Rsvp means and full form: meaning – What is the full form of RSVP?


meaning – What is the full form of RSVP?

meaning – What is the full form of RSVP? – English Language & Usage Stack Exchange

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I just wanted to know what is the English full form of “RSVP”, a word which we usually use on invitation cards? I read somewhere it’s a French word.

So I wanted to confirm if it has any English full form and if it does, what it is?

I googled the same but didn’t get the correct thing, so thought of asking here.


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asked Jan 8 ’14 at 20:23


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RSVP is indeed French and it stands for répondez s’il vous plaît. It literally means “please respond”.

RSVP is now a fixed idiom, even in French. If you spell it out in English, very few people will understand what you mean. You are better off keeping it as an acronym or coming up with something that is purely English if you don’t want an acronym.

answered Jan 8 ’14 at 20:42


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It’s a French abbreviation for « Répondez, s’il vous plaît », meaning “Please respond.” (Literally, « s’il vous plaît » means “if it pleases you”. However, no French speaker thinks of it that way — it’s just the way to say “please”.)

A “pure” English alternative might be, “The favor of your reply is appreciated.”

answered Jan 8 ’14 at 20:39


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What Does R.S.V.P. Mean? | HowStuffWorks

You know the initials — you’ve probably seen them on more invitations than you can remember. We’re talking about those four little letters R.S.V.P. They stand for the French phrase “répondez, s’il vous plaît,” which literally means “respond if you please.” But most people sending an invitation that includes R.S.V.P. want their guests to let them know whether they accept or decline the invitation.

In fact, the renowned etiquette organization, the Emily Post Institute, says the biggest etiquette faux pas they hear about is guests not to invitations. Anna Post wrote in a column on the site that “failure to respond to invitations is so annoying to so many. Without our follow through, there is no way for the host to intuit our answer, and all the while they need to know their final numbers for planning purposes.”

Judith Martin, the author of several etiquette books and a syndicated newspaper columnist known as “Miss Manners,” hammers home the importance of In a September 2016 Washington Post column, she told a reader, “Even the most casual invitations require definitive replies. If a co-worker stopped by your desk and asked if you’d like to go out for coffee, would you just turn away without a word?”

So not only should you be courteous and reply promptly to the hostess that so kindly invited you to her event, you should also try to respond on the same day. Consider this: For hosts who are planning a dinner party, a wedding or a reception, this is important from a practical point of view, because they need to know how many people to count on and how much food and drink to buy.

Most invitations have changed with the times and make it easy for guests to respond. Especially wedding invitations. Today they typically come with a response card — and a self-addressed stamped envelope — that you can mail back right away. All you really have to do is say whether you’ll attend. Not long ago, guests were expected to send handwritten replies on their own stationery to announce their intentions. Good luck with that today.

Less formal party invites now might include the host’s telephone number so you can call with your reply, although under strict etiquette rules, a written invitation requires a written reply.

So what happens when you’re the host and your guests aren’t Keep reading to see what the experts say.

RSVP Full Form – What is the full form of RSVP?

RSVP: Repondez s’il vous plait

The full form of RSVP is “Repondez s’il vous plait“. RSVP is not an English acronym. It’s French phrase Répondez s’il vous plaît (RSVP), which means ‘Please respond’ in English. As such, it has no direct full form in English. If you must have one, it can be ‘Respond soon, venerable person’. It is often written at the end of an invitation or sent as a RSVP card along with an invitation card to mean that you should let the people who invited you know whether or not you are coming.

The host organizing the event wants to know whether you will attend the event or not. In simple words, he wants the confirmation to his invitation in a polite way. It is also a courtesy of responding to someone who is nice enough to invite you. So, if you see RSVP on an invitation card, call your host and confirm him whether you will be coming or not to attend the event. Usually it is used by the host to have an idea of the number of people attending the occasion.

Other full forms of RSVP

Full Form Category
Rapid Serial Visual
Instruments & Equipment
Rapid Syndrome Validation Project General Business
Rapid Syntactic Visual Processing Physiology
Rare Songs Very Personal General
Rare Symmetry Violating Process Physics
Reading, Spelling, Vocabulary, and
Reading, Study, and Vocabulary Program Educational
Real Solutions For Video Projects News & Media
Really Sour Vicious Pickles Food & Nutrition
Really Stupid Viral Protection General
Really Stupid Vocal Performance General
Recycling Student Volunteer Project General Computing
Refund Support Vocations Program Chat
Register Students Via Phone Universities
Remember Sza Vedding Presents General
Remember to Send Valuable Presents General
Reply Soon Via Post USPS
Reports Scenario Verification Program Military
Reserve Seats Via Phone News & Media
Resolve to Stop the Violence Project Law & Legal
Resource Reservation Protocol Protocols
Resources for St. Vital Parents Educational
Respond Soon Via Phone Chat
Responding Seems Very Pitiful Chat
Responsible Social Values Program Law & Legal
Responsible Student Volunteer Program Universities
Restoring Social Virtue and Purity Community
Retired and Senior Volunteer Program Community
Retired Senior Volunteer Patrol Law & Legal
Return Soon Via Phone General
Revenue Share Value Plan Stock Exchange
Review, Study, Verbalize, Preview Literacy
Revised Standard Version Please Academic Degrees
Rice Student Volunteer Program Universities
Ride Seattle to Vancouver and Party Sports
Roaming Super Villain Party General
Rubber Stamp Vendor’s Promise General Business

How I Made A Fool Of Myself In France Using RSVP: The French Abbreviation

I was curious to learn why RSVP, a French abbreviation isn’t used in France. Here’s everything you need to know, its meaning in French and English, its origins, how to use it and my embarrassing story.

What’s the meaning of RSVP in English and French?

Like so many English words, RSVP is a French word, or in this case an abbreviation of a French phrase, adopted into the English language.

The meaning of RSVP in French and English:

The RSVP abbreviation stands for Répondez, S’il Vous Plaît,” which literally means “REPLY IF IT PLEASES YOU,” but idiomatically, means “PLEASE REPLY.”

My confused French friends and the story of the invitation

Silly me, I thought my French friends would understand the meaning of RSVP since it is a French abbreviation. I was so so wrong.

Despite being an abbreviation for a French phrase, RSVP, has fallen out of fashion in France, considered old-fashioned— but I didn’t know that when I first moved to France.

“Annie, can you design an invitation for my going away party?”

One of my good friends in France asked me to create an invitation (in French) for her going away party. She and her family were moving to Russia for three years for a job opportunity.

I happily agreed and came up with the idea to make the invitation look like a postcard with five red Russian nesting dolls—one for each family member, including the cat.

I think the invitation turned out super cute! Don’t you?

As I created the invitation in Photoshop, my girlfriends looked over my shoulder, giving me annoying but welcomed feedback.

When it came time to type RSVP at the bottom of the invitation, one of my friends squealed in a high pitched voice “mais qu’est ce que c’est ça, RSVP?” which could mean anything from “but what is this RSVP?” all the way to  “What the hell is that, RSVP?”. 

 My friends have a whacky sense of humour, so at first, I thought they were joking or pretending not to know the meaning of RSVP. It is, after all, a French abbreviation for the French phrase “Répondez, S’il Vous Plaît.”

So yes, I was a little confused. It took me a few minutes to wrap my head around this simple fact.

I tried explaining to them how Anglophone countries use RSVP, but nothing clicked until I told them it was like adding “R” to “SVP,” short for “S’il Vous Plait,” a well known French abbreviation for the word “please.”

They were intrigued by the use of “RSVP” in the English language but said we shouldn’t use it on a French invitation because no one would understand what it meant.

I was a little embarrassed and irritated because I had created several birthday invitations for my daughter over the years and used RSVP. No one ever said anything to me. 

How to ask people to RSVP in French

There are several ways you can request people to RSVP on French invitations. My friend asked me to simply type “Réponse avant le 30 Septembre”, which means respond before the 30th of September.

Here are six additional ways you can ask someone to RSVP on French invitations.

  1. Réponse souhaitée = Response wanted
  2. Réponse souhaitée avant la (date) = Response wanted before the (date)
  3. Merci de me confirmer ta présence= Thank you for confirming your presence
  4. Merci de confirmer ta présence le plus tôt possible en contactant au (tel) ou (email)= Thank you for confirming your presence asap by calling ((phone number)) or ((email ))
  5. Confirmez votre participation avant la (date)=  Confirm your participation before the (date)
  6. “Prière de Répondre” = (Somewhat more formal)  Pray do respond

Personally, I like “réponse souhaitée” followed by my contact information- phone number or email. It’s simple and to the point. Not too formal and not too friendly. 

Why isn’t RSVP used in everyday French anymore?

Like all languages, French has evolved, and as a result, many French words and phrases are no longer used in modern French, or the meaning has changed.

RSVP is one of the many old French words or abbreviations in this case, which has fallen out of widespread use by most French people today.


Here are a few more examples of French words that have fallen out of popular use in France but are still used by French Canadians:

  • Bébelle: Bébélle comes from thirteenth-century old French meaning” children’s toy.” My aunty in Montreal loves to say “Remasse tes bébélles”  which idiomatically means (pick up your stuff).
  • Croche: In French Canadian, this can mean anything from crooked to dishonest. But in France, it’s not really used at all anymore.

How did RSVP become part of the English language?

To understand how RSVP became standard on invitations and cards in English speaking countries, you need to understand a little history. 

In the year 1066, William the Conqueror of Normandy invaded England and defeated the English King Harold II at the Battle of Hastings. William has then crowned the first Norman King of England.

When William ascended the English throne, he spoke little to no English. Despite being of Scandinavian descent, William spoke a dialect of French, called Norse French, which he made the official language of the English court.

French remained the language of the English royal court for centuries and gradually blended with the Anglo-Saxon language— infusing it with new French words and giving birth to modern English.

The same thing happened to the Irish language which has a lot of French loan words borrowed from the French language.

11th. Century: RSVP begins to pop up on English birthday cards

RSVP, often written  R.S.V.P. (with periods) eventually made its way onto English birthday cards and wedding invitations beginning later in the 11th century.

French was still considered high fashion among the elite of the English court, and speaking French showed your elite status.

This affinity for all things French continued in England for several hundred years then travelled across the Atlantic where it became fashionable among high society in the United States— using French words showed refinement.

This trend continued until around the 19th century, and from this, RSVP and many other French words and phrases made their way into the English language and stayed despite it falling out of use and fashion in the French language.

And that is why RSVP is used in the English language but not the French language. is reader-supported through ads and affiliate links. When you buy through links on this site, I may earn a small commission but the price is the same for you which helps me buy more croissants for my kids and run this site. Merci for your support.

What does RSVP stands for in a marriage card?

The full form of RSVP is ‘Répondez S’il Vous Plaît’. In French, this means ‘please respond’. The literal meaning, however, is ‘respond if it pleases you’. The root verb behind the word répondez is répondre; répondez can be either second person plural present indicative or the second person plural imperative of répondre. In case of this popularly used phrase, it is the second one. The verb root répondre in French means ‘to respond’. Since French has a detailed conjugation like Sanskrit, the subject is not required and you can understand which person and number (here second person plural) are being indicated. Thus, saying only répondez means ‘vous répondez’ or ‘you (plural) respond’.

‘S’il vous plaît’, in French, is the usage for English ‘please’. The literal meaning is ‘if it pleases you’. Vous is the plural as well as the polite or formal form of second person, which is otherwise ‘tu’. While speaking politely, or speaking to elderly people, or in formal situations, we use s’il vous plaît. In informal cases, s’il te plaît is the commoner form.

France since the medieval period was known for its etiquettes and chivalry. In England, especially the high society, French etiquettes came to be adopted in the late 18th century. It can be assumed, therefore, that the tradition of writing RSVP began at that time. In fact, in the 19th and 20th century England, it was considered very impolite and rude if someone did not write RSVP in an invitation card. It was also the custom to reply an invitation with RSVP. If someone failed to respond to an invitation with a RSVP within a few days, the person was considered quite unsocial.

The person has been continued since then. Nowadays, many people may not know the meaning of RSVP, and they may not imply it as well; but it has simply been a custom to mention it. Nevertheless, if you receive an invitation card with RSVP, it will be good gesture to reply to it, by surface mail, email, phone call or whatsoever.

What does RSVP stand for? Full Form of RSVP

Find what does RSVP stand for and its field of usage ? is an abbreviation and acronyms dictionary. Full form of RSVP with definition and meaning are given below

Filter the results

RSVP » Répondez S’il Vous Plaît Misc – Misc Advertisement:

RSVP » Ride Seattle (to) Vancouver (&) Party Funny – Funny RSVP » Retired and Senior Volunteer Programme Academic & Science – University RSVP » Retired Senior Volunteer Programme Community – Community RSVP » Resource Reservation Protocol Computing – Computing

RSVP can be used by either hosts or routers to request or deliver specific levels of quality of service (QoS) for application data streams or flows.

RSVP » Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Medical – Medical RSVP » Resource Reservation Protocol Computing – Computing

RSVP can be used by either hosts or routers to request or deliver specific levels of quality of service (QoS) for application data streams or flows.

RSVP » Resource Reservation Protocol Computing – Computer Networking

RSVP can be used by either hosts or routers to request or deliver specific levels of quality of service (QoS) for application data streams or flows.

RSVP » Retired and Senior Volunteer Program Government – US Government RSVP » Retired and Senior Volunteer Program Community – Community RSVP » Repondez S’il Vous Plait International – French Advertisement:

RSVP » Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Media – Media RSVP » Retired and Senior Volunteer Program Academic & Science – University RSVP » Revenue Sharing Value Plan Business – Business RSVP » Responsible Social Values Program Law – Law RSVP » Rare Songs Very Personal Funny – Funny RSVP » Rice Student Volunteer Program Academic & Science – University RSVP » Rapid Syndrome Validation Project Business – Business RSVP » Rare Symmetry Violating Processes Community – Community RSVP » Retired Senior Volunteer Patrol Law – Law RSVP » Resolve to Stop the Violence Project Law – Law RSVP » Refund Support Vocations Program Internet – Internet Slang RSVP » Reading, Study, and Vocabulary Program Academic & Science – Education RSVP » Reports Scenario Verification Program Government – Military RSVP » Restoring Social Virtue and Purity Community – Community RSVP » Register Students Via Phone Academic & Science – University RSVP » Really Sour Vicious Pickles Food – Food RSVP » Recycling Student Volunteer Project Computing – Computing RSVP » Review Study Verbalize Preview Academic & Science – University RSVP » Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Medical – Medical It is a speed reading technology experiment model used oftenly to examine the temporal characteristics of attention. In this experiment, participants are required to look at continuous presentation of 10 visual items per second. RSVP can help people with poor eyesight with its one text at a time display that enlarges and highlights the words.RSVP » Resource Reservation Protocol Computing – Computing Resource Reservation Protocol is computer networking protocol, specifically Transport Layer protocol. It operates over an IPv4 or IPv6 Internet Layer and is designed to reserve resources across a network for an integrated services Internet.RSVP » Refund Support Vocations Program Internet – Internet Slang RSVP means Refund Support Vocations Program which is an internet slang.RSVP » Responding Seems Very Pitiful Internet – Internet Slang RSVP is a slang used over the internet to refer Responding Seems Very PitifulRSVP » Respond Soon Via Phone Internet – Internet Slang RSVP means Respond Soon Via Phone which is an internet slang.RSVP » Respond to Sender Very Promptly Internet – Internet Slang Respond to Sender Very Promptly is an abbreviation of slang RSVP over the internetRSVP » Ride Seattle (to) Vancouver (&) Party Funny – Funny Ride Seattle (to) Vancouver (&) Party is a comical incarnation of RSVP over the internet. RSVP » Rare Songs Very Personal Funny – Funny RSVP is a goofy abbreviation which stands for Rare Songs Very PersonalRSVP » Roaming Super Villain Party Funny – Funny RSVP is a funny abbreviation of Roaming Super Villain PartyRSVP » Remember Sza Vedding Presents Funny – Funny RSVP stands for Remember Sza Vedding Presents which is created to make fun of RSVP.RSVP » Really Stupid Vocal Performance Funny – Funny RSVP means Really Stupid Vocal Performance which is nothing but a dig at RSVP .RSVP » Return Soon Via Phone Funny – Funny Return Soon Via Phone is facetious abbreviation created by some anonymous user to express Return Soon Via Phone in his own words. RSVP » Really Stupid Viral Protection Funny – Funny RSVP means Really Stupid Viral Protection which is nothing but a dig at RSVP .RSVP » Remember to Send Valuable Presents Funny – Funny RSVP stands for Remember to Send Valuable Presents which is created to make fun of RSVP.RSVP » Really Strange Verified DogPeople Funny – Funny RSVP is a funny abbreviation of Really Strange Verified DogPeopleRSVP » Reserved for Special Valuable Person Funny – Funny RSVP is a goofy abbreviation which stands for Reserved for Special Valuable PersonRSVP » Retarded Student Voluntary Program Funny – Funny Retarded Student Voluntary Program is a comical incarnation of RSVP over the internet. RSVP » Heartland Retired & Senior Volunteer Program Organization – Non-Governmental Organization Heartland Retired & Senior Volunteer Programis a NGO based in Kirksville, United States. RSVP » Retired & Senior Volunteer Program Organization – Non-Governmental Organization Retired & Senior Volunteer Program NGO is located in Slayton in United States. RSVP » Retired and Senior Volunteer Program Organization – Non-Governmental Organization Retired and Senior Volunteer Programis a NGO based in Hemet, United States. RSVP » Retired and Senior Volunteer Program North Dakota Organization – Non-Governmental Organization Retired and Senior Volunteer Program North Dakotais a NGO based in Bismarck, United States. RSVP » Retired Senior Volunteer Program Organization – Non-Governmental Organization RSVP stands for Retired Senior Volunteer Program NGO which is situated in Newport in United States. RSVP » The Retired & Senior Volunteer Program of San Francisco Organization – Non-Governmental Organization RSVP stands for The Retired & Senior Volunteer Program of San Francisco NGO which is situated in San Francisco in United States. RSVP » Repondez S’il Vous Plait International – French R.S.V.P. is abbreviated for Respondez S’il Vous Plait, a French phrase which means “Respond/Reply if you please” or “Please reply”. R.S.V.P. is a request for response from an invited person or people i.e., the person sending the invitation would like the invited person to tell him or her whether that person accept or decline the invitation, or will the invited person coming to the event or not. This is an important part of the wedding planning process. Generally, it is written at the right end of the invitation card. With the invitation, one should always include an R.S.V.P.RSVP » Relief Services for Veterinary Practitioners Medical – Veterinary RSVP » Reply whether or not you can attend Military – RSVP » Please Respond Internet – Messaging

More full form of RSVP

More full forms :
ROA RUOK? RA RAN RDF RDW ReIM ReSA RFM RFMP RG RLS RMS ROQ RPP RSS RTM RWMS What is the full form of RSVP ?Meaning of RSVPWhat does RSVP mean?

RSVP Full Form, Meaning, Pronunciation

It often writes at the top of a call for participation card or sent as an RSVP card alongside a call for participation card that an individual sends to ask guests to attend the event like a wedding ceremony, birthday celebration, the inauguration of a business or the other event. RSVP may be a process for a response from the invited person or people. RSVP employed to point out that a response to a call for participation required or expressly requested. Usually, it employed by the host to possess a thought of the number of individuals attending the occasion. In some cases used for those that treated with preference. Here we discuss RSVP Full Form, Meaning, Pronunciation, etc.

Also Read: CRM Full Form

How does one RSVP on an invitation?

To use it during a sentence, simply say, “RSVP to the present invite by (whatever date is chosen).” One last thing: you do not want to sound gauche. Don’t add the word “please” before or after “RSVP,” as that might be redundant. “RSVP” is brief for “répondez s’il Vous plaît,” which translates to “please respond.”

What is the RSVP email?

RSVP is an abbreviation for the French phrase “répondez s’il Vous plait”, which suggests “please answer”. Traditionally, invitations sent through the mail include a printed envelope and a solution card to facilitate the recipient’s response.

How does one confirm an invitation?

  • If you get accepted the invitation, you’ll either want to thank your host as soon as you join the celebration or event or perhaps you’ll wait until the top of the event to try to so. …
  • I appreciate the invitation.
  • Thank you for inviting me.
  • Thank you for having me/us.
  • I had an exquisite time.

How does one RSVP via text?

Once you receive your invitation, the host will include their dedicated telephone number for text message RSVP replies. All you’ve got to try to next is pull out your phone (we know you have already got it on you), and send a text message to the amount. Most RSVP cards will read “To reply, text “hello” to 123.456.

How does one politely accept an invitation?

Sample phrases to use in an off-the-cuff invitation
To accept a call for participation in an off-the-cuff party/dinner, you’ll write: “Thanks for your invitation/invite. I’d like to come.” “Thank you for inviting me to dinner.

How does one answer no RSVP?

If you receive a call for participation without an RSVP, you not obligated to reply. However, you’ll wish to drop the hosts a brief note to thank them for the invitation and allow them to know if you’ll be attending.

What is a proper invite?

Formal invitations are standard for events that decisions for formal or sheath, like weddings. Addresses, dates, and times typically spelled out. a proper invitation card should use the person (e.g., they’re) instead of first (e.g., I, we, my, our) and include the complete names of the event’s hosts.

What does one write of an RSVP card for a birthday invitation?

A good way around the RSVP is to let guests skills you would like them to reply. you’ll add a comment like this to your invitation: “Please allow us to know if you’re coming so we will prepare enough food.” “Please call and allow us to know if you’re attending so we will tell (name of the place) what percentage to expect.”

How does one RSVP professionally via email?

If you would like to simply accept a call for participation you already declined, tell the person. for instance, email them under the topic heading “Changing my RSVP” and write “I would like to attend your event if you continue to have the supply to host more guests.” RSVP changes should be done as soon as you’ll. RSVP Full Form is ‘Répondez, S’il Vous Plait’.

How do I found out an RSVP website?

Click the pencil icon next to the events you would like guests to RSVP online to, scroll right down to “Website Settings,” and confirm the toggle says “Yes” next to “Allow guests to RSVP on website” Consider if you want to ask your guests about their meal preferences for every event and enter the choices they will choose between.

How does one confirm an email invitation?

Sample Email response
Thank you considerably for the invitation to interview for the Account Analyst position. I appreciate the chance, so and that I anticipate meeting with Edie Wilson on June 30th at 9 AM in your xzy office. If I can provide you with any longer information before the interview, please let me know. RSVP Full Form is ‘Répondez, S’il Vous Plait’.

How does one answer a confirmation email?

  • The generally accepted format is:
  • Dear Mr./Mrs./Ms./Dr./… followed by their surname.
  • I am writing to confirm….
  • I would wish to confirm….
  • This letter is to confirm…
  • or I’m happy to confirm….
  • I would wish to confirm our meeting tomorrow August 7th at 10 am. …
  • Please inform me if you would like additional information…

Useful Links: Digital India, NSP, Mobile Number Tracker, Mobile No tracker, Free Career Guide

90,000 Dynamic tunnels based on the next hop | MPLS Applications User Guide

Starting with Junos OS 16.2, Dynamic UDP Tunnel supports creating a tunnel compound next-hop for each configured UDP tunnel. These dynamic next-hop UDP tunnels are called MPLS-UDP tunnels. Composite next hop is enabled by default for MPLS-UDP tunnels.

MPLS tunnels over UDP can be bi-directional or unidirectional in nature.

  • Bi-directional. When PE devices are connected via MPLS-UDP tunnels in both directions, this is called bidirectional MPLS-over-UDP tunnel.

  • Unidirectional – Two PEs are connected through an MPLS UDP tunnel in one direction and through MPLS / IGP in the other direction, this is called an MPLS-over UDP unidirectional tunnel.

    Unidirectional MPLS UDP tunnels are used in migration scenarios or when two PEs communicate with each other over two bi-directional networks.Since a reverse tunnel does not exist for unidirectional MPLS UDP tunnels, you must configure MPLS-over-UDP filter-based decapsulation on the remote PE to forward traffic.

Starting with Junos OS release 18.2R1, on PTX and QFX10000 series routers with unidirectional MPLS-UDP tunnels, you need to configure a remote PE device with an inbound filter for MPLS-over-UDP packets, as well as IP and UDP decapsulation actions -addders for forwarding packets in the reverse tunnel direction.

For example, on the remote PE, Device PE2, the following configuration is required for unidirectional tunnels with MPLS UDP:


 [edit firewall filter]
user @ host #  set Decap_Filter term udp_decap from protocol udp 
user @ host #  set Decap_Filter term udp_decap from destination-port 6635 
user @ host #  set Decap_Filter term udp_decap then count UDP_PKTS 
user @ host #  set Decap_Filter term udp_decap then decapsulate mpls-in-udp 
user @ host #  set Decap_Filter term def then count def_pkt 
user @ host #  set Decap_Filter term def then accept 

In the above configuration Decap_Filter is the name of the firewall filter used for MPLS-uDP decapsulation.The term “udp_decap” is an inbound filter to accept UDP packets on the main interface interface of the PE2 device, and then decapsulates MPLS-over-UDP packets for MPLS-ip packets for re-forwarding.

You can use existing firewall commands in live mode, for example, to view MPLS UDP decapsulation based on the show firewall filter filters.

For example:

 user @ host>  show firewall filter Decap_Filter 
Filter: Decap_Filter
Name Bytes Packets
UDP_PKTS 16744 149
def_pkt 13049 136


For MPLS UDP unidirectional tunnels:

  • Only IPv4 address is supported as external pen. Filter-based MPLS UDP decapsulation does not support an IPv6 address in an external preg.

  • After decapsulation, only the default routing instance is maintained.

Starting Junos OS 17.1 on MX series with MMPC and MCS, the scaling limit of MPLS tunnels, which can be larger than UDP, is increased.

Starting with Junos release 19.2R1, on MX series routers with MCS and MCS, carrier support architecture (CSC) can be deployed using MPLS-UDP tunnels carrying MPLS over dynamic IPv4 UDP tunnels established between carrier PEs. With this enhancement, the scaling benefit of the MPLS over UDP tunnel is further enhanced. CSC support with MPLS UDP Tunnel is not supported for IPv6 UDP Tunnel.

The existing dynamic tunnel feature requires full static configuration.Currently, tunnel information received from peers on advertised routes is ignored. Starting with Junos OS releases 17.4R1, MX series routers are signaling dynamic MPLS based on UDP next-hop using extended BGP encapsulation. BGP export is used to specify the types of tunnels, advertise the tunnel information on the sender side, and to parse it and transfer the tunnel data on the receiver side. The tunnel is created according to the resulting tunnel community type.

Multiple tunnel encapsulations are supported by BGP. When multiple capabilities are received, a dynamic next-hop tunnel is created based on the configured BGP policy and tunnel preference. To configure a tunnel, a tunnel preference must be set at both ends of the tunnel. By default, MPLS-over-UDP tunnel is preferred over GRE tunnel. If a dynamic tunnel configuration exists, then it takes precedence over the received tunnel community.

When configuring dynamic MPLS next hop over a UDP tunnel, consider the following factors:

  • An IBGP session must be configured between the PEs.

  • Switching between dynamic tunnel encapsulations based on the next hop (UDP and GRE) is allowed, which can affect network performance in terms of supported IP tunnel scaling values ​​in each mode.

  • Having both GRE and UDP-based dynamic tunnel encapsulation types for the same tunnel destination causes the commit error to fail.

  • For MPLS UDP unidirectional tunnels, you must explicitly configure MPLS-uDP filter-based decapsulation on the remote PE for forwarded packets.

  • With Routing Module-UDP MPLS Switching (GRES) and uDP MPLS Tunnel Type flags, compatible with ISSU and NSR.

  • MPLS tunnels over UDP are supported on virtual MX (vMX) in Lite mode.

  • MPLS tunnels with support for dynamic GRE tunnel creation based on new IPv4-mapped-IPv6 hops.

  • MPLS tunnels over UDP are supported in the field of inter-serial communication with contrail, where MPLS over UDP tunnels are created from contrail vRouter to the MX gateway.This requires the following community advertisement in the route from the router MX series of the contrail vRouter router:

     [edit policy-options community]
    udp members 0x030c: 64512: 13;

    Only one tunnel type is currently supported in contrail vRouter – dynamic GRE tunnels based on next hop, MPLS tunnels over UDP or VXLAN.

  • The following features are not supported in a dynamic MPLS hop over UDP configuration:

    • Automatic Mesh Net RSVP

    • Simple configuration for IPV6 GRE and UDP tunnels

    • Logic systems


Fig.1 illustrates a Layer 3 vpn scenario over dynamic MPLS-UDP tunnels. Client edge device (CE) devices CE1 and CE2 connect to vendor edge (PE) devices PE1 and PE2, respectively. The PEs are connected to a provider device (P1 Device), and an internal BGP (IBGP) session connects the two PEs. A dynamic bidirectional MPL-over-UDP tunnel is configured between PEs based on a dynamic hop.

Rice. 1: Dynamic MPLS tunnels over UDP

An MPLS over UDP tunnel is handled as follows:

  1. After configuring MPLS-UDP, a tunnel destination mask route is created with a next hop composite for the tunnel in the inet route table.3. This IP tunnel route is removed only when the dynamic tunnel configuration is removed.

    The attributes of the tunnel compound next hop include the following:

    • If Layer 3 VPN Composite Next Hop is Disabled – Source and Destination, Encapsulation String and VPN Label.

    • When composite Layer 3 VPN next hop and labeling for each VPN prefix are enabled – source address, destination address, and encapsulation string.

    • When Layer 3 VPN Composite Next Hop is enabled and labeling for each VPN prefix is ​​disabled — source address, destination address, and encapsulation string. In this case, the route is added to another virtual routing route and the forwarded route instance table with a secondary route.

  2. PEs are connected using an IBGP session. IBGP next hop to remote BGP is a next hop protocol that is allowed using the next hop tunnel mask route.

  3. After allowing the next protocol hop through the tunnel compound next hop, indirect next hops with subsequent hops are created.

  4. Tunnel compound next transition is used to overvoltage subsequent transitions along indirect next transitions.

still at point – Russian translation – Linguee

However, the continued discovery of new and large weapons caches demonstrates that the intent to


maintain a degree of military capability endures and this

capability c ou l d still b e u nlea sh e d at at at futu r e point i n t ime.

However, the discovery of more and more large arsenals of weapons indicates that they have not abandoned the


intent to keep a certain military

potential and that in to some m ohm en t in bu d even m this potential can still [

to be involved.

Both sides are willing to talk, but they a r e still e m ph asizing maximum dem an d s 9018 t hi s point , a nd patience is clearly required before detailed discussion can begin.

Both sides are ready to negotiate, but at this stage they are still pushing for maximum demands, and patience is clearly needed until detailed discussions can be started.

However, although two colors meet at the same f oc a l point , t he intermediate color (gr ee n ) still c o nv e rg e s at a a a fferent fferent fferent point .

However, although two colors are found in codes n oh focal then chk e, intermediate colors (for example , green ) focus dr 9018 yr th point.

Recent events, however, have highlighted the fact that we a r e still f a r from th point a t , a s some Governments appear t o b e at w a r

However, recent events have shown that to achieve this price l and n a m another n re qs then um do a lot, since a number of governments seem to be finding i tf i at from st ni war with its own people.

At t h e hal fw a y point , m especially in icr a , still f a ce d problems that would prevent them from attaining the Millennium Development Goals by the target date.

Halfway along the track, m Many countries, especially in Africa, continue to struggle to meet the Millennium Development Goals by the target date.

India was also concerned that, after three years, the Tsunami Warning F oc a l Point ( T WF P) data base w a s still i n co mplete.

India also voiced

concern that for three years a another er sheno formation of a database of tsunami warning focal points (CCRC) …

UNESCO is there fo r e still e n ga ged in consultations, both within the Secretariat, and with the major funding sources, on modalities that on the one hand would further improve overall compatibility between regular program and extrabudgetary activities, but th a t at t h e same time would take due account both of the priorities of the funding sources, and of the changing needs of the potential beneficiaries.

B c vya zi with this UNESCO continued to consult both within the Secretariat and with major funding sources on methods aimed at improving the overall relationship between activities carried out under the regular program , and activities financed from extrabudgetary sources, however, due consideration should be given to both the priorities expressed by funding sources and the changing needs of potential beneficiaries.

Christian Churches or Cathedrals can be either in form of a dome, modeled on the human head, or have belfries resembling the ascending human


nose, above which inside a bell-like sound

is heard when the soul concentr at e s at t h e still point b e b e between the two eyebrows.

Christian churches or cathedrals either end in the form of a dome, symbolizing the head of a person, or have a bell tower, similar to


Rising human figure, inside which

is heard
bell-like sound when shower a concentrates i on motionless t o chk e n oz adi between the eyebrows.

I am convinced that many of

our part ne r s still f a il to understand precisely th i s point point point a nd for this reason they are unable to see the gold mine that is l yi n g at t h ei r feet.

I am convinced that many of our and partners to si x pores cannot understand and men n this m ohm t, and to do not realize what a gold mine is under their feet.

W at e r at t hi s point still c nt184..]

of ammonia, nitrate, sulfate, and cyanides.

In d a in floor ohm seats e according to re contains increased […]

concentrations of uranium, arsenic, ammonia, nitrates, sulfates and cyanides.

Although we are reconsidering the


organization of global economic

markets, which is an important star ti n g point , w e still r ge r ge r ge in parallel to reform the […]

main institutions of global


financial and economic governance in order to provide the developing countries with further opportunities to participate and express their opinions.

We are already in the process of revising the architecture of the global


economic markets, which itself is

by itself is an important point r av but r point, n o all r av but retained no 9018 Aggressive Necessity […]

in parallel


and reforms of the main institutions of global financial and economic governance, so that developing countries have new opportunities to participate in ongoing processes and express their views.

Their decision restored the

margin for P-4 grade and higher to 111, and the overall margin to 112.2, that i s , still b e lo w the desirable m i d point o f 1 15.

She decided to restore the difference for class P-4

and higher up to 111 and the total difference q o 112 , 2, that at -pr hedgehog is below the desired level n i, which is IU diana constituting 115.

When asked why they

have left a n d still l e av e their country, ethnic Russ ia n s point t o t he lack of […]

economic opportunities


because of their ethnic origin.

N a question, n och they leave him l and and n po must leave, ethnic Russians indicate […]

for lack of economic opportunities


due to their ethnic origin.

Additionally, BFC has been designated F oc a l Point at H e ad quarters for all matters relating to the Brasilia Office to facilitate a two-way communication [ …]

and ensure that program


design and execution backstopping is secured by the program sectors at Headquarters.

In addition to t og o, Headquarters -kv ar ti re BFC was appointed coordinator for all e m issues, to ac for the purpose of the Office in Brasilia facilitating two-way communication […]

and provisions,


in which the program sectors at Headquarters are responsible for developing the program and supporting its implementation.

Crossing an

income or asset thres ho l d at a point i n t … ime does not necessarily t … ime does not necessarily

mean that the household is resilient and will


remain above the threshold in future.

Crossing to as th to m ohm en t time threshold n on income […]

or the value of the property does not mean at all that this household


has become stable and will be able to remain above this threshold in the future.

The hostel offers the following wide selection of services to its guests:


brakfast, dinner, bar, meeting

rooms, satellite Tv, inte rn e t point at 1 Eu ro per hour and FREE […]

WI-FI, telephones, table tennis,


table soccer, washing machines and dryers, city and tourist sight-seeing bus tickets, reservations for other hostels of the Association, reservations for tours in Florence and Tuscany, credit card payments, safe for valuables, garden, parking and camping.

The hostel offers a wide range of services for its guests: breakfast, dinner, bar,


conference hall, satellite

television, intern e t ( 1 euro s s s s s s s en s lane computers) […]

and FREE WI-FI, telephone, desktop


tennis, foosball, cinema, washing machines and tumble dryers, phone cards, city and tourist sightseeing bus tickets, booking other hostels, booking tours in Florence and Tuscany, credit card payments, safe, parking and camping.

While the universal periodic re vi e w still a t tr acted a great deal of atten ti o 9018 at t h e national level, the Committee’s contribution […]

was far from negligible at the preparatory stage;


its conclusions and recommendations were systematically taken up in the compilation prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner and were also quoted by delegates.

If the universal periodic r zo r c d her st vi always attracts a large e Committee attention to 9018..]

contributes by no means small to preparatory


stage; its findings and recommendations are systematically reflected in compilations prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner and cited by delegates.

Nowadays the symptoms of intense intra- and extrahepatic cholangiectasis are well known: presence of volumetric intra- and periductal neoplasms obstructing patency of bile-excretory ducts; presence of dilated intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts with superjacent obstruc ti o n point , e tc . B u t still w e h ave no diagnostically significant criteria of biliary obstruction development rea so n s at at n s t h e early stages, before intense clinical symptoms of jaundice appear.

At present, the signs of pronounced intra- and extrahepatic cholangiectasia are well known: the presence of volumetric intra- or periproduct formations that disrupt the patency of the bile ducts; determination of the proximal place of obstruction of the dilated extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts, etc.

Mark a point “A” on the backrest on the same horizontal level as the shoulder

of the smallest man ik i n at a point 2 cm inside the outer edge

of the arm.

On the back at the same level, at


which is the shoulder of

small dummy e at , mark point “A ” n and at a distance of 2 cm […]

towards the center of the outer edge of the arm.

Despite strategies and

programs undertaken up to th i s point t h ere i s still n184 still n still n for further intensified […]

and accelerated efforts


in order to effectively deal with the situation.

Despite the implemented d so far n op strategists and and programs, to pr there is still a need […]

in intensifying and accelerating efforts


in the direction of effective resolution of the current situation.

Once it became apparent that the Israelis intended to commandeer the ships, the decision was made for the Challenger 1 to accelerate out of the formation of the flotilla to allow more time for the journalists aboard to transmit news of the assault to the outside world via the boat’s


satellite Internet connection, which remained

in operation, but also in the hope th a t at l e as t one boat m ig h t 9018 still b e a ble to reach Gaza.

When it became apparent that the Israelis were intent on hijacking the ships, it was decided that the Challenger 1 would speed up and withdraw from the flotilla in order to give the journalists on board more time to report the attack. to the outside world through


satellite Internet channel,

which operated , and t also in the hope that, n about less m ep e, one vessel will still be able to […]

reach Gaza.

However, participants also recognized that integrated adaptation plannin g i s still at a n e arly and that much can be gained stage through learning by doing.

However, participants also admitted

that comprehensive planning in the field of adaptations t aci and to pr hedgehog not mu is only n at an early stage of its development and that many o you can beat to based on practical experience.

The Committee expresses serious con ce r n at t h e lack of concrete measures taken by the State party to follow up on the previous recommendations of the Committee on the conditions of detention of children in police or gendarmerie stations and the methods used by law enforcement officials (CRC / C / 15 / Add.193 paras.30 and 31) which a r e still r e po rted and which constitute a grave violation of article 37 (b) of the Convention.

The Committee expresses grave concern at the inadequacy of specific measures taken by the State party to implement the Committee’s previous recommendations regarding the conditions of detention of children in police or gendarmerie stations and the methods used by law enforcement officials (CRC / C / 15 / Add.193, paragraph 30 and 3 1) , x continue to be reported and constitute serious violations of Article 37 (b) of the Convention …

Noting the efforts made by the State party to develop prevention campaigns to tackle the spread of the AIDS, the


Committee is concerned that adequate knowledge and

education about HIV / AIDS and preventive measures a r e still at a lo w level.

While noting the efforts of the State party to scale up prevention campaigns to tackle the spread of AIDS, the Committee notes with concern that


Awareness Level and

education on VI Ch / SP I Yes and preventive m ep am in This is still low.

While acknowledging the significant progress made in the area of ​​the rights of women, France added that domestic violence w a s still at a ve ry alarming level and the units of fighting violence against women seemed not to be very effective due to the lack of receptivity of the police officers on this subject.

Recognizing significant progress in the protection of women’s rights, France added that domestic violence n is already alarmingly high, and that the units to combat violence against women appear to be highly ineffective due to police insensitivity to this phenomenon. …

The strategy stems from a snapshot picture that shows the trends and patterns

characterizing UNESCO’s staf fi n g at a December point i n t […]

in terms of composition of staff by contractual arrangements and source of funds (regular budget and extrabudgetary funds), and the structure


of staff by category, location, functional area, gender and geographical distribution.

This strategy was developed on on based on sample analysis reflecting trends and patterns characterizing personnel

situation in UNE C KO at specific at rem i (December 2004) […]

in terms of composition of staff by type of contract and source of funding (regular budget and extrabudgetary


funds), as well as the structure of staff by category, location, occupation, gender and geographic distribution.

In this instance, the treaty does not take precedence over the law, because t h e point at i s su e is the precedence to be accorded in a concrete case.

In the latter case, the treaty does not have priority over the law, since we are talking about the priority of application in a particular case.

According to Mr. Kollapen, policy incoherence is due to a range of factors, including the tendency by


Governments to view human

rights narrowly; the lack of a human rights f oc a l point at t h e governmental level; a contradictory regime […]

for national and multinational


enterprises and the inability or the unwillingness of States to meet their duty to protect against human rights abuses by third parties such as corporations.

According to Mr Collapin, there are a number of factors that account for the inconsistency in policy, including: trend



to consider human rights in a narrow context; absence of coordinator n o rights h ate ovek on government […]

level; contradictory


regime for national and multinational enterprises; and the failure or unwillingness of States to fulfill their responsibility to protect against human rights abuses by third parties, such as corporations.

The on l y point at w h ic h resolution 1244 (1999) […]

expressly mentions other actors relates to the Security Council’s demand,


on the one hand, “that the KLA and other armed Kosovo Albanian groups end immediately all offensive actions and comply with the requirements for demilitarization” (para. 15) and, on the other hand, for the “full cooperation by all concerned, including the international security presence, with the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia ”(para. 14).

Unity e nno e place, r de in resolution 1244 (1999) […]

directly mentions other entities, related to the Security Council requirement,


firstly, that “the KLA and other armed groups of the Kosovar Albanians immediately cease all offensive actions and comply with the requirements for demilitarization” (paragraph 15), and secondly, that “everyone concerned, including the international security presence, have fully cooperated with the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia ”(para. 14).

Abréviations dans les lettres | French language study

Abbreviation Full form Transfer
M. or M Monsieur Mr.
MM. or MM Messieurs gentlemen
Mme Madame mistress
Mmes Mesdames mistresses, ladies
Melle or Mlle or Mle Mademoiselle mistress
Melles ou Mles ou Mles Mesdemoiselles mistresses, ladies
Me Maître meter (form of appeal to a notary, lawyer)
Dr Docteur doctor
Dir.or Dir Directeur director
Cie Compagnie company
Sté or Soc. or Soc Société Society
S.A. or S. A. or SA Société anonyme Joint Stock Company
S.A.R.L. or S. A. R. L. or SARL Société à responsabilité limitée Limited Liability Company (LLC)
Ets Établissements institution
crs Cours city boulevard
Exp. Expéditeur forwarding agent
B.P. Boîte postale post box
Av. or av. or Av or av Avenue prospect
Bd or bd Boulevard Boulevard
Fg or fg Faubourg suburb
Pl. or pl. or Pl or pl Place area
Rte or rte Route road
bt Bâtiment building
Sq.or sq. or Sq or sq Square square
Nos réf. or n / réf. or N / réf. Nos références outgoing number
Vos réf. or v / réf. or V / réf. Vos références incoming number
Obj. Objet topic
PJ – Ann. Pièces jointes en annexe attached documents
P / P or PP.or pp. Par procuration by proxy
P / O or p / o Par ordre ok

KNOW INTUIT | Lecture | Specification LDP, RSVPTE, GMPLS

Abstract: The mechanisms of forming routes for systems with label switching are considered. Describes the protocol for generating routing tables LDP

Overview of LDP

The MPLS architecture [RFC-3031] defines the label distribution protocol as a set of procedures by which one Label Switched Router (LSR) informs another about the meaning of the labels used to forward traffic between them and Through them.

The MPLS architecture does not imply a single label distribution protocol. In fact, several different protocols have been standardized. Several existing protocols have been extended to allow label distribution. New protocols formulated. The MPLS architecture assumes some considerations when choosing a label distribution protocol for specific MPLS applications, in particular in the case of traffic control [RFC-2702].

The Label Distribution Protocol (LDP), defined below (RFC-3036), is a new protocol for label distribution that offers enhanced functionality.It is a set of procedures and messages that an LSR uses to form a Label Switched Path (LSP) network by mapping routing information to data links. These LSPs can have endpoints directly at the peer (comparable to step-by-step IP forwarding), or they can have an endpoint at the egress node of the network, allowing switching through all intermediate nodes.

LDP assigns an FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class) [RFC-3031] to every LSP it creates.The FEC associated with an LSP determines which packets should follow that LSP. LSPs are routed through the network such that each LSR splices an ingress label for a FEC with an egress label corresponding to the next hop for that FEC. More information on the use of LDP can be found in [RFC-3037].

In the following it is assumed that data travels from the sender LSR (upstream) to the downstream LSR, and the service information may also follow upstream.

LDP Peers

The two LSRs that use LDP to exchange label-FEC correspondence information are called “LDP Peers” between which the LDP session is established.LDP session allows each partner to get acquainted with the correspondence of labels to each other; that is, the protocol is bidirectional.

LDP Messaging

There are four categories of LDP messages.

  1. Discovery messages are used to advertise and maintain the presence of an LSR on the network.
  2. Session messages are used to establish, maintain, and terminate sessions between LDP partners.
  3. Advertisements are used to form, modify, and re-match the label and the FEC.
  4. Notification messages are used to provide advice and report errors.

Discovery messages provide a mechanism by which an LSR advertises its presence on the network by periodically sending a Hello message. It is sent as a UDP packet to the input of the LDP port to all routers on the subnet via a multicast multicast address. When an LSR decides to establish a session with another LSR, identified by the Hello message, it uses the TCP LDP initialization procedure.Upon successful completion of the initialization procedure, the two LSRs become LDP partners and can exchange advertisement messages.

When a label is requested or advertised to a peer, it is local LSR considerations. In general, an LSR requests a label from a neighboring LSR when it needs it, and advertises a label to a neighboring LSR when it wants the neighbor to use that label. Correct operation of LDP requires reliable and orderly delivery of messages. To meet these requirements, LDP uses TCP as its transport protocol for session messages, warnings, and advertisements; T.e., for any exchange other than UDP-based discovery mechanisms.

LDP message structure

All LDP messages have a common structure that uses the type-length-value TLV (TypeLengthValue) coding scheme. The value is a TLV-encoded object and may contain one or more TLVs.

Handling LDP Errors

Alerting partners about LDP errors and other events is provided by notification messages. There are two types of notification messages.

  1. Error notifications are used to alert you to fatal failures. If an LSR receives an error notification from a peer for a particular LDP session, it ends that session by closing the TCP transport connection and discarding any label associations it received during that session.
  2. Advice messages are used to convey LSR information about an LDP session or the status of some previously received messages.
LDP extensibility and future compatibility

More message and object types (TLVs) are likely to be created in the future.It may be desirable to use such messages on networks where old implementations work that do not recognize them. At the same time, it is impossible to make all future enhancements compatible with older versions. This specification defines the rules for handling unknown message types and unrecognized TLVs.

LDP operation. FEC

It is necessary to determine exactly which packets can be mapped to each LSP. This is done using a FEC specification for each LSP.FEC identifies a set of packets that can be associated with a given LSP.

Each FEC is specified as a set of one or more FEC elements. Each FEC element defines a set of packets that can be associated with the corresponding LSP. When an LSP uses multiple FECs, the LSP terminates at a node (or earlier) where the FECs can no longer follow the same path.

FEC member types are defined below. A new FEC can be added if required.

  1. Address prefix. This element is an address prefix of arbitrary length from 0 to full address, inclusive.
  2. Computer address. This element is the full address of the host.

We say that a specific address matches a given address prefix if and only if the address starts with that prefix. We also say that a particular packet matches a given LSP if and only if the LSP has an FEC entry address prefix that matches the packet’s destination address.

The procedure for matching a specific packet to a given LSP uses the following rules. Each rule is applied sequentially until the packet can be assigned to the specified LSP.

  • If there is only one LSP that contains the FEC element of the host address that is identical to the destination address of the packet, then the packet is associated with that LSP.
  • If there are multiple LSPs containing a host address FEC element that is identical to the destination address of the packet, then the packet is associated with one of those LSPs.The LSP selection procedure is outside the scope of this document.
  • If a packet matches exactly one LSP, the packet is associated with that LSP.
  • If a packet matches more than one LSP, it is associated with the LSP whose prefix is ​​longer. If a longer prefix cannot be found, the packet is associated with one of the LSPs whose prefix is ​​longer than the others.
  • If the packet is known to go through a particular egress router, and there is an LSP that has an address prefix FEC that is the address of that router, then the packet is associated with that LSP.The LSP selection procedure is outside the scope of this document.

It is useful to note several consequences of these rules.

  • A packet can be sent on an LSP whose FEC element address prefix is ​​the egress router address ONLY if there are no LSPs matching the packet’s destination address.
  • A packet can correspond to two LSPs, one with the FEC element of the host address and the other with the FEC element of the address prefix. In this case, packets are always associated with the second of these LSPs.
  • A packet that does not match a specific host address FEC element cannot be sent on the associated LSP even if the host address FEC element identifies the egress router for the packet.
Label spaces, identifiers, sessions and transport. Label spaces

The expression “label space” is useful for discussing label assignment and distribution.

  • Interface label space. Interface-specific input labels apply to interfaces that use interface resources for labels.An example of such an interface is an ATM interface (uses VCI as labels) or a Frame Relay interface (uses DLCI as labels).

    Note that the use of the label space of an interface is only meaningful when LDP peers are connected directly through the interface and the label is intended to be applied to traffic traveling through that interface.

  • Platform label space. Platform-specific ingress labels are needed for interfaces that share the same labels.

The LDP ID is a 6 octet code used to identify the LSR label space. The first four octets identify the LSR and must be globally unique, such as the 32-bit router ID assigned to the LSR. The last two octets identify the LSR specific label space. The last two octets of LDP identifiers for the platform-specific label space are always zero. This document uses the following representation for LDP identifiers:


ex., lsr 171: 0, lsr19: 2.

Note that an LSR that manages and advertises multiple label spaces uses a different LDP identifier for each label space.

A situation where an LSR requires more than one label space to be advertised and therefore uses more than one LDP identifier occurs when the LSR has more than one ATM link to its peer (and operates with an interface label space). Another situation arises when the LSR has two links to the peer, one of which runs over Ethernet (and uses a platform-specific label space) and the other is implemented over ATM.

LDP Sessions

LDP sessions are implemented between LSRs to support the exchange of labels between them. When an LSR uses LDP to advertise more than one label space, it starts different LDP sessions for different label spaces.

LDP transport

For sessions, LDP uses TCP as the reliable transport medium. When multiple LDP sessions are required between two LSRs, one TCP session is implemented for each LDP session.

LDP sessions between indirectly connected LSRs

In some situations, it may be desirable to have LDP sessions between LSRs that are not directly connected at the link layer.

For example, consider a traffic management application where LSRa sends traffic that meets certain criteria through a specific LSP to LSRb, rather than traditional routing.

The path between LSRa and LSRb can contain one or more intermediate LSRs (LSR1, … LSRn). The LDP session between LSRa and LSRb will allow LSRb to tag traffic inbound to LSP from LSRa by providing LSRb with label advertisements to LSRa.

In this situation, LSRa will use two labels to switch traffic across the LSP to LSRb: the label received from LSR1 is used to forward traffic along the LSP from LSRa to LSRb; and the label received from LSRb allows LSRb to label and switch traffic originating from the LSP.

LSRa first adds the label it received during the LDP session from LSRb to the packet’s label stack (either by replacing the label at the top of the label stack if the packet came with a tagged packet, or by performing a push operation if the packet arrived untagged ). It then pushes the label for the LSP received from LSR1 onto the stack.

LDP Discovery

LDP discovery is a mechanism that allows an LSR to find potential LDP partners. Revealing makes it unnecessary to explicitly configure the LSR.There are two detection mechanisms.

  • The basic discovery mechanism is used to detect neighboring LSRs that are directly connected at the link layer.
  • The extended discovery mechanism is used to find LSRs that are not directly connected at the link layer.
Basic Discovery

To start the Basic Discovery in LDP for a given interface, the LSR periodically sends LDP messages on the link.Channel Hello messages are sent as UDP packets addressed to the standard LDP peer discovery port to all routers in the subnet using multicast addressing.

The channel LDP Hello message sent by the LSR contains the LDP identifier for the label space that the LSR intends to use for the interface, as well as additional information.

The LDP Hello link message response identifies the adjacency to the potential LDP peer reachable at the link layer of the interface, and the label space that the peer intends to use for this interface.

Enhanced Peer Discovery

LDP sessions between directly unrelated LSRs are supported by Enhanced Peer Discovery.

To trigger the extended discovery mechanism, an LSR periodically sends Targeted Hello messages to LDP at specific addresses. Targeted Hello messages are sent as UDP packets directed to the standard discovery port at the specified address.

Target LDP Hello messages sent by an LSR contain the LDP identifier for the label space that the LSR intends to use, and possibly additional information.Advanced detection is different from basic detection.

  • The target Hello message is sent to the specified address and not to all routers in the multicast group associated with the egress interface.
  • Unlike baseline detection, which is symmetric, extended detection is asymmetric.

One LSR initiates an extended discovery process against another LSR, and the addressed LSR decides whether to respond or ignore this target Hello message.The addressed LSR that chooses to respond responds with a periodic target Hello to the initiator LSR.

The Address Hello Response identifies a potential LDP peer reachable at the network layer and the label space the peer intends to use.

Establish and manage LDP sessions. LDP Session Establishment

Peer discovery messages between two LSRs initiate an LDP session. The session is formed in two stages.

  • Establishment of transport connection.
  • Session initialization

The following describes the establishment of an LDP session between LSR1 and LSR2 from LSR1’s point of view. This involves exchanging Hello messages specifying the LSR1: a label space for LSR1 and the LSR2: b label space for LSR2.

Establishing a transport connection

The result of the Hello message exchange is the formation of a Hello contiguity for LSR1, which defines the communication channel (L), and the label spaces of LSR1: a and LSR2: b.

  1. If LSR1 does not have an LDP label space exchange session with LSR1: a and LSR2: b, it tries to form a TCP connection for a new LDP session with LSR2.

    LSR1 defines the transport addresses to be used at the end (A1) and at the end of LSR2 (A2) of the TCP connection. A1 address is defined as follows:

    • If LSR1 uses an optional entity in LSR2’s Hello messages, it sends a transport address (TLV) to advertise the address. A1 is the address advertised by LSR1 through an optional entity;
    • If LSR1 does not use the optional transport address object, A1 is the source address in the Hello messages that LSR2 sends.

    Similarly, the A2 address is defined as follows:

    • if LSR2 uses the optional transport address object, A2 is the address that LSR2 advertises through the optional object;
    • If LSR2 is not using the optional transport address object, A2 is the source address in the Hello message received from LSR2.
  2. LSR1 determines whether it will play an active or passive role in the setup session by comparing A1 and A2 as unsigned integers.If A1> A2, LSR1 plays an active role; otherwise, passive.

    The procedure for comparing A1 and A2 is carried out as follows:

  3. If LSR1 is active, it tries to establish a TCP connection over the standard port number at A2. If LSR1 is passive, it waits until LSR2 establishes a TCP connection through the standard port number.

Note that when an LSR sends a Hello message, it chooses the transport address of the end of the session connection and applies Hello to advertise the address – either explicitly by including it in the optional transport address TLV, or implicitly by omitting the TLV and using it as the source address in Hello message.

Session Initialization

After LSR1 and LSR2 establish the transport connection, they negotiate the session parameters by exchanging LDP initialization messages. Parameters negotiated include protocol version, label distribution method, timer values, VPI / VCI ranges for Label Driven ATM, DLCI ranges for Label Driven Frame Relay, etc.

Successful negotiation ends with an LDP session between LSR1 and LSR2 to advertise label spaces LSR1: a and LSR2: b.

After the connection is established, if LSR1 is in the active role, it begins negotiating session parameters by sending an initialization message to LSR2. If LSR1 is passive, it waits until LSR2 initiates parameter negotiation.

In general, when there are multiple links between LSR1 and LSR2 and multiple label spaces that they need to advertise, the passive LSR cannot know which label space to advertise over the newly established TCP connection until it receives an initialization message.The initialization message contains the LDP identifier for the sender label space (active LSR) and the LDP identifier for the recipient label space (passive LSR).

While waiting for an init message from its peer, the passive LSR MAY match the label space to be advertised by the peer (as defined by the LDP identifier in the PDU header of the init message) with the Hello contiguity generated by exchanging Hello messages.

  1. When LSR1 is in the passive role:
    • if LSR1 receives an initialization message, it tries to match the LDP ID contained in the message PDU with the Hello adjacency;
    • If there is a matching Hello Neighborhood, it characterizes the local label space for this session.

    LSR1 then checks to see if the proposed session parameters in the message are acceptable. If so, LSR1 responds with an initialization message with the parameters it intends to use and a KeepAlive message to indicate that LSR2’s parameters were acceptable. If the parameters are not acceptable, LSR1 responds with a Session Rejected / Parameters error and closes the TCP connection.

    • if LSR1 cannot find a suitable Hello adjacency, it sends a Session Rejected / No Hello Error and closes the TCP connection;
    • If LSR1 receives a KeepAlive in response to the initialization message, the session is working from LSR1’s point of view;
    • If LSR1 receives an error message, LSR2 rejects the proposed session and LSR1 closes the TCP connection.
  2. When LSR1 is in the active role:
    • if LSR1 receives an error message, LSR2 rejects the proposed session and LSR1 closes the TCP connection;
    • If LSR1 receives an initialization message, it checks to see if the session parameters are acceptable. If so, it responds with a KeepAlive message. If the session parameters are not acceptable, LSR1 sends a Session Rejected / Parameters error message and closes the connection;
    • if LSR1 receives a KeepAlive message, LSR2 accepted its proposed session parameters;
    • When LSR1 receives both an acceptable Initialization message and a KeepAlive message, the session is healthy from LSR1’s point of view.

For a pair of incompatible configured LSRs, the session parameter inconsistency will generate an infinite sequence of NAKs in response to peer initialization messages.

The LSR shall abort the session establishment procedure with an exponential retry delay in the event of a negative NAK. It is also recommended that an LSR detecting such a situation inform the operator of the situation.

An attempt to establish a session after a negative acknowledgment of the initialization message should be made no earlier than 15 seconds, and subsequent delays should increase to a value of at least 2 minutes.A special session establishment operation that must be delayed is the attempt to open a transport connection session for the LSR in the active role.

The negative acknowledge interrupt sequence is unlikely to stop until the operator steps in and reconfigures one of the LSRs. After this configuration, you no longer need to interrupt attempts to establish subsequent sessions.

Due to the asymmetric nature of the session establishment, reconfiguration of the passive LSR will go unnoticed by the active LSR.

Initializing the state machine

It is convenient to describe the LDP session negotiation procedure in terms of a finite state machine (FSM). We define that there are five possible states in the LDP FSM, and state transitions are defined in Table 12.1 below.

State transitions during session initialization
Status Event new state
NON EXISTENT Session TCP connection established INITIALIZED
INITIALIZED Send initialization message (Active role) OPENSENT
Received Acceptable Initialization Message (Passive Role) OPENREC
Action: Send Initialization and KeepAlive
Receive any other LDP message NON EXISTENT
Action: Send error message (NAK) and close transport connection
Receive any other LDP message NON EXISTENT
Action: Send error message (NAK) and close transport connection
OPENSENT Received Acceptable Initialization Message OPENREC
Action: Send KeepAlive
Receive any other LDP message NON EXISTENT
Action: Send error message (NAK) and close transport connection
Action: Send Shutdown message and close transport connection
Receive other LDP messages OPERATIONAL
Action: Send completion message and close transport connection
Support for Hello Neighborhood

A session with an LDP partner has one or more Hello neighbors.An LDP session has multiple Hello Neighborhoods when a pair of LSRs are connected by multiple links and share a common label space, such as multiple PPP connections between a pair of routers. In this situation, the Hello messages that the LSR sends on each link have the same LDP ID.

LDP has mechanisms for detecting the need for an LDP session and its Hello Neighborhoods.

The LDP uses regular Hello elicitation responses to indicate the peer’s intent to use the local label space identified by the Hello message.The LSR manages the hold timer by starting the timer whenever it receives a corresponding Hello contiguity message. If the timer expires before receiving the corresponding Hello message from the peer, the LDP concludes that the peer no longer wants to switch using the given label space within the common communication channel, or that the peer has failed. The LSR then removes the Hello contiguity. When the last Hello adjacency for an LDP session is cleared, the LSR ends the LDP session by sending a notification message and closing the transport connection.

Official invitations. Complete modern encyclopedia of etiquette

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90,000 Booking plugins for restaurants and cafes – Maria Kassaeva

These days, most customers prefer to book online. This handy feature saves the customer time and reduces the stress that restaurant staff are experiencing due to the large number of calls. Fortunately for restaurant owners, adding reservations to their website is easier than ever before.If you are using a website in WordPress, you just need to install the appropriate plugin to start booking tables for your guests right away. Look for a plugin with a clean design, custom menu options and email notifications so you know when to confirm your booking. More sophisticated plugins will allow you to redesign your booking form and add custom fields for your restaurant’s unique services. These plugins are the best booking options for WordPress.They are all free to use and will work well with your website theme.

Online Restaurant Reservation

With its lightweight form and user-friendly interface, the

WPEverest Online Restaurant Reservation easily takes the top spot on this list. This plugin has everything you need to add simple booking functionality to your restaurant website. Online Restaurant Reservation features a clean look that you can integrate with any WordPress theme.Use ShortCode to place the form anywhere on your site: you can add it to a unique page or place it directly on the sidebar. The margins are elegantly designed with unobtrusive borders, and the dropdown menus do not affect the layout of your site. The inner part of the plugin allows you to choose your restaurant hours, make schedule exceptions and choose the distance between booking windows. You can also set minimum and maximum party sizes, and customers can add a note to their booking request.Every time a customer places an order, you will receive an email directly to your inbox. Log in to your website to see the request details and manually confirm or change the booking status. WPEverest also offers a simple restaurant menu plugin to further enhance your website. The best part is that both of these plugins are free to download and use.

The Events Calendar

The Events Calendar allows a restaurant to effectively manage and market its services to potential customers.The plugin offers tickets, user requests, RSVP and reservations. These tools allow the restaurant to schedule parties, appointments, events, and more. The plugin can be used to manage multi-day and one-day events that can be set to repeat. WordPress stores events as custom post types, which means that new events are added in the same way as a new page or post. Each event can be named, and descriptions using video and images can be added using the main content area.The exact place and time for each event can be determined. Categories and tags can also be assigned to each event. You can create multiple tickets for an event in the booking and check-in area. You can specify the number of available tickets and set booking restrictions for a specific period of time. Widgets can be used for calendars, locations and events to help a restaurant show customers the current status of all events. The customization for the main plugin provides five different tabs with hundreds of options available.Everything is definable, including the integration of Google Maps, Event Pages, Designs, Reservations, Thumbnails, Settings, Formatting, and Email Confirmations. The Role Manager explains what the user may or may not do. Additional features include:

  • Preservation and organization of various places
  • Widget for upcoming events
  • Add unlimited events
  • Translation and SEO Ready
  • Export calendars to iCal and Google
  • Calendar of events, including day or list.

Restaurant Reservations

Theme of the Crop offers many themes and plugin options for a modern restaurant website. Their Resturant booking tool is an easy way to manage your online table reservations. The Restaurant Reservation form integrates especially well with Theme of the Crop sites, but it should work with any WordPress design. The form is vertical and has a large pop-up calendar when customers select their booking date.Manual layout editing requires knowledge of HTML, and the plugin does not use updatable templates. Like most booking plugins, you can manually confirm or cancel a booking through the backend of the site. Update your booking schedule and maximum party size and select the page on your website where you want the booking form to appear. Where Restaurant Reservation really shines is through its customer communication features. Create your own success message and pending reservations, confirm and cancel emails.You can even block a client by email or IP address. If you select this option, the message “unable to confirm” will be displayed when the customer tries to place an order again. If you want more options, Theme of the Crop offers several premium add-ons for this plugin. Add custom fields to your booking form, export orders to a different file format, or automatically subscribe to customers who book a room in your MailChimp newsletter.

Booking Calendar


Booking Calendar isn’t specifically for restaurants, but it’s still a great choice for any meeting or booking system. This fully customizable plugin is the perfect way to manage reservations for large restaurants or franchises. Booking Calendar has a large and responsive calendar that customers can interact with. When a day is fully booked, it turns red and cannot be selected.As an owner, you can choose which days and times are available. You can even specify how many reservations are available for any time slot. The plugin is compatible with multiple properties, so you can manage your booking for each location you own. Choose from several calendar skins to customize the look of your booking schedule. Every aspect of the form is designer. Choose fonts, borders and colors to match your website design. You can also add, remove, rename and change the order of each form field.Add extra options for large parties or specialized services. Save your customized forms and themes as templates for quick access later. Booking Calendar contains many functions for listing. You can edit the text of email notifications, integrate with payment methods, and fully manage the status of each booking. The free version is not limited, but you can upgrade to Pro or Premium for even more options.

Table Reservations

Table Reservations is a cute visual booking system that your guests are sure to love.While this plugin doesn’t have as many features as some of the other options on this list, its unique and easy-to-use design makes it a strong competitive advantage for your site. From the guest’s side, this booking system is extremely simple and convenient. Customers choose the date and time first. Then they click on the table where they want to sit. If this table is not already booked, they go to a short form that includes party size information and contact information.To use this plugin, you need a photo or model of your restaurant plan. Use a handy tool to create additional locations. You can also customize the selection color, confirmation messages, available seating times, and a number of other features. Styles can be overridden with CSS. Users who access the site via a mobile device will see a slightly different interface. If you upgrade to the Pro version, you will have access to an advanced booking engine with the ability to manage multiple properties.


The MotoPress plugin is a great option for submitting cafe or restaurant suggestions for online sales. The plugin can be used to add unlimited menu items, tags and images, customize their appearance and set prices. Simple shortcode settings allow the restaurant to create any menu. The free plugin also offers standard cash or PayPal shipping methods for selling drinks and food.Menu items can be imported and exported so that a restaurant can create its menu quickly and easily. MotoPress has been integrated into a plugin to visually add menu items. The same screen can be used to customize the appearance of these elements. Add-ons are available for additional functionality. This plugin is an easy way to use WordPress to create any custom posts on your site or create posts and pages. MotoPress works very well with any WordPress theme to create the layout design you want for a restaurant without the need for coding.The plugin has everything you need to create an SEO website.

Food and Drink Menu

Food and Drink Menu allows restaurants, eateries, bars and cafes to create menus. This can be displayed using widgets, templates, pages and posts. The plugin offers two different types of new messages, menus and menu items. The menu can be easily created using these types of messages. Menu items are created and grouped into different sections, so the restaurant can create its own menu.For each item in the menu, you can add a photo and one or more prices. A guide can be included for menu items such as each entry includes soup, fries or side dish. Additional features include:

  • Mobile view improved with responsive menu layout
  • WMPL-Compliant Plugin for Multilingual Sites
  • Any menu, selection or item can be displayed in navigation menus, messages and pages
  • Professional add-on offers diet icons, specials, discounts, etc.d.
  • A footer can be added to each menu item for notes or legal disclaimers
  • The display of menu items and menus can be easily customized using templates
  • When using Business Profile, menu is supported
  • The menu can be displayed in the sidebar using a widget.

ReDi Restaurant Reservation

ReDi Restaurant Reservation is a classic WordPress booking plugin that works with any website.Almost every aspect of this form is customizable and the updated package is very attractive. Start by customizing all the fields from the booking form to the look of your calendar. You can choose the type of calendar, change the messages displayed, manage the schedule, and even decide how early customers can pre-order. Create custom fields as needed and select the email address from which to send confirmations. The free version of the plugin has everything you need to easily manage your booking right from your website.If you choose to upgrade to the Basic plan, you will have access to a mobile booking interface that your employees can use. This allows them to view and manage upcoming reservations without logging into the site directly. The update comes with options such as personal notes, schedule changes, and confirmation messages for both the client and owner when a change is made. The creator of Redi Restaurant Reservations offers customer support and can make custom changes for your site.This is a great all-round plugin for restaurants of all sizes.

Quick Restaurant Reservations

Quick Restaurant Reservations is a simple plugin from Things for Restaurants. This booking system focuses on the flexibility and control of the back end. Quick Restaurant Reservations is ideal for an owner with a hectic and hectic schedule. Create a list of schedules that you can switch between depending on your needs.You can choose from different booking settings for weekends, times of day or special holidays. All your orders are displayed in daily and monthly calendar views, which you can access from your website. If you choose to update this plugin, you will be able to manage multiple restaurant reservations and customize your confirmation messages and notifications. An additional set of advanced features allows you to add custom form fields for dietary options and seating preferences.From the client’s point of view, Quick Restaurant Reservation is simple and visually appealing. The plugin integrates well with most themes and the features work the same on mobile devices. If you like this plugin, you should also try Quick Restaurant Menu for a menu system with a similar level of user control.


GloriaFood is a complete online food ordering and table reservation system for restaurants. Their plugin allows the WordPress site to integrate with their online system.GloriaFood isn’t just for booking, which is why the plugin has a wide range of options. Customize your menu, choose a restaurant booking time and make the forms exactly the way you want. The plugin also includes support for multiple menu item sizes and promotional discounts. Restaurants with a GloriaFood account can manage orders and reservations from the mobile app. This feature allows employees to confirm reservations and contact customers without going into the restaurant’s backend.Using this system, customers can even order specific food items to be prepared at the time of their booking. If you just want to accept a booking, this plugin is not the best choice. But if you’re looking for a whole package of restaurant-related features, GloriaFood offers a surprisingly wide range of services for free. Upgraded service packages include the ability to accept online payments or create customized mobile apps for your business.

All of these plugins have easy-to-understand interfaces, configurable options, and server-side redundancy management.If you are looking for a simple and enjoyable option, use online restaurant reservations or table reservations. For a more complex booking system, Booking Calendar and ReDi Restaurant Reservation are excellent choices. Regardless of which plugin you choose, remember to tweak all the options before your form is launched. With a quick setup and a few minutes spent tweaking the settings, your restaurant website will accept online reservations faster than you expected.

If you need to create a good website for a restaurant, please contact me, I have suggestions.

How to properly invite guests to a wedding


6 modern options for inviting guests to a wedding

When to invite

Many people think that you need to invite guests when everything is already known and 100% ready.As a result, guests receive an invitation only on the eve of the wedding and, unfortunately, can no longer accept it.

A wedding invitation is “booking” a date in your guests’ calendar in advance! And the answer to the question of where to start preparing for the wedding. Try to invite your family to the wedding as early as possible. Even when, apart from the date of the celebration, you still do not know anything.

You can share all the detailed information about the wedding – the place and time of the event, maps, dress code and a list of gifts – with your guests later.For example, on your wedding site.

“Save the day” – Save this date in your calendar.
It is best to send the invitation 3-6 months before the wedding. This way, guests can plan their vacations and personal affairs in advance, taking into account your celebration. And you will save time and morale by not rewriting guest lists several times.

How to invite

There are many modern ways to invite guests to a wedding. Moreover, all options, from printed invitations to online versions, can look original depending on the theme and style of the wedding you choose.Below we will look at the pros and cons of the most common invitation methods and show you how to make them more interesting.

1. Phone call

The most common and budget option is to invite guests by simply calling. But there are some peculiarities here:

  • You will have to talk a lot. Lots of. Answer many questions that you did not plan to discuss, and spend 15 minutes instead of 3 planned minutes on a telephone conversation! It’s a little tiring.
  • Guests will have to record all information about your wedding somewhere in notebooks, phones or on pieces of paper that accidentally come to hand. And it’s not a fact that after a couple of days this information will not be lost and you will not have to repeat it all over again.
  • To receive feedback (whether the guest will come, who will he be with, how he will get, etc.) you need to make a second call or ask the guests to call you back. And believe me, in this case, you will have to write on everything that comes to hand)) You also need to check which of the guests gave the answer and who did not … And if you have additional questions?

2.Printed wedding invitations

Wedding printing is very diverse – from the usual inexpensive postcards to unusual and insanely beautiful creative invitations in the style of your wedding. The prices are also very different. Here you start only from the planned budget and your imagination.

The process of making invitations is rather troublesome. You will need to choose a design, write text for your wedding invitations, or hand your guest list to a designer who will fill in the names in the text on each card.Then the layout of the invitation must be checked for errors, handed over to the printing house, picked up, packed in envelopes.

Alternatively, you can contact a company that deals with the entire process: from design and entering the names of guests in each invitation to printing and decorating ready-made invitations. You will receive wedding invitations already printed and wrapped in envelopes.

But even if the printing house removes the headache of making invitations, prepare guest lists, hand out an invitation to everyone, and then call everyone to find out if the guest has accepted the invitation – this is your and only your task.

Therefore, it is very convenient when sending invitations and receiving responses occurs automatically on the wedding site.

3. Unusual wedding invitations

In this case, you have to show your imagination. Here are just a few examples of how to make an original wedding invitation. Your invitation can be written:

  • on vinyl record
  • on canvas
  • on a jar with sweets
  • on balloon
  • on magnet
  • on calendar
  • on paper airplane

As you can see, wedding invitation ideas can be quite inexpensive to make.

4. Wedding invitation by e-mail

Sending invitations by e-mail is a fast, convenient and modern option. And completely free!

What is needed for this? Make a guest list, write a touching text, add a beautiful picture or your photo, add an e-mail of all recipients to the mailing list and send it out. Next – wait for confirmation from guests and record those who accepted the invitation in their lists. The option is quite practical, but a little mundane. And also there is always a risk that the letter will end up in SPAM.

5. Sending video invitations

Here you can show your imagination – come up with an interesting plot for the video, immediately setting the mood for the holiday.

Of the difficulties – the troublesome production process: an idea, preparation for shooting, shooting, processing of the footage and its further distribution, often by e-mail or a link in social networks. But the wow-effect of such an invitation will surpass all the efforts expended. And if you come up with an original idea, then shooting on a mobile phone will be quite enough.

The main thing is not to bother with such nuances as expensive props, a professional camera and a complex script. Be yourself! Familiar atmosphere plus cheerful music – and the best invitation is ready.

Sending video invitations does not eliminate the need to call or write to guests again to get feedback. Therefore, it is very convenient when the response buttons are immediately built into the invitation, as in the case of mailing from your wedding site.

And, of course, examples of creative video wedding invitations for your inspiration))

Video invitation in stop motion technique with extraordinarily romantic music

6.Website-wedding invitation

Website-wedding invitation is a completely new proposal for our newlyweds, but it has long been loved all over the world as a universal and convenient option. How to send out invitations from your wedding site:

    1. Enter the names and contacts of guests in a convenient table
    2. Choose your favorite invitation design
    3. Select a convenient way to send an invitation to email, sms or messenger
    4. Click Submit.And that’s it!

A huge plus of such an invitation – the response buttons are immediately built into the online invitation.

TIP! For grandparents, a wedding invitation is an important attribute. At the same time, they do not care whether it is a designer invitation or a postcard bought in a store. They need an invitation to keep it, remember it, show it to everyone they know, and sometimes to strangers. If the guest list includes elderly relatives, add the price of several printed cards to the total amount of the celebration.Ready-made designs can be downloaded from the wedding website. Or make your own wedding invitations.

Your wedding site on Onelovestory

The possibilities of a site created on, do not end with creating and sending beautiful wedding invitations. This is your couple’s story, wedding planner, daily routine, and organizational information for guests. Chat with invitees and an album with wedding photos on one family site. Everything to make planning your wedding and all preparations for the wedding day a pleasant and exciting experience for you.

So, an invitation to a wedding is “booking” a date in your guests’ calendar in advance! And all the detailed information about the wedding – the place and time of the event, location maps, dress code and a list of gifts – you can share with the guests only later. For example, on your wedding site.

Author: Olga Zalata, service for creating wedding sites OneLovestory

Photos taken from open source Pinterest

How to address wedding invitations

Anyone familiar with addressing envelopes is probably wondering where we got the full article about how to address wedding invitations.However, the wording of an envelope with a wedding invitation takes more than names, addresses and postage stamps. Planning a wedding involves a long to-do list and a long guest list. Make sure your invitations reach your wedding guests with envelopes that correctly indicate their professional ranks, military ranks, relationship status, and more. Here’s how to respond to these invitations.

Why you need to design your wedding invitations correctly

How you address your wedding invitations is critical not only for etiquette (you don’t want to offend your new great-aunt, do you?), But also for logistics reasons.You are literally sending a message about who you invited to your wedding. If you answer wrongly to wedding invitations, your guests may misunderstand who exactly should show up on that momentous day – and there is nothing more frustrating for everyone than someone who feels unwelcome at a party you have planned so carefully. …

Can’t imagine your cousin’s twin babies running around your evening reception wearing a black tie? Not sure what to write on the envelope of a divorced, almost mother-in-law? We’ll walk you through every possible addressing scenario to ensure your wedding invitations make a great first impression.

General rules for sending wedding invitations

  • If both names do not fit on one line, indent the second line.
  • If you are having a casual wedding, such as a backyard barbecue or brunch in the park, you may be able to avoid the formal handling of envelopes, such as dropping headlines or just using names. : People expect weddings to be a little more pompous and festive, and older or conservative guests will notice if you’re too informal.

How to address wedding invitations without an inner envelope

Most formal invitations have both an outer envelope containing the mailing address, postage and return address, and an inner envelope. The inner envelope is printed with the names of the recipients only and contains all parts of the invitation set: the invitation, RSVP card, RSVP envelope, and any additional attachments such as an admission card, directions card, or invitations to additional weekend activities.When two envelopes are involved, the outer envelope is addressed more formally, whereas the inner envelope is a little more casual and often includes names.

If you decide to send wedding invitations without an inner envelope, which is more common these days, just focus on properly addressing the outer envelope. Below, for your reference, we provide guidelines for using a single envelope rather than an inner and outer envelope.

How to address wedding invitations to a family

for one envelope
  • When sending wedding invitations to a family, first decide if you want to clarify which family member is invited.If you do not want to name specific family members, just address the envelope to the whole family:

  • If you still want to indicate which family members are invited, write the names of each family member in the form of a list. Start with the names of the parents or parents and list the invited children in age order below. Girls under the age of 18 should be addressed as Miss:


    • The Simpson Family Mr & Mrs Homer The Simpsons
      Mr Bart Simpson
      Miss Lisa Simpson
For two envelopes
  • If the whole family is invited, use the last name 977 or only the parents’ names

    • The Simpson Family
      Mr and Mrs Homer Simpson
  • Then list the names of all family members invited on the inner envelope:

    • and Mrs Simpson
      Bart, Lisa and Maggie
      Homer, Marge, Bart, Miss Lisa and Miss Maggie

How to send wedding invitations to a married couple

for one envelope

9000 If a married couple has the same last name, you can list them together simply using the husband’s first and last name:

  • Mr and Mrs Robert Belcher
  • Or you can use BOTH the husband and wife’s first and last names. if you prefer to treat both partners in the same way:

    • Robert Belcher and Mrs. Linda Belcher
      Mr. Robert and Mrs. Linda Belcher
  • you person or alphabet. “Mrs.” traditionally used to indicate the marital status of a couple:

    • Mrs. Leslie Knope and Mr. Ben Wyatt
  • If one of the partners has a hyphenated name , put the last name with a hyphen.Either Miss or Mrs can be used:

    • Mr. Andy Dwyer and Mrs. April Ludgate-Dwyer
  • If one of the partners is a doctor , name the doctor first, regardless of gender. You can spell Doctor instead of hyphenating it to Doctor. if you want to be more formal. Note that for academic doctors, you should always use the abbreviation “doctor”. instead of explaining it.If the doctor is a woman and she has taken her husband’s last name (or uses it in society), reflect this:

    • Dr. Michaela Quinn and Mr. Byron Sally
      Dr. Rainbow and Mr. Andre Johnson, Sr.
      Dr. and Mrs. Perry Cox
      Dr. Perry and Mrs. Jordan Cox
  • If both partners are doctors with the same last name , you can send their invitation in the plural, without abbreviations “Doctors “To be more formal.Traditionally, the woman’s name comes first:


    • Doctors Monica and Alan Quartermain
      Doctors. Monica and Alan Quartermain
  • If both partners are doctors with different surnames , traditionally the woman’s name comes first, or you can list their names in alphabetical order:

    • Dr. Meredith Gray and Dr. Derek Shepherd
  • If one partner is judge , first list the name of the judge using the term “Honorable” and then use the word “Judge” for the inner envelope :

    • The Honorable Ruth Bader Ginsberg and Mr.Martin David Ginsburg
  • If one partner has a distinguished title of , such as clerics, rabbis or military personnel, the distinguished title comes first regardless of gender:

    • Rabbi and Mrs. Richard Glass
      1 —or
      Rabbi Richard and Mrs. Rosina Glass
      The Honorable Senator Elizabeth Ann Warren and Mr. Bruce Mann
  • If both partners have different titles , follow the same format as for the physicians listed above. with the same or different surnames.The title of a higher rank must be first, and if they are of the same rank, traditionally the woman is listed first:

    • Colonel Peter Jeffries and Reverend Margaret Jeffries
      Lieutenants Amy and Jake Peralta
      9317 Captain Benjamin Pierce and Major Margaret Hoolihan, US Army
  • For two envelopes

    For outer envelopes, address using the options above for each married couple scenario.For inner envelopes, you can be less formal by using one of two options: headers + last names, or just first names (but only if you are very close with the couple). Here are examples of an inner envelope with a married couple’s etiquette address:

    • For a couple with the same last name:

      • Mr and Mrs Belcher
        Robert and Linda
    • c

      For a couple different last names:

      • Mrs. Knope and Mr. Watt
        Leslie and Ben
    • For a couple with a hyphenated last name:

      • Mr.
        Andy & April
    • For a couple with one doctor:

    • For a couple with two doctors, the same last name:

      • (The) Doctors Quatermaine
      • 7 9002 For a couple with two doctors, different last names:

        • Dr.Gray and Dr. Shepherd
      • For a couple with a judge:

        • Judge Ginsburg and Mr. Ginsburg
      • For a couple with one outstanding title:

      • For a couple with two the same last name:

        • Lieutenants Peralta
          Colonel and Reverend Jeffreys
      • For a couple with two outstanding titles, different last names:


      • Captain Piruli

      How to send wedding invitations to unmarried couples

      for one envelope
      • If the couple is unmarried but lives together, you have two options.You can list their first names alphabetically by last name on separate lines:

        • Mr Ross Geller
          Ms Rachel Green
      • Or you can put both names on the same line by starting with the person you are closest to. If you are equally close to both, please enter again in alphabetical order:

        • Ms. Rachel Green and Mr. Ross Geller
      • If the couple is not married and do not live together, send separate invitations.

      For two envelopes
      • Follow the guidelines above for the outer envelope. For the inner envelope, like above, use polite titles + last names, or just first names if you’re close with a couple.
        • Miss Green & Mr. Geller
          Rachel & Ross

      How to address wedding invitations to a same-sex couple

      for one envelope
      • Same sex etiquette as couples to any other couples, married or not.If they are married or live together, be sure to include both names on the same line. If one of the partners has a last name separated by a hyphen, enter the last name separated by a hyphen:

        • Ms Susan Bunch and Ms Carol Willick-Bunch
      • For a same-sex couple with different last names, you can list the names either alphabetically order, or according to which guest you are closest to:

        • Mr. Mitchell Pritchett and Mr. Cameron Tucker
      For two envelopes
      • Follow the guidelines above for the outer envelope.For the inner envelope, as in the previous case, use polite titles + last names, or just first names if you are close to a couple:
        • Mr. Pritchett and Mr. Tucker
          Mitchell and Cameron

      How to address wedding invitations to individuals

      for one envelope
      • If guest is single woman use “Ms.” if she is under 18 – in this case, the spelling “miss” is more acceptable:

        • Ms. Elizabeth Lemon
          Miss Donna-Joe Tanner
      • If the guest is a single man , use “ Mr”.if he is at least 18 years old – no title is required

      • If the guest is is a widow of , it is best to ask someone close to her if she prefers to still be addressed by her husband’s first name, or if she prefers a surname due to marriage … Some widows may also prefer to use “miss,” so be sure to ask.

        • Mrs. George Devereaux
          Mrs. Blanche Devereaux
      • Similar options exist if guest is a divorced woman : you can address her envelope using “Mrs.”.or “Mrs” and either her ex-husband’s last name (if she still uses her) or her maiden name, depending on her preference.

        • Mistress / Ms. Cookie Lyon
          Mrs / Miss. Holloway Cookies
      • If the guest is Judge , use the word “The Honorable” before his or her full name:

        • The Honorable Sonia Sotomayor
      • If the guest is priest , use the term “ Father ”before his full name:

      For two envelopes

      The same etiquette applies here as for couples when it comes to domestic vs.outer envelopes. Outer envelopes follow the guidelines above. On the inner envelopes either names disappear, or names are simply used, but only if you are very close to the person. Here are examples of the etiquette for addressing the inner envelope for individuals :

      How to invite a wedding guest

      for one envelope
      • you really invited – to the address of this person.If you know the guest’s name, include his or her name on the envelope as if you would for an unmarried couple:

        • Ms Jessica Spano
          Mr Albert Clifford Slater
      • If you don’t know the name of your friend’s guest, just write “and guest” after your friend’s name. You must not use capital letters “i” or “guest”:

        • Mr. Zachary Morris & Guest
      For two envelopes
      • Follow the above rules on outer envelopes, names or, when you are very close to guests, use names exclusively:
        • Ms.Spano
          Mr Slater
          Jesse and A.K.
          Mr. Morris and Guest


      35+ Examples of wedding invitation wording 2020

      A wedding invitation is one of the first elements of a wedding that your guests will see. The wording and design of the wedding invitation familiarizes your guests with details such as the formality of the wedding, the color scheme, and the overall tone.Finding the perfect wording can be tricky, but this guide will help you find the right wedding invitation text.

      This guide contains all the information you need to write wedding invitations, as well as formal and informal examples, to give you a better idea of ​​how your invitations might look when finished. Use the transitions below to check out the one that interests you. Information:


      Elements to include in invitation wording

      There are many similarities between formal wedding invitations and casual wedding invitations.Whether your wedding is formal or casual, your who, when, where, and why details of your wedding should be very clear and easy to read. Below are additional elements to include in your invitation.

      Names of organizers

      The first line of the invitation is for the host of the wedding, also known as the cover party. Traditionally, the bride’s parents pay for the wedding, but as the time changes, the groom’s parents, the bride and groom, or all three take part.There is no official order or requirement to list names. It all depends on personal preference.

      Honoring deceased parents in


      Sample Wedding Invitation Wordings for Inviting Guests

      1. Couple Hosting

      Bride First Middle Last
      Groom First Middle Last
      Request for the honor of your presence
      in their marriage
      Day, Month
      Street Address
      City, State

      2.Parent Hosting

      First Middle Class Bride
      First Middle Class Groom
      Enter their New Life Together
      Their Parents
      Mr. and Mrs Bride Frist’s Father Last
      and Mr & Mrs Groom’s Father First Last
      invite you to share the joy
      when their children are united in marriage
      per day, month

      Street Address
      City, State

      3.Hosting for couples and parents

      Together with their parents
      Bride First Middle Last
      Groom First Middle Last
      Request for the honor of your presence
      in their marriage
      Day, Month
      Street address
      City, State

      4.Remarried Parent Hosting

      Mr & Mrs Husband First Last
      Requesting the Honor of Your Attendance
      at his / her daughter’s wedding
      Bride First Middle Last
      Groom First Middle Last
      Day, Month
      Street Address
      City, State

      5.Divorced Parent Hosting

      Ms. Mother First Last
      Request for the honor of your presence
      at her daughter’s wedding
      Bride First Middle Last
      Groom First Middle Last
      Day, Month
      Street Address
      City, State

      6. Hosting for couples and children

      My family, your family
      merging as a whole
      Sharing, caring,
      as the beginning of a new life
      Bride First Middle Last
      Groom First Middle Last
      together with their children
      Children First
      Day, Month
      at Time
      Street Address
      City, State

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      How to Answer a Wedding

      With so many different ways to send out wedding invitations and reply to invitations it can be a little tricky to know how best to respond to a wedding invitation.In this post, we’ll show you how to respond to different types of wedding invitations.

      There are a few things to keep in mind for any response to an invitation, regardless of format:

      1. Follow the pair’s instructions to avoid losing your answer
      2. Enter your full name (s)
      3. Include your answer (present or not)
      4. Include the total number of guests arriving
      5. If asked to select a main dish, include the guest’s initials next to each selected dish.
      6. Respond to any special pair requests
      7. Send RSVP ASAP

      What does RSVP mean?

      The abbreviation RSVP stands for the French phrase “répondez, s’il vous plaît”, which literally translates to “answer if you want.”

      When should guests agree to a wedding?

      You must respond to the invitation as soon as possible, but at least by the RSVP deadline specified in the invitation. Not only is a late response impolite, but it can also result in you not having a place or food at the wedding (as the vendor, venue, and / or planner requires a final tally by a certain date).Whatever you do, do not come to the wedding without informing the hosts that you are going to attend.

      How to fill out an RSVP wedding card

      An RSVP wedding card will look different for each event, depending on the couple’s style and the formality of the occasion. However, there are a few things that are standard on all RSVP cards. Here is a breakdown of what you can usually find on the answer card:

      1. Place for your name (s)
      2. Place to mark or write your answer
      3. Place to choose your food
      4. Place to provide total guests
      5. A place to answer a funny question from a couple
      6. A place to share a note with a couple
      How to fill in the name line (s)

      Here are examples of how the name line (s) could be worded:

      M ___________________
      – Name (s): __________________

      Here are examples of how to fill it in:

      M p.David Beckham and Mrs Victoria Beckham
      – Name (s): Ellen DeGeneres and Portia de Rossi

      Pro Tips:

      1. Please include the first and last name of each guest.
      2. Do not add the names of persons to whom the invitation has not been addressed.
      3. If an alias is not specified in the invitation, do not use it in the RSVP card.
      4. Use correct headings if there is an uppercase “M” in the namespace (more on this below).

      What does the letter “M” mean in the answer to a wedding invitation?

      In more formal wedding invitations, the name string is often preceded by a capital “M”. What does this mean and, more importantly, why? It’s actually pretty simple. The letter “M” indicates that guests must complete the line for their names with their proper title (s): Mister, Mrs, Miss, Miss


      • For example: M r. Sean “Jay-Z” Carter and Mrs. Beyoncé Knowles-Carter

      What if I don’t have an RSVP card?

      If the invitation does not include a response card, study the invitation carefully to learn how to respond.Most likely, wedding planners decided to send responses to invitations online (this is a frequent choice of couples using Zola as our tools make it easy to track responses and keep them all in one place). Alternatively, the host has included other instructions, such as a phone number or email address, on how to communicate their consent or regrets.

      How to respond online

      How to respond to an invitation online will depend on which website or tool the couple has chosen to collect responses.Your best bet is to enter the URL provided in the invitation into your browser’s address bar and follow the instructions. The same etiquette applies if you are responding online (except for those that only apply to paper answer cards), so check out our short list of RSVP rules to follow below.

      How to reply by e-mail

      When organizers ask you to reply by e-mail, it is important to fulfill their request and follow the directions.Features may vary, but here are some basic guidelines.

      • Reply on time. As with all invitation responses, the couple will kindly respond within the specified time frame.
      • Reply to the received letter. It might be tempting to flip text or use a personal email address that you may have already saved for the couple, but it is important that you send your response to the email address provided in the invitation.The couple likely created a dedicated wedding email address to make it easier to track responses.
      • Write a kind letter whether you accept it or not. While a simple yes or no conveys meaning, it is not the most polite form. Take a few minutes to write a private message to the couple when you respond to the email invitation. Also, be sure to include your name, who at your party will attend or refuse (if someone other than you was invited), and any other information the couple asked you to provide (such as seat selection or song request).See Sample wording just below.

      How to respond to an email invitation Sample wording

      Dear Charles and Audra,

      Thank you for inviting us to the wedding. Matt and I are delighted to accept your invitation to the wedding and rehearsal.

      For the first course, Matt and I would both prefer fish.

      Looking forward to the big day!

      Warmth, Matt & Shea Simmons

      How to decline a wedding invitation

      It’s ok if you can’t attend the wedding, but it’s important to inform the hosts by officially declining their invitation.Don’t feel like the lack of an answer makes it clear that you won’t be there. Here’s how to properly decline a wedding invitation:

      • RSVP with “No.” If you need to decline the invitation, please respond to the RSVP invitation using your preferred method (online, response card, etc.) with no or sorry. Never answer at all. If you’re especially close with a couple, it can also be a nice gesture to send them a handwritten note or call them in addition to expressing formal regrets.
      • Be sure to send your wedding gift. Even if you cannot attend the wedding, it is important to send the couple a wedding gift from their registry.
      • Don’t change your mind. If you declined, changing your answer later is bad form. Hosts should make a final guest count with their food vendor and many other vendors ahead of the wedding to ensure there is ample seating and food for everyone. While a couple may be overjoyed that your situation has changed, that doesn’t necessarily mean they can help you.And no matter what you do – never come to the wedding after you have not answered the invitation without first talking to the hosts.
      • Don’t make excuses. If you have a legitimate reason to refuse an invitation, you can tell the couple why you cannot attend their celebration. However, this is not necessary – and sometimes it is better to refuse without details if the reason for your absence might hurt the feelings of the couple.

      How to Decline a Wedding Invitation Sample Wording

      Dear Charles and Audra,

      Thank you very much for inviting me to join you in this upcoming wedding.Unfortunately, we will not be able to come as we are leaving the country on business this weekend. We are sad to miss this special occasion and we will be celebrating with you from afar on this big day.

      With love and best wishes. Congratulations!

      Love, Matt & Shea Simmons

      What to do if you cannot attend the wedding after answering Yes

      Life happens and there will be times when you cannot attend the wedding after as they said “yes” in response to the invitation.Whether it’s inclement weather, illness or an emergency, there is a right and wrong way to tell a couple that you will not be able to come to the holiday:

      • You have a good reason to cancel. Only retreat for really serious circumstances, such as a serious illness or a family emergency. Time and money has been spent preparing for your wedding attendance, so don’t neglect your commitments.
      • Don’t bother the couple if today is your wedding day. If you need to cancel on your wedding day, do not contact the couple. Instead, contact your planner, bridesmaid, or best man to let them know you cannot attend. The couple should focus on the wedding, and such distractions can only cause stress.
      • I beg your pardon. Even if the situation is out of your control, it is good decency to apologize to a couple for missing their big day. As mentioned earlier, it was carefully planned to secure a place for yourself – let them know that you appreciate all of their preparatory work by apologizing for your absence.

      Wedding Etiquette RSVP

      • Do not add additional guests. Never add additional guests to your RSVP. Only those to whom the invitation is addressed should respond and / or be present at the celebration.
      • Do not swap +1. If one or more of your party members cannot attend the event, keep in mind that you cannot change a guest who cannot attend to someone else.If the invitation says “with a guest,” note that you can invite anyone. Traditionally, your guest will be your romantic partner or spouse.
      • Don’t (try to) answer a wedding that you haven’t been invited to. Period.
      • Complete the answer card completely, if available. Do the hosts a favor and make sure you complete the RSVP card with all the information requested. Chances are they are already juggling a lot of planning details, so don’t make them stalk you on your menu items as well.
      • Follow instructions and the host’s preferred RSVP method. Likewise, make sure RSVP is using the method requested by the hosts. If they asked you to answer online, don’t send them text messages, calls, or send them DM on Instagram. Using anything other than their preferred method of collecting responses will make it difficult to track everyone and maintain accurate totals.
      • Use RSVP card if available. If a paper response card came with your invitation, use it to tell the hosts if you can or cannot.
      • Use the supplied stamped envelope. Don’t be fooled by the envelope with the reply card. If your invitation comes with an RSVP card, it will usually include an envelope (self-addressed and postage). Don’t let this brand go to waste!
      • Answer even if you cannot come. Even if you are unable to attend a wedding, you must always respond to acknowledge that you have received an invitation and politely decline.
      • Respond to all wedding invitations. You must receive separate invitations for all weddings such as engagement, shower, and rehearsal dinner. Respond to each event separately (again using any RSVP method requested). Don’t think that “yes” to one is “yes” to everyone, or that you can just send general “regrets”. Plus, a wedding invitation doesn’t mean you’re automatically included in the guest list for all wedding celebrations – use your invitations as a guide!


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