18] Sulu received civilization in its Indian form from the orang dampuan. [21]

Several Cham also fled across the sea to the Malay Peninsula and as early as the 15th century to Malacca.The Cham faced Sunni Islam there as the Malacca Sultanate was officially Muslim since 1414. Then King Champa became an ally of the Johor Sultanate; in 1594 Champa sent his armed forces to fight alongside Johor against the Portuguese occupation of Malacca. Between 1607 and 1676, one of the Champa kings converted to Islam, and this became a dominant feature of the Cham society. The Cham also adopted the Jawi Alphabet.

Historical records in Indonesia showed the influence of Queen Dvaravati, a Muslim princess from the Champa (Chams) Kingdom, to her husband Kertavijaya, the seventh king of the Majapahit Empire, so that the royal family of the Majapahit Empire eventually converted to Islam, which ultimately led to conversion to Islam of the entire region. [24] [25] [26] The tomb of Princess Chams can be found in Trowulan, seat of the capital of the Majapahit Empire. [27] In Babad Tanah Javi, it is said that the King of Brawijaya Vi has a wife named Devi Anaravati (or Devi Dvaravati), the Muslim daughter of King Champa (Chams). [24] [25] [26] Chams had trade and close cultural ties with the sea kingdom of Srivijaya, and Majapahit then to the Malay Archipelago.

Another significant Champa figure in the history of Islam in Indonesia is Raden Rahmat (Prince Rahmat), also known as Sunan Ampel, one of the Wali Sanga (Nine Saints) who spread Islam in Java.It is considered the center of Wali Sanga because some of them were actually his descendants and / or his disciples. His father is Maulana Malik Ibrahim, also known as Ibrahim al-Samarkandi (“Ibrahim Asmarakandi” to Javan ears), and his mother is Devi Chandravulan, Princess Champa (Chams), who is also the sister of Queen Dvaravati. Sunan Ampel was born in Champa in 1401 AD. He came to Java in 1443 AD to visit his aunt Queen Dvaravati, Princess Champa who married Kertavijaya (Brawijaya V), king of the Majapahit Empire. [24] [25] [26] Local legend says that he built the Great Mosque at Demak (Masjid Agung Demak) in 1479 AD, but other legends attribute this work to Sunan Kalijaga. Sunan Ampel died at Demak in 1481 AD but is buried in Ampel Mosque in Surabaya, East Java. [28]

Vietnam Wars

Between the rise of the Khmer Empire around 800 and the Vietnamese people territorial push south of Jiaozhi and later, Đại Việt Champa began to decline.Losing against the 300,000-strong Vietnamese army, the 100,000-strong Cham army could not match it. [29] In the Cham-Vietnamese War (1471), Champa suffered severe defeats at the hands of the Vietnamese, as a result of which 120,000 people were captured or killed, and the kingdom turned into a small enclave near Nha Trang with many Chams fleeing to Cambodia. Champa no longer posed a threat to Vietnam, and some were even enslaved by their conquerors. [31]

The Cham were maternal and the inheritance passed through the mother.Because of this, in 1499 the Vietnamese passed a law prohibiting marriage between Cham women and Vietnamese men, regardless of their class. (Tạ 1988, p. 137) [34] [35] [36] The Vietnamese also issued an order in the capital to kill all Cham in the vicinity. [37] Vietnamese attacks continued, and in 1693 the Champa Kingdom was incorporated into Vietnamese territory.

Trade Vietnamese pottery was damaged due to a sharp drop in trade by Cham traders after the 1471 Vietnamese invasion of Champo. [39] Vietnamese pottery exports were also affected by the internal civil war, the Portuguese and Spanish invasions of the region and the Portuguese conquest of Malacca, which disrupted the trading system while the Karakas sent the Portuguese trade from Malacca to Macau. moored in Brunei due to good relations between the Portuguese and Brunei after the Chinese allowed the Portuguese to rent Macau. [40]

When the Ming Dynasty, after the fall of China, several thousand Chinese refugees fled south and settled in the Cham lands and Cambodia. [41] Most of these Chinese were young men and they married Cham women. Their children identified more with the Chinese culture. This migration took place in the 17th and 18th centuries. [42]

Chams participated in the victory over the Spanish invasion of Cambodia. Cambodian King Kau Bana Chand Ramadhipati, also known as “Sultan Ibrahim”, launched the Cambodian-Dutch War to expel the Dutch. The Vietnamese Nguyen Lords overthrew Ibrahim from power in order to restore Buddhist rule.

In the 1700s and 1800s in Cambodia, the Chams settled in Bangkok. [43]

Fall of the Champa Kingdom

Further expansion of the Vietnamese in 1720 led to the complete annexation of the Champa Kingdom and the dissolution of the 19th century Vietnamese emperor. Min Mong. In response, Champa’s last Muslim king, Po Chien, gathered his people in the interior and fled south to Cambodia, while those along the coast migrated to Trengganu (Malaysia). A small group fled north to the Chinese island of Hainan, where they are known today as Utsuly.Their refuge is in Cambodia, where the king and his people settled and were scattered throughout the communities in the Mekong Basin. Those who remained in Nha Trang, Phan Rang, Phan Ri and Phan Thit provinces of central Vietnam were absorbed into the Vietnamese state. The Cham provinces were captured by the lords of Nguyen. [44]

After invading Vietnam and conquering Champa, Cambodia provided refuge to Cham Muslims fleeing the Vietnamese conquest. [45]

In 1832, the Vietnamese emperor Ming Man annexed the last Champa kingdom.This led to the fact that the leader of the Muslim Cham, Katip Suma, who was educated in Kelantan, declared Jihad against the Vietnamese. [46] [47] [48] [49] The Vietnamese forcibly fed the Cham Muslims with meat from lizards and pigs, and the Cham Hindus with cow meat against their will, in order to punish them and assimilate them with the Vietnamese culture. [50]

20th century

In the 1960s, various movements arose calling for the creation of a separate Cham state in Vietnam.The Champa Liberation Front (FLC – Le Front pour la Libération de Cham) and the Hauts Plateau Liberation Front dominated. The latter group sought greater alliance with other minority hill tribes. Originally known as the Front des Petits Peuples from 1946 to 1960, the group later became the Front de Libération des Hauts Plateau and joined the FOC in the United Front for the Liberation of Opposite Races (FULRO) at some point in 1960s. Since the late 1970s, there has been no major secessionist movement or Cham political activity in Vietnam or Cambodia.

During the Vietnam War, a significant number of Cham moved to Peninsular Malaysia, where they received refuge from the Government of Malaysia out of sympathy for the Muslim Brotherhood; most of them have now assimilated from Malay cultures.

The Cham community suffered greatly during the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia. The Khmer Rouge targets ethnic minorities such as Chinese, Thai, Lao, Vietnamese and the Cham people, although the Cham have the most fatalities compared to their population.As a result of the genocide, between 100,000 and 500,000 Chams perished, out of a total Cham population of 250,000 to 650,000. [51] [52]

21st century

National Geographic article

National Geography article June 2014, [53] [54] [55] journalist Adam Bray argued that the Vietnamese government feared that evidence of Champ’s influence on the disputed territory in the South China Sea would draw international attention to human rights abuses and killings of ethnic minorities in Vietnam.These events are reported to have taken place in the 2001 and 2004 uprisings, which led to a dispute over the autonomy of Cham. The Vietnamese conquered the Cham people in the war of 1832, and Bray claims that the Vietnamese are destroying all evidence of Cham culture and artifacts, desecrating Cham temples, and building buildings and farms over religious sites. Bray further argued that the Vietnamese banned Cham religious practices and removed references (in history books and travel guides) to the Cham capital, Son Louis, destroyed during the 1832 invasion.It is said that compared to ethnic Vietnamese, the living conditions of the Cham are much worse, as they lack water and electricity and are forced to live in clay houses.

Abuse of Cham

Cham Muslims in Cambodia

Cham in Vietnam is officially recognized by the Vietnamese government as one of 54 ethnic groups. However, according to the International Office of the Cham Champa Advocacy Group (IOC Champa) and Muslim activist Cham Khalila Porom, both Hindus and Cham Muslims have been subject to religious and ethnic persecution and restrictions on their faith under the current Vietnamese government with the Vietnamese state.confiscate the property of the Cham and prohibit the Cham from observing their religious beliefs. Hindu temples were turned into tourist sites against the wishes of the Cham Hindus. In 2010 and 2013, there were several incidents in the villages of Thành Tín and Phươc Nhơn, where Cham was killed by the Vietnamese. In 2012, Vietnamese police in Chau Giang village broke into the Cham Mosque and stole an electric generator. [56] The Cham Muslims in the Mekong Delta also found themselves economically alienated, with ethnic Vietnamese settling (with government support) of lands previously owned by the Cham. [57]

Cambodian Cham Muslim dissident Hassan Ah Qasem, a former military helicopter pilot who was simultaneously persecuted and imprisoned by the Khmer Rouge and fought against the Vietnamese invasion, denounced Vietnam as trying to position itself as the savior of Cambodia Khmer Rouge rule and wrote that Vietnam deceived the West into thinking of it as a “benevolent liberator” when it invaded Cambodia and expelled the Khmer Rouge, when in fact Vietnam used the war to its advantage, for example, exposing Cambodian financial assets and national treasures to plunder and theft.border disputes to their advantage, trying to destroy Cambodian nationalist sentiments against Vietnam, benefiting from violence by the Khmer Rouge mainly Khmer and Khmer, and creating their own puppet communist government to rule Cambodia, Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) with Vietnamese soldiers secretly staying in Cambodia to support the puppet government and Vietnamese officials pretending to be Khmers continue to run the government like their puppet. [58] The Cham activist organization Champa International Office reprinted Hasan’s article on its Cham Today website. [59]

The Salafi attempt to expand among the Cham in Vietnam was stopped by the control of the Vietnamese government, but the loss of the Salafis among the Cham was supposed to be Tablighi Jamaat. [60]

Aceh Muslim from Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia, are descendants of the Cham refugees who fled after being defeated by the Vietnamese state in the 15th century. [3] [61]

Geography

Map of Cham distribution in Southeast Asia today

The Cham people represent the core of the Muslim community in both Cambodia and Vietnam. Their modern population is concentrated between Kampong Cham Province in Cambodia and Phan Rang – Thap Cham, Phan Thit, Ho Chi Minh City and Anjiang Province in South Vietnam. Including the diaspora, there are only about 400 thousand of them. Another 4,000 Cham live in Bangkok, Thailand, whose ancestors migrated here during the Rama I reign.Recent immigrants to Thailand are mostly students and workers who are preferentially looking for work and education in southern Islamic countries. Pattani, Narathiwat, Yala and Songkhla provinces. [62] [63] [64]

After the fall of Saigon in Vietnam and Phnom Penh in Cambodia in 1975, 9704 Cham refugees moved to Malaysia and were allowed to stay, in contrast to 250,000 other refugees who fled to Malaysia. Most of the Cham refugees came from Cambodia and were Muslims known as Melayu Kemboja and Melayu Champa in Malay.Many of these Cham refugees chose to settle in Malaysia as they preferred to live in an Islamic country and had family ties in the Malaysian states of Kelantan and Terengganu. Kelantan served as the center of the Islamic teachings of the Cham in Cambodia for three to four centuries, and many Cambodian Chams had relatives there, later many Chams decided to settle in Kelantan. By 1985, there were about 50,000 or more Cham living in Malaysia. As of 2013, many of them have been integrated into Malaysian society. [65]

Politics

Despite the complexity of history, the modern Chams of Cambodia and Vietnam maintained friendly relations with the Khmer and Vietnamese majority. Despite ethnic and religious differences, most people in Cambodia and Vietnam consider Cham closer to themselves than other minorities. [17] Some Muslim Chams report a friendly attitude of both Cambodians and Vietnamese towards Chams and a slight oppression by local residents. [66] However, between government and people, this is difficult to categorize. According to human rights activists Cham, the Vietnamese regime’s fear of historical influence has escalated into a series of state-sponsored discrimination against Cham Muslims, an example of which is the unofficial ban on the distribution of the Qur’an or other Islamic sacred materials. [67] Meanwhile, due to Vietnam’s growing relations with Muslim states such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey and Egypt, the development of Islam is also seen with limited regime support, as the Vietnamese government does not trust the Cham Muslims. [68]

“The relationship between the Hanoi government and ethnic minorities is very delicate. In 2001 and 2004, massive mountain tribal human rights protests resulted in deaths and massive prison sentences. For some time thereafter, the Central Highlands were closed to foreigners. ”

[69]

The Vietnamese Muslim Association is the official association representing the interests of Muslims, including Cham, in the country.The Cambodian Islamic Association is the official representative of the Cambodian Muslims of the Cham nationality. Hindus are also represented by various Cham and Indian organizations in both countries. [ citation needed ]

Culture

The Cham culture is diverse and rich due to the combination of local cultural elements (plain culture, maritime culture and mountain culture) and other cultural characteristics (Indian cultures and religions such as Buddhism; early Chinese influence Han; Islam) (Fan Xuan Bien et al.1991: 376). The mixture of indigenous and foreign elements in the Cham culture is the result of ecological, social and historical conditions. The influence of various Indian cultures gave rise to similarities between many groups in Southeast Asia, such as the Cham who traded or communicated with political entities in the Indian subcontinent. However, indigenous elements also allow for cultural differences. For example, Brahmanism became the religion of Ahier, while other aspects of influence were modified to adapt to the local characteristics and environment of Ahier.The combination of different cultures has resulted in its own unique form thanks to the numerous sculptures and architecture that can only be seen on sections of the Champa Temple tower. [ citation needed ] Champa Temples provide a wealth of information about the history, art and building technology of the Cham through the analysis and interpretation of architecture, styles and inscriptions. [ citation needed ]

Chams protected and always carefully watched their girls, attaching great importance to their virginity.Cham’s proverb says: “Just leave a man alone with a girl like an elephant in a sugarcane field.” [70]

The Cham Muslims consider the karoe (also spelled karokh) ceremony to be very important for girls. This symbolic ceremony marks the girl’s transition from infancy to puberty (marriageable age) and usually occurs when the girl turns fifteen and completes her development. [71] If this does not happen, the girl cannot get married, since she is a “tabung”.After the ceremony, the girl can get married. Cham circumcision was less significant than karoe. [72] This is not practiced, only symbolic and performed with a toy wooden knife.

Important festivals, including Keith, are celebrated mainly by the Cham of central Vietnam. The festival honors the ancient Cham royal gods. Among the Muslims of Cham, important holidays are Ramadan, El-Fitri and Hajj. However, the Cham (regardless of faith) have very rich traditions of dance, art, music, costumes, poetry and much more.

Language

The Cham language is part of the Austronesian language family. Cham is very rich in many loan words and terminology, influenced by many other languages ​​with which he came into contact. Most Cham speak this language, although many also speak the dominant language of the country in which they live, such as Vietnamese, Khmer, Malay and others. Some Cham can also speak and write Arabic. [17]

Cham is written in Script Cham in Central Vietnam, while the language is written in Arabic script around the Mekong Delta. [17]

Religion

The temples in Mỹ Sơn are one of the most sacred places of the Cham.

The first recorded Champa religion was a form of Shaiva Hinduism brought by sea from India. Hinduism was the predominant religion among the Cham people until the sixteenth century. Numerous temples dedicated to Shiva have been built in the central part of modern Vietnam. The pearl of such a temple is My son. It is often compared to other historical temple complexes in Southeast Asia, such as the Borobudur of Java in Indonesia, Angkor Wat Cambodia, Bagan of Myanmar and Ayutthaya of Thailand.Since 1999, M Sn has been recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

Religiously and culturally, the Chams were divided into two main religious and cultural groups; Balamon Chams, who adhere to the original form of Hinduism, and Bani Chams, who adhere to the original form of Islam. The term “Balamon” comes from the Brahman “or” Brahmin “, one of the Hindu caste of the religious elite. The term” Bani “, on the other hand, comes from the Arabic term” bani “(بني), which means” people. “Balamon Chams adhere to the old religion their ancestor, a root form of Hinduism that flourished since the ancient era of the Champa Kingdom in the 5th century AD, while the Bani Chams are Muslims who converted to Islam around the 11th and 13th centuries.However, it was not until the 17th century that Islam began to attract large numbers of Cham when some members of the Cham royal family converted to Islam. These two groups mostly live in separate villages. Mixed marriages were prohibited in the old days and remain rare to this day. Both groups are maternal and correspond to the matrilocal practice of living. [73]

Inside the Cham Temple in Nha Trang

As Muslim merchants of Arabs and Persian origins stopped along the coast of Vietnam on their way to China, Islam began to influence the Cham civilization.The exact date of the arrival of Islam in Champa is unknown; however, religion first appeared around the ninth century. [17] It is generally accepted that Islam came to the mainland of Southeast Asia much later than its arrival in China during the Tang Dynasty (618-907) and that Arab traders in the region came into direct contact only with the Cham, and not with others. Islam began to spread among the Cham from the eleventh century. The version of Islam practiced by Vietnamese Chams in Central Vietnam is often referred to as baths, which contains many pre-Islamic beliefs and rituals such as magic, spirit worship, and the propitiation of the souls of former kings, which are mistaken for Hinduism.Cambodian and South Vietnamese Muslim Cham practice Sunni Islam, although there are many indigenous, magical and Buddhist elements in it; while some practice a more centralized form of Sunni Islam and even radical Salafi Islam can also be found. [17]

A syncretic form of Islam, combining the traditional practices of matriarchy, ancestor worship and Hinduism, is practiced by the Cham Bani, who live predominantly in Vietnam. Bình Thuận and Ninh Thuan Province. [74] Worship of Cham Bani at Thang Magik , the main general setting for rituals. [74] The month of Ramuvan (Ramadan) is also celebrated, during which the ancestors are encouraged to return home for veneration, and car (priests) remain in thang magika for one month and follow a vegetarian diet. [74]

However, a small group of Cham, who called themselves Kaum Jumaat, follow a local adaptation of Islamic theology, according to which they pray only on Fridays and celebrate Ramadan in just three days.However, some members of this group have joined the wider Muslim Cham community in their practice of Islam in recent years. One factor in this change is the influence of their family members who went abroad to study Islam.

Numbers

Approximately 60,000 Cham Hindus, called Balamon Cham or Balamon Hindu , [75] do not have a strict caste system, although earlier they could be divided into Nagavamshi Kshatriya [76] and Brahmin castes. the latter of which would represent a small minority of the population. [77] Hindu temples are known as Bimong in Cham, but they are commonly called tháp “stupa” in Vietnamese. The priests are divided into three levels, where the highest rank is known as Po Adhya or Po Sa , followed by Po Tapah and junior priests Po Pasha . In Ninh Thuan, home to many of the Chams of Vietnam, the population of Cham Balamon (Hindu Chams) is 44,000 and the Cham Bani (Muslim Chams) are close to 31,000.Of the 34 Cham villages in Ninh Thuan, 23 are Hindu balamons and 11 are baths or Muslims. [78] Binh Thuan Province has about 25,000 inhabitants and Bani Cham has about 10,000 inhabitants. There are four pure Cham villages and nine mixed villages in Binh Thuan province. [79] The Hinduism practiced by these Cham also has many elements of outrageous beliefs, such as the inclusion of Po Inu Nagar, the figure of the mother goddess. [17]

Most of the Chams in Vietnam (also known as Oriental Chams) are Hindu mainly living in Central Vietnam, while the Chams of South Vietnam and their Cambodian counterparts are mostly Muslim, since the conversion to Islam occurred relatively late. [80] [81] Fewer Eastern Chams also follow Mahayana Buddhism. Some emigrated to France in the late 1960s. war in Vietnam.

Famous Cham

  • Les Kosem: Leader of Cambodian Cham activists in FULRO
  • Po Dharma: Vietnamese Cham activist, leader of FULRO, he was also a historian of Cham culture.
  • Sos Math: Cambodian Cham singer and songwriter from the 1950s to the 1970s, his son Sos Mah was also a popular singer from the 90s to the 2000s.
  • Has Salan: classical violinist / composer from Cambodian Cham from the 1950s to the 1970s.
  • Musa Porome: Champion for Cham Rights
  • Pan-Lo Tou-Quan
  • Amu Nhan: Expert in Cham Music
  • Cho Bong Nga: Champa’s Last Strong King
  • Ahmad Tony: Cham Extreme Champion for Cham Razors 934 934 Linh: Vietnamese Cham Singer
  • Dang Nang Tho: Sculptor and Director of Cham Cultural Center, Phan Rang, Ninh Thuan Province
  • Inrasara [vi] (Mr Phu Tram): Poet and Author
  • Osman Hassan: Secretary of State of Cambodia and Cham at the Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training
  • Nos Slees: Secretary of State of Cambodia and Cham at the Ministry of Education and Sports

Data Sheets

See also

References

  1. ^ Leoni Kievski (December 13, 2019). (University of Michigan) Alan Houghton Broadrick (1942). Little China: Annam lands . Oxford University Press. p. 264. Retrieved November 28, 2011. Cham women have a high reputation for chastity, and in any event, they are closely watched and guarded. “Just like leaving a man alone with a girl,” says the proverb, “like an elephant in a sugarcane field.” Indeed, there are traces of matriarchy in the customs of the Cham, and women play an important role in their religious life. (University of Michigan) Henri Parmentier; Paul Moose; Etienne Aymonnier (2001). Sculpture Cham from Turan Museum, Da Nang, Vietnam: Religious Rites and Superstitions Champa . White Lotus Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-974-7534-70-2 . Retrieved November 28, 2011. These Muslim Cham celebrate a much more important ceremony than circumcision when their daughters reach the age of about fifteen. This is called karoe (closing, closing). Until her karoe comes, the girl is in the herd and cannot think about marriage or its equivalent. He, Jun-Dong; Peng, Ming-Sheng; Quang, Hai Ho; Dang, Khoa Pham; Trieu, An Vu; Wu, Shi-Fan; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Murphy, Robert W .; Yao, Yun-Gang; Zhang, Ya-Ping (May 7, 2012). Kaiser, Manfred (ed.). “A patrilineal view of Austronesian diffusion in the continental Southeast Asia.” PLOS ONE . 7 (5): e36437. Bibcode: 2012PLoSO … 736437H. Doi: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0036437. PMC 3346718. PMID 22586471.

List of used literature

  • Eimonier, Etienne (1891). Les Tchames et leurs of religion . E. Leroux. CS1 maint: ref = harv (link to website)
  • Cabaton, Antoine (1901). Nouvelles recherches sur les Chams . E. Leroux. CS1 maint: ref = harv (link to website)
  • Hurani, George; Carswell, John (1995). Arab navigation in the Indian Ocean in antiquity and the early Middle Ages . Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-00032-9 . CS1 maint: ref = harv (link to website)
  • Chapuis, Oscar (1995). History of Vietnam: from Hong Bang to Tu Duc . Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-29622-2 . CS1 maint: ref = harv (link to site)
  • Davidson, Jeremy H.S.C. (1991). Austro-Asian Languages: Essays in Honor of H.L. Shortto . Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-7286-0183-3 . CS1 maint: ref = harv (website link)
  • Heng, Derek (2009). Sino-Malay trade and diplomacy from the tenth to the fourteenth century .Ohio University Press. ISBN 978-0-89680-475-3 . CS1 maint: ref = harv (link to website)
  • Hooker, M.B. (January 1, 2002). Law and the Chinese in Southeast Asia . Institute for Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-230-125-3 . CS1 maint: ref = harv (link to website)
  • Jurgensmeyer, Mark; Roof, Wade Clark (2011). Encyclopedia of World Religion . SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4522-6656-5 . CS1 maint: ref = harv (website link)
  • Kiernan, Ben (October 1, 2008). Blood and soil . Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-13793-4 . CS1 maint: ref = harv (website link)
  • Schlizinger, Joachim (11 January 2015). Cambodian Ethnic Groups Volume 3: Profile of Austro-Thai and Chinese Speaking Peoples . Buxmango. ISBN 978-1-63323-240-2 . CS1 maint: ref = harv (link to site)
  • To, Wang Tai (1988). Vietnamese human rights traditions . Institute for East Asian Studies, University of California. ISBN 978-1-55729-002-1 . CS1 maint: ref = harv (link to site)
  • Tarling, Nikolay (1999). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia . Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-66370-0 . CS1 maint: ref = harv (link to site)
  • Taylor, Philip (2007). Cham Muslims in the Mekong Delta: Place and Mobility in the Cosmopolitan Periphery .NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-361-9 . CS1 maint: ref = harv (website link)
  • Watson Hendayah, Barbara (2006). The Burning Womb: Changing the Status of Women in Southeast Asia in the Early Modern Times . University of Hawaii Press. p.82. ISBN 978-0-8248-2955-1 . CS1 maint: ref = harv (link to site)
  • Weeks, Robert S. (1992). Money, Markets and Trade in Early Southeast Asia: The Development of Local Monetary Systems Before 1400 AD .SEAP publications. ISBN 978-0-87727-710-1 . CS1 maint: ref = harv (link to website)
  • Dổ Hải Minh (1965) “Dân Tộc Chàm Lược sử” Saigon.
  • Salim, Maryam. (2005) “Laws of Kedah, 220 Hijri” Translation of the text from the Jawi script to the Rumi script. Devan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Malaysia.

external links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cham people .
  • Britannica | Cham people
  • Mitsraim, Islam.Muslims Cham: Liberate, not exiles. OnIslam.net. September 15, 2012 Retrieved February 26, 2013
  • Cham Muslims in the Mekong Delta Philip Taylor’s book on the history of settlements, religion, economic life and political relations of Cham Muslims in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam
  • Materials of the Champa seminar
  • Relations Vietnam Champa and the Malay-Islamic Regional Network in the 17th-19th Centuries
  • Survivors of a Lost Civilization
  • Cham Muslims: A View of Cambodia’s Muslim Minority
  • Cham Muslims of Indochina
  • An article about the Cham people living in Grambchee Cambodia Province of Cambodia
  • An article about Cham fishermen living near the Mekong Island, Cambodia Antonio Gracheffo
  • Stone carving in Bayon in Cambodia showing the battle between the Khmer and Cham
  • The face of Islam in a Buddhist country, Murat Karaali, Phnom Penh Post, January 1995 …
  • Chamstudies, new site on Chams
  • Image of Muslim girls cham [ permanent dead link ]
  • Radio Sapcham

Malaysian language alphabet. Languages ​​in Malaysia. The largest scorpion

The official language in Malaysia is Malay or Bahasa Malaya. This Austronesian language is as close as possible (like Russian and Ukrainian) to. However, due to the fact that Malays make up only 50% of the country’s population, communication in the languages ​​of other large ethnic groups inhabiting this state is widespread in Malaysia – Chinese (Mandarin, Cantonese, Hokken), Indians (Tamil, Hindi), Thais, etc.d.

The language of interethnic communication in Malaysia is inherited from the last colonial rulers of the country – the British. The Malay version of English (“Manglish” – Malay + English) is a kind of mixture of the language of foggy Albion with words and grammatical rules borrowed from the languages ​​of numerous peoples of Malaysia. Phrases in Manglish often end with the particles “lah”, “lo” (lor) and “one” (one), which enhance her emotional connotation.

Despite the prevalence of English in Malaysia, knowing basic phrases in Malay can help travelers traveling to Borneo, where the official language is most commonly used.

General phrases

Terima Kasi

Please

Kembali / silahkan

Kambali / silakhkan

Sorry

Maafkan Sayya

Hello

Goodbye

Slamat Tingal

I don’t understand

Saya tak faham

What’s your name?

Siapa nama anda?

Syapa nama anda?

How are you?

Apa kabar?

Where is the toilet?

Di mana kamar kecil?

Di mana kamar kesiy?

How much does it cost?

Berapa harganya?

Berapa hargania?

One ticket to …

Satu tiket ke …

Satu ticket ke …

Could you help me?

Bolehkah anda tolong saya?

Bolekhkah anda tolong saya?

No smoking

Jangan Merokok

Do you speak English?

Cakap bahasa Inggeris?

Chahap bahasa ingris?

How far?

Berapa jauh ke..?

Brapa jaukh ke …?

Hotel

I need to order the number

Saya mau bilik

Wang Persenan

I want to pay invoice

Saya Mau Bayar

Room, number

Shop (shopping)

Cash

By card

Pack

Untuk pitch

No change

Simpan perubahan

Simpan Peruban

Potongan Kharga

Very expensive

Mahal San “t

Transport

Keretapi

Stop

Stop here

Berhenti Disini

Arrival

Departure

Berangkat

Kapal Terbang

Airport

Lapangan terbang

Lapangan terbang

Emergency cases

Help me

Tolong Sayya

Fire department

Perkhidmatan bomba

Perkydmatan bomb

Ambulance

Kechemasan

Hospital

Hospital

Restaurant

I want to book a table

Saya mau meja untuk

Saya mau meia utuk

I want to pay

Sayya Mau Bayar

Language in Malaysia

Today, the language of Malaysia is heavily influenced by English.Many residents of the capital and large cities speak it fluently. There is also a manglish form. This Malaysian language is a mixture of English and local dialect. It is used in communication and business along with English.

At the same time, the state language of Malaysia is supported in order to preserve the cultural heritage. Since the Middle Ages, it has been common in the archipelago of islands, New Guinea and Indochina. Today, there could be preserved literary monuments, both local and translated.

The official language of Malaysia is also used in Brunei and Singapore. Since 1972, a new writing standard has come into force. Since that time, the Malaysian alphabet has been translated into the Latin alphabet.

Minangkabau is one of the most widespread dialects.

Along with Malay, English is taught at the school. It is also used in higher education.

Malay is the main language of the Austronesian language family, spoken in Indonesia and Malaysia, as well as by a portion of the population of Singapore and other border countries.This language is spoken by a total of 290 million people. The article will tell you about this exotic and ancient Asian language.

Where Malay is spoken

Natives of this language live in the area including the coast of the Malay Peninsula and along the east coast of Sumatra in Indonesia. Some of the population also speaks Malay. It is used as the language of commerce in the southern Philippines, including the southern parts of the Zamboanga Peninsula, the Sulu Archipelago, and southern settlements (predominantly Muslim) in the Philippines).

What is the name of this language in different countries

Since Malay is the national language of several states, the standard version of the language has various official names. In Singapore and Brunei it is called Bahasa Melayu (Malay), in Malaysia it is called Bahasa), in Indonesia Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian), and is often referred to as the unifying language or lingvo franc of this region of Asia.

However, in the areas of central and southern Sumatra, where this language is indigenous, the Indonesians call it Bahasa Melayu and it is considered one of their local dialects.

Standard Malay is also called Judicial Malay. It was the literary standard of pre-colonial Malacca and the Sultanate of Johor, and therefore the language is sometimes called Malacca, Johor or Riau Malay (various combinations of these names are used) to distinguish it from other related languages. In the west, it is often called the Malay-Indonesian language.

Classification and related adverbs

Malay is part of the Austronesian family of languages, which includes languages ​​from Southeast Asia and the Pacific.More specifically, it is the language of the Malay-Polynesian branch. The Malagasy language, which is mainly spoken in Madagascar (an island in the Indian Ocean), is also part of this language group.

Although each family language is mutually incomprehensible, the similarities are quite striking. Many root words have practically not changed and are similar to those that sounded in the Proto-Austronesian language, which no longer exist. In the vocabulary of these languages, there are many similar words denoting relatives, body parts and animals, household items.

Numbers, in particular, are basically called almost the same in all languages ​​of this group. Within the Austronesian family, Malay is part of a multitude of closely related languages ​​known as Malay, which were spread across Malaysia and the Indonesian archipelago by Malay traders from Sumatra.

A dialect or a separate language

There is disagreement as to which varieties of the language, which are usually called “Malay”, should be considered dialects of this language, and which should be classified as separate languages.For example, the native language of Brunei is Malay, but it is not always understood by native speakers of the standard variant, and the same applies to some other dialects.

According to research by scholars, some of this category of languages, which are currently considered independent, are very related to classical Malay. Therefore, they may turn out to be his dialects. There are also several Malay trade and derivations from the classic Malay.

Spread of the language

Malay is spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, parts of Thailand and the southern Philippines.Indonesia and Brunei have their own standards. Malaysia and Singapore use the same standard. The degree of use of this language in these states varies depending on the historical and cultural conditions.

Malay is the national language in Malaysia under the Malaysian Constitution and became the only official language in Peninsula Malaysia in 1967 and in East Malaysia since 1975. English is spoken in professional and commercial fields and in higher courts.

Other languages ​​are also widely spoken by the state’s major ethnic minorities. The situation in Brunei is similar to that of this language in Malaysia. In the Philippines, Malay is spoken by the Muslim population living in Mindanao (in particular, the Zamboanga Peninsula) and the Sulu Archipelago.

However, they mostly speak Creole, reminiscent of one of the trade dialects of Malay. Historically, it was the language of the archipelago before the Spanish occupation. Indonesian is spoken in Davao City in the Philippines, and common phrases are learned by members of the Philippine Armed Forces.

At the moment, thousands of people are studying this southeastern language, including the self-instruction manuals of the Malay language. Various linguistic aids and resources are also widely used. Many attend special language courses.

Malay language

MALAYSKY LANGUAGE is a term that broadly embraces a group of closely related languages ​​with almost 50 million speakers, the so-called. Indonesian; in more precise and modern usage, it is the name of a single language from the group of the above languages ​​with 3 million speakers.
The Malay language (in the narrow sense) is represented by a group of dialects of a more or less homogeneous nature on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Sumatra and on the adjacent smaller islands. In addition, there is a special “Lower Malay language”, or “commercial Malay language”, strongly mixed with European (Portuguese and Dutch) languages ​​and serving as a common language (Lingua franca) between representatives of different nationalities far beyond the Malay world proper.

Phonetics M. language has a very harmonious consonant system.There are only five vowels – a, e, i, o, u. Open syllables prevail over closed ones, and in connection with musical inflection, the language is considered very euphonious. Basics of words are mostly two-syllable, for example: orang – “person”, mata – “eye”; admit simultaneously both the verb and the nominal meaning, for example: mati – “to die”, “dead”, “death”. Word formation is carried out by means of prefixes, infixes and suffixes, as well as by word composition (eg mata-hari – “eye-day” = “sun”) and repetition (eg sama-sama – “together”).The categories of gender, number, time and case are either indicated by auxiliary particles, or not expressed at all. In general, the Malay language is considered easy and quickly learned by foreigners.
The main letter is Arabic (see), and it is characteristic that such favorite repetitions are replaced by a special sign angka-dua (actually the number “2”). However, the Latin script is making great strides and supplants the Arabic even among Muslims. As the Latin alphabet, the Dutch system has taken root, where j = th, oe = y; ex.: Soerabaja = Surabaya. The combinations tj, dj, nj express palatal stop sounds, as in Russian dialectical – tist, French – champagne; “Ng” expresses “n” posteriorly – as in German Bank. At the end of words, the letter “h” is not pronounced, and the letter “k” denotes a guttural explosion. Bibliography:


The study of M. language is carried out for administrative, commercial, missionary and, much less often, scientific purposes. Most of the manuals are written in Dutch and English. Manuals in Russian. still hasn’t been.The simplest and most widely available manual for M. lang. Seidel A., Praktische Grammatik der malaiischen Sprache, “Harteben’s Bibliothek der Sprachenkunde”, No. 34. As research works, the following works deserve special attention: Brandstetter R., Malaio-polynesische Forschungen, Luzern, 1893-1921; Kern H., Verspreide geschriften (published since 1913). For other bibliography see: Meillet A. et Cohen M., Les langues du monde, P., 1924; Schmidt P. W., Die Sprachfamilien und Sprachkreise der Erde, Heidelberg, 1926.

  • – Malay wild dog, see Adyag …
  • – the main representative of the M. group of the Malay-Polynesian family of languages. Its primary area of ​​distribution is the Malacca Peninsula and part of the Sumatra Island …

    Brockhaus and Euphron Encyclopedic Dictionary

  • is one of the Malay languages ​​on the island of the same name. The closest language to it is the Batak or Batta language. Dictionaries: in the journal. “Asiatic Researches”; Thomas, “Nias-Maleisch-Nederlandsch W.” ; Sundermann, “Deutsch-N.Wb. “Mö rs, 1892), his own,” Kurzgefasste Niassische Crammatik “…

    Brockhaus and Euphron Encyclopedic Dictionary

  • – the language of the Malays and some other peoples. The official language of Malaysia. Distributed in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia. The number of speakers of M. i. over 12.5 million people …

    Great Soviet Encyclopedia

  • – Malay language – the language of the Malays and some peoples of Indonesia. Belongs to the Indonesian branch of the Austronesian language family.Writing based on the Latin alphabet …

    Big Encyclopedic Dictionary

  • – The language used in the field of religious communication …

    Dictionary of linguistic terms T.V. Foaled

  • – …
  • – …

    Spelling dictionary of the Russian language

  • – MALAY, th, th. 1.see Malays. 2. Related to the Malays, to their language, national character, way of life, culture, as well as to their countries of residence, their internal structure, history; such as the Malays…

    Ozhegov’s Explanatory Dictionary

  • – MALAY, Malay, Malay. adj. to the Malays …

    Ushakov’s Explanatory Dictionary

  • – Malay I m. The official language of the Malays and some peoples of Indonesia. II app. 1. Pertaining to Malaysia, Malays associated with them. 2. Peculiar to Malays, characteristic of them and for Malaysia. 3 …

    Efremova’s Explanatory Dictionary

  • – …

    Spelling dictionary-reference

  • – Indo-Mal…
  • – small “…

    Russian spelling dictionary

  • – …

    Word forms

  • – adj., Number of synonyms: 1 South Asian …

    Dictionary of synonyms

“Malay language” in books

Chapter III. Fight for the Malay barrier

From book
US submarine warfare in World War II
the author

Roscoe Theodore

Chapter III. Fighting for the Malay Barrier
Squadron submarines The sinking of the destroyer submarine S-37 on February 8, 1942 was a significant success.Type S boats built in the first decade after World War I had a number of the largest

Chapter 2 Suffering EEM-29 (Battles for the Malay barrier)

From book
Stronger than the “divine wind”. US destroyers: war in the Pacific
the author

Roscoe Theodore

Chapter 2
Suffering EEM-29 (battles for the Malay barrier)
Edsall and corvettes sink I-124 (first blood)
By the beginning of the third week of January 1942, many depth charges had been dropped across the Pacific Ocean. They got the Japanese on their nerves, but did little harm as far as is known.

7.1. Malay Archipelago

From book
Requests of the flesh. Food and sex in people’s lives
the author

Kirill Reznikov

7.1. Malay Archipelago
Earth
The Malay Archipelago is the largest in the world. Its total area is over 2 million km2, equal to four France. It consists of more than twenty thousand islands located on both sides of the equator between Indochina and Australia. Archipelago includes

WEAKENING AND DISINTEGRATION OF THE PRIMORSKY WORLD OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA (MALAKA PENINSULA AND MALAY ARCHIPELAGO)

From book
World history: in 6 volumes.Volume 4: Peace in the 18th century
the author

Team of authors

WEAKENING AND DISINTEGRATION OF THE PRIMORSKY WORLD OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA (MALAKA PENINSULA AND MALAY ARCHIPELAGO)
A different fate was in store for the 18th century. a country with the same socio-political system as Burma and Siam – Javanese Mataram. Already at the end of the 17th century. Dutch

Book I. THE MALAYAN ART CHAPTER ONE

From book
Inside story. Memoirs of a British agent.
the author

Lockhart Robin Bruce

Book I. THE MALAYAN ART
CHAPTER ONE
Lockhart, Robert Bruce (1887 1970).Inside story [Text]: memoirs of a British agent = British Agent / R.B. Lockhart; Per. from English M.: Izdvo Novosti, 1991.320 p. : ill., portr. Malay art Moscow, 1912 1917 War and Peace History from the Inside (Petrograd Moscow 1918).

CHAPTER XIV. FAR EAST. CHINA. ANNAM. MALAYSKY PENINSULA. DUTCH INDIA. KOREA

From book
Volume 4. Reaction times and constitutional monarchies. 1815-1847. Part two
the author

Lavisse Ernest

Malay campaign

From book
Russian explorers – the glory and pride of Russia
the author

Glazyrin Maxim Yurievich

Malay campaign
1874, August.Maclay arrived in Singapore from the coast of Papua Coviai. N.N. Miklukho-Maclay conducted a campaign across the Malay Peninsula. In Yohor there was not a single Malay who passed Yohor across. Rusich was destined to do this. N. Miklouho-Maclay, walking

THE LARGEST SCORPIO – INDO-MALAYAN SCORPIO

From book
100 Great Wildlife Records
the author

Nepomniachtchi Nikolai Nikolaevich

BIGGEST SCORPIO – INDO-MALAYAN SCORPIO
Males of the Indo-Malay scorpion Heterometrus swannerderdami are often more than 180 mm in length, i.e.That is, from the tips of the claws to the tip of the sting. Once a specimen was found with a length of 292 mm.
There are over 1500 species in the world scorpio fauna

Malay Archipelago

From book
Encyclopedic Dictionary (M)
the author

Brockhaus F.A.

Malay Archipelago
The Malay Archipelago (aka Indian Austrasia or Nomazia) – countless islands, ranging from 92 ° – 192 ° E. (Grinich) and 11 ° S-20 ° North. lat., between southeast. Asia and Australia, with a surface area of ​​2003 208 sq. km.On the West of Sumatra Island, Nias, Siberia, Batu,

MALAYA “PRINCE OF PIRATES”

From book
Highly Dangerous Criminals [Crimes That Shook the World]
the author

Globus Nina Vladimirovna

MALAYA “PRINCE OF PIRATES”
The leaders of the bandit gangs taught the authorities more than one lesson through the actions of their intelligence and espionage corps. The Corsican bandits Romanetti, Spada and their numerous predecessors forced almost the entire population of the island to watch the gendarmes and

Malay Archipelago

TSB

Malay bear

From book
Great Soviet Encyclopedia (MA)
the author

TSB

Malay

From book
Great Soviet Encyclopedia (MA)
the author

TSB

XI.Language in the era of “Perestroika” “Perestroika” found the Soviet language in its entirety:

From book
New works 2003-2006
the author

Chudakova Marietta

XI. Language in the era of “Perestroika”
“Perestroika” found the Soviet language in its entirety:
“Books about party congresses, about V. I. Lenin, revolution <..." help to form the moral and political image of generations, based on communist ideology, devotion

IN THE FIGHT FOR THE DUTCH OST INDIA AND THE MALAYS BARRIER

From book
Aviation History Special Issue 1
the author

author unknown

IN THE FIGHT FOR THE DUTCH OST INDIA AND THE MALAYS BARRIER
Having become acquainted with Japanese aviation, the Allies were forced to somehow distinguish the aircraft they encountered.The situation was aggravated by the fact that all reference books of that time (including such an authoritative English edition as

Malaysia and Indonesia are two large countries located in Southeast Asia. Both countries speak Malay, or a derivative of it, and Indonesian, which has a lot in common. Many linguists believe that the Indonesian language is actually one of the variations of the Malay language. However, these closely related languages ​​have many differences, but not in grammatical but in phonetic order.

Malay language
Bahasa Melayu

is one of the Austronesian languages ​​- the Malay-Polynesian branch. The Malay language has an official status in Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. It is spoken by over 270 million people.

From the history of the formation of the Malay language

According to one of the theories, the first who began to populate the islands of the Pacific Ocean, including the present territories of Malaysia and Indonesia, were ancient people, relatives of the Denisov man, whose bones were found in Altai in one of the caves.Later waves of migration brought with them immigrants from South India, as well as migrants of the Mongoloid race from the south of China. However, unlike many other Asian languages, Malay does not have a large number of inclusions from the languages ​​of ancient India, including Sanskrit and Pali, or Chinese. In this sense, Malay is peculiar and not unlike other languages.

There are no cases, gender and numbers in Malay. The plural can be understood from the context or denoted by the word redundancy, for example shirts = shirt-shirt
.In addition, there are special classifiers to designate a plural language, as in Chinese. Auxiliary words are used to denote gender. Verbs have several conjugations – six classes.

The Malaysian language is characterized by the use of affixes, suffixes, infixes and circumfixes. This way of creating new words by adding additions to the base vaguely resembles the use of prepositions, suffixes and endings in Russian.

The basic order of words in a sentence (topology) is also original: as a rule, the predicate (C) comes first, then the direct object (D), then the subject (P).This word order is also typical for some other languages ​​\ u200b \ u200bOceania, South America and Madagascar.

    C – D – P

  • Reading – student book ( Student reading book
    )
  • Smashed – pot – man ( Man smashed pot
    )
  • Keeps – a cow – Ivan ( Ivan holds a cow
    )

Rumi Malay alphabet based on Latin alphabet

Currently, the Latin alphabet is almost universally used in the Malay language – Rumi
.To indicate all the necessary sounds, only basic Latin characters are used, without diacritics and other special characters.

Malaysia is a small state located in Southeast Asia. It has its own traditions, culture and customs, which directly influenced the formation of speech and languages ​​in Malaysia.

The main language in the territory of the Malaysian state is Malay. In addition to it, English plays an important role, which is recognized as the second language of Malaysia.It is very different from British (Royal) English, and performs an important function in the development of business in the country. In addition, many educational institutions use Malaysian English.

Since each country has an influence on the language, the local English was also shown to be greatly influenced by the state and more familiar to all Malay language. The combination of these two languages ​​led to the formation of the third – Manglish. In addition to these two languages, it combines Tamil and even Chinese.

The indigenous peoples of Malaysia speak their own languages, especially in the east of the country. These languages ​​are related to Malay, and the most popular among them is Ibanese, which is spoken by almost 700 thousand people.

Since the Chinese language is also common on the territory of the state, the Malays use its dialects: Cantonese, Hakka, Mandarin, Hainan and so on. Natives of India speak Tamil. In some places you can even meet people communicating in the almost disappeared Penang and Selangor languages.These sign languages ​​are used by deaf and dumb people.

Malay is the official language of Malaysia

It belongs to the group of Austronesian languages, belongs to the Malay-Polynesian branch. In addition to Malaysia, it is distributed on the territory of some islands and other small states. From the middle of the 20th century it had the name “Malaysian” and only by the end of the century returned to its original – “Malay”.

It is recognized as an official language not only in Malaysia, but also, Brunei and This language in Malaysia refers to agglutinative languages ​​or “sticking”.This means that word formation occurs by adding affixes to the stem, adding words or reduplication (doubling a syllable or a whole word).

For example, different affixes and suffixes can be added to one stem, and the meaning of this word will change radically. In addition, there are infixes and circumfixes in the Malay language. Nouns in this language do not change in gender, numbers, and sometimes do not even have gender separation between men and women in speech. The only exceptions are borrowings from other languages.
The plural can be formed by doubling a word. When studying the Malay language, this creates certain difficulties, since the “double” word may not always have a plural meaning.

In our country, the Malay language can be learned only in some large universities in Moscow and St. Petersburg. It is also taught as a second to those students who are studying the Indonesian language. Of course, now there are many language schools where it is quite possible to find a teacher and learn the Malay language.

Manglish is a special language in Malaysia

This language is a mixture of English and Malay and is spoken throughout the Malay state. In addition to them, South Minh, Mandarin, Chinese and Tamil languages ​​are involved in the formation of Manglish. This language appeared during the time of colonization, when the British communicated in their own language, but the indigenous population of Malaysia – in their own. In the middle of the 20th century, Manglish became the official language, but, nevertheless, everyday speech is full of borrowings from other languages.

However, Malaysian English and Manglish are different languages. The latter is a kind of Creole language, its grammar and syntax are simpler. Malaysian English is simply a dialect of common English.

Sometimes, in communication, words or suffixes from the English language can be added to words from Manglish, in addition, archaisms of the English language and other words that are little used in literary English are preserved in speech.

In some states of Malaysia, the Ibanese language, which is part of the Malay-Dayak group, is widespread.It is also spoken in Indonesia. The total number of people using this language has already reached 700 thousand people. Ibanese grammar is based on analytical expression. The letter is carried out on the basis of the Latin alphabet.

For those who know English, it will be quite difficult in Malaysia, since the local dialect is far from the language accepted in Britain or the United States.

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