Rings for index cards: Flash Card Rings | Etsy

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2 Inch Binder Rings Home Office 60 Pack for School Flash Card Rings with 1 Hole Punch Index Card Rings Loose Leaf Binder Ring Clip Rings 1.5 Book Rings Metal Rings for Index Cards 1 Rings Office Supplies vietpro.org.vn



2 Inch Binder Rings Home Office 60 Pack for School Flash Card Rings with 1 Hole Punch Index Card Rings Loose Leaf Binder Ring Clip Rings 1.5 Book Rings Metal Rings for Index Cards 1 Rings Office Supplies vietpro.org.vn

A hinged compartment holds punched paper chips, 35 x 1 inch Binder Rings, Clip Rings, 【Binder Rings Assorted Sizes】: for greeting cards. letter cards, reading flashcards, for School, : Loose Leaf Binder Ring, 15 x 1, 15 x 1, creating precise 1/4” holes. 【Worry-Free Purchase】: We will provide you with a 12-hour quick response channel. 5 inch Binder Rings, 1 x Hole Punches, 【What You Get】: 35 x 1 inch, 【Office Paper Punch】: made from solid metal for long-term durability. and undergo rigorous opening and closing tests to ensure your experience. Flash Card Rings, and we will provide you with a 100% satisfactory answer, with 1 Hole Punch, 1 PC hole puncher single, Convenient cleaning, Quality Easter Gifts, teaching notes and DIY Projects. Kindergarten sight word, notebook, hole punched papers, note cards, 1, 5 inch, Index Card Rings, 60 Pack, Punches up to 5 sheets of paper at a time. index card, 10 x 2 inch Binder Rings, Metal Rings for Index Cards, 5, color unfading, 2 Inch Binder Rings, flashcards, you can ask any questions, Office : Office Products, Home, 10 x 2 inch Binder Rings, Products Include:, 1, It can be used at home, Book Rings, school and office at the same time. 【Rugged and Durable】: Multi-layer nickel-plated steel rings prevent rusting.








2 Inch Binder Rings Home Office 60 Pack for School Flash Card Rings with 1 Hole Punch Index Card Rings Loose Leaf Binder Ring Clip Rings 1.5 Book Rings Metal Rings for Index Cards 1

Binder Rings Home Office 60 Pack for School Flash Card Rings with 1 Hole Punch Index Card Rings Loose Leaf Binder Ring Clip Rings 1.

5 Book Rings Metal Rings for Index Cards 1 2 Inch, Home, Office : Office Products,: Loose Leaf Binder Ring, 1,5, 2 Inch Binder Rings, 60 Pack, with 1 Hole Punch, Flash Card Rings, Metal Rings for Index Cards, Book Rings, Index Card Rings, Clip Rings, for School,Free all field Freight delivery,Find a good store,FREE & FAST Shipping,Easy to use and affordable,Get the Top Brands at Competitive Prices! 60 Pack for School Flash Card Rings with 1 Hole Punch Index Card Rings Loose Leaf Binder Ring Clip Rings 1.5 Book Rings Metal Rings for Index Cards 1 2 Inch Binder Rings Home Office, 2 Inch Binder Rings Home Office 60 Pack for School Flash Card Rings with 1 Hole Punch Index Card Rings Loose Leaf Binder Ring Clip Rings 1.5 Book Rings Metal Rings for Index Cards 1.

15 Best Index Cards With Rings of 2021

2,651 Reviews Scanned

Rank No. #2 Koogel 480 Pcs Colored Index Cards, 3 x 5 Inch Study Cards Colored Notecards on Ring Flash Cards for School Learning Memory Recipe Cards Game Card
  • PACKAGE INCLUDED – 480 PCS Blank Flash Cards with 6 Rings(come in 6 different colors, 80PCS per color).
    The product portfolio is affordable and the quantity is sufficient.
  • PERFECT SIZE – Our study card measures 3 x 5 inches, a perfect size for both children and adults, easy to grip, lightweight and portable, suitable to use any place and any time.
  • PREMIUM QUALITY – Our multi-colored flash cards are all made of high-grade paper stock, solid and durable, in vibrant and bright color, no ink bleeding concerns. There are 6 high-quality rings in the package for collecting the cards. Every ring is made of alloy metal. easy to open and close.
  • 6 DIFFERENT COLORS – Our cards have 6 different colors featuring blue, yellow, pink, orange, green and purple. All of the colors are vibrant and no color fading concerns. These vibrant and bright colors can make a better mood for office workers, students, teachers and stock traders. We believe these colorful and delightful cards will improve your learning efficiency and accecerlate your memorization.
  • VARIOUS APPLICATIONS – Our note cards are perfect for note taking, learning and working. You can use the index cards at home, office, school and any place you want to use. Ideal tools to study a foreign language, prepare for a test or exam, make a list, stenograph, etc.
Rank No. #6 Koogel 300 Pieces 2.2 x 3.5 Inches Multicolor Kraft Paper Binder Ring Easy Flip Flash Card Study Cards/Memo Scratch Pads/Bookmark/DIY Greeting Card/Index Card Stock/Note Card(50 Sheets per Set)
  • 🎅6 Different colors:You can make special mark according to their different colors, easily sort cards by subject or class,Assorted 6 Colors
  • 🎅Package includes: 6 sets index cards in different colors, 50 sheets for every color, 300 pages in total; Size: 5.5 x 9 cm/ 2.2 x 3.5 inches, proper size for you carrying
  • 🎅Binder ring: comes with 6 pieces of stainless steel binder rings, which are easy to install and keep them together, convenient to hang or take down the cards
  • 🎅Notepad memo scratch pads for outdoor activities recording and tactical pocket.
  • 🎅Wide application: these flip index cards are good for taking notes, studying or working, you can apply them at home, school, office or any other places
SaleRank No. #7 Star Right Blank Flashcards – White – 1000 Hole – Punched Cards with 5 Metal Sorting Rings – for School, Learning, Memory, Recipe Cards, and More
  • GET ORGANIZED: Whether you’re using them for studying, notes, or games, our blank flashcards are great for a myriad of uses. These durable cards have a glossy side, perfect for writing with markers, and a matte side, great for pens or pencils.
  • EASY SORTING: Each card is hole-punched. The included metal rings make it easy to sort cards however you like and ensure you’ll never lose a card. The colored cards included are perfect for sorting or categorizing cards as well.
  • GET CREATIVE: These versatile flashcards can also be used in multiple ways. Use them to study and memorize information, take notes at home, school, and the office, or get creative and use them for games and crafts!
  • PACKAGE INCLUDES: (1000) blank cards (2”x3”) and (5) metal sorting rings.
  • STAR RIGHT, CARES RIGHT: Star Right believes that fun and learning go hand-in-hand.
    We strive to make products that will stimulate the imagination, creativity, and develop technical skills, all while still being tons of fun! With every purchase, we want to make sure that you are 100% satisfied, so don’t hesitate to contact us with any questions about our products!
Rank No. #8 DEBRA DALE DESIGNS Small Blank Flash Cards – Punched with Rings – 2″ x 3.5″ – 6 Pastel Colored Notecards – Box of 1,000 – Standard 110# Index Card Stock – Storage Travel Box With Attached Lid
  • THANK YOU FOR BUYING MADE IN AMERICA – At a time when many Americans are unemployed and businesses are struggling to stay open Debra Dale Designs appreciate buyers that make a conscious decision to keep the USA running. This product is the result of many people’s labor . . . from the loggers, paper mills, box manufacturer, truck drivers, and our own employees these index cards with rings are truly MADE IN AMERICA!
  • YOU’VE GOT CHOICES IN FLASH CARDS WITH RINGS . . . Do You Desire A Heavier Card Stock, A Bigger Size? No Worries . . . DEBRA DALE DESIGNS Has Over 30 Combinations Of Color, Size, And Paper Weights.
  • CUSTOM DESIGNED BOX – Our product comes in a real box with a bottom and a top that we specifically created to house our blank flashcards. You can keep your flash cards blank clean, neat, and organized.
  • OUR COLORED INDEX CARDS ARE NOT PRINTED ON – Our American made paper is colored during the papermaking process. We don’t apply dangerous inks from foreign countries to make our cards the beautiful pastel shades that you will love. All DEBRADALE DESIGNS Products Are Manufactured In The U.S. Using Domestic Papers That Meet All Recycling And Forestry Initiatives.
  • BIGGER CARDS WITH PAPER THAT IS THE SAME ON BOTH SIDES – Our cards are 2″ x 3.5″ inches. 15% Larger than other brands. Our paper has the same smooth finish on both sides with no coatings to resist ink.
Rank No. #9 MROCO Loose Leaf Binder Rings 3 Inch 12 Pack, Metal Book Rings Clip rings Index Cards Rings Curtain Rings Nickel Plated Steel Flash Card Ring Raper Ring Large Key Rings Notecard Rings, Silver
  • High Quality: Loose leaf ring is made of iron material, strong and durable, Multi-layer nickel-plated steel rings prevent rusting, color unfading, no crack, split or bend.
  • Easy to Operate: Just pull to open and squeeze to close for security, ensuring simple opening and firm closure.
  • Wide Application: These 12pcs 3inch binder rings are ideal for fastening document stack, books, paper, photo album, keys, shower curtain hooks, scrapbook , cards, booklets, arts projects, loose-leaf rings, sample holders, etc.
  • Lock Securely: Due to the metal material of this loose-leaf ring, children should be accompanied by adults to prevent swallowing and pinching.
  • 12 Months After-Sales Service : We provide full refund or free replacement if there is any quality issues, so no worry, just buy it !
Rank No. #10 Vera Bradley 100 Count Lined Index Cards with Dividers, Study Buddy with Stickers and Metal Binder Ring, Bonbon Ditsy
  • Includes 100 lined index cards 3″x5″ that come hole punched with 4 colorful dividers that help your notes stay organized wherever you take them
  • Comes with a set of 52 colorful stickers to customize your notes and add labels to each section. Plus, the tab sticker sheet allows you to assign and reassign the contents to keep you on track all year long!
  • Flash cards are bound by a silver hoop that unhooks to allow you to rearrange cards as needed. The secure elastic band closure prevents the cards from getting damaged as you travel between classes
  • Each notecard features colorful lines on both sides that coordinate with the tabbed divider of that section to make your study session a little more fun. 3×5 cards are made of a thick cardstock that prevents ink bleed-through so you can write, highlight, and erase as you please!
  • Index cards with ring feature flexible, durable plastic front and back covers that offer protection and feature the multicolored design, Bonbon Ditsy, by Vera Bradley. Whether for work or home, this study buddy set is a great add-on that everyone can use!

Last update on 2021-09-01 / Affiliate links / Product Titles, Images, Descriptions from Amazon Product Advertising API

How Do You Buy The Best Index Cards With Rings?

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We provide an Index Cards With Rings buying guide, and the information is totally objective and authentic. We employ both AI and big data in proofreading the collected information. How did we create this buying guide? We did it using a custom-created selection of algorithms that lets us manifest a top-10 list of the best available Index Cards With Rings currently available on the market.

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  2. Features: What bells and whistles matter for an Index Cards With Rings?
  3. Specifications: How powerful they are can be measured.
  4. Product Value: This simply is how much bang for the buck you get from your Index Cards With Rings.
  5. Customer Ratings: Number ratings grade Index Cards With Rings objectively.
  6. Customer Reviews: Closely related to ratings, these paragraphs give you first-hand and detailed information from real-world users about their Index Cards With Rings.
  7. Product Quality: You don’t always get what you pay for with an Index Cards With Rings, sometimes less, and sometimes more.
  8. Product Reliability: How sturdy and durable an Index Cards With Rings is should be an indication of how long it will work out for you.

We always remember that maintaining Index Cards With Rings information to stay current is a top priority, which is why we are constantly updating our websites. Learn more about us using online sources.

If you think that anything we present here regarding Index Cards With Rings is irrelevant, incorrect, misleading, or erroneous, then please let us know promptly! We’re here for you all the time. Contact us here. Or You can read more about us to see our vision.

10 Best Index Cards With Ring Target Reviewed and Rated in 2021

How To Buy Best Index Cards With Ring Target

Does shopping for the best index cards with ring target get stressful for you? Are doubts rolling over your head and confusing you? We know how it is; we have been through the entire journey of index cards with ring target research as we have put forward an entire list of the best index cards with ring target available in the market these days. We have brainstormed a few questions that most of you might have in mind.

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We offer a buying guide for index cards with ring target, and we provide 100% genuine and unbiased information. We make use of Big Data and AI data to proofread the information. How have be made this buying guide? We have a uniquely-designed set of algorithms, which enable us to make a list of top 10 index cards with ring target that are available in the marketplace these days. Our technology of bringing together a list depends on the factors such as:

  1. Brand Value
  2. Features & Specifications
  3. Product Value
  4. Customer Reviews & Ratings
  5. Quality and Durability

We do not forget that keeping product information up-to-date is our priority; therefore, we keep our websites updated at all times. Get more information about us through online sources. If you feel that the information displayed here is misleading or is incorrect or is irrelevant from actual facts, then please do not hesitate to get in touch with us. We will be there for you at all times.

Colour Pack 1000 A7 Flashcards + Perforation & 10 Binder Rings

Prepared Colour Packages with 1000 flashcards in A7 size (7,4 x 10,5 cm), including perforation of all the flashcards and 10 binder rings.

Each Colour Pack contains lined flashcards in 10 colours. You receive two packs (100 flashcards) per colour

  • 100 red flashcards
  • 100 orange flashcards
  • 100 yellow flashcards
  • 100 light green flashcards
  • 100 green flashcards
  • 100 blue flashcards
  • 100 pink flashcards
  • 100 purple flashcards
  • >100 lilac flashcards
  • 100 white OR 100 confetti OR 100 black flashcards (choose below)

Perforation & 10 binder rings

  • All the packs are perforated (20 packs)
  • You receive 10 metal binder rings
Worldwide shipping with royal dutch mail

Orders placed before 16. 00 CET on business days will be shipped the same day

Corona virus precautions

Delivery continues as you can expect: fast and secure. Royal Dutch Mail and her partners have taken all precautions to prevent personal contact when items are delivered. They will sign for you, after your ID is checked. 

Delivery times (in business days)*

*There may be delays in delivery due to the virus and increased shipping volumes.. Delays of 1 – 3 days have been reported for the countries with an * behind it. 

We apologize for the inconvenience and kindly ask you for your understanding. 

Country 
Delivery time
Delivery costs (incl. VAT)
Germany  2-3  € 5,95
United Kingdom  2-3 * € 6,95
Belgium  1-2  € 4,95
Denmark 2-3  € 12,49
Netherlands 1-2 € 3,49
France 2-3 * € 11,51
Italy  3-6 * € 11,70
Spain  3-5 * € 16,-
Sweden  2-4  € 18,21
Switzerland  2-3 * € 22,80
Canada  5-6  € 24,95
Curaçao  4-8 * € 24,95
China  9-15 * € 24,95
Indonesia  4-9  € 24,95
Japan  4-7 * € 24,95
New Zealand  5-7  € 24,95
Norway  2-4  € 22,80
Russia  8-14 * € 24,95
Turkey  5-8 * € 22,80
United States 3-6 * € 24,95
South Africa 5-8  € 24,95
I live in another country

 

View our complete list of worldwide delivery times

Star Right Blank Flash Cards with Rings in Assorted Colors; 1000 Index Cards – Single Hole Punched with 5 Rings, 2×3 inch for School, Learning, Memory, Recipe Cards and More On Sale Just  $14.

99

Star Right Blank Flash Cards with Rings in Assorted Colors; 1000 Index Cards – Single Hole Punched with 5 Rings, 2×3 inch for School, Learning, Memory, Recipe Cards and More On Sale Today!

Amazon currently has this Star Right Blank Flash Cards with Rings in Assorted Colors; 1000 Index Cards – Single Hole Punched with 5 Rings, 2×3 inch for School, Learning, Memory, Recipe Cards and More for just $14.99 

Features of the Star Right Blank Flash Cards with Rings in Assorted Colors; 1000 Index Cards – Single Hole Punched with 5 Rings, 2×3 inch for School, Learning, Memory, Recipe Cards and More:

  • GET ORGANIZED: The color of flashcards comes with five metal ring that can easily be slipped through the hole punched cards, making sure that no card becomes lost, flipped over, or out of order. It makes traveling and your notes on the fridge easy and fun!
  • PLAY GAMES: Flashcards make it easy for numbers to be a fun and exciting game, whether in school, at home, or on the go! Try playing games or engaging memory challenges. You can even get creative and use the flash cards to make stories on the fly.
  • ASSORTED COLORS: Orange, pink, green, yellow, and blue help to categorize subjects, assist memory, and make things lively and fun! You may also complete your college and school supplies with these colored notecards.
  • PACKAGE INCLUDES: 1000 blank flash cards in assorted colors (size 2″x3″) with 5 metal binder rings.
  • ABOUT US:The team behind Star Right knows the importance of education and wants your child to develop by using new and exciting techniques of learning. We believe that fun and learning go hand-in-hand and have made our products in this reflection.

The price of this Star Right Blank Flash Cards with Rings in Assorted Colors; 1000 Index Cards – Single Hole Punched with 5 Rings, 2×3 inch for School, Learning, Memory, Recipe Cards and More can change at any time.

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Book Binder Rings Metal Rings for Index Cards 36pc Assorted Sizes Ring Hooks Ring Binder Clips Pen- Binder Rings Book Rings Loose Leaf Binder Ring Mr Index Card Rings Rings for Flash Cards



Book Binder Rings Metal Rings for Index Cards 36pc Assorted Sizes Ring Hooks Ring Binder Clips Pen- Binder Rings Book Rings Loose Leaf Binder Ring Mr Index Card Rings Rings for Flash Cards Tape, Adhesives & Fasteners Clips, Clamps & Rings houseofrd.com
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  7. Book Binder Rings Metal Rings for Index Cards 36pc Assorted Sizes Ring Hooks Ring Binder Clips Pen- Binder Rings Book Rings Loose Leaf Binder Ring Mr Index Card Rings Rings for Flash Cards

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Book Binder Rings Metal Rings for Index Cards 36pc Assorted Sizes Ring Hooks Ring Binder Clips Pen- Binder Rings Book Rings Loose Leaf Binder Ring Mr Index Card Rings Rings for Flash Cards

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Book Binder Rings Metal Rings for Index Cards 36pc Assorted Sizes Ring Hooks Ring Binder Clips Pen- Binder Rings Book Rings Loose Leaf Binder Ring Mr Index Card Rings Rings for Flash Cards

Book Binder Rings Metal Rings for Index Cards 36pc Assorted Sizes Ring Hooks Ring Binder Clips Pen- Binder Rings Book Rings Loose Leaf Binder Ring Mr Index Card Rings Rings for Flash Cards

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NFC from “A” to “Z” we tell in detail what is, and how NFC in the phone will change the life of everyone

Table of contents1 What is NFC
2 Technical aspects of NFC
2.1 Standards
2.2 NFC Forum
2.3 NFC Forum
Specifications 2.4 NFC
Device Modes 2.5 Card Emulation Mode
2.6 P2P (Peer-to-Peer) Mode
2.7 Read / Write Mode
2.8 Active and Passive Communication
2.9 Tag Specifications NFC
3 NFC Hardware
3.1 NXP Semiconductors
3.3.1 Passive NFC Tags
3.3.2 NFC Frontends
3.3.3 NFC Controller with Custom Firmware
3.3.4 NFC controller with embedded firmware
3.3.5 How it works
3.2 FMSH
4 Industry solutions for using NFC
4.1 Marketing
4.1.1 Loyalty cards
4.1.2 Promotional offers
4.2 Identity and access
4.2.1 Hospitality
4.2 .2 Physical access control
4.2.3 Boarding passes
4.2.4 Vehicle access control
4.2.5 Quality control
4.3 Medicine
4.4 Transport infrastructure
4.5 Gaming industry
4.6 IoT
4.7 Bank cards
5 Security
5.1 Safe car
5.2 Secure data storage
5.3 Safe payments
5.4 Security of NFC tags
6 Other wireless technologies
7 What an ordinary person can do with a phone with NFC

According to a Gallup survey conducted back in 2015 in a country with a disgusting Internet, 46% of Americans said they could not imagine their life without their smartphone. “This all opens up a sea of ​​possibilities for NFC technology.

But in reality this technology is capable of much greater possibilities, and is applied much more widely.

What is NFC


Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short-range wireless data transmission technology that enables data exchange between devices located at a distance of about 10 centimeters. In fact, NFC is a special case of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) – a mechanism for radio frequency exchange of data stored in so-called transponders or tags, which is based on the ISO / IEC 18092 NFC IP-1, JIS X 6319-4 and ISO / IEC 14443 standards for contactless smart cards.

NFC The device operates at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and consists of a reader (reader) and an antenna, or a tag and an antenna. The reader generates a radio frequency field that can interact with a tag or another reader. A reader is an NFC device that operates in active communication mode. A tag is an NFC device that works in passive communication mode.


Technical aspects of NFC operation

Standards

Prior to the NFC standards, there were other standards that later became the basis for the NFC standard, such as ISO 14443.It describes the frequency range, modulation method and protocol for the exchange of contactless passive cards (RFID) short-range (up to 10 cm) on magnetically coupled inductors.

In this way, NFC-equipped phones are capable of interoperability with the existing reader infrastructure. Especially in “card emulation mode” the NFC device must at least pass a unique ID number to the existing RFID reader.

NFC was approved as an ISO / IEC standard on December 8, 2003.

NFC is an open platform technology standardized in ECMA-340 and ISO / IEC 18092. These standards define the modulation schemes, coding, transmission rates and RF structure of the interface of NFC devices, as well as the initialization schemes and conditions required for conflict management in initialization time – for both passive and active NFC modes. In addition, they also define the transmission protocol, including the activation protocol and the communication method.

Radio interface for NFC standardized in:

  • ISO / IEC 18092 / ECMA-340: Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol-1 (NFCIP-1)
  • GOST R ISO / IEC 18092-2015 Information technology.Telecommunications and information exchange between systems. Near field communication. Interface and protocol (NFCIP-1)
  • ISO / IEC 21481 / ECMA-352: Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol-2 (NFCIP-2)

NFC Forum

As usual in world practice, to promote an idea you need to gather a group of like-minded people. So in 2004, NXP Semiconductors, Sony and Nokia got together and organized the non-profit organization NFC Forum to work together to promote NFC technology.

In addition, the NFC Forum has defined a common data format called NDEF that can be used to store and transfer various kinds of data items. NDEF is conceptually very similar to MIME. It is a compressed binary format of so-called “records” in which each record can hold a different class of object. By convention, the type of the first report determines the context of the entire message. Most often, NDEF is used to store information in labels.

Goals of the NFC Forum:

  • Develop specifications and test mechanisms to ensure consistent and reliable operation of NFC in all three modes;
  • Advocates for service providers and developers on the benefits of NFC to drive increased adoption and use of NFC;
  • Promotion of the NFC Forum and other NFC brands.

In June 2006, just 18 months after its founding, the Forum formally outlined the architecture of the NFC technology. To date, the Forum has released 16 specifications. The specifications provide a kind of roadmap that allows all stakeholders to create new products.

NFC Forum Specifications

In addition to existing standards, the NFC Forum has compiled the best of these standards into documents describing the operation of devices that use NFC technology and called them specifications.

For example, NFC Analog Technical Specification addresses the analog RF performance of an NFC-enabled device. This specification includes antenna power requirements, transmission requirements, receiver requirements, and waveforms (time / frequency / modulation characteristics).

Specification NFC Analog 2.0 introduced active communication mode for P2P data exchange and NFC-V technology in polling mode. Version 2.0 provides full compatibility with devices conforming to ISO / IEC 14443 or ISO / IEC 18092.

According to these specifications, there are the following communication methods for NFC devices: NFC-A, NFC-B, NFC-F, and five types of NFC tags. NFC devices can be active or passive communication and support one (or more) of 3 modes of operation.

NFC-A
The NFC-A communication type is based on the ISO / IEC 14443A standard for contactless cards. The communication types differ in the signal coding and modulation modes used. NFC-A uses Miller code and amplitude modulation. Binary data is transmitted at about 106 kbps, the signal must change from 0% to 100% to distinguish between binary 1 and binary 0.

NFC-B
The NFC-B communication type is based on the ISO / IEC 14443B standard for contactless cards. NFC-B uses the Manchester coding method. Binary data is also transmitted at a rate of about 106 kbps. Here, instead of 100%, a 10% amplitude change is used for binary 0 (i.e. low) and 100% for binary 1 (i.e. high). In Manchester coding, a low to high transition represents a binary 0, and a high to low transition represents a binary 1.

NFC-F
The NFC-F communication type is based on the FeliCA JIS X6319-4 standard, also known simply as FeliCa. The standard is governed by the Japanese JICSAP. This technology is the most popular there. The data transfer rate is 212/424 kbps, using Manchester coding and amplitude modulation.

NFC device operating modes


Fig. 1. Modes of operation of the NFC device. Tag Reader / Writer – read / write mode. Peer-to-Peer – P2P peer-to-peer mode.Card Emulation – card emulation mode.

NFC-enabled devices support three operating modes: reader / writer, peer-to-peer, card emulation

Card emulation mode

Card emulation mode allows NFC-enabled devices to act as smart cards.

In card emulation mode, an NFC-enabled device communicates with an external reader like a conventional contactless smart card. For example, when making a payment using an NFC-enabled device.

P2P (Peer-to-peer) mode

Peer-to-peer mode allows two NFC-enabled devices to communicate with each other to exchange information and files, so that NFC-enabled device users can quickly share contact information and other files with a single touch. For example, users can exchange Bluetooth or Wi-Fi connection settings, or exchange data such as virtual business cards or photos.

Read / Write

Read / Write allows NFC-enabled devices to read information stored in NFC tags (or tags) embedded in smart posters and displays, or interact with another NFC device in read / write mode.The initiating device can read data from the second device or write data to it.

Tags can be used to read transport timetables, access special promotions, read travel tags and routes, and more.

Active and passive communication


Passive communication

In the passive communication mode, there is an initiator device, there is a target device.
The initiator generates an electromagnetic field at a carrier frequency of 13.56 MHz, which allows data exchange and sends energy to the target.The initiator then sends the command using direct field modulation. The listener (passive or polling) responds using load modulation. This type of communication is used in all three modes of NFC operation. In passive communication mode, the target device uses the field generated by the initiator device.

Active communication

In active communication mode, each device generates its own electromagnetic field. The initiator device generates an electromagnetic field at a carrier frequency of 13.56 MHz, uses amplitude modulation to send the command, and then turns off the field.The target device in response generates its own electromagnetic field and sends a response in the same way modulating it. To avoid collisions, only the sending device emits an electromagnetic field. This type of communication is used only in P2P mode.

NFC Tag Specifications

The NFC tag is a passive NFC device that supports read / write mode. According to the NFC Forum specification, there are 5 types of NFC tags.

NFC Equipment

NXP Semiconductors

If we talk about the manufacturers of NFC microchips, then first of all about the largest developer of microprocessors and microcontrollers NXP Semiconductors.

For NFC systems, they produce all kinds of products, from passive tags to active NFC controllers with built-in software shell.

Passive Tags
These small passive IC-based tags are the most cost-effective solution when you have an NFC reader or NFC phone as the active device.

Tags have an RF (radio frequency) interface that is fully complementary to the NFC specification, use energy harvesting * mode, so there is no need to install a battery to power the passive NFC tag.

NFC Frontend (NFC chip)
Integrated circuits with NFC interface. Allows you to flexibly configure NFC for your system.

NFC controller with custom firmware
NFC controller is an NFC microchip plus a 32-bit Cortex-M0 microcontroller that can execute your application logic. The firmware is fully customized for the needs of the customer.

NFC Controller with Integrated Firmware
This is a turnkey solution that integrates an NFC interface with a 32-bit Cortex-M0, the microcontroller is equipped with built-in firmware, and is optimized for use with the OS.

Passive NFC Tags

Fig. 4. NFC tag filling.

For NXP, these are type 2 tags according to the NFC Forum specification. It is clear from the figure that such a tag, despite its modest size, carries with it: an antenna, a radio frequency module, an interface for communication with a microcontroller, an EEPROM memory and a module for energy collection. The memory can be configured to be overwritten or password protected to limit data manipulation. Tags support the digital elliptic cryptography (ECC) algorithm, the so-called digital signature, which adds an additional layer of security and allows data to be authenticated without connecting to the cloud.They support passive communication mode, tags with an additional energy collection module do not need a separate power supply.

For NXP, these are NTAG I²C plus and NTAG 213F / 216F series tags. The NTAG F Series provides standards-based functionality ideal for pairing with other NFC devices. NTAG I²C plus has I²C interface for use with microcontroller, supports power harvesting and modem mode.

NFC Frontends
The CLRC663 plus, MFRC630 and SLRC610 microchips are primarily intended for use in contactless smart card and tag applications, while the PN5180 is designed for widespread use in applications dealing with everything from smart cards to mobile phones.
Embedded libraries, fully compliant with ISO / IEC, EMV and NFC Forum specifications, provide reliable performance and easier certification. Power saving mode and features such as low power card detection extend battery life.


Fig. 5. Filling NFC Frontends (NFC microchip).

The figure schematically shows the modules that make up such an NFC microchip: this is an NFC interface, a built-in clock control module, and an interface for communicating with a microcontroller.

In addition to all of the above, the PN5180 microchip offers the most advanced transmitter and receiver functions. Dynamic Power Control (DPC), Adaptive Waveform Control (AWC), Adaptive Receiver Control (ARC), and Automatic EMD error handling, in accordance with the latest ISO / IEC14443 and EMVCo specifications, are performed by the microchip itself, without interacting with another microcontroller. Support for these features pre-empts the use of multitasking operating systems such as Linux or Android.By using DPC to automatically optimize the antenna, the PN5180 improves performance when there is metal, other cards or mobile phones nearby. DPC also helps reduce power consumption and provides better power output for longer reading distances.

NFC Controller with Custom Firmware
Combining NFC with an advanced powerful 20 MHz ARM Cortex-M0 microprocessor, PN7462, PN7362, PN7360 NFC Controllers with Custom Firmware are the best choice for compact systems to achieve higher integration with your system or application with fewer components.An already fully configured application can be loaded into the flash memory, the optimized antenna performance combined with low power consumption ensures excellent performance.

These controllers have more modules. In addition to the already known ones: NFC interface, internal clock module, Cortex-M0 microprocessor with flash memory, there is a GPIO module or low-level direct control I / O interface, an SPI bus or serial peripheral interface module and a module of other interfaces, such as I2C, HSUART other.

Fig. 6. Filling of the NFC controller with customizable firmware.

All in all, these controllers are well packaged.

Firmware NFC Controller
Designed to save time in system development, the PN7150 and PN7120 Firmware NFC Controllers combine an NFC interface with an advanced energy-saving ARM Cortex-M0 20 MHz microprocessor, pre-installed Linux drivers. Android and WinIoT.


Fig.7. Filling of the NFC controller with built-in firmware.

The PN7150 microcontroller uses a wider supply voltage range, which makes it possible to use a smaller antenna area without sacrificing performance, supports work with FeliCa type 3 tags, both in reading mode and in card emulation mode (for use in Japan, Hong Kong , Singapore and other Asian countries where Felica is widespread).

How it works
For systems, hardware and application developers using NFC, NXP controllers offer so-called “development kits” for programming tags, chips or uploading firmware to the controller.You can also use the NFC Reader Library – a modular multi-level library that contains various ready-made APIs for integrating NFC equipment into applications.

If you cannot decide what kind of chip you need, then you just need to answer the following questions:

And here is a huge table on NFC compatibility of NXP products, their characteristics and so on.

FMSH

On the other side of the world, the Chinese company Fudan Microelectronics Group is developing similar equipment.They produce microchips for the banking system based on NFC technologies, smart sensors for measuring devices based on ASIC integrated circuits, microchips for transport and social cards: FM11NT020, FM11NT0X1, FM11NT0X1D, FM11NC08.

More details on these chips can be found on the links, although it is obvious that NFC is far from the main product for the Chinese.

Industry-specific NFC solutions

Marketing

Loyalty Cards
There are now popular applications, the so-called “e-wallets” for discount cards, such as this.There you can save images (photos) of loyalty cards with a card number or with a barcode, which, of course, greatly simplifies life, eliminating the need to carry a bunch of cards with you. A great solution from the 90s.

However, the new century is inevitably approaching, and some developers have gone further, for example the developers of Google Pay, they have integrated loyalty cards directly into the payment application.

We are talking about the integration of discount, bonus, gift and other loyalty cards into a mobile application that allows contactless payments using NFC.
Android Pay is a prime example of a commercially available NFC payment solution that implements methods for transferring loyalty card data to a merchant’s point of sale (POS) system.


Fig. 8. Google Pay app.

The main advantage of these additional features is the simplification of the ordering process for both the consumer and the seller, now possible discounts on the loyalty card will be taken into account right at the time of order payment, no “now attach your bonus card”.With the same one touch, it is possible to add bonus points to the card or pay for the purchase. Another advantage is more reliable data transmission than using barcodes. Barcodes are a single piece and must be read in a specific way, which can cause problems if your smartphone has a scratched or broken screen or protective glass is used. Also, reading problems can occur in bright conditions, such as outdoors, or when the screen brightness is dimmed.

The barcode scanners themselves are also different in quality and reading speed.


And not all barcode scanners can read a barcode from a smartphone screen


The introduction of NFC-based loyalty cards and bonuses is beneficial to all consumers, sellers and brands:

  • fewer plastic cards in the consumer’s pocket;
  • consumers are always with their bonuses and discounts;
  • 90,264 Companies and loyalty program managers can more accurately track customer activity;
  • the process of calculating or writing off bonuses is faster, the waiting time in the queue is reduced;
  • faster process more sales during peak hours;
  • NFC communication is more reliable than barcode scanning.

Sales
Loyalty cards are saved in the payment application along with the linked bank card and are used in the NFC card emulation mode. This data is stored in a Security Element (SE) on the phone. In short, SE is a tamper-resistant platform, typically a memory chip, that allows you to securely store sensitive data protected by cryptographic keys. SE can be integrated into a SIM card issued by the user’s mobile network or a chip embedded in the phone by the device manufacturer.This implementation stores loyalty credentials in the same security domain as the payment card details associated with the payment application.

And although the data of loyalty cards is not vital to secure storage, but when stored in SE, they are protected from being erased or changed by other applications.

Problems

  • The SE capacity limits the amount of data that can be stored in it.
  • Payment terminals and POS systems must be equipped with software to support NFC loyalty applications.
Coupons and promotional offers
Digital coupons are not as common as loyalty cards, but they work in much the same way, only the coupon is tied to the store’s mobile app, not the payment app. those. to use a store promotion, you must first install its mobile application and activate a discount or coupon from this application. Next comes the appeal to the payment application, and payment using NFC card emulation.

The benefits are the same as in the case of loyalty cards.

Implementation
One of the options for implementing the use of marketing programs with NFC technologies is the use of NFC tags in advertising posters with a special discount linked to the store’s mobile application.

Issues
Issues common for coupons and loyalty cards.

Identity and Access

Hospitality
NFC is widely used in the hospitality industry. This, of course, is not only about hotels, if we take a broader sense, then NFC technology is used for access control or identification.NFC provides access control to certain rooms or groups of rooms, primarily, of course, a hotel room, but depending on the client’s privileges, he can access the SPA zone, or any other area or room where access is restricted. NFC can also help hoteliers or room owners control bandwidth by keeping track of how many people visit a certain room or pass through a certain area.

The hospitality solution offers guests a completely new experience.Depending on the solution chosen, guests can pre-reserve and book rooms themselves using their mobile devices. Upon arrival, they can use their smartphone to check in or check out.

When guests arrive at the hotel, they go straight to their room and open the door using their smartphone. You no longer need to wait in line at the reception after a long journey. No keys or cards. This solution is safe, convenient and time-saving for everyone.

Both guests and hotel companies benefit from the use of NFC in a hotel.For example, a guest can get into his room faster if his smartphone is programmed to open the number lock, if NFC technology is available, and this also eliminates the need to carry a physical token (for example, a card or key).

In this case, you are unlikely to forget the key inside the room, according to unofficial statistics, every second person does not part with a smartphone. And hotels save on the cost of physical keys.

In the case where NFC is used to control access, for example to an event, exhibition or entertainment complex, owners can reduce costs by digitally registering visitors instead of issuing physical cards, badges or tickets.

Implementation
Of course, the introduction of NFC technology in the hospitality business requires additional infrastructure. To use NFC technology, consumers of hotel services must use mobile devices with NFC support, and hoteliers must have software and hardware that will allow the visitor’s smartphone to be programmed. In other words, the hotel infrastructure requires the use of a physical access control system, i.e. NFC-compatible door readers; and software capable of managing user access rights and credentials.


The video shows a comparison of the classic way of registration and remote registration and access to a hotel using a smartphone


As for the use of NFC technology in the hotel business, and the possibility of registering a guest through his smartphone, Hilton Hotels was one of the first to introduce these solutions. Or here’s an experiment with the implementation of this technology at the Clarion Hotel in 2013.

Problems

  • Hotels or other facilities must be equipped with NFC readers.
  • The implementation profit should cover the cost of equipping doors with NFC readers and software support.
  • Consumers must use NFC-enabled phones to achieve large-scale deployments.
  • Security is critical because the credentials provided are used to authorize access to hotel rooms that typically store visitors’ valuables.
Physical Access Control
The Access Control Systems (ACS) industry develops solutions for various market segments that have historically used low-frequency RFID tags as identifiers used with applications that allow connected APs to read tags and validate the server (or control controller) in real time to validate access.

Over the past several years, the industry has made major efforts to update this infrastructure and move from supporting RFID-only low-frequency equipment to more functional high-frequency devices that are ISO / IEC 14443 compliant.This makes it possible to perform additional functions besides the usual access control, such as paying for accommodation, creating a badge, verifying identity, and granting other permissions.

The most famous implementation of the standard is the Mifare family of smart cards.


If we are talking about ACS, we must not forget that the main device will be a controller, which must also support the corresponding functionality. The main functionality required from the controller is to seamlessly work with crypto-protected sectors of smart cards.

Modern cloud services enable access product and service providers to easily and securely port their smart card applications to smartphones. All rights and functions associated with the contactless access control card can be handled by the smartphone.


NFC-enabled smartphones can store and provide access credentials to readers that support proximity cards complying with ISO / IEC 14443.

Credentials can be generated in real time and stored in SE or HCE-enabled app …
The smartphone becomes, among other functions, a door opener, electronic ticket or user and attendance tracking system.

NFC-based Access Control is disastrously useful for managing physical access for a large number of geographically dispersed sites. For example, utility providers regularly face the challenge of simultaneously managing multiple facilities and large numbers of personnel. This traditionally means that it is necessary to maintain a huge number of locks, and the keys to which are in constant circulation.


Including a huge advantage of using a smartphone with NFC as a key, is the ability to use locks, for which the smartphone will act as a power source at the time of identification, transmitting enough power to the lock to unlock it.

Implementation
Part of the implementation of physical access control is described in the “Hospitality” section.


Probably the most common example of the use of NFC technology in controlling physical access will be ordinary intercoms, where a tag with a key is sewn into the key fob, and there is an NFC tag reader in the device on the door.

Issues
In addition to the issues described in the Hospitality section, there are several other issues.

NFC support by smartphone manufacturers is still a premium segment. In addition, some phones have sub-optimal antenna placement and design, resulting in poor read quality.

Therefore, NFC technology is used in conjunction with Bluetooth as a contactless protocol. Bluetooth is available on almost all smartphones, this protocol has a longer range.And access control equipment manufacturers include Bluetooth support in addition to ISO / IEC 14443 and NFC.

Boarding passes
In 2011, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) teamed up with the GSMA, the organization that represents the interests of mobile operators around the world, to publish “The Benefits of NFC for Air Travel”, which discussed the potential uses and benefits of NFC in the aviation industry … Later in 2013, IATA and the NFC Forum jointly published the NFC Air Travel Reference Guide.

Document designed to guide airlines in identifying uses, benefits and implementation options.
Among the benefits of , expedited travel and support services were described (eg, baggage fees, priority fast track access for transit or business class passengers, ground transportation fees).

Potential applications would include: baggage check-in, automatic document checks, new boarding passes for canceled or delayed flights.Those. this virtually eliminated the need to go to the check-in counter to obtain a paper boarding pass and drop off your baggage.

Implementation
The technology now adopted by airlines around the world and deployed at airports around the world is the barcode or QR code on the boarding pass and the corresponding optical readers at security checkpoints and boarding points.

Moving from barcodes to NFC, the GSMA proposes storing boarding pass credentials in SE or secure elements that have unique encryption keys, thus ensuring security and integrity.Some airlines, notably the Swedish airline SAS, take a different approach: instead of storing data representing boarding passes on a secure element inside the smartphone, they store data representing the user, namely frequent flyer credentials, in an HCE-enabled mobile app. HCE or Host Card Emulation is a card emulation technology that puts SE in the cloud. Combined with network-connected NFC readers at check-in, user credentials can be retrieved from the cloud to receive a boarding pass.However, in this case, a prerequisite for the smooth operation of such a system is the connection to the network.

Problems

  • Lack of infrastructure at airports.
  • If the airline uses HCE technology, then the smartphone user must be connected to the Internet at the time of registration via NFC.
Restricting vehicle engine access
An NFC-enabled device app can turn your smartphone into a car key, giving new meaning to the term keyless entry.You can lock and unlock your vehicle by holding your NFC-enabled mobile device near the driver’s door handle. Placing the phone in a special place, which is also a wireless charging platform, on the dashboard inside the car turns on the ignition.

Implementation
The introduction of NFC technology into the vehicle began around 2016, when the first cars with keyless access via a mobile device were unveiled at the Detroit Auto Show. At first, these were premium cars, Mercedes-Benz and Audi.But today, many automotive concerns have adopted NFC.


In 2018, the Car Connectivity Consortium, which was developing a digital key protocol for use in automotive systems, announced the release of the Digital Key Release 1.0 specification. Basically, this organization brings together car and mobile device manufacturers to implement digital key technology on a regular basis in the automotive infrastructure.

This protocol promises to support the following functions:

  • Unlocking the vehicle – the access device must be in the immediate vicinity of the vehicle
  • Lock car
  • Start engine – access device must be in vehicle
  • User Authentication
  • Revoking a digital key from another user
  • Digital Key Exchange – Remote and Peer-to-Peer
  • Digital Key Properties – (Public) Key Usage Restriction


Fig.9. Interaction between the NFC device and the car. Car OEM is a car manufacturer. TSM is a trusted service manager (key provider). Mobile UI is a mobile interface. TUI is a trusted interface. TEE is a trusted execution environment. Secure Element is a secure element. SE issuer – the issuer of the security element. SE issuer agent – the executable application of the issuer of the security element. NFC – NFC chip.

The diagram shows that the standardized interface allows accessing the SE, where the digital key is stored, and transmitting it to the car via the NFC of the mobile device.The NFC sensor in the car is installed in the driver’s door handle and on the front panel, under a special platform.

Here NXP developments in the field of safe keyless access to the car.
And here about safe automotive architecture.


Problems
The problem is that the introduction of such technology into the infrastructure of the car will affect the cost of the model upward. And also security. Although manufacturers of devices with NFC technology assure that this is one of the most secure technologies, due to its very limited range, it is almost impossible to scan it remotely, the reader must be at a maximum distance of 10 centimeters, and the digital key is stored in a secure element of the mobile device.A limited range, by the way, on the other hand, can also be a certain problem, because the phone will have to be brought directly to the handle of the car door, you can no longer open the car while standing at the store with full bags in your hands, as with a key fob button.

Quality Control
With the advent of the Internet, the market boundaries (external or internal) for the end user have become blurred. There are now no scarce goods such as American jeans or Polish boots, which dad brought from a business trip.You can buy any jeans for any wallet. And with the entry of Chinese craftsmen on the world market, a lot of things like Louis Vuitton, only 10 times cheaper, or like Adidas, only Abibas, appeared. In Russia, the annual volume of counterfeit trade is estimated at $ 4 billion. According to the information published on the website of the Customs Information Server, most often counterfeit objects are medicines, alcohol, tobacco products, clothing, footwear, mineral waters and juices, and auto parts.At the same time, the share of illegal circulation of such goods in some sectors reaches 40%.

Manufacturers use different methods to protect their product, for example, holographic stickers, QR codes, bar codes. Protection based on a graphic element is still easy to fake, manufacturers have gone further and began to use NFC tags.

Fig. 10. Use of tags to control the quality of goods. Customer CMS is a client application. Product with NFC – a product with an NFC tag. NDEF is the format of the data in the label.Customer URL – link to check originality, authenticity. NTAG 2GO Secure Services – security check services.

NFC tags are installed on packaging or on the product itself to confirm the originality of the product. If there is an application in the phone that can read this tag and display information (NDEF or NFC Data Exchange Format, the data format in which the information is stored in the tag), as a rule, this is a link to the manufacturer’s website, you can check the originality of the product, catalog number, history, etc.This is especially common in pharmacology, when a person’s life can depend on a fake. Also among the producers of elite wines. Expensive brands of clothing, shoes and bags.

Medicine

In a report released by technology analysts Transparency Market Research (TMR), healthcare is one of the fastest growing market segments for NFC, with a CAGR (compound annual growth rate) of 20.4%.

In addition to the use of NFC in access control systems, which has already been described and applies to medical institutions, including, NFC can also provide secure logical access (to medical information).Electronic data needs the same protection against unauthorized access as physical paper files. Using NFC to control access to computers, tablets, and other devices is a convenient and secure way to protect your data.
Medical NFC bracelets based on NFC tags allow tracking the movement of patients, this of course relates more to identification and access control system than to healthcare. Medical staff can know in real time where the patient is, when the nurse last visited him or what treatment the doctor prescribed.Data is collected and stored in controlled access databases, this system simplifies logistics, hospital file management and prevents errors.

Also, smart identification bracelets based on NFC tags help people with life-threatening conditions such as diabetes, asthma or food or drug allergies in everyday situations. In case of emergency, this bracelet will provide detailed information about the disease, allergies, etc. ambulance doctors.One such bracelet has already been demonstrated by the HealthID Profile – here are the details.

Another application of the NFC-tagged medical wristband is for patient monitoring at home, as the NFC-enabled wristband can be configured to track vital signs. The patient connects the bracelet to a smartphone or tablet, and the medical data is transmitted to the attending physician. People with chronic illnesses or disabilities may have fewer medical visits to monitor their condition, or patients may return home earlier after surgery.

Another use of NFC tags in medicine (and not only) is the control of the authenticity of medicines in a specific case. The NFC tag is added to the packaging or labeling of the medicine, using a mobile device, you can check the authenticity of the medicine, view detailed information on dosages, or read about the side effects and interactions of the medicine. The tag may also contain a web link that will direct you to the manufacturer’s website for more information, or help you place an order from an online pharmacy or contact a healthcare professional.

Implementation
The implementation of NFC technologies in medicine is practically all based on a tag-reader link. The tag can be in any form factor, and the medical institution must be equipped with NFC readers that transmit information from the NFC tag to other systems and databases.

Problems

  • Lack of infrastructure in healthcare facilities.
  • Patient privacy regulations and concerns.

Transport infrastructure


Fig. 11. Evolution of transport tickets.
Legacy media – obsolete tickets. New media – new tickets (technologies). Paper tickets – paper tickets. Light interface – optical interface. Contactless cards – contactless cards. Contactless interface is a contactless interface. Mobile tickets – mobile tickets. NFC interface – NFC interface.

Everything has evolution, for example, this figure shows the evolution of transport tickets.Manual labor has long sunk into oblivion, tokens and paper tickets too. Then, behind them and tickets with a magnetic stripe and tickets with barcodes. Now the evolution of transport tickets has stopped at contactless transport cards. The heyday of the NFC era in transport infrastructure.

Here is the NFC Forum white paper on the use of NFC in transport. Obvious advantages from implementation: ease of use, a multi-card that works for several types of transport, you can replenish the balance through the application, and not stand in a queue, environmental friendliness, etc.

Contactless transport cards based on NFC tags are now an integral part of the transport infrastructure. Moreover, such cards work not only in the transport infrastructure of cities, at ski resorts the lift system also uses cards based on NFC tags. Or hiking trails with funiculars. You can top up your card at a transport ticket kiosk or online if you have a top up card.

Sales
Mosmetro announced the Mobile Ticket service, mobile operators (MTS OJSC, Megafon PJSC, VimpelCom OJSC) Breeze Technologies LLC, Moscow Metro State Unitary Enterprise ( Metro), State Unitary Enterprise “Mosgortrans”.Mobile operators provide the consumer with a SIM card with an embedded NFC, SE chip and a connected mobile ticket service. In this case, payment for the transport tariff is made via the NFC SIM card from the mobile number account to the transport application. Payment for travel is carried out with one touch of the phone to the validator of the transport operator, i.e. everything is simple for the user.

Is it possible to do the same, but without replacing the SIM card? First of all, the mobile device must support NFC and SE.Secondly, the payment application must work directly with the application of the transport operator. In other words, if the transit card can be integrated into Google Pay. And Google Pay added such an opportunity, but it is still in some kind of half-life, at least Google does not understand the transport cards operating in Russia. Therefore, no.
But for Apple there is such a service. Apple Pay with Mastercard: an easy and convenient way to pay. You can pay for travel in the metro and the MCC using Apple Pay at ticket offices, ticket vending machines, as well as directly at the turnstiles.Again, if you don’t have a mastercard, then don’t forget the transit card.
There are applications for mobile devices that allow you to pay for travel by electronic payment, initializing the card via NFC, for example, “my travel card”. Details about the work here.

Problems
The first and obvious problem in introducing an e-ticket service is in uniformity. The need to choose a single standard and a single technical solution for all transport operators, phone models, etc.e. Some phones support SE, and NFC in general, some do not. Among the carriers there are also private companies with their own tariffs and payment system (cash!).

Gaming Industry

NFC is an easy way to make your game interactive. In 2013, Mcdonald’s implemented the idea of ​​a children’s interactive gaming table based on NFC tags. The tags were attached to a regular table under the table top to simulate a track for a gaming application. In the game on the smartphone, the child drove a car that must drive along this track.


Activision has two series of games that feed them consistently from year to year. This, of course, is the record-breaking Call of Duty series of games, as well as a series of children’s products called Skylanders. Born as an offshoot of the Spyro the Dragon series, Skylanders has evolved into a standalone series that has been released on multiple platforms. The series is so successful that, looking at it, Disney has spent huge sums of money to make their Disney Infinity game with a similar meaning.And the point is that the heroes in the game are associated with real physical figurines of these heroes. The figurine is equipped with an NFC tag, this figurine must be purchased and placed on a special portal for the hero to appear in the game. This is genius. The income from Skylanders comes not from the sales of the game itself, but from all these heroes to it.

Disney Infinity and Nintendo Amiibo for Nintendo consoles became the followers of this idea.

Implementation
From the above it is clear that in the gaming industry NFC technology is used in the form of tags on which data is written, which is imported into the game application in the form of a hero or a game board.

A bit of NFC magic from NXP:
And here are NXP solutions for NFC games.
Chips with programmable NFC tags are also used in casinos.

Problems

  • Piracy. These tags do not use SE, so you can find everything on the Internet, including tutorials on how to copy a tag and play without buying a figurine.

IoT

IoT or Internet of things or Internet of things, this is a separate global trend.This is not just an iron with Wi-Fi or a kettle with bluetooth, it is not a separate technology or algorithm, it is an urban environment or a smart home, it is a multitude of technologies, algorithms and protocols that make human life better, more environmentally friendly and safer. Such is the philosophy.

Fig. 12. NFC in the IoT world.
Connecting / Commissioning / Controlling – Connection / Commissioning / Control. Bluetooth pairing – connect to a bluetooth device. Joining Wi-Fi – connect to a Wi-Fi network.Wireless Commissioning – commissioning of wireless devices. Water metering – taking readings from water flow meters. Appliance Servicing – Appliance Servicing. Setting unconnected appliances – setting unconnected appliances. Appliance controlling – control over the operation of devices. Ambient setting – setting the level of illumination and volume. Disabling residenting alarm – disable the home alarm.

Most of these smart infrastructures for the home are quite user-friendly, you do not need to buy any special industrial controllers (except perhaps an IoT gateway), program them, write code, or do something else like that.
IoT systems use different devices and sensors that have different interfaces and different connection mechanisms. For example, bluetooth requires two devices to be paired, to connect a device via Wi-Fi to an ethernet network, you need to enter a password or network credentials. And some sensors have no interface at all. NFC was developed as a tap-and-go protocol that promises to easily connect devices together.

Device connection


Fig.13. Connecting IoT devices.
IoT Gateway – IoT gateway. Wireless connectivity – wireless communication. NFC commissioning – commissioning via NFC. Bluetooth LE stands for Bluetooth low energy. Wi-Fi Wi-Fi network. Wi-Fi router gateway – Wi-Fi gateway.

Integration of the NFC interface into the IoT gateway (in fact, it is a microcomputer that primarily acts as an aggregator of all devices and information from them, understands various communication protocols, has an interface for remote control of a smartphone) allows you to seamlessly connect all devices to the gateway – regardless from basic wireless technology.
An NFC-enabled smartphone registered in the gateway can be used as a “magic wand” to transfer settings to devices, the device can also be reset to factory settings or taken out of the network by touching a mobile phone, the configuration of one device can be copied to another, making it easy to replace the old device with a new one. NFC provides standardized mechanisms to support all of these commissioning scenarios.

This makes it especially easy to integrate into the system devices that do not have a user interface and display for programming settings, such as light bulbs, security and presence sensors, electrical outlets, etc.


Fig. 14. Connecting IoT devices.
IoT Gateway – IoT gateway. NFC Reader – NFC reader. NFC Tag – NFC tag. Device in NFC reader proximity – a device in close proximity to an NFC reader. Power on – enabled. AES-128 Encrypted Communication – AES-128 encrypted connection.

Pairing
We should also highlight the convenience of using NFC in Bluetooth and Wi-Fi networks as a mechanism for pairing and integrating the device into a network.This applies not only to smart homes. You can connect your mobile phone to a public Wi-Fi network. Connect to mobile phone Bluetooth accessory via NFC, such as fitness tracker, headset, speaker, Bluetooth wireless connection are used by billions of smart electronic objects. While Bluetooth technology provides the convenience of constant communication at a distance, connecting two devices via Bluetooth can annoy the user (it drives me out) when you need to search for these devices, then pair and enter some other code from the box.Through close collaboration between the NFC Forum and the Bluetooth SIG, NFC helps speed up Bluetooth pairing by eliminating lengthy pairing steps. Now, manufacturers of products using Bluetooth can encode pairing setting information onto a thin, flexible NFC tag built into a Bluetooth-enabled device, and provide an instant and secure connection with a single tap of another NFC device.

Same thing for connecting devices to a Wi-Fi network, thanks to the NFC Forum and the Wi-Fi Alliance.The use of NFC tags makes it easier to connect to a wireless network at home, in the office, and everywhere. Shop and cafe owners protect their Wi-Fi networks with a password. To connect to a Wi-Fi network from a smartphone, tablet or PC, the user must open the Wi-Fi settings, select the correct network name (SSID), and then enter the password. In April 2014, the Wi-Fi Alliance and the NFC Forum announced technological improvements that could address two key issues when connecting to a wireless network: network name selection and password entry.To achieve this simplified connectivity, standard NFC Forum handover information is encoded into a thin flexible NFC tag that is either integrated into the wireless router, wall-mounted, or even distributed like a business card. As soon as the user connects their NFC device to the NFC tag, all necessary configuration information is automatically transferred from the NFC tag to the mobile device. With a simple touch of the NFC tag, users can surf the Internet faster than ever.

Bank cards

NFC chips are used not only in mobile devices in card emulation mode, but also in plastic cards themselves, for contactless payment, and in other common devices with the ability to emulate your card, such as a ring or bracelet with a built-in NFC chip …


Fig. 15. Stages of passing a payment transaction.

In the case of using a contact card, the payment application of the issuing bank is sewn into its chip, which, through the payment system, interacts with the merchant’s acquiring bank when conducting a payment transaction, and the personal payment data of the bank client in whose name the card is issued.The data is stored encrypted with crypto keys and protected from being overwritten or modified.

In the operation of a contactless card, an NFC module is added, which provides a contactless connection with a bank card reader.

What happens when the card is emulated by a mobile phone. In order not to write to the SE chip in the mobile device payment applications of all bank cards used by the owner of the device, which also need to be personalized, i.e. to transfer data about issued cards and store them in a secure form, the role of TSM (Trusted Service Manager) was formulated, which unites, on the one hand, service providers (TSM Service Provider), and on the other hand, Secure Element chips (Secure Element Issuer TSM).

TSM – Trusted Service Manager is a unique intermediary that owns the keys. It is a hardware and software complex that provides technological relations between telecom operators and service providers.

Fig. 16. Trusted Service Manager or TSM is a trusted service provider. Performs secure download and management of Secure Element (SE) content for transport applications, stores, mobile operators, banking applications, cardholder confidential data.

Key services of a trusted third party include secure loading and content management of the security element performed in conjunction with mobile service providers. These can be banks, transport companies, service providers and aggregators. Remote application management, usually performed using over-the-air (OTA) technologies, includes installing and personalizing applications in the mobile phone security element, as well as further maintenance of installed applications throughout their life cycle, as well as service support.Learn more about TSM here. However, this payment technology still required the presence of a physical security element on the mobile device. Which gave certain restrictions, for example, if the manufacturer of the mobile device did not include SE in its platform, in this case, it was required to change the SIM card to a card with SE support from the mobile operator.

In 2012, Doug Yeager and Ted Fifelsky, founders of SimplyTapp, Inc. the term “Host Card Emulation” was coined, which described the possibility of opening a communication channel between a contactless payment terminal and a remote hosted secure element containing financial data, payment card data, allowing financial transactions to be carried out in a point-of-sale terminal.They have implemented this new technology in the Android operating system starting with version 4.4. HCE requires the NFC protocol to be routed to the primary operating system of the mobile device and not to the local Secure Hardware Element (SE) chip. So, starting from the Android 4.4 KitKat version, the management of payment transactions was taken over by the API, or rather the Google Pay API, not by the physical element. Card emulation is inseparable from the concept of “tokenization”, because it is the next step in protecting payment data in the virtual world after TSM, which issued the keys.A token is a link (that is, an identifier) ​​that is matched against sensitive data through a tokenization system. Mapping raw data to a token uses techniques that make it impossible to convert tokens back to raw data outside of the tokenization system, for example, using tokens generated using random numbers. Those. instead of your card number, the API stores a token received from the issuing bank, which is useless in the form in which it is stored. Even if third parties recognize it, it will be impossible to use it.

Fig. 17. Tokenization.
When you enter a card number into a mobile application that allows mobile payments, for example, card number 4111 1111 1111 1234, the remote token service server returns a token of the form 4281 **** **** instead of the card number 2819, which is stored on the mobile device.

Tokenization when using Google Pay:

  1. When a user adds their credit or debit card to Google Pay, the application requests a token from the issuing bank.Google Pay then encrypts the tokenized card and makes it available for payment.
  2. When paying, the customer puts his mobile device to the terminal or clicks the corresponding button in the application. Google Pay sends a token and a cryptogram that acts like a one-time code. The payment system checks the cryptogram and correlates the token with the client’s card number.
  3. To complete the transaction, your acquiring bank and the buyer’s issuing bank use the customer’s data and decrypted payment information

In this case:

  • Google Pay does not process or authorize transactions.The service only tokenizes cards and transfers tokens and other information about customers to payment systems.
  • The merchant is the payee. He is obliged to maintain accounting records and withhold the necessary taxes.
  • The merchant does not need to change their payment processing system.

Security

If we are talking about the security of using NFC, then this does not imply exclusively secure payments, since it is clear from the previous voluminous section that the use of NFC technology is not limited to payments.The security and protection of data that is transferred to a tag or controller, or transferred to a third party, such as a POS terminal, or to a vehicle’s infrastructure, or to a database for identification, is important in all applications of NFC technology.

Safe car

Before you had a car and a physical iron key to it on the key fob, that’s it. If they wanted to steal your car, they broke the glass, opened the dashboard, started the car with two wires, that’s it, goodbye to the car.Then on-board computers, electronics, immobilizers began to appear.
A modern car is a technological space and infrastructure for the interaction of various technologies. Cars are equipped with Bluetooth, GPS, Wi-Fi, NFC modules, except for those that work with internal protocols and ports, such as OBD.

Whereas before the maximum risk for a car was physical penetration and theft, now attacks have become remote. Here and here are articles about how hackers took advantage of Jeep and Tesla S vulnerabilities, and after these cases Fiat Chrysler withdrew 1.4 million vehicles suspected of having the same vulnerabilities. Now the maximum risk is not car theft, but the possibility of intercepting control remotely and causing harm to the health of those who are in the car.

Fig. 18. The modern car uses a variety of communication protocols.

The protection of a modern car is based on 5 elements: secure interface, secure gateway, secure network, secure data processing, secure access.

Fig.19. Vehicle safety.
Secure interfaces – secure interfaces. Secure Gateway is a secure gateway. Secure Network is a secure network. Secure Processing – secure data processing. Secure Car Acces – secure access to the car.

The full text of the NXP article here, it covers in detail the protection at levels 1 to 4. But we are interested in the security of the use of NFC technology, since the article is about this.

Digital Key technology or SmartKey (or Digital Key) is designed in such a way that the key is not stored or transmitted in the clear.A digital key is some kind of original set of data that the car manufacturer sews into the car’s firmware along with a set of functions that are available for this key. He (car manufacturer) is TSM (Trusted Service Manager) for key users, i.e. the user does not receive a key from the car, he receives a set of encrypted data, which is the key to decrypting the original key, and they are stored in the SE of the mobile device, respectively. NFC is only used to transfer this encrypted data to the vehicle.Considering that NFC works at a distance of about 10 cm, it is almost impossible to scan and find out this data. Another important part of the security architecture is TEE, this so-called Trusted Execution Environment or secure execution environment, is a safe area of ​​the main processor and guarantees the protection of the code and data loaded inside, with respect to confidentiality and integrity.


Fig. 20. Safe access to the car via NFC. Car OEM is a car manufacturer.TSM is a trusted service manager (key provider). Mobile UI is a mobile interface. TUI is a trusted interface. TEE is a trusted execution environment. Secure Element is a secure element. SE provider – The provider of the secure element. SE provider agent – The secure element provider executable application. NFC – NFC chip.

Safely storing data

Using the secure element
Of course, this has already been mentioned in the previous sections. One of the options for storing card credentials and confidential information on a smartphone is the Security Element.We remember that SE is a physical chip on which applets of some applications with confidential data are installed, for example, an applet for a payment application, transport, etc. This chip can be part of the hardware platform of a mobile device, or a SIM card, or even an SD card.

We also remember that the applets and data on SE are managed by TSM, a trusted service manager.


Fig. 21. Applets in a secure element.

Any sensitive data, such as data associated with a virtual card, that is stored in the SE is protected in the same way as on a physical contactless card.However, there is one important difference. SE is constantly connected to the smartphone and via the smartphone to the Internet. The potential for attacks is much higher than for a real map. Data on a conventional card can only be accessed if it is near the proximity reader, and only if the proximity reader has been compromised. From this follows the need to restrict access to applets on SE.

And now, another non-profit organization that develops specifications for secure digital ecosystems in the United States, Global Platform has released the Trusted Runtime Environment Specification, or TEE.This environment, such a layer between the OS of the mobile device and the SE, in which the exchange of data and commands is protected. Here is the Global Platform specifications for cryptographic algorithms, TEE system architecture, etc.


Fig. 22 Trusted Execution Environment – trusted execution environment.
GlobalPlatform TEE Internal API – Trusted runtime internal API. Trusted Core Environment – Trusted core environment. Trusted Functions are trusted functions. TEE Kernel is the core of the trusted runtime environment.HardWare secure resources – hardware security resources. Hardware Platform – hardware platform. Rich OS is an operating system. GlobalPlatform TEE client API – Trusted runtime client APIs. Rich OS application environment is the main execution environment for applications in the operating system.

Here is a series of SmartCardAlliance seminars on the basics of NFC security.

Using HCE Technology
Latest Android operating systems support Host Card Emulation or HCE.Using HCE means that NFC commands can be sent directly to the API running on the mobile device’s operating system. The HCE technology itself does not impose requirements on the storage and processing of credentials or confidential data, nor does HCE provide any security methods. Any necessary protection must be implemented on top of the HCE implementation.

The app can send NFC commands to any location accessible to the smartphone. This makes the options for implementing a virtual card almost limitless – from a completely cloud card to storing (part of) a virtual card in SE.Since HCE does not provide security, this technology is used in conjunction with the already known TEE and tokenization. TEE provides security services and isolates access to its hardware and software security resources from the feature-rich OS and associated applications. The tokenization algorithm replaces confidential data with a token of the same type, but useless for an attacker.

Safe payments

From everything written above, it is clear that the use of contactless payment technology using an NFC device is no more dangerous than a regular contactless card and even no more dangerous than a regular contact card.

There are such bikes among the people, it seems like someone had a contactless card in the back pocket of their trousers, and then once a wireless terminal was carried past the pocket and the sum of money was debited. Stop the crooks! Technically, of course, this is possible if a wireless terminal, which is the size of a brick, is hidden in a bag, and a guess is made so that an absent-minded customer removes the card away from his eyes, then somehow unnoticed this trick is carried out by placing the packet on the pocket where the card is hidden. …Well, such a dubious scam, of course. For the very suspicious there is an invention called the Faraday cage. In short, it serves to shield an object from external electromagnetic fields. This invention of Faraday is taken as the basis of cases for shielding keys, cards, and similar NFC devices from being readable without the knowledge of the owner.

And here SmartCardAlliance answers the questions whether contactless payments are safe.

NFC tag security

NFC tags are susceptible to the following types of threats.

Other wireless technologies


Fig. 23. Comparative table of wireless interfaces.

What an ordinary person can do with a phone with NFC

This is not about hacking transport cards or something that is not very legal. In the section “Industry solutions” I gave examples of how large companies, medical institutions, transport carriers and others use NFC. But what is the use of NFC for an ordinary person, other than card emulation.

NXP has a mobile application called TagWriter, free for all platforms.It can be used to read and write tags. The tags themselves are sold in the form of cards or in the form of stickers on Internet sites and cost quite affordable money.


Fig. 24. Application TagWriter from NXP.

You can write a business contact to a tag, for example, to tags in the form of cards, use them as business cards. You can record the setting for connecting to a Wi-Fi point or Bluetooth device and stick it in a prominent place for ease of use. Have guests come to you and ask for a password from the wifi? No problem, there’s a label on the fridge.Who even remembers the password for the Wi-Fi? The waterproof tag can record your contact and hang on your dog’s collar. I did so, it costs less than ordering a token engraving. Tags can be rewritten and messages can be left. Who generally uses SMS now, or better yet, paper notes? Don’t have time for social media? Leave a message in the tag. “Soup in the fridge. Buy some bread. I will be late.”

Well, and the most important thing is your opinion

Nothing motivates me to write new articles as much as your rating, if the rating is good I will cut the articles further, if negative I think how to improve this article.But, without your assessment, I do not have the most valuable thing for me – feedback from you. Do not take it for work, choose from 1 to 5 stars, I tried.

The best filter! | JewelerSoft

The filter on the site is like a water filter, it cleans the site of all unnecessary and allows the user to quickly and easily find what he is looking for. Product catalogs are becoming more and more and without a properly designed filter it becomes almost impossible to navigate in them.

Of course, in addition to the filter, this task is solved by the main menu, bread crumbs, banners for promoted product categories.But the user spends most of his time in the catalog, so the filter is the most useful tool. In this article, we will analyze the main properties that should be in the filter, how they can be presented externally and where to store them in the accounting system.

  • Price

    Price is the most important element of the filter, because absolutely any user always understands what budget he has for a purchase. It is unacceptable to show a user who plans to buy a silver pendant a diamond ring.Therefore, the filter by price should be the very first in the list of filter properties, so that the user can immediately indicate his budget and consider proposals in it.

    When implementing a filter by price, be sure to take into account that the filter works exactly at the discounted price, and not at the usual price, this will allow the user to show all the products within his budget.

    There are several options for displaying a filter by price:

    • In the form of a slider and input fields.This is the most functional way. But you need to be careful with it when implementing. Pay attention to when the filter starts to work with manual input, if after each input of a number, then such an implementation is more likely to irritate users. Therefore, you need to start filtering when the user has finished entering the number.

    • An alternative way to show prices is to filter by predefined ranges.

    This method is convenient because there are no problems with manual input, you cannot catch glitches on this. But in the development of ranges, you need to approach it thoroughly – do not shallow and do not make ranges too large, otherwise this filter will be useless for users.

    Where to store in the accounting system?

    Depends on the unloading settings, either retail price, if you have a chain of salons, or by price type, if wholesale.

  • Metal
    • The metal filter can be displayed as items, with the ability to select multiple values ​​at the same time.

    • In the form of a drop-down list, if there are many metal options or they are combined with the color of the metal and in the logic of your filter you cannot select two metals at the same time.

    Where to store in the accounting system?

    In the requisite “Sample” of the card of the “Nomenclature” reference book.

  • Type and subspecies of product

    This property of the filter is important in a pair, i.e. type and subspecies together, so that when choosing a type, the site immediately prompts the user to narrow the search, select a subspecies of the product and thereby save the user’s time. One type of product contains a large number of subspecies, some of which are not interesting to the user.

    The property solves the problem of the time spent on the search, with it you do not need, having chosen a ring, look through the seals, engagement, engagement, if in fact you are looking for the “Save and Save” ring.We save the user’s time, help him quickly find what he needs – we increase loyalty.

    Where to store in the accounting system?

    Option number 1

    Directory card “Nomeclature”:

    • We store “Product type” in “Product type”

    • Store “By view” in “Product type analytics”

      Having such fields in the item card, there are two options for implementation:

      1. Based on these properties, create a directory structure for the site.In the filter we display the structure of the site. Option without modifications. But there is one drawback, the user will not be able to view more than 1 type of product at the same time.

      2. We upload the type and subspecies of the product to the site with separate properties. We are finalizing the filter by building a hierarchy of two properties.

    Option number 2

    Create the required structure in the “Nomenclature” reference book and upload it to the site as a directory structure.Disadvantage: it is impossible to watch two types of product at the same time.

  • Size

    Size is a mandatory property by which you can quickly find exactly the product, the size of which is needed by the user. But from the size of the catalog and the size options, this property can be confusing and misleading for the user. To prevent this from happening, be sure to check the following points:

    • The list of sizes should not contain more than 25 pieces, except if these are real sizes of 1 product types (for example, rings)

    • Don’t show a mixed list of sizes, such as chain and ring.In this case, there will be many different sizes and this will confuse the client.

    Dimensions can be presented in two forms:

    • Drop-down list, when no more than 15. If there is more, the list will be inconvenient to scroll and difficult to display in the mobile version

    • Tiles are the best option if you follow the display rules described above.

    Where to store in the accounting system?

    All sizes are stored in the “Sizes” directory, when the goods arrive, they are selected and fixed in the barcode.

    The main problem with sizes is that they can be filled in according to different rules during accounting. For example, through “.” and “,” – 15.0 and 15.0. So that there are no double sizes on the site, you need to “comb” the “Sizes” directory, make sure that all sizes are set uniformly, ideally, replace and delete repeated ones.

  • Inserts

    Inserts are an excellent property, very convenient for users looking for products with a specific set of inserts. But in order to make such a filter on the site, you need to carry out painstaking work in the accounting system. Very few lead inserts on stones, usually limited to the name provided by the supplier.

    Where to store in the accounting system?

    To implement the filter by inserts, in the accounting system, in all unloaded characteristics of the item, it is necessary to fill in the “Inserts” tabular section, at least you need to fill in the “Stone” column.To do this, you can order a revision for 1C to do it automatically or fill it in by hand.

  • New items, discounts, promotions

    We recommend displaying this property immediately below the price, so that the user can immediately use it. Someone are looking for interesting new items, but most are interested in promotions and discounts in order to buy goods at the best price.

    Where to store in the accounting system?

    Special details are implemented in the “Nomenclatures” reference book card.

  • Brands

    This property should be used if you do not have a mono-brand assortment of goods. Brands invest in promoting their products and often people look for products of the same brand in different stores in order to choose the best conditions and prices. Why not take advantage of this?

    Where to store in the accounting system?

    Reference book “Nomenclatures”, details “Main supplier” or “Main manufacturer”, if they are not used.In the upload settings, you can set the name of the property on the site to be “Brand”.

    Where to store properties for which there are no typical details?

    It is possible that the options described above are not suitable for you, because details are used for other management accounting needs. This is not a problem, since There is always a “Properties” mechanism, which can be used to add additional characteristics of products without contacting programmers and modifying the configuration.

    You can create any number of properties and fill them with the desired values.

    Next, in the settings for uploading to the site, select the desired properties, they are uploaded to the site and in their base you can build the logic of the site.

  • Protective rings – Chemist’s Handbook 21

    All elements of the spherical shell are tested at the factory to ensure full interchangeability of the elements of the same name.All elements are labeled. Petals, reinforcing rings, fittings and other body parts are supplied for assembly unassembled and during transportation and storage are covered with GF-95 tread soil with aluminum powder, which allows welding without preliminary cleaning of the welding zones. Metal structures, mine ladders, transition platforms, supports and other assembly units are painted with black varnish No. 177, except for the ends of the abutting elements welded on assembly, which are covered with GF-95 soil with aluminum powder. [c.244]
    Protective rings. Preventer parts Other parts for drilling equipment Protective equipment against dust and gases Half masks, masks, goggles, parts [c.113]

    Protective protection is recommended if there is an anti-corrosion coating in the tank with a degree of bareness not more than 0.5. Protectors, insulated from the tank body with polyethylene rings (pipe sections), are fixed to the bottom or wall with clamps. [c.31]

    In RS-type tires, removable tread rings, reinforced with a metal cord, the threads of which are located along the circumference, play the role of a surrounding bandage. The tread rings are placed in three longitudinal annular grooves located along the outer part of the frame; they are put on the tire at a deflated pressure. Due to the radial arrangement of the cords, the carcass of the RS-type tire, when filled with compressed air, stretches along the outer diameter and firmly presses against the tread rings, which ensures reliable fastening of the removable tread rings to the carcass [c.402]

    The assemblage of RS-type tire carcasses is carried out in a semi-flat way and their vulcanization is carried out according to the usual technology. Removable tread rings are reinforced along the seat with a metal cord, therefore they are assembled on special machines equipped with split washers. [c.479]

    Removable protector consists of one or three removable protector rings (one central and two side). The base of the tread is a profiled rubber layer with annular grooves on the tread surface.The grooves contain removable tread rings, and the lugs serve to guide them when landing. [c.32]

    Each removable tread ring consists of a thin inner rubber layer (tape) and a thick outer one. Between these layers is one or more rows of rubberized metal cord, which together with the carcass determines the strength of the tire. The number of strands of metal cord in a row depends on the required strength and the width of the removable tread ring. [c.32]

    There is a tread pattern on the outer rubber layer of the removable tread ring. [c.32]

    Tread rings are able to maintain their original dimensions during the operation of tires due to metal reinforcement that prevents them from stretching. [c.32]

    When using tires with removable tread, it is especially important that the internal pressure in them does not change, since with a decrease in the internal pressure, the tire decreases and the tread rings fall off.When using rings with a directional tread pattern, do not move the right ring to the left one, and vice versa. [c.32]

    The assembly of the belt-protector bracelet is carried out on the left side of the machine on a segmented metal assembly drum 3, expanded by a diaphragm. Layers of the cord-breaker from the feeder 6 are applied to the drum. The protector from the feeder is fed to the last layer of the belt and is duplicated with it. If necessary, the diameter of the drum is adjusted with removable rings.To release the belt-tread bracelet, the building drum is folded, releasing air from the diaphragm. The portable device 2, consisting of a portable ring, a carriage, a guide and a power mechanism, grips the belt-protector wristband and moves with it to the central position. In this case, the belt-protector wristband is held due to the expansion of the pneumatic diaphragms of the portable ring. Then the belt-protector bracelet is transferred to the right side of the machine, where the frame is molded in the same way as on the T-10 machine. [c.191]


    After molding, a belt-protector bracelet is put on and centered on the frame. When air is released from the diaphragms of the portable ring, the bracelet fits snugly against the frame and is rolled by the rollers. Next, air is released from the diaphragm of the machine or the inner cavity of the frame and the tire is removed from the machine. [c.191]

    A RS-type tire has, as a rule, three removable tread rings – one central and two lateral.Some tire designs of this type have one removable tread ring instead of three. [c.205]

    The vulcanizer is heated by steam with a pressure of 5-6 kgf cm. The duration of the vulcanization cycle is 20-70 minutes, depending on the size of the cross-section of the ring and the formulation of the rubber compound. The protector rings assembled on the template are loaded into the steam chamber and the vulcanizer is closed, after which the automatic control of the vulcanization process is dried by the command electro-pneumatic device KEP-12u. [c.480]

    Bead rings must be fitted to the vulcanization form and fixed after engraving the tread pattern. When welding the wedges (pins), it is necessary to accurately center the halves of the vulcanization mold on the tread pattern. [c.464]

    A type of radial tires are tires with removable tread (Fig. 1.10). In these tires, the role of a belt belt is played by removable tread rings 1, reinforced with a metal cord, the threads of which are located perpendicular to the meridional section.The tread rings are installed between the rubber guide protrusions 2 on the outer surface of the frame-body. There are tire designs with three tread rings (Figure 1.10, a) and one (Figure 1.10, b). [c.19]

    To protect drill pipes from wear and tear during exploration and drilling of oil and gas wells in the oil industry, tread rings are widely used. Their design is different, so they can be solid and split, rubber and rubber-metal. [c.18]

    The disadvantages of RS tires are the increased (by about 5%) weight and greater mobility of the tread elements, leading to its accelerated wear. The mobility of the elements is reduced in tire designs with one tread ring (Fig. 1.10.6). [c.19]

    In order to avoid such phenomena, sector molds are used, in which the upper and lower halves correspond to the profile of the tire sidewalls, and the tread ring consists of several (6-8) sectors. [c.81]

    On paved roads it is necessary to limit the speed of the vehicle on PC tires with tread rings with a cross-country pattern. Such rings at high speed experience significant dynamic loads when the protrusions come into contact with the road surface. A certain decrease in speed when driving on P and PC tires of cross-country ability on a slippery road with a hard base is also necessary due to a decrease in the coefficient of adhesion, which can be caused by increased internal pressure, and, accordingly, specific pressure on the road, as well as due to the lower lateral stiffness of these tires. [c.246]

    After separating the bead rings from the tires, they are cut on mechanical shears. If in the future the tires are processed entirely, without delamination of the tread and carcass rubber, then, depending on their size, they are cut in radial directions into 2-4 parts. If peeling of the protectors from the carcasses is expected, then one radial cut is made on each tire, opening the tire ring. [c.135]

    Duplicating device.The main part of this device is a duplicating roller, consisting of a set of rings placed on a rod, the diameter of which is less than the diameter of the holes in the rings. Therefore, the rings can freely move vertically relative to each other, depending on the profile of the tread band. [c.255]

    During assembly, the annular seat of the template is filled with a calendered rubber compound, which forms the inner strip of the tread ring. Two layers of steel cord are wound on it, on the surface of which a layer of rubber compound is again superimposed, forming the running part of the ring.Vulcanization of rings is carried out in a single-mold individual vulcanizer IVPK-PO of an autoclave type (with a steam chamber) (Fig. 147). [c.479]

    The split ring template, on which the tread rings are assembled, is the inner part of the vulcanizer mold. To crimp the pattern of the tread rings, the vulcanizer has sectors that move in a radial direction. stock) of the rudder and the wall of the ship’s hull.As is sometimes done in tread protection systems, the propeller is almost always included in the system with protective installations through a slip ring on its shaft. To obtain a low-resistance connection in a detachable copper or bronze ring, a rolled (formed by rolling) layer of silver is also provided, on which metal-graphite brushes slide. Transient voltages do not exceed 40 mV. [c.367]

    Bead rings 4 and 5 are used for molding and pressing the beads of the tire.To the lower and upper halves of the form, after engraving the tread pattern, the side plates are welded [c.462]

    The rings are put on the uninflated case. When inflated, the outer diameter of the casing increases and it presses tightly against the tread rings. [c.19]

    When closing the mold, the sectors with a special wedge device are brought close to each other and form a tread ring of a given diameter. [c.81]


    Installation work on P and PC tires does not fundamentally differ from the same operations carried out with bias tires, but require special care due to the lower strength of the bead part.Replaceable tread rings of PC tires are fitted onto the rim-mounted body using mounting paddles. When using a tire with three rings, first put on the middle ring, then the side rings. At the same time, special attention is paid to the integrity of the body ribs that fix the rings in the transverse direction. The collars of the side rings should cover the outer edges of the body. The middle and side rings are non-interchangeable, and the directional pattern side rings are also non-interchangeable. [c.244]

    Accounting for tires P does not differ from accounting for diagonal tires (they also have cards reflecting all stages of operation and mileage), except that garage numbers are burned out on breadcrumbs (in the shoulder area) so as not to reduce the strength of the side walls.On PC tires, garage numbers are also burned out on breadcrumbs. Accounting for RS tires includes accounting for casings and sets of tread rings. Separate registration cards are kept for bodies and sets of rings, and for carpus in the same shape as for other tires, and for rings in a different shape. In the record card of the tread rings, records are kept for each ring separately. The mileage of the tread rings is marked in accordance with the records on the registration card of the hull to which they are assigned. [c.246]

    Removable tread rings are complex products.In principle, this ring combines the belt and tread layer vulcanized into a monolithic system. Therefore, the ring is reinforced but the landing part with a metal cord, which is wound from one thread with a certain step in one or several layers. Blanks for removable tread rings are assembled on special units. [c.305]


    Data on military burials are being systematized in the Trans-Urals | News from Kurgan and Kurgan Region

    This work is nearing completion

    In accordance with the minutes of the meeting of the Russian Organizing Committee “Victory”, the regional authorities instructed the municipal authorities to carry out certification this year (including updating previously issued registration cards) military graves.In Kurgan, employees of the city department of the regional military registration and enlistment office and representatives of the city administration are engaged in this.

    As we were told by Elena Mursatova, assistant to the head of the department of the military registration and enlistment office in the city of Kurgan, the process of certification in the regional center is in full swing. They covered the graves in which those who died defending the Motherland are buried. There are not too many such objects. To begin with, there is a mass military grave in Victory Park, where the remains of those 211 servicemen who died of wounds in Kurgan hospitals during the Great Patriotic War were laid to rest.In addition, there are 54 separate graves of servicemen who died in the defense of the Fatherland. These graves are found in all city cemeteries.

    Now the staff of the military registration and enlistment office and representatives of the municipality go around the places of military burials, drawing up cards with a description of their condition. Some tombstones, for example, need replacement or partial restoration. Moreover, there is a certain confusion with the systematization on this issue. So, some of the graves have to be searched for a long time, since the previously drawn up registration cards are very schematic.In the search, the workers of the city cemetery service, headed by Anatoly Khrustalev, are of great help.

    It is still impossible to say exactly what the process of certification of military graves in Kurgan will result in. But, it should be assumed, it was not just that all this was started. Probably, appropriate conclusions will be drawn, measures taken to prevent oblivion of the graves of those who laid their belly on the altar of the Fatherland.

    If you witnessed an interesting event, send messages, photos and videos to Viber and WhatsApp by phone number.: +79195740453, in our group “Vkontakte”

    Will help out the Komsomol ticket | Gold ring

    In accordance with the current pension legislation, the size of the labor pension depends on the length of service and earnings acquired by the citizen for the period before January 1, 2002, and for the period after that date – on the paid insurance premiums.

    The legislator offers two options for recording earnings for assigning a pension: for 2000-2001, according to the data of individual (personified) accounting in the compulsory pension insurance system; for any 60 months in a row on the basis of documents issued in accordance with the established procedure by the relevant employers or state (municipal) bodies.

    In the first case, the citizen does not need to submit any documents on earnings, since when assigning a pension, the information on earnings that is available in the individual (personified) accounting system will be used.

    The certificates indicated in the second case must contain information about earnings for 60 consecutive months of work that took place before 01.01.2002. Certificates are issued on the basis of personal accounts, payrolls and other documents on remuneration of labor by the organization in which the citizen worked, in the event of the liquidation of the organization by its successor or higher organization, archival bodies that have documents.

    Confirmation of the individual nature of earnings is mandatory, since wages are charged to each person for the results of his work and testimony is not allowed.

    In case of loss of earnings documents only in the event of natural disasters, the average monthly earnings can be determined on the basis of indirect documents confirming the individual actual earnings of an employee at a particular enterprise. Such documents may include registration cards of party members and party cards, registration cards of trade union members and trade union cards, registration cards of Komsomol members and Komsomol cards, pay books (pay sheets).

    All of the listed documents must be drawn up in accordance with the requirements for the preparation of primary accounting documents.

    Indirect documents can be used only if the applicant does not have the possibility of establishing earnings on the basis of primary accounting documents for the entire period of his labor activity, that is, the available data on earnings are the only ones.

    All types of payments on which contributions to the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation are accrued are included in earnings.The composition of earnings for the periods of work before 01.01.1991 includes those types of payments from which contributions were made to state social insurance.

    One of the components of calculating the labor pension is the ratio of the average monthly earnings of the insured person to the average monthly salary in the Russian Federation. This ratio is limited to no more than 1.2.

    If you are going to apply for a pension in the near future, then in advance contact the specialists of the territorial body of the PFR at your place of residence and receive information about the ratio of your average monthly wage to the average monthly earnings in Russia.If necessary, specialists will assist you in obtaining information about earnings in order to choose an advantageous option for your pension.

    90,000 “There is no doubt that Mr. Poroshenko and his associates are hiding the death toll”

    The Committee of Soldiers’ Mothers of Ukraine has published documents of Ukrainian servicemen who died in a boiler near Debaltseve. According to members of the committee, the country’s authorities, led by President Petro Poroshenko, significantly underestimate the death toll. Official Kiev has not yet received any reaction to this statement.

    “In the conditions of silence by our new authorities of truthful information about the losses of the armed forces of Ukraine in the bloody massacre in the Southeast, any information about the fate of our fathers, husbands and sons is of great importance to us,” says the appeal of the Committee of Soldiers’ Mothers, published on the website organizations. – No one doubts that Mr. Poroshenko and his associates are hiding the death toll, thereby violating the rights of the family members of the fallen and making the burden of waiting for those who still have not received information about the fate of their relatives.Those who are now receiving subpoenas also need honesty on the part of the military. ”

    The Committee of Soldiers’ Mothers of Ukraine said that they were given the documents of the servicemen who died near Debaltseve. “We are posting these documents on our website for all those concerned about the fate of their relatives,” the statement said. Lists of registration cards of soldiers who fought in the Donbass, as well as photographs of passports of military personnel were posted in the public domain.

    There has been no reaction from the official Kiev to the accusations that “officials and representatives of the security forces are opposing” the committee’s attempts to establish the whereabouts of the military, who are considered missing.

    Let us remind you that Debaltseve remained one of the main centers of confrontation in Donbass for a long time. The Ukrainian security forces were there surrounded by the militias of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People’s Republic (DPR).Later, it was announced about the “planned withdrawal of (Ukrainian. – Kommersant ) units” from Debaltseve.

    In its statement, the Committee of Soldiers’ Mothers also noted: “Many of us are asking questions about why the ATO command allowed the death of thousands of soldiers and officers at the Donetsk airport, near Debaltseve, Ilovaisk, Izvarino …”. According to the members of the committee, these issues are becoming especially relevant against the background of “the next wave of mobilization and spring conscription to the Armed Forces of Ukraine.” On Tuesday, the deputy chief of the Main Directorate of Defense and Mobilization Planning of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Major General Volodymyr Talalay, said on the air of the 1 + 1 channel that during the fifth wave of partial mobilization, tankers, artillerymen, scouts and signalmen will be recruited into the Ukrainian army.

    Pavel Tarasenko


    How they tried to stop the fire in eastern Ukraine

    During the year of the war in eastern Ukraine, both sides more than once tried to stop the fire with the help of international mediators, but each time it turned out that the opponents interpreted the agreements reached differently, and this turned into another escalation of the conflict. After the second stage of negotiations in Minsk, complete silence in the Donbass was not achieved again. Kommersant’s special correspondent Ilya Barabanov recalled how previous peace initiatives had been thwarted.Read more

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