Seek head office melbourne: Seek corporate offices | Headquarters | Phone | Address

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Seek corporate offices | Headquarters | Phone | Address

Seek Australia

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Seek Headquarters Info

You can find the corporate office address and headquarters in VIC 3004. Most of the operations handled from this Seek Australia corporate headquarter.

  • Address: Seek headquarters is completely transparent when it comes to contact information and location of the Seek. You can address any letters to this corporate headquarters office to:

Level 6, 541 St Kilda Road Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia

  • Phone Number: Call 1300 658 700 to reach someone at Seek headquarters. As soon as you speak with a representative, you should have a fair solution to your problem that is relatively fast, You can contact during Monday to Friday: 7:00 am – 7:00 pm or Saturday and Sunday: Closed. We suspect the corporate office is also open during these times.
  • Email: As an alternative, you can email Seek at [email protected] that may help spread the word about your problem. You can also contact someone close to the corporate office by emailing the Media Help department.
  • Website: You can use their website www.seek.com.au and contact any department for general help. there is no dedicated website for Seek headquarters.

Headquarters Executive Team

Meet the team providing strong leadership to Seek headquarters. Below are some executive team members name of Seek corporate office Australia.

  • Andrew Bassat: Chief Executive Officer and Co-Founder
  • Ian Narev: Group Chief Operating Officer and Asia Pacific & Americas (AP&A) CEO
  • Geoff Roberts: Group Chief Financial Officer
  • Kathleen McCudden: Group Human Resources Director
  • Simon Lusted: Managing Director Strategy, Product & AI
  • Ronnie Fink: Managing Director Corporate Development
  • Kendra Banks: Managing Director Australia & New Zealand

Seek corporate office addresses

Corporate addresses
Seek (Australia)  Level 6, 541 St Kilda Road Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia

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Contact Seek Australia – Contact Numbers and Email Support

Looking for the Seek Australia customer service and support number? To contact Seek is very easy. Here are the top 5 ways to get in touch with Seek Australia.

Seek Phone Number

1300 658 700 – Customer Service

You can contact Seek customer support by calling 1300 658 700 number directly. As soon as you speak with a representative, you should have a fair solution to your problem that is relatively fast, You can contact during working hours Monday to Friday: 7:00 am to 7:00 pm.  If you can’t find what you’re looking for, please contact Seek on one of the numbers listed below

Seek Australia Contact/Phone Numbers

Seek’s Best Toll-Free/800 Customer Service Phone Number

Call

1300 658 700

This is a Seek Australia’s Finest customer service telephone number that you can use to contact Seek. since the real time present wait on hold and resources such as bypassing right through those telephone lines to get directly into a Seek Australia agent. You can use this number for various tasks such as

  • Account Issue
  • Complaints
  • Questions
  • Refund
  • Customer Support
  • A different Issue

Seek Head Office Contact Number

Corporate Head Quarters address of Seek Australia.
Level 6,
541 St Kilda Road Melbourne, VIC 3004

For any general inquiries, please contact Seek head office number : 61-3-8517-4100

Seek Brisbane Office.
Level 3, 232 Adelaide Street
Brisbane, QLD 4000

Seek Sydney Office
Level 14, 100 Pacific Hwy
North Sydney, NSW 2060

Seek Perth Office
Level 19, 44 St George Tce
Perth, WA 6000

Seek New Zealand Head Office Address
Level 5
5 High Street
Auckland
Phone: 0508 733 569

Contacting Seek – by phone or otherwise

Even though 1300 658 700 is Seek’s finest toll-free number, you will find 5 complete ways of getting in contact with them. Apart from calling, the upcoming favorite alternative for customers searching for assistance is through online chat support for Seek Australia. If you feel this information is wrong or know of other ways to get Seek, please let us know so we can discuss with other consumers.

Contact Seek Via EMAIL ADDRESS

As an alternative, you can email Seek at one of the support email addresses given below. To make process simple, fast and efficient, it might be helpful if you included sufficient information in your email address to let them verify your identity, including your present address, date of birth, phone details etc.

For Seek General: [email protected]
Other emails: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]

Contact Seek Australia Through Social Media, Website & App

If you have a missing account, a small issue with a Seek Service, or are having trouble making a service, try using social media to contact Seek Australia. Go to their official Website, Facebook or Twitter, and click on the “message” button.

Seek Australia Regular Business Hours

Mon to Friday: 7:00 am – 7:00 pm
Saturday and Sunday: Closed

What time does Seek Australia open and close?

Store hours today Opening Hours Closing Hours
Monday 7:00 am 7:00 pm
Tuesday 7:00 am 7:00 pm
Wednesday 7:00 am 7:00 pm
Thursday 7:00 am 7:00 pm
Friday 7:00 am 7:00 pm
Saturday Closed Closed
Sunday Closed Closed

Seek Holiday Hours

Seek customer service is open on most public holidays. Our self serve functions are available on business hours. For more information to visit on official website.

How to contact various departments of Seek

Contact Seek customer service

In case you’ve got an issue or problem with service, you can tell your problems to Seek support department on 1300 658 700.

Seek Client Login Department

If you have any issue or problem your service or want to login your account to visit on this webpage and enter your email and password and sign in your account and solving issue.

Seek Registration Department

In this department you can register in your account or other account related issue to solve your problem.

Lodge A Complaint to Seek

At Seek, they place you and your expertise first, which explains why your feedback is really important for them. If you’d like to write to Seek and let them know about anything you’ve been unhappy with during your journey, please do so using the Customer Care Complaint department. If you are with a problem, we would like to assist you fix it as soon as possible. We have made our complaints procedure simple with all the this form. Simply provide your information at Seek Complaint department.

Hopefully, We helped you to get some genuine Contact numbers for Seek Australia Customer Service.

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More Ways to Contact Seek

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Seek Australia

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CMO profile: How Seek’s media lead is planning for growth in 2021

Christophe Eymery


A new connected customer journey-led approach, rethink of local and regional team collaboration and repositioning of brand are three strategic changes giving Seek fresh opportunities for growth in 2021.

There’s no doubt the jobs portal and career services provider has been one of the organisations at the coalface of rapidly changing conditions as Australia rode the wave of the COVID-19 crisis over the past year. Yet like so many marketers who’ve had to navigate their way through, Seek’s head of media, Christophe Eymery, tells CMO it’s been a time of learning, accelerating change and providing the right foundations for the future.

Within the first few months of the pandemic, conditions were clearly very tough for Seek, and the company reported double-digital revenue contraction through March to June. But by the second half, things were getting better and the end of 2020, things were decidedly on the up.

“Overall, if you look at the latest financial report released to financial markets, we are -1%, which is amazing, because it means the last two months of the first half almost compensated for the whole first half of the calendar year,” Eymery says.

Alongside the external changes and accelerations brought about by the COVID crisis, change is afoot internally at Seek after its co-founder, Andrew Bassat, announced plans to step down as CEO and into an executive chairman position. It’s a role that also sees him heading up the group’s investments business, which controls Seek’s 61 per cent stake in China-based jobs ad platform, Zhaopin.

In his stead, former Commonwealth Bank senior leader and Seek COO, Ian Narev, has taken up the CEO role. On top of this, Seek will move its 900-strong workforce into a new office in July situated in Melbourne’s hot Cremorne precinct, an area dubbed the new ‘Silicon Valley’ beside the Yarra River. Also onsite are Carsales, REA Group, MYOB.

Foundations for growth

But for Eymery, who joined Seek two-and-a-half years ago to lead its media and customer engagement function, change was the mantra well before either of these forces came to fruition. One of his key priorities upon joining the organisation was helping to transform the brand perception of Seek.

“We are today seen as a jobs portal, but we want people to see Seek as more than a job portal and have been highlighting Seek as a destination for career advice. We have invested a lot in that space, particularly around content production, to make that a reality,” he says. “We have more than 600 pieces of content providing tips and advice on how to manage your career. It’s about showing we’re not just a destination to find your next job but are also a source of career advice that can help you through all different life cycles you go through during your career.”

Read more Cover-More Group recruits first global CMO

Content ranges from advice on how to go for interviews and get your next job, through to how to manage people, your end-of-year peer review and more while in the job. For Eymery, it’s about giving Seek the ability to engage in a much broader conversation with customers and prospects.

In the thick of COVID, this brand shift led Seek to ramp up news media as a key media mechanism in order to amplify this expertise externally. As he points out, during the pandemic, news media saw a surge in engagement as consumers rushed to news channels every day to check on the changes and rules around COVID.

“Part of the concerns news readers had in general was related to employment and the state of the jobs market. What we tried to do is externalise our expertise and bring that into an environment where we generally needed to play a role providing answers and mitigate concerns for consumers in general,” Eymery explains.  

Using its sponsorship of New.com.au lifestyle section, Seek provided content from its own platform, tweaked to suit the day-to-day contextual environment and situation presented by COVID. Users could then come through to the Seek portal to go into more depth exploring career advice.

Read more 3 ways this CMO tackled a brand and business launch

“That externalised our content and expertise in destinations where consumers were visiting every day and where they were in the mindset to think about employment,” Eymery says.  

“It’s been a win-win partnership, whereby we gained more visibility of our expertise, and also gained good results from a consumer perspective on brand. We ran brand studies on back of partnership, and with nine months of history we have enough data to draw conclusions. Both from a media and creative perspective, it has been well received – consumers are seeing the value of the content and they’re asking for more of it.”

Off the back of this, Eymery spies an opportunity to collaborate not just with News.com.au, but with editorial teams across all News Corp mastheads to engage other audiences.

“It also complements what we’re doing with other existing partners like Google, Facebook, Nine and Seven partnerships. It was a contextual play, where you had such a high amount of search in the news environment, but also allowed us to reach significant audiences,” Eymery says.  

Read more How Rip Curl’s new CX and data chief is planning his experience attack

Tech and operations transformation

Another longer-term project that is coming to fruition in 2021 – and driving collaboration in the process – is Seek’s hefty investment into technology. As Eymery notes, when he came on-board, the media teams were operating in silos.

“We had a digital marketing team, and within that we had a dedicated team looking after Google and Facebook. Then there was another team looking after CRM, which was primarily defined as an email function,” he says.  

As conversations arose about empowering the sales department with a better CRM system to connect with commercial customers, a decision to rethink marketing’s foundational platforms as well was also approved. Very quickly, this extended to include services.

Read more Report: Marketers lack confidence in measurement, tech tools, data sets

Two years later, following an RFP process involving different partners, selecting technology and implementation partners, and working with Accenture on an implementation phase, Seek is now live with Salesforce across the whole business. Salesforce Sales, Marketing and Service Clouds went live as of March. Previously, Seek’s marketing team was using the Cheetah Digital platform.

“It’s been a massive achievement because it’s been a whole-of-company transformation to embrace the Salesforce Cloud across all aspects of the business,” Eymery says. “Seek is a digital organisation in its DNA. The concept of data and ownership of data is something the business is committed to, and the necessity to invest in an advanced platform is well understood.

“Within Marketing Cloud, we can access all the different products and services that helps to connect CRM to all forms of media channels. In the background, we have access to Salesforce DMP, Advertising Studio and full integration with Google 360 Analytics, which gives us a lot of synergies across programs of work.”

Eymery cites 20 customer journeys already created in the platform’s customer journey tool. “These are the beginning of automating those more personalised customer engagements,” he says.

Read more A call to participate in CMO’s 2021 marketing leadership survey

“Seek has an immense amount of data and are very strict in keeping data in-house, but at the same time we want to leverage it in a proper way to make communications with our own users meaningful. That is what we feel this technology investment will do.”

Again Eymery highlights how collaborative the exercise has been across teams to connect the dots on those journeys. Seek’s marketing division has four core functions: Brand and marcomms; segment and product; media and customer engagement; consumer insight and strategy.

“Each of these has an input in that process of customer journeys and you need to have an ongoing forum to ensure input from all stakeholders to the process and in defining potential new journeys and what are the most important touchpoints,” Eymery says. “Once you agree on the journeys and go live, it’s then about how you optimise, make certain journeys redundant and decide to create new ones.

“It’s beginning of a new chapter. We have all the customer journeys used for testing of platform already live, but there is a huge amount of opportunity to create new ones.”

Read more CMO profile: Marley Spoon’s Kate Whitney on recalibrating her thinking to be the right kind of CMO

While macro-level metrics for Eymery and the team haven’t changed, new metrics looking at engagement are becoming more granular thanks to the new tools and comms platforms. There are also clear goals to deliver ROI on the platform and improve the way Seek engages particularly with SMEs, who convert directly on the website.

“Given the process is fully online, from discovering Seek to converting and coming back, we can have a very complex communication approach and multiple customer journeys for different types of SMEs, which is different to categories where we’d have physical interactions or the transactions might be through different systems,” Eymery says. “That’s where we collaborate as a media team very closely with the segment and product team to make that happen in the most meaningful way.

“Then the role of segment and product team is to collaborate with commercial dept to understand objectives and find the right prioritisation of marketing budgets and activities to go for one segment versus another. That’s the magic of the marketing planning.”  

Collaboration without physical connection

Read more Cancer Council: Finding the physical-virtual engagement balance post-COVID

Internal collaboration as an outcome of the past 12 months is something also directly influencing the media approach taken in 2021.

“Within Seek and across teams where we didn’t have the luxury of seeing each other physically but retained our momentum. Instead of thinking it’s too hard, it’s been an opportunity to collaborate differently and in a better way,” Eymery continues.  

“Today, there is a strong team culture that has evolved and it’s even better than it was before as we have embraced different ways of communicating and understood each other in different ways. Where it has really helped is to remove some of the mental barriers.”

For instance, as a company operating in 18 markets and with a strong presence in South East Asia, teams have collaborated but retained distinct approaches across the region. In the last 12 months that collaboration has intensified.

“We are seeing concrete outcomes today in terms of accelerating the globalisation of Seek business and from a media perspective, and we are now looking at buying together campaigns across several countries,” Eymery says. “Alongside our media agency for offline, Starcom – we do all the digital side in-house – we’re working on the next campaign for South East Asia and we’re collaborating where we have the highest level of expertise, internally or externally.”

Don’t miss out on the wealth of insight and content provided by CMO A/NZ and sign up to our weekly CMO Digest newsletters and information services here.  

You can also follow CMO on Twitter: @CMOAustralia, take part in the CMO conversation on LinkedIn: CMO ANZ, follow our regular updates via CMO Australia’s Linkedin company page.

 

Finding SEEK a new global headquarters

Challenge

SEEK is a global, connected technology company that wanted an HQ that was right for the unique SEEK culture. It wanted world-class facilities to allow for collaboration and innovation that would drive its purpose of helping people live more fulfilling and productive working lives and to help organisations succeed.

JLL spent the time to fully understand SEEK’s precise requirements before taking them to the market. Our intimate knowledge of Melbourne’s office landscape led us to a number of suitable locations as well as developer partners that would be able to offer a purpose-built creative solution.

Approach

After a competitive process, JLL was appointed by SEEK in May 2015 to act as its tenant representative.

From the start we recognised that we could not achieve SEEK’s vision by running a standard arm’s-length procurement process. We would get the best outcome through true collaboration.

We helped SEEK turn its vision for the business into a statement of property requirements for the market. SEEK had strong views about the ideal location: Cremorne. An inner city suburb south-east of the CBD, it has a growing status as Victoria’s technology hub, a thriving innovation precinct with a creative start-up feel.

After identified several sites and developers, we ran a series of sessions with the shortlisted proponents, covering the architectural, technical and commercial aspects of the new development.

Result

SEEK’s landmark move to 60 Cremorne Street goes hand-in-hand with its growth story, which started over 20 years ago as a tech start-up in St Kilda. SEEK’s new Melbourne HQ will be home to over 1,000 people, with room to grow even larger to meet the needs of its teams and customers.

The building itself was designed in consultation with Arup to secure a 5-star Green Star rating (Australian Excellence), a NABERS Energy 5-star rating, and a NABERS Indoor Environment 4.5 star rating.

SEEK is continually building the talent and capabilities of a global technology leader and its team now has a home to match this drive.

Current Jobs










































Sales Manager Opportunities across our VIC stores

Melbourne – CBD & Inner, Melbourne – South, Melbourne – West

Are you an inspirational leader looking for that next step? Join our VIC stores as a Sales Manager and build your Management career within an iconic Australian retailer. Apply now!

Finance Business Partner – Real Estate

VIC – Other

Provide financial insight and advice, including complex forward focused modelling in a highly strategic partnering role with a rapidly evolving Real Estate function.

Design Assistant- Country Road

Melbourne – CBD & Inner

An incredible opportunity to join the Design team at Country Road!

Production Coordinator- Mimco

Melbourne – CBD & Inner

An exciting opportunity to join the Mimco team as a Production Coordinator!

Data Analyst: (Space Planning)

VIC – Other

Provide data insight and analysis on space performance to optimize productivity reporting and enhance the utilization of space for David Jones.

Accounts Payable Officer – Country Road Group

Melbourne – CBD & Inner

Process invoices and prepare weekly cash requirements as part of a close-knit team in this fast-paced AP role for Country Road Group

Production Coordinator- Country Road Homeware

Melbourne – CBD & Inner

An exciting opportunity to join the Country Road Homeware team as a Production Coordinator!

Sales Manager Opportunities across our NSW stores

Sydney – East, Sydney – CBD & Inner, Sydney – North, Sydney – South

Are you an inspirational leader looking for that next step? Join our NSW stores as a Sales Manager and build your Management career within an iconic Australian retailer. Apply now!

Loyalty Lead

Melbourne – CBD & Inner

Lead our Loyalty strategy and campaign execution for our recently launched David Jones Loyalty program.

IT Support Analyst – Online

Melbourne – CBD & Inner

Support the David Jones & Country Road Group ecommerce environment through the day-to-day running of the websites and more in this fantastic opportunity.

Marketing Specialist – Contract

Melbourne – CBD & Inner

A limited tenure opportunity to support the Financial Services team, who deliver contemporary and forward thinking campaigns to drive business growth and brand success for David Jones & American Express.

Commercial Finance Analyst – Country Road Group

Melbourne – CBD & Inner

Play a pivotal role providing in-depth analysis and support to our Country Road Group Commercial Finance team.

Loss Prevention Officer Opportunity at our David Jones Burwood Store

Sydney – South

Opportunity to promote and implement safety & security across our store by proactively seeking to mitigate risk at our Burwood Store as part of our Loss Prevention team

Retail Assistant Opportunities – Designer Handbags – David Jones Bourke Street Mall

Melbourne – CBD & Inner

Join our Flagship store at Bourke Street David Jones as one of our Full Time or Part Time retail assistants. Work within an amazing team with great products and luxury brands every day.

Counter Manager Opportunities – David Jones Melbourne Stores

Melbourne – East, Melbourne – CBD & Inner, Melbourne – North, Melbourne – South, VIC – Other

Are you a Beauty expert with the ability to lead a team to success? We are on the lookout for Counter Managers across Melbourne, working with some of the leading global beauty brands. Apply now!

Project Specialist – Learning & Development

Melbourne – CBD & Inner

A rare chance to play an integral part of the development and execution of training content for our David Jones American Express Partnership

Concessions Specialist

Melbourne – CBD & Inner

Be part of a world class merchandise team, supporting our Concession partners success in Australian and international brands across fashion, beauty and home.

Assistant Sales Manager Opportunities – David Jones E/SE Suburbs Melbourne

Melbourne – East, Melbourne – CBD & Inner, Melbourne – South

Calling all inspirational leaders looking to progress their Management career in a dynamic, luxury retail environment. Entry level Management roles available in our Chadstone, Malvern and Southland stores. Apply now!

Assistant Sales Manager Opportunities – David Jones Bourke Street

Melbourne – CBD & Inner

Exciting opportunity for inspirational leaders to progress their Management career in our Bourke Street Flagship. Apply now!

Logistics Assistant Manager – David Jones Melbourne

Melbourne – East, Melbourne – South, VIC – Other

Lead our back of house team’s success through the efficient workflow of inventory ensuring a seamless customer experience.

Seek Limited Headquarters-Contact Address-Helpline Phone Number

Seek Limited headquarters HQ office address, customer service number, toll free helpline number, helpline phone number, email id, website, contact number, toll free helpline phone and customer support number is listed below. As this page, you can also get Seek Limited headquarters and customer service support number, corporate office, postal and mailing office address and contact details.

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Below, we are sharing Seek Limited headquarters contact information with Seek Limited customer service number and toll free helpline number of Seek Limited including Seek Limited toll free number 1800 and customer service contact details of Seek Limited with Seek Limited headquarters office address, email addresses and other related links for the help of its customers. The information provided below can help the customers conveying their queries, suggestions, reviews and feedback related to the company’s products and services.

Seek Limited Headquarters Address & Office Contact Details

The customers who want to share their feedback and reviews with the Seek Limited can use the various contact modes we are sharing in this article. In case of having queries, complaint, suggestion, enquires regarding Seek Limited, the customers can use the customer care support anytime listed below.

Seek Limited Corporate Head Office Address: Seek Limited, Level 6, 541 St Kilda Road, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia

Seek Limited Corporate Head Office Phone Number: 1300 658 700

Seek Limited Corporate Head Office Fax Number: N/A

Seek Limited Corporate Head Office Email Id: [email protected] com.au

Seek Limited Customer Service Contact Information:

The many toll free or non-toll free phone numbers of Seek Limited are available here. The customer service and support representative will support member’s all kinds of problems, questions and inquiries. The all contact helpline numbers of Seek Limited is listed below:

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Seek Limited Customer Service Number: 1300 658 700

Seek Limited Customer Toll Free Number: 1300 658 700

Seek Limited Customer Service Support Email Id: [email protected]

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Seek Limited Official Website: www. seek.com.au

The website mentioned above is the official website of Seek Limited. The customers want to know more about Seek Limited or the customers want to know the source of the information shared in this page can visit this website anytime. The corporate headquarters and mailing office address, customer service phone number, email and postal address of Seek Limited service center and Seek Limited customer support number is listed above. The contact phone number of Seek Limited headquarters and Seek Limited customer service may or may not be toll free.


90,000 Office building project in Melbourne, Australia

IMI Hydronic Engineering has established itself as a reliable partner in Australia and has successfully completed a number of hydraulic balancing and regulation projects in the UK. This was the motivation for the Australian engineering corporation Webb Australia Group to attend the IMI Hydronic Engineering presentation on the then new, universal balancing solution TA-H.U.B. Convinced that the solutions offered by IMI Hydronic Engineering can help reduce heating and cooling costs, Webb Australia Group decided to partner with IMI Hydronic Engineering on a new 11-story office building project in Brisbane.

Assigned task

The main challenge for IMI Hydronic Engineering was to ensure the most optimal energy consumption of heating and cooling systems in the new building. This would allow Webb Australia Group to upgrade its rating and receive a 5-star rating from Australia’s famed Green Star, which ranks among the greenest buildings in the country. The Green star rating system was developed by the Green Building Council in Australia (eng.GBCA – Green Building Council of Australia) for the official accreditation of greenest buildings. The Green Star System aims to improve the environment in Australia, starting with the construction sector.

Solution

The IMI Hydronic Engineering Customer Support Center in Hungary and the IMI Hydronic Engineering specialists in Australia, in close collaboration with engineers from the Webb Australia Group, began to calculate the most optimal hydraulic solution. As background information, Webb Australia Group sent partners detailed diagrams of chilled beams layout, piping system, requested flow rate and pressure loss for each chilled beam.Also, the graphs of temperature regimes were provided. Several methods of refrigeration regulation have been considered, but IMI Hydronic Engineering opted for a solution involving the use of TA-H.U.B. together with differential pressure regulators and control valves. The IMI Hydronic Engineering Support Center offered to assist with hydraulic calculations as well as component selection and drawing preparation.

Having applied TA-H.U.B., the customer solved several problems at once. An individual hydraulic solution made it possible to balance 8 terminal blocks at once. The compactness of the system saves time on installation, start-up, and of course, reduces maintenance costs. By working directly with the customer prior to project implementation, IMI Hydronic Engineering can ensure that the technical solution is correctly installed and the system functions accurately.

Result

Upon completion of the project, IMI Hydronic Engineering specialists came to the site and checked the system for serviceability.The good relationship between the two companies helped create a technical solution that provides low energy consumption and a high level of indoor comfort. To top it off, the building was awarded a 5-star Green Star rating in two categories, Design and Implementation.

“Our confidence in the successful implementation of the project, using TA-H.U.B. as a technical solution, based on the high level of experience of our partner in the field of hydraulics, on the powerful technical support that was provided to us by the specialists of IMI Hydronic Engineering “
– Roger Briggs, Webb Australia Group.

90,000 Melbourne is … What is Melbourne?

Melbourne (English Melbourne / ˈmɛlbə (r) n /, local pronunciation also [ˈmælbən, -bn̩]) is the second largest city in Australia, the capital of Victoria, located around Port Phillip Bay. The population of the suburbs is about 3.8 million (2007 estimates) 90,035 [1] . Melbourne is the southernmost millionaire city in the world.

The city is considered one of the main commercial, industrial and cultural centers in Australia.Melbourne is also often referred to as the “sports and cultural capital” of the country, as it hosts many of the sporting and cultural events in Australian life [2] . The city is famous for its combination of Victorian and modern architecture, numerous parks and gardens, and a diverse and multicultural population. In 1956, Melbourne hosted the Summer Olympics and 2006 Commonwealth Games [2] . Here, in 1981, a meeting of the heads of state of the British Commonwealth of Nations was held, and in 2006 – the G20 summit, in which the leaders of nineteen most developed countries took part.In 2011, The Economist magazine named Melbourne the most comfortable city for living on the planet [3] based on the totality of features.

Melbourne was founded by free settlers in 1835 as an agricultural settlement on the banks of the Yarra River (this happened 47 years after the first European settlement in Australia) [4] . Thanks to the gold rush in Victoria, the city quickly became a metropolis and by 1865 became the largest and most important city in Australia [5] .But already at the beginning of the XX century, he lost the palm to Sydney [6] .

From 1901, when the Federation of Australia was formed, to 1927, when Canberra became the capital of the state, Australian government offices were located in Melbourne [7] .

History

View of Melbourne, 1839.

The original plan of the parliament building in Melbourne (lithograph). Construction began in 1855, but it soon slowed down.As a result, the dome and wings above the reading room were never built.

Lithograph of the Royal Exhibition Center, specially built for the 1880 World’s Fair. Subsequently, several more similar events were held in its building, as well as the opening of the first Australian parliament.

Melbourne map 1888.

Flinders Street railway station, at the intersection of Flinders Street and Swenston, 1927. During this period, it was the station with the largest number of passengers in the world.Photo of Melbourne and the Yarra River, which was the city’s main transport artery at the time, 1928.

The area adjacent to the Yarra River and Port Phillip Bay, where Melbourne is now located, was inhabited by representatives of the Australian aboriginal Wurungeri tribe before the arrival of the Europeans. It is believed that the Aborigines have lived in this area for at least 40,000 years [4] . The first attempt to establish a European colony here was made by the British in 1803, when they formed a convict settlement in the Sullivan Bay area, but this settlement was abandoned after only a few months [8] .

In May and June 1835, the area that now houses the central and northern parts of the city was surveyed by John Batman, one of the founders of the Port Phillip Association, who entered into an agreement with eight chiefs of the Wurungeri tribe to sell 600,000 acres (2,400 km²) of the adjacent land [4] . He chose the northern bank of the Yarra for settlement and announced that “a village will be built on this site” , after which he returned to the city of Launceston in Tasmania, then called “Van Diemen’s Land”.However, when the settlers sent by the Association arrived at the site to found the village, they discovered that there was already a settlement formed by a group of people led by John Pascoe Fawckner, who arrived here aboard the ship Enterprise on August 30, 1835. In the end, both groups came to an agreement on joint development of the territory. The treaty that Batman entered into with the Aborigines was soon canceled by the New South Wales administration, which at that time governed the entire territory of continental Australia [4] .This meant that the land became the property of the Crown, but the rights of the people who lived here were secured, and the newly formed city was given the right to exist [4] .

In 1836, Governor Bourke declared the city the capital of Port Phillip County, a colony of New South Wales, and in 1837 approved the first city plan, known as Hoddle Plan . At the end of the same year, the city was given the final name – Melbourne, in honor of the Prime Minister of Great Britain, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose family estate was located in the town of Melbourne, Derbyshire, England.Melbourne was declared a city following the promulgation of Queen Victoria’s Letter of Appreciation [9] on June 25, 1847.

When Victoria became an independent colony in 1851, Melbourne became its capital. Since the discovery of gold in the state in the 1850s and the start of the gold rush, the city has grown rapidly, providing the region with everything it needs and serving as the main port of southeast Australia. During the rapid development of Melbourne in the 50s and 60s of the 19th century, many of the most famous city buildings were built, such as: the Victoria Parliament building, the Treasury building, the State Library, the Supreme Court, the university, the central post office, the government building, and Cathedrals of St. Paul and St. Patrick.The city’s central quarters were well planned, with numerous boulevards and gardens and parks laid out in the city. During these years, Melbourne became the main financial center of the country: it houses the headquarters of several important banks. In 1861, Australia’s first stock exchange was established in the city.

By the 80s of the XIX century, the rapid development of Melbourne continued. The city became one of the largest cities in the British Empire, while being considered one of the richest cities in the world [10] .During these years of prosperity, Melbourne hosted several international exhibitions at the specially built Exhibition Center. One journalist who visited the city in 1885 named the city “Amazing Melbourne” . This phrase stuck, and the city continues to be called so throughout the 20th century. Rapid urban development led to a boom that culminated in 1888. At this time, real estate prices were fueled by optimistic forecasts of industrial development.As a result, a large number of high-rise buildings, offices, “coffee palaces”, apartment buildings [11] were built. Not all of them survived as a result of the subsequent development of the city, the development of modern high-rise buildings, as well as after the demolition of many buildings of that era due to the tightening of fire safety rules. However, despite this, Melbourne is still famous for its Victorian architecture. This period is also characterized by the extensive development of public transport and, in particular, the radial tramway network [9] .

The period of prosperity came to an end when in 1891 a severe economic crisis began in the city, which led the city’s finances to complete chaos [11] : during this period 16 small banks and investment communities were closed in Melbourne, and 133 companies announced their liquidation. The Melbourne financial crisis triggered the onset of an economic crisis throughout Australia, which continued throughout the 90s of the 19th century, as well as the Australian banking crisis of 1893.The impact that the depression had on the city’s economy cannot be overemphasized. And although the city continued to develop slowly, the consequences of the crisis were felt throughout the first decades of the 20th century.

Since the founding of Australia as an independent state on January 1, 1901, Melbourne has been declared the country’s provisional capital. The first federal parliament began its sessions at the Royal Exhibition Center on May 9, 1901. The Australian government moved to Canberra in 1927, but Melbourne continued to be the seat of the Governor General of Australia until 1930.Many of the most important government institutions remained in Melbourne throughout the 20th century.

The city was the headquarters of the United Allied Forces led by American General Douglas MacArthur in the Pacific Theater during World War II from 1942 to 1944. During the war period, Melbourne’s industry received numerous military orders, which turned the city into a major industrial center in Australia. After the war, the city continued to grow at a rapid pace, thanks largely to skyrocketing immigration, as well as the city’s prestige as the host of the 1956 Summer Olympics.In the following decades, the motorway network was actively developing, and a significant increase in the personal car park allowed the development of areas adjacent to the city. Central Melbourne has become more modern thanks to the implementation of numerous projects to modernize urban infrastructure. The beginning of the economic recovery and development of the mining industry in the late 60s and early 70s of the XX century had a beneficial effect on the city. The head offices of many of the largest companies, as well as the Australian Reserve Bank, were relocated to Melbourne.The city remained the financial and business capital of Australia until the end of the 70s, after which, however, it gradually ceded its leading position to Sydney [12] .

Melbourne’s economy was hit hard during the recession in Victoria between 1989 and 1992. During this period, many of the city’s economic institutions ceased to exist. In 1992, a government coalition headed by Jeff Kennett came to power. The new administration has launched a campaign to revitalize the city’s economy, numerous investment projects have been launched, and a campaign has begun to develop Melbourne as a tourist destination.The city has hosted many world famous festivals and events, such as the Formula 1 stage. Major projects of this period were the reconstruction and construction of the Melbourne Museum, Federation Square, Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Center, Crown Casino, City Link (toll highway, passing through the city center). At the same time, some of Melbourne’s infrastructure was privatized, including electricity and public transport systems, and the funding systems for many public areas, including health and education, were changed.

Since 1997, Melbourne has experienced significant growth in population and jobs. Significant international investments are being made in the development of the city, primarily in the industry and the real estate market. Melbourne has been the largest Australian city in terms of economic growth and population growth since 2000, according to 2006 data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics [13] .

Geography

Topography

Greater Melbourne Map

Melbourne is located on the southeastern tip of the Australian mainland.Geologically, the city stands at the convergence of Quaternary lava fields in the west, Silurian mudstones in the east [8] and Holocene sandstone deposits in the southeast along Port Phillip Bay.

East Melbourne is located on the banks of the Yarra River and along its valley, stretching from the coast of Port Phillip Bay to the Dandenong and Yarra Mountains. In a northerly direction, the city stretches along a valley formed by the tributaries of the Yarra (the Mooney Ponds Creek, Merry Creek and Plenty Rivers), and ends in the outlying districts of Craigiburn and Whittlesea.In the south and southeast direction, Melbourne stretches along the coast of Port Phillip Bay and the Dandenong Mountains. The urban areas then turn south following the bay and reach the Patterson River and the Mornington Peninsula. Melbourne, which expanded in this direction, absorbed the city of Frankston and reached almost the very tip of the Mornington Peninsula in the town of Portsay. In the west, Melbourne stretches along the valley of the Maribirnong River and its tributaries up to the foot of the Macedon Mountains, as well as relatively flat fields of solidified lava along Melton in the west, Verribee at the foot of the volcanic hills of U Young and Geelong in the southwest.

The largest beaches in Melbourne are located along the shores of Port Phillip Bay along the southeastern districts of the city, such as Port Melbourne, Albert Park, St Kilda, Illwood, Brighton, Sandringham, Menton and Frankston, but also in the western regions of Altona and Williamstown have their own beaches. The nearest surfing beaches are located about 85 kilometers from the city center in the Rai, Sorrento and Portsea areas.

Climate

Melbourne Climate
Indicator Jan. Feb. March Apr. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year
Absolute maximum, ° C 45.6 46.4 41.7 34.9 28.7 22.4 23.1 26.5 31.4 36.9 40.9 43.7 46.4
Average maximum, ° C 25.9 25.8 23.9 20.3 16.7 14.0 13.4 15.0 17.2 19.7 21.9 24.2 19.8
Average temperature, ° C 20.1 20.2 18.6 15.6 12.7 10.5 9.7 10.9 12.6 14.6 16.6 18.6 15.0
Average minimum, ° C 14.3 14.6 13.2 10.8 8.6 6.9 6.0 6.7 8.0 9.5 11.2 12.9 10.2
Absolute minimum, ° C 5.5 4.5 2.8 1.5 −1.1 −2.2 −2.8 −2.1 −0.5 0.1 2.5 4.4 −2.8
Precipitation rate, mm 47.7 47.4 50.4 57.1 55.7 49.1 47.6 50.2 58 66.4 60.1 59.3 649.2
Water temperature, ° C 22 21 21 20 19 18 16 16 17 18 20 21 19
Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Tourism Portal
Melbourne Climatogram
Y F M A M AND AND A C O N D
Temperature in ° C • Total precipitation in mm
Source: Bureau of Meteorology [14]

Melbourne is located in a zone of moderate maritime climate according to the Köppen classification [15] and is known for frequent and unexpected changes in weather.This is due to the fact that Melbourne is mainly located on a plain, which on one side is framed by the Dandenong Mountains, and on the other it is bordered by the waters of Port Phillip Bay. This creates conditions when air masses from the sea and mountains constantly replace each other, making the weather in the city very changeable. The expression “four seasons in one day” has become the hallmark of the city [16] .

Winter temperatures in Melbourne tend to be lower than in the rest of the capital cities of mainland Australia.The absolute minimum temperature was recorded in the central part of the city on July 21, 1869, when it was minus 2.8 ° C [17] . Snowfalls in Melbourne, however, are extremely rare. The latter was recorded in the city center on August 10, 1986. In the foothills of eastern Melbourne, snow falls more frequently. The last snowfalls in the area of ​​Mount Dandenong were recorded on August 10, 2005 [18] , November 15, 2006 and December 25, 2006 [19] . Frost and fog are much more common in the city.

Spring weather in Melbourne is generally warm, and this period of the year is characterized by low rainfall. The city is also known for its very hot and dry summers. Temperatures often rise above 40 ° C during this time of the year. The highest temperature of 46.4 ° C was recorded in the city on February 7, 2009.

Despite the fact that the climate of Melbourne is considered moderate, the city often witnessed unusual and sometimes even extreme natural phenomena [20] . In 1891, Melbourne experienced a severe flood, during which the Yarra spilled up to 305 meters wide.In 1897, a huge fire destroyed an entire city block between Flinders Street and Flinders Lane, Swanston Street and Elizabeth Street. In 1908, the city experienced intense heat. On February 2, 1918, the worst tornado ever to hit major Australian cities hit Brighton, one of Melbourne’s seaside districts. It became known in modern Australian history as the Brighton tornado, and is rated as an F3 class on the Fujita scale. On January 13, 1939, the city recorded a high temperature of 45.6 ° C, which occurred during a four-day heatwave period across the country [21] .One of the consequences of this phenomenon was the so-called “Black Friday”, during which entire villages that surrounded Melbourne were burned out (now they are districts of the city). In 1951, a snowfall was recorded in Melbourne, covering the central part of the city and the surrounding areas with a deep layer of snow [17] . In February 1972, a severe flood occurred in Melbourne, as a result of which Elizabeth Street turned into a continuous stream of [22] . On February 8, 1983, a dust storm covered the city.On February 16, 1983, Melbourne was surrounded by wildfires, which are considered the most severe fires in the history of Australia in the 20th century. This phenomenon went down in history as “Ash Wednesday”. Hurricanes of great strength were observed in the city in January 2004 and February 2005. On December 9, 2006, due to wildfires around Melbourne, the city experienced the worst smog in the city’s history [23] . At that moment, visibility in the central part of Melbourne was no more than 200 meters. Another drought and associated fires overtook Melbourne in 2008 [24] .

Demographics

Modern Melbourne is a multi-ethnic and multicultural community. Nearly a quarter of Victoria’s population is born outside Australia, and Melbourne is home to people from 233 countries who speak 180 languages ​​and practice 116 different religions [26] . The city is home to the second largest Asian community in Australia, with the largest Vietnamese, Indian and Sri Lankan communities in the country.

The first people to inhabit the territory of modern Melbourne were the Australian aborigines, in particular, representatives of the Banarong, Wurungeri and Watarong tribes. And now the city is an important center of Aboriginal life. The total number of indigenous people in Australia in Melbourne is more than 20,000 people (0.6% of the city’s population) 90,035 [27] .

The first European inhabitants of the city were English and Irish. They belonged to all the first settlers who arrived in Victoria during the gold rush and made up the majority of immigrants until the outbreak of World War II.The discovery of gold and the beginning of the gold rush in the 50s of the XIX century was the beginning of the rapid development of Melbourne. During the first few months since the discovery of gold in Victoria, the population of Melbourne increased by almost 75%, from 25 thousand to 40 thousand 90,035 [8] . This growth continued unabated over the following decades, and by 1865 Melbourne had overtaken Sydney in population of 90,035 [5] 90,036. In the following years of the gold rush, large numbers of people from China, Germany and the United States began to arrive in Victoria and Melbourne.

Post-war immigration

Melbourne Chinatown, founded in 1854, is not only one of the oldest in Australia, but throughout the world.

After the end of World War II, an influx of immigrants from Mediterranean countries, mainly from Greece and Italy, as well as from Turkey and Cyprus, poured into Melbourne. According to the 2001 Census, there were 151,785 ethnic Greeks in Greater Melbourne. [28] . 47% of Australia’s Greek population lives in Melbourne [29] .The city is often referred to as “the largest Greek city outside of Greece”.

The demographic situation in Melbourne is characterized by a more or less even settlement of representatives of various ethnic groups in the districts of the city, but in some of them representatives of certain groups have historically had an advantage. It is generally accepted that Italians live in Carlton and Brunswick, Macedonians in Thomastown, Indians and Sri Lankans in the southeastern regions, Greeks in Oakleigh, Northcote and Husdale, Vietnamese in Richmond, Springvale and Footskrai, Maltese to Sunshine, Serbs to St. Albans, Turks to Coburg, Lebanese to Broadmead, Russians to Carnegie, Spaniards to Fitzroy, North Africans to Flemington.

The number of Melbourne residents who were born outside Australia is 34.8% (the national average is 23.1%). The UK is home to 4.7% of the city’s residents, followed by Italy (2.4%), Greece (1.9%) and China (1.3%).

Religion

Population of Melbourne
by years
1836 177 Start of settlement
1854 123 000 Gold Rush
1880 280,000 Real estate boom
1956 1,500,000
1981 2 806 000
1991 3 156 700 Recession
2001 3 366 542
2006 3 744 373
2011 3 872 918 Forecast
2021 4 253 367 Forecast
2031 4 591 846 Forecast
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
[30]

The 2006 Census found that 28.3% of Melbourne’s population (1,018,113) identified themselves as Catholic [31] .In second place is the group of the population that recognizes itself as atheists – 20.0% (717 717), followed by Anglicans – 12.1% (433.564), Orthodox – 5.9% (212 887) and representatives of the United Church – 4. 0% (143,552) [31] . The total number of people professing Buddhism, Islam, Judaism and Hinduism is 7.5%. Statistically, four out of ten Australian Jews live in Melbourne. The city is also home to the largest number of Holocaust victims of any other Australian city. [32] .

Population density and growth

Although the general demographic situation in Victoria is subject to fluctuations, Melbourne’s statistics offices have noted a steady increase in the city’s population of about 50,000 per year since 2003. Melbourne is currently the main destination for new overseas immigrants, surpassing Sydney. In addition, the city is currently growing at the expense of migrants from other major cities in Australia due to more affordable housing prices and relatively low cost of living [33] [34] .Over the past several years, population growth in areas of Melbourne such as Melton, Windham and Casey has been the highest among local municipalities in Australia. According to forecasts, if population growth continues in Melbourne at the same rate, then the city could again become the largest in Australia by 2028 90,035 [35] .

The population density of Melbourne began to decline after World War II thanks to the development of new territories for residential areas, the development of a public transport network and an increase in the fleet of personal vehicles.During these years, the development of the city took place mainly in the eastern direction. After numerous public discussions in the 1980s and the economic downturn of the 1990s, the decision was made to develop the city westward and at the same time increase the population density in the central regions.

City structure and management

Melbourne central districts map. On the north bank of the Yarra, you can clearly see the regular rectangle of streets that make up the Hoddle Plan.

Melbourne was founded on the north bank of the Yarra River in 1835 on an area of ​​1.6 km by 0.8 km.Construction in the city was carried out in accordance with the Hoddle Grid (eng. ), developed by Robert Hoddle, the then surveyor of the colony. All major streets in central Melbourne still follow this plan. The city center is known for its historic streets and passages, the most famous of which are Block Place and Royal Arcade, which are home to numerous shops and cafes [36] . The central part is replete with numerous historical and architecturally interesting buildings, such as the Royal Exhibition Center, the Victoria Parliament Building, Melbourne Central Hall.And although the place where the construction of the city began is still considered the center, it is not a demographic center due to the fact that in the 20th century Melbourne grew mainly in an easterly direction [37] .

Melbourne can in many ways be called a typical Australian city, as its development, especially in the 20th century, was determined by the development of residential areas, where the dream of every Australian family of their own home with a small plot of land could come true. Much of the Melbourne metropolis is characterized by a relatively low population density.The construction of a network of radial railways and tramways contributed to precisely this development of the city, when people preferred to settle in areas with relatively low land prices and near the so-called “transport corridors”.

Due to the huge number of parks, gardens and boulevards, Melbourne is often called the “Garden City”, and Victoria has been known as the “State of Gardens” since the 19th century. Most of the most famous gardens and parks are located in the immediate vicinity of the city center.Melbourne is home to five of the six tallest buildings in Australia, the tallest of which is Eureka Tower today.

Melbourne was ranked three times in 2002 [38] , 2004 and 2005 [39] according to the Economist study on the most liveable city. This study takes into account indicators such as culture, climate, cost of living, crime rate, health care. In recent years, rapidly rising house prices have pushed Melbourne to the 36th position in the list of the most expensive cities in the world and to the 2nd position among Australian cities. [40] .

The Melbourne Administration governs the City Center, which includes the Central Business District and some of the surrounding areas. However, the head of administration, the Lord Mayor of Melbourne, is often (especially when traveling overseas) is seen as representing Greater Melbourne, which includes the entire metropolitan area of ​​ [41] . In 2006, then Lord Mayor of Melbourne, John So, was awarded the prestigious World Mayor Award [42] .In 2008, the newly elected Robert Doyle took over this post.

The rest of the Greater Melbourne area is divided into 30 local municipalities. All of them have the status of city administrations, with the exception of four districts, which have the status of suburban ones. Boroughs form councils and are responsible for a variety of functions (assigned to them by the Victorian government under Local Government Act 1989 [43] ), such as city planning and waste collection.

Most citywide events are hosted by the Victorian Government, which sits at the Victorian Parliament Building on Spring Street. The government’s areas of responsibility include: public transport, main roads, traffic management, police, education, urban infrastructure planning and management. With two-thirds of Victoria’s population residing in Melbourne, the state government has traditionally had a lot of influence in urban affairs.This situation is not unique to Australia, as in many states, state governments govern even larger metropolises.

Economy

The largest seaport in Australia is located in Melbourne. Its annual turnover is around AUD $ 75 billion. Also, the Melbourne seaport accounts for 39% of the national container turnover [44] [45] .

Melbourne is home to most of the Australian auto industry, represented by the Ford and Toyota assembly plants and the Holden engine plant.The city is also home to many other industries, and at the same time is the largest financial and commercial center [46] .

Melbourne – the center of modern technology. The computer or information technology industries employ more than 60,000 people, the third highest in Australia. This industry has a turnover of AUD $ 19.8 billion, of which AUD $ 615 million is exported 90,035 [47] .

Melbourne is the largest banking center in the Asia Pacific region.Two of the four banks in Australia’s Big Four, NAB and ANZ, are headquartered in the city. Melbourne has a leading position among the largest cities in Australia in terms of the number of pension funds [48] . It houses Australia’s largest pension fund, the Federal Future Fund.

Tourism is currently one of the main sectors of the Melbourne economy. As of 2004, the city had approximately 4.6 million Australian tourists and 1.88 million overseas tourists 90,035 [49] 90,036.For the past period of 2008, Melbourne took the palm from Sydney as the main tourist center of Australia [50] .

Melbourne is home to many of Australia’s largest corporations, including five in the top ten (by total turnover), namely ANZ, BHP Billiton, National Australia Bank, Rio Tinto and Telstra [51] . It is home to the parent institutions of organizations such as the Business Council of Australia and the Australian Council of Trade Unions.

Melbourne is ranked 34th in the list of the world’s 50 largest financial centers according to the Mastercard World Commercial Centers Index and second in Australia, behind only Sydney.

The city is becoming increasingly important as a center for international gatherings and conferences. In February 2006, construction began on the largest convention center with 5,000 seats. The investment cost of the project is estimated at AUD $ 1 billion.

Transport

Flinders Street Station

Bolt Bridge, part of the City Link Toll Road

Melbourne’s transport system is consolidated under a single Metlink brand.It dates back to the second half of the 19th century, when trams and trains were the main means of public transport. Since the 1950s, due to a sharp increase in the number of private cars, roads and highways [52] have been built at a rapid pace. This trend continued over the following decades, resulting in a decline in the number of people using public transport regularly from 25% in the 1940s to 9% 90,035 [53] .In 1999, public transport in Melbourne was privatized [54] .

The tram network in Melbourne is considered the largest in the world, [55] . It is the only tram network in Australia with more than one line. The tram in Melbourne is not only a means of transportation, but also a cultural heritage and an important tourist attraction. There is a free circular route in the central part of the city, and mobile restaurants are widespread.

Melbourne’s local train network consists of 17 lines. All of them are radial lines, with the exception of a partially underground ring section that runs through the Central Business District of the city. Railways are mostly electrified. The largest in the city is Flinders Street Station [ source unspecified 491 days ] . In 1926, this station was considered the largest in the world in terms of the number of passengers [56] . Railways connect Melbourne to many cities within Victoria, as well as Sydney and Adelaide.Intercity trains leave from Southern Cross station.

Melbourne’s bus network consists of approximately 300 routes that mainly serve the outlying suburbs and fill the gaps between rail and tram lines.

Melbourne is characterized by a high degree of dependence on personal transport: only 7.1% of the population use public transport [57] , but recently this share has increased slightly, mainly due to the increased prices for gasoline [58] .Melbourne has approximately 3.6 million private cars and 22,320 kilometers of road, one of the highest per capita rates in the world of [57] .

The Port of Melbourne is the largest seaport in Australia. In 2007, about 2 million containers were transported through the port in 12 months, which put it in fifth place among the ports of the Southern Hemisphere [59] . Melbourne is Australia’s most important cruise port along with Sydney.There are regular ferries from the city connecting mainland Australia and the island of Tasmania.

Aircraft of Qantas and JetStar airlines near the passenger terminal of Melbourne International Airport

Melbourne has four airports. The largest is Melbourne International Airport located in Tullimarine. The airport is home to airlines such as Jetstar Airlines and Tiger Airwais Australia, cargo airlines Australian Air Express and Toll Priority, and a major hub for Qantas and Virgin Blue.Avalon Airport is located between Melbourne and Geelong and is Jetstar’s second home base. In the near future, it is planned to begin international flights from this airport to Kuala Lumpur, which will be operated by AirAsia X. [60] In addition, this airport is used by a number of airlines as a transport and repair base. All this makes Melbourne the only Australian city that has two international airports. Moorabbin Airport, located in the southeastern part of the city, is a major center for small aviation and, in addition, accepts a limited number of commercial flights.Essendon Airport, which was Melbourne’s main airport prior to the completion of the Tullimarine airport, is currently serving commercial and transport flights, and is also a major center for small aviation. [61]

Education and Science

Ormand College (1857), University of Melbourne

The education system in Melbourne, as well as throughout the state of Victoria, is under the control of the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD) [62] .This organization acts as an advisor to the two Victoria ministries involved in the administration of the education system, namely the Department of Education and the Department of Children and Early Childhood Development.

The education system is built according to a three-stage scheme: primary education ( primary school ), secondary education ( secondary schools or secondary colleges ) and higher education.

School education is compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 15.Up to two-thirds of schoolchildren are enrolled in public schools, the rest is in private schools. Education in public schools up to 12 years old is free, but this does not apply to international students. Regardless of which school is studying, public or private, upon graduation, students must have a certain level of knowledge and confirm this by passing uniform exams.

The largest universities in Melbourne and at the same time one of the largest in Australia are the University of Melbourne and Monash University.In 2006, the University of Melbourne was named Australia’s second best university [63] . In addition, according to the British magazine The Times Higher Education Supplement , the University of Melbourne is ranked 22nd among the best educational institutions in the world, while Monash University is on the 38th place. In the same study, Melbourne was named the fourth best university city on the planet after London, Boston and Tokyo [64] .

The oldest institutions of higher education in Australia are located in Melbourne, including a law school (1857), a technical school (1860), a medical school (1862), a dental school (1897), and a music school (1891).They are all part of the University of Melbourne, which is thus the oldest institution of higher education in Victoria and the second oldest in Australia.

The Australian Space Research Institute was also established in Melbourne in the early 1990s.

The

Academic Year generally lasts in Melbourne, as in all of Victoria, from late January to mid-December for primary and secondary schools and colleges, and from late February to late November for universities.

An important event was the XVIII International Botanical Congress, which was held in Melbourne from 24 to 30 July 2011.More than five thousand scientists took part in its work. [65] .

Health care

The Victorian government operates about 30 public hospitals and hospitals throughout Melbourne, as well as 13 other health care providers [66] . In addition, the city has a large number of private clinics and hospitals. Melbourne is the most important center for medical science in Australia.

Culture

The complex of buildings on Federation Square is a great example of modern architecture

Theater building Princesse-Seat

Melbourne is the cultural and sports capital of Australia.The city hosts a large number of annual cultural events and is home to many of Australia’s largest museums and exhibitions. The local architecture is also unique.

Musical culture has deep roots in the city. Many famous Australian musicians are from Melbourne. In recent years, the city has gained popularity in the world as one of the main centers of street art. This form of contemporary urban art has become so popular in Melbourne that it is reflected in travel guides.The city is considered one of the main world centers of Victorian architecture (1837-1901), which has preserved a large number of buildings of this style. The architectural appearance of the city is also inconceivable without beautiful examples of modern architecture that have appeared in Melbourne since the middle of the 20th century.

Theatrical life in Melbourne is very diverse. The city is home to the National Ballet of Australia. The Royal Melbourne Philharmonic Orchestra was founded in the city in 1853 and is Australia’s oldest professional orchestra and the only one to hold the Royal title.There are more theaters in Melbourne than any other city in Australia. The city is also a major center for Australian fashion. It hosts the Melbourne Fashion Festival every year.

Sports

Melbourne Cricket Ground, one of the city’s largest sports facilities

Melbourne is widely recognized as the cultural and sports capital of Australia. It hosts a large number of national and international sports competitions every year. The most significant of them are:

In addition, Melbourne hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and 2006 Commonwealth Games.In 2003, Melbourne hosted the Rugby World Cup; in 2001, Melbourne became the first city in the Southern Hemisphere to host the World Polo Championship. In 2007, the city hosted the World Aquatics Championship, and in early 2008 Melbourne hosted the Games of the Asia-Pacific Region.

Melbourne is home to Australian football (a game that combines elements of rugby and football) – the most popular sport in Australia in terms of attendance.The city is home to nine of the sixteen teams that play in the Australian Football League (AFL). The AFL Season Finals are considered Australia’s largest domestic sporting event and are held in the city on the last Saturday of September.

There are 29 sports facilities in Melbourne, each capable of accommodating more than 10,000 people in their stands. In 2000, the construction of the largest stadium in the city, Telstra Dom, with a capacity of 56,000 people, was completed. This stadium was the first sports facility in the world to host indoor soccer and cricket matches.

In 2006, London-based research and consultancy Arksport named Melbourne the World’s Best City for Sports Competition. This allowed Melbourne to be considered the unofficial sports capital of the world. [67] .

Mass media

Melbourne’s largest newspapers are Herald Sun , owned by Rupert Murdoch, and The Age , owned by Fairfax , and the evening tabloid mX , also produced by Murdoch.The national newspaper The Australian is published in Melbourne as a special issue for Victoria. This newspaper is also owned by Murdoch. The Murdoch News Group publishes several weekly magazines and owns over 50% of Fairfax, making all Melbourne-based dailies part of the Murdoch empire. Australia’s largest municipal media company, Leader Newspapers , publishes 33 local weekly newspapers that cover the problems of Melbourne’s neighborhoods and municipalities.

There are three commercial TV channels in Melbourne: Seven , Nine and Ten , as well as three public ones: ABC , SBS and municipal channel C31 . A large number of radio stations broadcast in Melbourne (the most famous: 3MBS , Triple J , Fox FM , 3AW , SEN 1116 ), which mainly belong to the three main networks of the city: DMG Radio Australia , Austereo and Southern Cross Broadcasting .

Tourism

Tourism is an essential part of Melbourne’s economy. As of 2004, the city was visited by 7.6 million Australian tourists this year and 1.88 million overseas tourists 90,035 [68] . Thanks to the large number of international sports competitions held in the city, sports tourism is widespread here [69] . Among the tourists visiting the city, a significant proportion are young people who travel as backpackers.In 2008, Melbourne overtook Sydney for the first time in the amount of money spent in the city by Australian tourists [70]

Main attractions

Royal Exhibition Center

Captain James Cook’s Cottage

View of the southern bank of the Yarra River and the Eureka Tower skyscraper

  • The State Library of Victoria is one of the largest libraries in Australia. The library building is an outstanding example of colonial classicism.It is not only a book depository, but at the same time an important center of the city’s cultural life. Many exhibitions, conferences, meetings with writers take place here.
  • Flinders Street Station building – located in the very center of the city, the station building is a kind of visiting card of the city. His image can be seen on numerous posters, postcards and icons dedicated to Melbourne. The station is the oldest railway station in Australia and is currently listed as a listed building and is under the protection of the Victorian government.
  • The Victoria Parliament Building is one of the finest examples of civil architecture not only in Australia but in the world. This building was the seat of the Australian Federal Parliament from 1901 to 1927.
  • Royal Exhibition Center – The building is located in Carlton Garden, built in 1880. An excellent example of Victorian architecture. The building was the first in Australia to receive UNESCO World Heritage status. This building hosted the first meeting of the Australian Parliament on May 9, 1901, at which the independence of Australia was proclaimed.
  • Captain James Cook’s Cottage is a small stone cottage, formerly owned by the family of Captain James Cook, moved to Melbourne from England in the first half of the 20th century. This building is Australia’s national shrine and the city’s most important tourist attraction.
  • Crown Casino is the largest casino and entertainment complex located on the south bank of the Yarra River. “Crown” is one of the “business cards” and main tourist attractions of the city.
  • Melbourne Aquarium – located in the heart of the city, on the banks of the Yarra River. Possesses an interesting collection of marine and river life in Australia and adjacent parts of the world’s oceans.
  • The Melbourne Museum is the largest museum in the Southern Hemisphere. The museum’s expositions are devoted to the history of Australia, Victoria and the city of Melbourne itself. The museum building is an interesting example of modern architecture. In addition to museum expositions, the building houses an auditorium, a theater, and an IMAX cinema.
  • The Memorial Monument is one of the largest monuments in Australia to soldiers who participated in all military conflicts in which the country took part. The legendary Mausoleum in Helikarnassus, one of the seven wonders of the world, was used as an idea for the project of the main building.
  • Immigration Museum
  • Yarra Embankment
  • National Gallery of Victoria
  • Federation Square is one of the main places for public gatherings and events in the central part of the city. Famous for its modern and largely controversial architecture.There are numerous exhibition premises, cinemas, restaurants, cafes and bars here. The large open space of the square connects the central part of Melbourne, the Yarra waterfront and adjacent parks.
  • The Rialto Tower is one of the tallest buildings in the city and in Australia. On the 55th floor of the building, at a height of 234 meters, there is an observation deck, which is considered one of the main attractions of Melbourne.
  • Queen Victoria Market is the oldest market located just outside the city center.Along with purely commercial value, it is of great historical and tourist importance. It is one of the most visited places in the city.
  • St Paul’s Cathedral is Melbourne’s main Anglican cathedral. Located in the heart of the city, forming the architectural axis of central Melbourne. Famous for its organ and the tallest spire of any Anglican church outside England.
  • St. Patrick’s Cathedral is the largest Catholic cathedral in the city. It is an outstanding example of the neo-gothic style.The cathedral is the largest church building built in the world in the 19th century.
  • Melbourne Arts Center
  • Eureka Tower

View of Melbourne at night from the New Docklands

Known residents of the city

Alfred Deakin

Politicians

Businessmen

Athletes

Cultural workers

  • Eric Bana – film actor
  • Cate Blanchett is a renowned film and theater actress.
  • Steve Irwin is a popular Australian naturalist, television journalist and author of numerous wildlife films.
  • Marynie Kennedy is an Australian actress.
  • Kylie Minogue is an Australian singer, songwriter, and actress.
  • Danny Minogue is an Australian singer, actress, songwriter, TV presenter, and clothing designer.
  • Olivia Newton-John – leading Australian actress and singer of the 1970s
  • Lisa Gerrard – Australian musician, vocalist and composer
  • Flea – bassist for the Red Hot Chili Peppers
  • Phil Rudd – drummer for AC / DC
  • Chris Chini – guitarist, vocalist, leader of The Living End
  • Lee Wannell – writer, actor, best known for the popular Saw franchise
  • Jesse Spencer – actor, best known from the TV series Dr. House
  • Emily Browning – actress
  • Vivian St. James is an actress and dancer.
  • Anna Torv is an actress known for the TV series Fringe.
  • Ashley Brewer is an actress.
  • Andrew Lees is an actor.

Melbourne has six sister cities [71] :

  • Osaka, Japan 1978
  • Tianjin, China, 1980
  • Thessaloniki, Greece, 1984
  • Boston, USA 1985
  • Saint Petersburg, Russia, 1989
  • Milan, Italy, 2004

In addition, some city administrations have established sister-city relations with other foreign cities.

Notes

  1. Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2006-07. (English). Australian Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on June 25, 2012. Retrieved on February 8, 2010.
  2. 1 2 Commonwealth Games Melbourne 2006 (English). Australian Government. Culture and Recreation Portal. Archived from the original on March 29, 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2010.
  3. Liveability ranking: Melbourne storm
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 City of Melbourne. Settlement – foundation and surveying. (English). City of Melbourne. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2010.
  5. 1 2 Fassa, James Jupp. The Snowy Mountains Scheme and Multicultural Australia. (English). Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering .. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on February 8, 2010.
  6. Lee, Robert. Linking a Nation: Australia’s Transport and Communications 1788 – 1970.(English). Australian Government. Australian Heritage Council .. Archived from the original on June 25, 2012. Retrieved on February 8, 2010.
  7. Otto, Kristin. When Melbourne was Australia’s capital city. (English). The University of Melbourne /. (Inaccessible link – history ) Retrieved 8 February 2010.
  8. 1 2 3 Button, James. Secrets of a forgotten settlement. (English). The Age (October 4, 2003). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 6, 2008.
  9. 1 2 Miles Lewis. Melbourne the city’s history and development. – 2nd edition. – 1995 .– P. 35.
  10. Robert B. Cervero. The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry. – Island Press, 1998.- S. 320 .– ISBN 1559635916
  11. 1 2 Michael Cannon. The Land Boomers. – New York: Melbourne University Press, Cambridge University Press, 1966.
  12. Tell Melbourne it’s over, we won. (English). Sydney Morning Herald (December 31, 2003). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 6, 2008.
  13. Melbourne’s population booms.(English). The Age (March 24, 2005). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 6, 2008.
  14. Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Climate statistics for Australian locations. (English). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 11, 2008.
  15. Updated world map of the Koppen-Geiger climate classification system // Hydrol.Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss . – No. 4. – P. 439-473.
  16. Welcome to Melbourne – Introduction. (English). City of Melbourne. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 11, 2008.
  17. 1 2 Snow misses CBD lunch appointment. The Age (August 10, 2005). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 11, 2008.
  18. Snow falls in Melbourne. Sydney Morning Herald (August 10, 2005). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 11, 2008.
  19. Santa brings snow to Melbourne. Herald Sun (December 25, 2006). (Inaccessible link – history ) Retrieved August 11, 2008.
  20. Melbourne: City of woes. The Age (September 2, 2003). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved August 11, 2008.
  21. Record heat and stupidity as Melbourne swelters. The Age (January 25 2003). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 11, 2008.
  22. Melbourne flood – Elizabeth Street, February 1972. The Age. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 11, 2008.
  23. Chong, Jordan. Smoke triggers alarm in city. The Age. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 11, 2008.
  24. Chong, Jordan. Melbourne sizzles in heatwave. ABC News (Jan 10, 2008). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 11, 2008.
  25. 2006 Census Tables: Country of Birth of Person by Year of Arrival in Australia – Melbourne.Australian Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on June 25, 2012. Retrieved on April 16, 2008.
  26. Victiorian Cultural Diversity Week. (English)
  27. VicNet – Strategy for Aboriginal Managed Land in Victoria: Draft Report. Part 1-Section 2. (English)
  28. 2001 Social Atlas for Melbourne abs.gov.au
  29. Multicultural communities. Greeks. (English). Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering…. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 7, 2008.
  30. Population Projections, Australia, 2004 to 2101. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on June 25, 2012. Retrieved on June 8, 2008.
  31. 1 2 2006 Census QuickStats: Melbourne (Statistical Division). Australian Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on June 25, 2012. Retrieved on August 11, 2008.
  32. Berman, Judith. Holocaust Remembrance in Australian Jewish Communities, 1945-2000. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 11, 2008.
  33. The Resurgence of Marvelous Melbourne Trends in Population Distribution in Victoria, 1991-1996
  34. Article by John O’Leary.Monash University Press
  35. Population pushing Melbourne to top. The Australian (November 12, 2007). (Inaccessible link – history ) Retrieved August 11, 2008.
  36. Freeman-Greene, Suzy. Melbourne’s love affair with lanes. The Age (August 10, 2005). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 22, 2008.
  37. Glen Iris still the heart of city’s sprawl.). The Age (August 5, 2002). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 22, 2008.
  38. Melbourne, Vancouver top city list. CNN (October 4, 2002). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 22, 2008.
  39. City Mayors: Best cities in the world (EIU). City Mayors. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 22, 2008.
  40. Cost of living – The world’s most expensive cities. City Mayors. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved on August 22, 2008.
  41. Dunstan, David. The evolution of Clown Hall (November 12, 2004). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 22, 2008.
  42. World Mayor: The results of World Mayor 2006 (eng.). World Mayor. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 22, 2008.
  43. Local Government Act 1989. (English)
  44. Malaysian National News Agency. Port Of Melbourne Sets Shipping Record. (English) (June 13, 2007). Archived from the original on March 29, 2012. Retrieved on August 22, 2008.
  45. The Age. Growth of Australia’s largest port essential.(English). December 18, 2004 . Archived from the original on March 29, 2012. Retrieved on August 22, 2008.
  46. Business Victoria. (English)
  47. Multimedia Victoria. Industry Snapshot. (English) (PDF). (inaccessible link – history ) Retrieved August 22, 2008.
  48. Funds Management Fact Sheet. (English)
  49. Media Release: MINISTER FOR TOURISM. MELBOURNE AIRPORT PASSENGER FIGURES STRONGEST ON RECORD. (English) (July 21, 2004). (inaccessible link – history ) Retrieved on August 22, 2008.
  50. The Age. Now Sydney loses its tourism ascendancy. (English) (May 19, 2008). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 22, 2008.
  51. BRW 1000
  52. The Age. The cars that ate Melbourne.(English) (14 February 2004). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on September 10, 2008.
  53. The Age. Trial by public transport: why the system is failing. (English). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on September 10, 2008.
  54. The Age. 90,034 $ 1.2bn sting in the rail. (English) (9 April 2006). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2008.
  55. Investing in Transport (PDF) 69. Victorian Department of Transport. (Inaccessible link – history ) Retrieved November 10, 2010.
  56. Melbourne and scenes in Victoria 1925-1926 from Victorian Government Railways From the National Library of Australia
  57. 1 2 Jan Scheurer, Jeff Kenworthy, and Peter Newman. Most Liveable and Best Connected? The Economic Benefits of Investing in Public Transport in Melbourne. (inaccessible link – history ) Retrieved September 10, 2008
  58. Herald Sun. Still addicted to cars. (English) (10 October 2007). (inaccessible link – history ) Retrieved 10 September 2008.
  59. Malaysian National News Agency. Port Of Melbourne Sets Shipping Record.(English) (13 June 2007). Archived from the original on March 29, 2012. Retrieved on September 10, 2008.
  60. Perth shows it has the X factor in the battle to attract low-cost Malaysian airline. The Australian.16 May 2008. Retrieved November 17, 2008.
  61. Essendon Airport. Essendon Airport Pty Ltd. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on November 17, 2008.
  62. Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. About the Department. (English). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 26, 2008.
  63. Sydney Morning Herald. ANU up there with the best. (English) (6 October 2005). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 26, 2008.
  64. RMIT. World’s top university cities revealed. (English) (6 October 2005). (inaccessible link – history ) Retrieved 26 August 2008.
  65. Official website of the XVIII International Botanical Congress (Melbourne, 2011) (English) (Retrieved February 9, 2010)
  66. Victorian Department of Health. Melbourne public hospitals and Metropolitan Health Services. (English). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on August 7, 2008.
  67. We are world’s sports capital. News.com.au . Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved November 28, 2006.
  68. MELBOURNE AIRPORT PASSENGER FIGURES STRONGEST ON RECORD. Media Release: MINISTER FOR TOURISM . www.dpc.vic.gov.au (21 July 2004). (link inaccessible – history ) Retrieved on 18 July 2008.
  69. Now Sydney loses its tourism ascendancy. The Age . theage.com.au (19 May 2008). Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on July 18, 2008.
  70. Now Sydney loses its tourism ascendancy – News – Travel – theage.com.au
  71. Our sister cities. City of Melbourne. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved on February 23, 2012.
Victoria
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Suburb Brimbank Cardinia Casey Frankston Dandenong Hume Knox Manningham Melton Mornington Peninsula Nillambict Wyndham Yarra Ranges
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90,000 Five models for organizing work after the pandemic

Where employees work, a lot depends not only on the design of the workspace of organizations, but also in the allocation of capital and personnel management.When it comes to prospects, experts disagree. Some argue that our experiment with working from home was so successful that the remote will not go anywhere. Others are convinced that many are sorely lacking in face-to-face communication and that offices will rapidly re-fill with staff. Somewhere in the middle between these two poles, there are those who are sure that instead of any of these extremes, an intermediate option awaits us – a hybrid work from home and office.

The future is here

I decided to clarify what working out of the office will look like in the future, and I interviewed 1,600 Australian office workers and spoke with several company leaders and experts in the field of organizing workspaces.Australia is an important example: instead of waiting for a vaccine to emerge, the country’s authorities have largely controlled the spread of the virus by closing borders to non-residents, restricting travel between states, imposing self-isolation orders and measures to closely track contacts at each outbreak.

In October 2020, as tough months-long restrictions began to be lifted in some regions, only 7% of workers returned to offices in Melbourne, the country’s worst-hit city by the pandemic, according to the Australian Property Market Council.By April, more than 41% of working professionals had returned to their offices. In Perth, Adelaide and other cities less affected by the pandemic, office occupancy rates are estimated at 70%, just slightly below pre-pandemic levels. Disease outbreaks continue to occur and the government is imposing time limits, borders are still closed, but most Australians can dine indoors, attend major sporting events and go to work. People are getting used to life without the threat of a pandemic, and this experience may be the first guideline for other countries in how, hopefully, the situation will develop in the future.

It is significant that Australian companies operate in different ways, there is no single model for all. Everyone is having a very difficult year behind them, and many employers say their employees are tired of change and just want to return to the office they are used to. This is partly why the acreage figures have risen so quickly since the lockdowns were lifted. Others see the lifting of restrictions as a good reason to try something new. Atlassian, a major software developer, recently announced that employees only need to come to the office four times a year.From conversations with business representatives and experts, I took out several approaches to further work, they can be divided into five categories.

Options to choose from

Everything is as it was: employees return to the office and to their usual schedule – from 9 to 17 The company pays more attention to health and hygiene and a more flexible work organization, but basically it is the same centralized office as it was before the pandemic.

Club: uses a hybrid model, employees come to the office when they need to work together, and otherwise, when they need to focus on other tasks, they stay at home.Offices turn out to be a kind of public space where people meet, communicate and work together.

Flexible functional model : employees work in the office without a fixed workplace. During the day, they move between meeting and acoustic office call booths, vacant workstations and common areas. Before the pandemic, most Australian offices with this approach to work organization had about eight desks for every 10 people (since employees do not always work on site, but may be located elsewhere).After the pandemic, many companies come to have such places for every 10 people, with the expectation that many employees will be absent from the office at one time or another, or they will work from home a couple of days a week.

Fan Pattern: Instead of driving to a large office in the downtown area, employees work from small satellites on the outskirts and close to where they live. This way they save time on travel and at the same time do not lose the opportunity to work with colleagues together.

Fully virtual model: employees work from home or elsewhere of their choice and empower companies to reduce the cost of high-value rent and development they started before the pandemic.

All these models are not new. Even quite radical concepts like virtual offices were tried and tested long before the pandemic. Large companies like Yahoo !, IBM and HP have experimented in the past with allowing employees to work remotely all the time.In 1993, Chiat / Day, an advertising agency, tried, albeit unsuccessfully, to switch to flexible functional organization of workspaces.

In some organizations, even before the pandemic, these models were already approached, but still in most cases there was no interest in them. And today, in fact, there are already expectations that companies will try something new. JPMorgan CEO Jamie Dimon recently drew a wave of criticism by announcing plans to return employees to their offices and reopening business as usual, and his desire to abandon meetings at Zoom.Most of the leaders I spoke with were forced to make decisions in unfamiliar situations, they had to choose from a variety of seemingly viable work organization models that they had not previously encountered.

Weigh the advantages and disadvantages

Each model has its own advantages and disadvantages. The functional concept saves space, but requires a major cultural transformation. The fan model looks logical, but it assumes the division of personnel not according to projects and functions, but according to the geographical principle.And returning to the office in the “everything as it was” is a very encouraging idea for many, but “as it was” will work out only if the majority return. Be that as it may, apparently, remote work from home to some extent will not go anywhere, which means that there will be fewer employees in the offices, there will be more phone calls and nothing will be exactly the same. …

The workers themselves also look at the further situation in different ways. For Australians, the most attractive were the hybrid models, which allow some flexibility with the ability to work from home and in the office (“club” and “functional model”).At the other extreme, the least popular fully telecommuting option was supported by less than 20% of Australian full-time employees surveyed.

It is worth noting demographic differences in the grouping of these preferences. For women, more often than for men, it would be important to combine work from the office and from home. Managers were more likely than specialists to say they would like to return to the office. And young people are more likely than older employees to welcome remote work.These disparities in estimates make one wonder how imprudent it would be to make decisions about the work environment model without first asking stakeholders in the company.

Not according to standard

In assessing possible solutions, leaders should consider the company’s goal and strategy, as well as the preferences and work style of employees. For a tech company that pays for rent in a prime area among other companies at a higher rate and sells products online at the same time, it is quite possible to go completely to virtual work.And for a small design bureau, for which an office is both a demonstration platform and a space for collaboration, a club model is suitable. Be that as it may, you need to understand that each company needs something different, which will not necessarily be appropriate for others.

What the pandemic could teach us about organizing the work environment is the understanding that working from home is no better and no worse than an office one, each of which has its own advantages. In the future, there will probably not be a single concept for all and each company will try different directions in an attempt to find something that will meet the needs of its business.Perhaps we will someday look back at previous workspace decisions and think: How strange that the offices were basically exactly the same type, that the headquarters of a law firm, newspaper, and technology company could look and work much the same.

About the Author: Daniel Davis is a leading researcher in Hassell’s international design practice, researching future work environments than 50 countries.The company is headquartered in Melbourne.

Head office in Melbourne

Originally founded over 130 years ago as Jones, Scott and Co., supplier of explosives during the gold rush, the business was acquired by Nobel. Nobel subsequently merged with several British chemical manufacturers to form Imperial Chemical Industries, and in 1928 the Australian operations were renamed Imperial Chemical Industries of Australia and New Zealand (ICIANZ), renamed ICI Australia in 1971.In July 1997, ICI sold its share of its Australian operations and changed its name to Orica, with the subsequent buyout from ICI of the international blasting business. The goal of this operation was to find a short, catchy and catchy name that reflects the structure of the business. According to reviews, the name Orica reflects the main ideas such as vision, knowledge, professionalism and technology, each of which reflects the positioning of the company. Informally, the name “Orica” ​​is believed to be derived from “Originally ICI Australia”.

Owners and management [edit]

The main owners of the company:
HSBC Custody Nominees (Australia) Limited – 17.8%
J P Morgan Nominees Australia Limited – 17.2%
National Nominees Limited – 14.3%
Citicorp Nominees Pty Limited – 5.4%

Manual:
The chairman of the board of directors of the company is Donald Merker.
Chief Executive Officer – Graeme Liebelt.

Current position of the company [edit]

Orica is currently developing three main lines of business:

– Blasting Services provides industrial explosives and related detonation systems and services to a variety of mining companies around the world.There are also supplies of chemicals used in the mining industry. Orica recently acquired its closest competitor, Dyno Nobel, in Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Africa, making it the largest manufacturer of industrial explosives in the world.

– Orica Chemicals supplies a wide range of chemicals, including plastics, adhesives, solvents and more, primarily to the Australian and New Zealand markets.The company is currently attempting to expand its operations in Indonesia and China.

– Orica Chemnet Australia’s leading distributor of chemical products. The Orica division uses internally corporate supply of products as well as logistics networks for imports for further processing to produce a wide range of consumer goods.

Orica had annual revenues of $ 7.1 billion in 2009.The company employs more than 15 thousand employees worldwide. Net income after tax in 2009 was $ 580 million.
Until May 2005, Orica owned 70% of Incitec Pivot Limited (ASX IPL), Australia’s largest chemical fertilizer producer. Most of this 56.5% stake was sold to Macquarie Equity Capital Markets Limited in May 2006. The remaining 13.5% was bought by IPL itself by a decision of the shareholders’ meeting on July 6, 2006.
Until recently, DuluxGroup Ltd was a division of Oriika and was located in the line of consumer goods.The DuluxGroup business line was withdrawn from the Orica group on July 12, 2010.
Orica Managing Director Graham Liebelt, prior to his current appointment, served as Executive and Executive Director of Orica Mining Services. Former managing director Malcolm Broomhead resigned on August 31, 2005 for health reasons. Chairman of the Board of Directors of Donald Mercer, previously served as Executive Director of Royal Dutch Shell before serving as Managing Director of ANZ.

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Srilankan Airlines: passenger reviews

Guest

May 29, 2016

Returning after receiving a visa to India on a Srilankan Airlines flight , at the landing I was “delighted” by the question – do I have a return ticket from India after the expiration of my visa? If this question was asked to me at the Embassy of India, I would understand.BUT the carrier company of the neighboring country ??? The policy of “twisting hands” to the same passengers as I was familiar with. But I forgot and got a ticket from Srilankan Airlines !!! FOR WHAT I PAYED with seven thousand rubles! because I was forced to buy a ticket to leave India …

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Guest

18 February 2015

Colombo and trying to get people on a small plane ever since.landing in Dubai), we decided to return tickets and purchase others from a normal airline. Attempts to fill out the online form for returning tickets a million times did not lead to anything, I had to write as many more first to the Moscow office (where Anna tried to play football with us – like I can’t help, write to the head office), and then to the head office. office (where, in general, they were also not eager to quickly resolve this issue). The process got under way only after my two persistent and meticulous calls to the head office with abuse.After that (a week after the start of the epic with the delivery of tickets), a confirmation came via email that our tickets were accepted for return, and the money would be …

Read completely on airlines-inform.ru

Guest

18 February 2015

the cancellation of the flight (although they call this a replacement of the plane, but in fact it is a complete cancellation of the direct flight Moscow-Colombo and an attempt to transfer people into a small plane with a technical landing in Dubai), they decided to return tickets and purchase others from a normal airline.Attempts to fill out the online form for returning tickets a million times did not lead to anything, I had to write as many more first to the Moscow office (where Anna tried to play football with us – like I can’t help, write to the head office), and then to the head office. office (where, in general, they were also not eager to quickly resolve this issue). The process got under way only after my two persistent and meticulous calls to the head office with abuse. After that (a week after the start of the epic with the delivery of tickets), we received a confirmation by email that our tickets were accepted for return, and the money would be .

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