What Is The Difference Between Rapidograph And Isograph
What Ink Do I Use In Rapidograph And Isograph Pens?
Rotring’s technical pen ink is suitable for use on tracing paper, vellum, drawing paper and lineboard. It is lightfast, fast-drying, waterproof and smudge free once dry. The high density of the pigment gives it high opacity and the sharpness and adhesion of the line is superior.
This ink is often used by tattoo artists for tracing the work onto the skin and in their initial sketches. Rotring’s technical ink gives you the densest, blackest line on the market.
The Rotring technical pen ink cannot be erased with Rotring pencil erasers B20 or B30. The coloured inks can be inter-mixed with each other.
Rapidograph Ink Cartridges are available in black, blue and red ink. You get 3 replacement ink cartridges in a pack.
Isograph Ink is available in 23ml Bottles in black, blue, red and white ink. Black ink is also available in a 250ml bottle.
What Nib Sizes Are Available For The Rapidograph & Isograph Pens?
Both the Rapidograph and Isograph Pens are available in precision line widths from 0.10 to 1.0mm. This gives you a wide range to choose from whether requiring a continuous width of line for technical drawing or a greater choice for tonal and shading work.
Replacement Rapidograph Nibs and Isograph Nibs are available in the following sizes: 0.10, 0.13, 0.18, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35, 0.40, 0.50, 0.70, 0.80 & 1.00.
Nibs for Rapidograph and Isograph Pens are long lasting and easy to replace, but the finer the nib the more quickly it tends to wear down.
Helpful Tips For Maintaining Rapidograph And Isograph Pen Nibs:
If you feel the nib is slightly blocked just leave in warm water with a little fairy liquid overnight. Make sure that the nib is not touching the bottom of a surface as this could damage it. If this doesn’t do the trick then ask in store for Rotring Cleaner sachets.
Are Rapidograph And Isograph Pens Available In Sets?
We stock Rapidograph And Isograph Pens in College Sets. These sets are ideal if you need a range of pen sizes or if you are about to start an Architecture or Interior Design Course. They offer a great saving on the single pens!
The Rapidograph College Set contains:
3 Rapidograph Pens (0.25, 0.35, 0.5) , 1 rotring Tikky Pencil 0.5, 12 hi-polymer HB leads, 1 B20 eraser, 3 pen stands, 3 black ink cartridges & 1 compass technical pen attachment.
The Isograph College Set contains:
3 Isograph Pens (0.25,0.35,0.5), 1 rotring Tikky Pencil 0.5, 12 hi-polymer HB leads, 1 B20 eraser, 1 bottle of black ink 23ml & 1 compass technical pen attachment.
So, for precision in your artwork and designs, make sure that you use Rotring Rapidograph and Isograph Pens.
Are you starting an architecture or design course? Buy your Rapidograph and Isograph Technical Drawing Pens along with other technical Art Supplies from Pullingers Art Shop.
Show us your artwork using Rapidograph and Isograph Pens!
Rotring Isograph vs Rapidograph | Parka Blogs
The main difference between the Rotring Isograph and Rapidograph comes down to the refilling mechanism.
Body design of the two pens are quite similar. They are both plastic body pens with the exception of the metal clip and pen tip. Both are technical pens that create strokes with uniform width. Both are available with line widths from 0.1 to 1.0.
The green pen at the bottom is the Rapidograph. Rotring is not the only company that makes the Rapidograph pen, the other is Koh-I-Noor. I’m not sure if the Rapidographs from Koh-I-Noor are similar to Rotring’s though.
Performance of both Rapidograph and Isograph are the same. Ink flow is the same too.
The Isograph can be dismantled completely and easily. With the Rapidograph, I was not able to dismantle the air channel (the one fused to the tip) to remove the pin that’s inside. So cleaning the Rapidograph may take longer time.
If you have problem removing the Rapidograph air channel, you can screw it to the back of the pen’s body and pull it out gently. It’s likely to get stuck because of ink or dried ink. But be careful not screw it so tight that you can’t remove it later.
Rapidograph is meant to be used with disposable ink cartridges while the Isograph has a cartridge that can be easily refilled.
If you refill the Rapidograph’s ink cartridge by inserting the Rotring ink bottle’s funnel, the ink is going to block the opening. If the ink cartridge opening is blocked, no air can come out and no ink can go in.
Hence the better way to refill the Rapidograph is with a blunt needle and syringe. It’s more economical to refill with your own ink than having to buy disposable ink cartridges.
The Isograph ink cartridge has a larger opening and you can easily squeeze ink into it with the Rotring ink bottle.
Overall, the Isograph is easier to maintain and refill. If you’re looking for a refillable technical pen, I would recommend the Isograph over Rapidograph.
You can buy the pens individually or in sets. If you’re buying individually, I suggest getting a few line weights, the more popular ones being 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7. If you need more variety then 0.1 and 1.0. The thinner the line, the more maintenance is required. If the ink dries in the small pen tip, it is going to clog and be very difficult to unclog.
Regular maintenance should see these pens last for years. So while each pen is expensive, they are still economical in the long run, especially when compare them to disposable technical pens.
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Blunt needle and syringe
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Rotring Rapidograph Technical Drawing Pens 0.4mm
Rotring Rapidograph Technical Drawing Pens 0.4mm
The precision Rotring Rapidograph technical drawing pen uses Rotring’s unique capillary cartridge. <br/><br/>The pressure-equalization system, including the ink helix, is part of the ink cartridge, meaning that every time you change the cartridge you also get a clean new ink helix.
<br/><br/>For use on a variety of surfaces, including tracing paper, vellum drawing paper and lineboard.
Replacement ink cartridges and nibs are available. The precision Rotring Rapidograph technical drawing pen uses Rotring’s unique capillary cartridge. <br/><br/>The pressure-equalization system, including the ink helix, is part of the ink cartridge, meaning that every time you change the cartridge you also get a clean new ink helix.
<br/><br/>For use on a variety of surfaces, including tracing paper, vellum drawing paper and lineboard.
Replacement ink cartridges and nibs are available.
Rotring Isograph is a Hit! – Calligraphy and Lettering Blog
Before deciding to add the Rotring Isograph pens to our inventory, we had them tested by a variety of customers. No matter what the use, customers were happy to find a pen similar to the Rapidograph with a few slight differences. Whether you are outlining letters, creating maps, or doing Zentangle, the Isograph pen delivers great results. We thought the best way to officially introduce them to you was to share what our customers have created, along with their thoughts on the pens.
Calligrapher Dan Mooney used the pens for detail in his exquisite work. According to him, “Some of the minor differences is that the Isographs don’t ‘blob’ when you first use them as I find aggravating with the Rapidographs. There is a size difference as well. The .25 (3X) rapidigraph makes a thinner-finer line than the .25 (3x) Isograph, which is a bit strange. The Rapidograph seems a bit smoother whereas the Isograph seems just a tad bit scratchier when used on drafting velum. Both pens are stainless points and can not be used on Drafting Mylar which will destroy the points. ”
As you can see, Dan put the pens to great use, from drafts to fine detailing:
He further comments, “The biggest difference between the pens is that the Rapidograph can be taken completely apart for cleaning, which is not necessarily a good thing especially with the very fine points because the fine wire that keeps the ink flowing can be easily damaged when it is removed. The Isograph has a protected unit that conceals the wire making it impossible to get at it. This was a smart and innovative move! Any technical pen I’ve ruined (and there have been many) was because of bending that little wire. I strongly recommend these pens.”
Calligrapher Ann Kaese also tested the pens for us. She adds, ” My other pens like this have always given me trouble with leaking and this one has not – and I have not been kind to it. It has been in my purse or jacket pocket for 3 weeks (in a baggy just in case), jiggled around, exposed to extreme climates and it has done just fine. Once the ink froze when I left it on the dashboard of the car and after it thawed out, it was fine. There is a nice rubber gasket in the cap where the nib goes in that appears to do a really good job of sealing the pen.”
Ann shared a draft for a customer of a card that she was creating, and we absolutely love what she’s designed!
Ann further shared, “I put watercolor, ink and coloured water through them with no ill effects. The standard ink that came with the pen is just fine for a good black. I did not try any waterproof inks. They cleaned up nicely and a little spin in my trusty unltrasonic cleaner got them ready for another spin around the paper. (I think an ultrasonic cleaner is mandatory for the fine pens.) The ink barrel is a good size and is larger than my Koh-i-Noor so less refilling needed with this pen. These worked fine on hot press, bristol, vellum and copperplate practice paper – and post-it notes when I needed a quick message!
The heft of the pen is light. The cap does not attach to the back of the pen to add counterweight either like the white Koh-i-Noor does. It is light and flighty which is good and bad. I prefer a pen that has more heft. My trick is to add some putty to the end of the ink barrel to add weight and that worked just fine.
My biggest issue with this pen: you cannot see how full or empty the ink is. You also have to be careful when filling it else ink leaks out the nib due to air pressure. And remember to store them with the nib up else a blob of ink will dry over the tip sometimes and then you have to dissamble and clean it all out really well. All technical pens need maintenance and this pen is no exception to that. Ink does accumulate around the base of the nib so keep a paper towel handy when you open the pen. But the pen is reliable and gave me good clean, even lines. I grew to really like it (after I added some weight to it) and it was always ready to let me do my work.”
Hilary Williams, also a calligrapher, actually used her pen to create a lovely Zentangle design on a thank-you note she sent to us. Though Pigma Microns are often recommended for Zentangle and work very well, the Isograph allows you to have a tip which will not wear out as easily as the Microns, as well as a pen that is refillable. The rich black ink also lends itself well to Zentangle designs. Hilary commented, “The point seems stronger than the Rapidograph. I love them, and they are still going strong. ”
Traci Green, calligrapher and graphic designer, used the Isographs to create lovely maps of Wildberry Farm in SC. After she completed her project, she shared, “I have to say, I liked them just fine. I think they could give rapidograph a run for the money. The ink worked well with watercolor. I use them all the time and never would have thought I’d replace my 20 year old set from college!!”
Traci’s maps are not only beautiful, but also delightfully fun. We love the nostalgic aspects of hand drawn maps!
As you can see, the Isograph pens can be used for a variety of projects, and our testers all had positive things to say. If you are ready to purchase your own Isograph pen, you can find them on our website here:
We also now have the Rotring Art Pens back in stock as well. Though they were temporarily unavailable, they’re back!
Rotring Rapidograph Technical Pen
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Rotring Rapidograph Pen 0.6 mm Black Ink Pens & Refills kolenik Technical Pens
Emmy Andriessestraat 512,
1087 NE Amsterdam
+31(0)20 2259 444
How to find us
Rotring Rapidograph Pen 0.6 mm Black Ink
Spring & Summer Cool Suits 3 Pieces Include Jacket + Pants + Shirt(with Free Tie) Dress up Your Little Gentleman by Only 1 Purchase, Moisture-wicking base-layer top with crew neckline and long sleeves. You’ll find ventilation holes in the special fruit pod that help infuse the taste of your water with your fruits. : Pearl iZUMi Men’s Summit Top : Clothing. ❤️❀Features: Off shoulder, Lead Free Status / RoHS Status: Lead free / RoHS Compliant, Item will need to be sent back to and return shipping/handling is paid for by the buyer, Rotring Rapidograph Pen 0.6 mm Black Ink. Our wide selection is eligible for free shipping and free returns, Includes OE features such as brackets. Cupcake Topper Assembly Instructions:, Includes easy to follow step by step application instructions. Buy RYLOS Simply Elegant Beautiful Red Star Ruby & Diamond Ring – July Birthstone and other Rings at. Feel free to contact me at anytime to get an estimated time of arrival, Items cannot be returned because of sizing. Rotring Rapidograph Pen 0.6 mm Black Ink. so it fits also the US fan boxes. we will calculate shipping costs and check options accordingly and arrange something with you. Tracking may be purchased in addition to Standard Postage and this will affect the postage cost of your item. We will check all the product before shipping to you, we cannot reimburse or replace your shipment. Please refer to my font list photo for examples to help you select the font. These hand-dyed yarn sets were inspired by the House colors at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry in the Harry Potter series. Rotring Rapidograph Pen 0.6 mm Black Ink. things DO happen that i cannot control. Hand painted and glittered for you every time; This listing is for Pink colour theme custom sneakers/trainers. Select the desired garland or balloon tail length in the style menu above, 12 Loop Basketball Net (Renewed) : Sports & Outdoors, Super soft cotton always keep you cool in the heat. Hama Beads and Pegboards in Tub (Purple): Toys & Games, Shop WYICPLO Fashion Baseball Caps Hats Funny bag Unisex Mermaid Hair Don’t Care-1 Vintage Jeans Baseball Cap Classic Cotton Dad Hat Adjustable Plain Cap, Rotring Rapidograph Pen 0.6 mm Black Ink. Lightly padded foam cups for rounded shape and support.
1950s NOS 1.2mm Rotring Rapidograph Tintenkuli Piston Filler Technical Drawing Pen In Box
Rotring Rapidograph 1950s
Year of production: 1950s – 60s
Filling System: Piston Filling
Nib: (needle tip): 1.2mm (new needle installed)
Material/Color: Black and cellulose, gold plated clip
Length (closed/with cap on): 130mm/~5.1 inches
Condition/Info for this particular pen:
The Rapidograph by Rotring, the second series from the first Tintenkuli line, is one of the most versatile technical drawing pens ever conceived. These are refined simplified and reliable pens with a piston filling fuction which are made to last and work for a century. Famous for their reliability and simplicity of use, and still are the preferred technical drawing instruments by many engineers and architects. Unlike the new models these are piston filling so no messy filling tubes; simple twisting turning knob action for filling the pen with ink from bottled ink. The pen is in NOS new old stock condition never used except for testing, perfectly preserved in its original box with papers and still with price sticker of .78 DM. The piston is smooth and perfectly functional, takes considerable amount of ink and its fitted with the original double seal silicone cork, easily removable completely for easy clean. Gold plated art-deco style clip and very ergonomic size and weight, fees great in the hand.
This item is covered by our 1 Year Full International Warranty at no additional cost. The terms of our Warranty are very simple, meant to give you a secure and trouble-free buying experience.
This item is located in Europe and ships Worldwide.
At checkout you can choose between two shipping options:
$7.95 Regular Postal Service, Registered – Limited Tracking 1-4 WEEKS Delivery (Due to the corona crisis, this option is currently available only to several countries)
$29.95 DHL Express International – Accurate Tracking 1-4 DAYS Delivery Worldwide
Learn more about these shipping options.
Prior shipping our items have to pass our highest quality control inspection, are perfectly cleaned and tested by ProtoPens pen staff after which are carefully packed. If the pen does not come in its original manufacturers box, it is packed in a special ProtoPens case.
RETURS: Returns are accepted. You are welcome to ship the item back to us within 7 days after receiving it in the same condition it was delivered to you and we will issue you a full refund! Learn more…
Ask a question about 1950s NOS 1.2mm Rotring Rapidograph Piston Filler Technical Drawing Pen In Box.
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90,000 Cutter Plotter Offset.
Despite some mysteriousness of the word in the title of this article, experienced signmakers, most likely, have already understood what will be discussed here. To help others understand the problem, we need to take a quick tour of the methodology for cutting vinyl with a cutter. First of all, what is a cutting plotter and how does it differ from an ordinary drawing plotter? What are the different types of cutting plotters?
The classic plotter is the so-called vector peripheral device of the computer and is designed to output images consisting of lines.The purpose of a drawing plotter is to very accurately move the writing unit with a drawing instrument (most often a liner, felt-tip pen or pencil) over the medium (most often paper). By lowering and raising the instrument and moving it along the media, you can get drawings – copies of electronic drawings in a computer. Since the point of contact of the drawing tool with the paper coincides with the mathematical axis of the plotter, the copies are extremely accurate. For example, if the plotter has moved the writing node to the origin, then you can be sure that the speck from the drawing tool on the paper will be exactly in this place.Despite the obviousness of this statement, this is not the case with a cutter. Why?
Cutting plotter is a kind of plotter that has a cutting unit instead of a writer. The main difference is almost only in this: on a conventional plotter, to obtain a drawing, only a slight pressure on the drawing tool is enough to leave a mark on the paper. On the plotter, the cutting working tool is a small and sharply sharpened knife, and the cutting head and the servo unit for its movement are made with a view to more significant pressing forces.
Now let’s see how you can make the knife cut the film. By the way, this is not at all a trivial task, as it might seem at first glance. In the case of a writing instrument, everything is clear: the tip of any drawing instrument has a symmetrical round shape and, when moved to either side, leaves the same trace. With a cutting tool, things are not so simple. We cannot make a round knife that is equally sharp on all sides. Therefore, a knife with one cutting edge must be made to rotate in the direction of movement of the head.
There are two solutions to this problem. The first is frontal and, perhaps, the most successful is to force the knife to rotate. In other words, get hold of the knife and turn it every time the head moves. To do this, an accurate and fast servo mechanism for turning the knife is installed on the plotter head. When the plotter changes the direction of movement of the head, a special microprocessor calculates the degrees of rotation and turns the knife to the desired angle. Plotters with this control method are called tangential knife plotters.
On plotters of this type, there are no problems with cutting distortions, since the cutting edge of the knife is exactly on the mathematical axis (like a speck of a drawing tool), and at the pivot point, the knife is forced to the desired direction and then held in this position until the next turn.
With regard to prices, it is even subconsciously felt that such plotters simply have to be more expensive than plotters with a free knife. As a rule, tangential plotters are more expensive than conventional ones by 1-2 thousand.dollars (or 15-30% of the cost of a conventional plotter). Not all cutting equipment manufacturers offer tangential machines to signmakers. However, despite the fact that tangential plotters are rare these days, some manufacturers still have tangential varieties in their families.
The second way to make the knife turn in the direction of cutting is cheaper and more practical. It is enough to give the knife the opportunity to freely rotate around its axis – and it itself, like a weather vane, will turn in the direction of movement of the carriage.In this case, the role of the keel at the weather vane is played by the cutting edge of the knife, which is slightly behind the mathematical axis. After changing the direction of movement of the carriage, the knife itself is aligned forward with the cutting edge, acting along the path of least resistance. These Graphtec plotters are called free knife plotters. They constitute the overwhelming majority of the market.
But one annoying nuisance is possible here. With a sufficiently sharp turn, say, 90 °, the knife cannot immediately move to the new axis of movement of the carriage.And that’s why. When changing the cutting direction, the knife should “run” a short distance until the friction aligns the knife strictly in the cutting direction. In the very first moments after the change in direction, it still remains in the previous position and the new cutting direction of the knife begins being in a state of some kind of arbitrary rotation. In our example, it is rotated 90 °. So, in order to orient itself in a new direction, the knife must turn, in our case by the same 90 °. But do not forget that the knife turns “on the fly”, that is, during the movement of the carriage.As a result, the knife describes a certain curve until it gets on the desired path. This is how distortion arises.
Of course, the value of this distortion is small and practically it would not be noticeable in the final work, if not for one “but”. The point is that the point of contact between the knife and the film (cutting area) is not strictly on the mathematical axis of the plotter. The cutting point is slightly offset from this axis to allow the vane knife to turn quickly and efficiently and track all carriage deviations.And it is this feature that causes the main trouble.
Conduct practically or mentally the following experiment. Tie the weight to a small thread and grab the end of the thread so that the weight drags along the sand and leaves a trail behind it. Now describe with your hand and thread a square with as clear corners as possible. Now look at the figure that the weight described in the sand. This is practically the same square, but with rounded corners. This is understandable. After all, the weight, due to the thread, did not quite reach the points of direction change.And when the weight began to be pulled in the perpendicular direction, it physically could not immediately get on a new trajectory and therefore “beveled” the corners.
This is a clear illustration of the problems encountered with free knife plotters. When cornering, the knife slightly bevels the corners and thus distorts the work. Of course, at large cutting sizes, this problem is insignificant and even, at first glance, seems far-fetched. But advertising manufacturers have to deal with different orders. On small elements, say, characters 1-2 cm in size, the distortion is already very noticeable.These distortions can make the final work unusable, which is completely unacceptable in practice. What to do? There is an exit.
Returning to our example, try moving your arm in this way to enable the weight to describe a regular square with good angles on the sand. It’s possible, isn’t it? If you look closely at your movements, then notice that your hand moves a little beyond the corner and then returns to a new trajectory along a certain curve. You are introducing deliberate distortions in your hand movements to compensate for other, already harmful distortions in your work.
This is the essence of the correction. It is necessary to force the plotter to “skip” a little further than the turn when turning, so that the cutting area (which is always slightly behind) “reaches” the turning coordinate. Then the carriage must be made to move along such a path in order to compensate for distortions that may occur when the knife is aligned in the cutting direction. With the correct values, distortion is fully compensated for, and the result is perfect.
The predistortion itself is called OFFSET.In what follows, we will call this word in Russian transliteration and write it with a double “f” so as not to be confused with typographic offset. The amount of offset – the distortion that must be introduced during the cutting process – depends on several factors. Strictly speaking, there are two of them. Let’s consider them.
The first and main one is the distance from the mathematical axis of the plotter knife to its cutting edge. In the simplest case (assuming the thickness of the processed material – film – infinitely small), this is the same distance that the plotter must skip before turning.In determining the value of the offset, this factor plays a decisive role, contributing 90% of the value and therefore often other factors are not taken into account. In practice, when the actual offset value is established empirically, knowing the knife offset value is the starting point for experimentation. Typical knives offset for most plotters is between 0.03 – 0.05 mm.
But if you look closely at the picture, it is easy to determine that the value of the offset is also affected by the thickness of the processed material.The thicker the film, the lower the offset value should be – and vice versa. True, the influence of this factor is so small that it is hardly worth taking into account in everyday practice. Moreover, the overwhelming majority of films have almost the same thickness (50 … 100 microns) and thicker materials are rarely found. However, if you are cutting thick materials such as textile thermal films or sandblasting patterns, then it is hardly worth reducing the offset value, since in this case it is quite possible to encounter the problem of undercutting of the material at fractures.
As a rule, in real life, almost every signmaker deals with the same plotter, with standard knives for it and with standard films. Therefore, once and for all, the offset value solves almost all potential problems of a plotter with a free knife. In almost all new plotters, a certain average offset value is set already at the factory for the vast majority of cases. However, a deeper knowledge of the problem will allow the signmaker to manage the situation and successfully get out of difficult situations in cases with non-standard orders.
Parmigiani Fleurier Tonda: the oldest art of marquetry
Parmigiani Fleurier is famous for using almost forgotten decoration techniques in the production of its watch masterpieces. For the Geneva exhibition SIHH-2013, the Swiss manufacture has prepared a new incarnation of the classic Tonda Tourbillon model with amazingly beautiful wood inlaid dial.A tourbillon watch with British and American symbols is unique in its kind. Music is embodied in Swiss watches, or rather, a musical instrument – a guitar, which is directly related to fine woodwork.
Parmigiani Fleurier Tonda Woodrock – Rock Music
Parmigiani Fleurier Tonda Woodrock and Woodstock are a kind of tribute to the culture of Great Britain and the United States, when these countries became the cradle of rock music. The dial of the Parmigiani Fleurier Tonda Woodrock model is decorated in the colors of the national flag of Great Britain, while the American model Tonda Woodstock has red and white stripes and white stars on its obverse against a blue sky.The carriage of the tourbillon took the place of the resonator hole of the guitar, and the rhythmic rotation of the tourbillon itself gave the instrument a liveliness. Stylish embodiment of a musical instrument within the watchmaking art will appeal not only to fans of the Parmigiani Fleurier brand, but also to those who like to listen to old school rock.
Parmigiani Fleurier Tonda Woodstock: the secret of the old technology
Parmigiani Fleurier Tonda Woodstock is a watch that could most likely be found in the first watch pawnshop if they were mass-produced.But both new items were released in a single copy. This is partly due to the laborious process of wood inlay. It takes ten days of painstaking work of the master to make each dial using the marquetry technique.
The ancient art of wood inlay is practically unclaimed these days, therefore it is used extremely rarely. The marquetry technique is an artistic arrangement of thin wooden plates, so elegant that the joints of the plates are invisible to the naked eye, and the impression of an absolutely smooth dial is created.
The same technique was used to decorate vintage watches, which can occasionally be bought on the secondary market as used watch . The master marketer first draws the selected drawing and details each of its elements using an ink liner. The created stencil is the base for the inlay. The most difficult stage of the work is considered cutting out fragments, which are made in ten copies. The marketer will subsequently choose only one, the very best, detail to immortalize on the dial.After cutting the blanks, the assembly process begins. If the master notices inconsistencies in size, defects or gaps in the drawing, then the whole process of cutting out the segments will have to be repeated, making the necessary adjustments.
Realizing the art of creating masterpieces, there is a desire not only to buy Swiss watches for your collection, but to admire the diligence of the masters who have given the world a beauty that has practically fallen into oblivion for decades. The Tonda Woodrock and Tonda Woodstock watches have become an expression of a paradigm in which melody and visual image have merged, revealing to the world the glory of musical culture in the embodiment of haute horlogerie.
Magic noodles for an artist – embedder – LJ
Densely, one after another, lines run side by side from which the image is assembled. How and by what means is it created? In search of an answer …
You have repeatedly seen colorless drawings made with thin lines. Not possessing color, but only an outline, they have a certain, difficult to explain attractiveness. Once I drew attention to the works of Giovanni Battista Piranesi, and later I was simply fascinated by their scale and the incredible thoroughness of the execution of such images with just ordinary lines.If this happened to you (and it may have happened, and you understand me well), then probably in the future there was a desire to figure out what such a drawing is, how it is created and by what means. Line drawing is based on the principle of using tools that are not capable of creating halftones. That is, any work space under consideration contains areas of the surface that are either completely painted over, or there is no paint at all … The point and line are all the elements that the artist uses.Halftones, or rather the optical illusion of their presence, are created through a variety of options for drawing dots and lines, with different densities and different character. Such drawings are most often performed with a special tool called an ink liner, and its further development option is an isograph. These tools differ in that they allow you to leave traces of a strictly defined width on paper and, accordingly, you can change the width of the line by choosing a tool with a different size of the working tip, for which the tools are marked with numbers.Books containing excellent examples of works of this kind can be such books as “Ink Drawing” by Harry Simmons, “Ink Drawing” by Claudia Nice, “Pen and Ink Drawing” by Carl Glassford. However, although in many ways these books allow us to understand how such works are created and what technical capabilities an artist has in working in such a manner, it still remains unclear how to learn how to draw in this way. In what specific cases is this or that technical technique used, what are they?
Searching for an answer led me to a chic, magnificent, wonderful (this is a minimum of definitions) textbook book “Pen and Ink Work”, which was written by Arthur Gaptil and which was published in 1930.The book has survived since the release of more than 60 reprints, so good it is. The original is two-volume, but the version translated into Russian was published as a single volume, where some of the illustrations were removed to reduce the printed volume. So, very simple and important to understand is the fact that in order to learn linear drawing, special tools such as isographers are not needed at all. No, of course, no one will discourage them from using them in drawing, it is foolish to argue with the fact that this is an excellent tool for creating a drawing in lines, but simply reading Arthur Gaptil’s book comes the understanding that an ordinary pen is the most flexible tool in terms of its capabilities and even more advanced than it would seem, a much more complex and perfect isograph.The point is that the pen has the quality of variation in the width of the line, which gives the artist the most powerful possibilities in working with the line.
However, with the use of regular ink and feathers, some slight irritation occurs due to the need to constantly wet the pen after all the ink has remained on the paper. And with intensive work, this happens very quickly, especially quickly if the pen is small and its surface does not allow holding a lot of paint on itself at once. Once, during the multiple travels of my pen from paper to a bottle of ink and back, after I accidentally hooked the tip of my pen to the edge of an open bottle and paint about a third of an ordinary glass was all on the table and on the floor, I came up with an interesting idea : “21st century in the yard!”.It was, you will immediately agree, a fresh, truly innovative thought that opened up incredible prospects. 😉 So, the 21st century is in the yard, and I, like in the old days, wave my pen, constantly dipping it in paint. Are there any tools that combined the capabilities of an artistic pen and an isograph, which has a reservoir with ink? And the search for an unknown instrument began.
Of course, after some reflection, it is not difficult to guess that one does not need to go far in search and that such a tool is an ordinary fountain pen, which in our times has finally, as it seems, left the writing arena.But, it only seems. In fact, there are a huge number of fans of writing with a pen all over the world, and numerous manufacturers offer a huge variety of ink fountain pen options. However, this is where the main difficulty lies. Finding a fountain pen is easy, buying ink for it is no problem, but the only problem is that this is a tool designed specifically for writing. And all manufacturers try to ensure that the pen writes smoothly and smoothly, with a line of constant width.This is such an important indicator that the same pen model most often has a whole range of different nibs with standard numbers EF, F, M, and so on, as indicated by the manufacturer. And even more, a competent penman knows that the number of pens is a key point and the manufacturer adheres to the series with strict accuracy, but the world is not the same, and therefore Japanese pens write more subtly than European and American pens, although the numbers will be the same. But for me, for a drawing, it is necessary, on the contrary, so that the pen does not have a constant line width, but, on the contrary, can change it as I want.A completely non-standard desire and completely non-standard requirements.
Studying the fountain pen market immerses the observer in sadness, longing and melancholy. Everything is expensive. And some of the handle designs are simply staggering in their value. Semi-precious and precious materials, rare earth metals, unique special surface treatment, author’s painting and jewelry work. And as always, this market is dominated by the modern principle: “If you want exotic – pay!” And it seems that for a handle with a variable line width you will have to pay a lot of money.The first noticed candidate Pilot Namiki Falcon, which according to the manufacturer’s statements allows creating lines of variable width, exactly confirms the rule of high cost. This is not a pen that can be used calmly and without hesitation, but rather a unique tool that deserves a reverent attitude and pride in its possession. It would be easier for us … Yes, after searching, you can easily find a considerable number of pens for calligraphers, most often produced in whole sets. At first glance, what is needed, a variable line width can be achieved, but only by turning the handle and leaving the line either with the full width of the pen, or with its edge.These pens also have their own range of pen widths and also assume the choice of the desired pen, depending on the current task.
Another serious problem is that many manufacturers do not collapsible designs of fountain pens, which forces, if necessary, to change the character of the line, just take another tool, and therefore have a whole collection of them. Most often, in this case, the pen is tightly fixed and does not imply any possibility of its replacement. Do you feel how convenient it is for the manufacturer – if you want to draw another line, buy another one of ours.
But that’s not all. Fountain pens, most often, have a cartridge ink supply system. What does it mean? This means that to make life easier for the owner of an ink pen, a pen manufacturer produces special cartridges filled with ink. Take out the old cartridge when the pen has stopped writing, and put in a new, full one. No fuss, with a set of ink, ease of replacement on a par with a regular ballpoint pen, where you have to take out the refill and put a new one. And, of course, manufacturers have developed their own cartridge standards and often you will not be able to put a cartridge from one pen to another manufacturer’s pen.Cartridges are sold in packs of several. Here is an option for a pen manufacturer to make money on the production of such products. And filling the pen with the classic option, when the pen itself is able to draw ink from the bottle, becomes the lot of either very expensive models, or by purchasing a special unit, for separate money, which is put in place of the previous cartridge.
It would seem that everything is hopeless – expensive, highly specialized, there is no possibility of changing the nibs, or even the ability to work with one pen with changing the line width, which was required, everything else can be forgiven.But, nevertheless, as it turned out, there is an amazing option that goes against the general trend. This option turned out to be the pens of the Noodler’s INK company.
Noodler’s INK is the brand under which certain Luxury Brands LLC products are distributed. Noodler’s INK is its distributor and we will talk here and further about it, or rather about its unique pens, but we don’t need Izumo-Tamenuri, for the psyche it is calmer. For the general public, Noodler’s INK is known not at all as a manufacturer of fountain pens, but as a manufacturer of ink for them with a rich selection of colors and a reasonable price.Apparently wishing to draw attention to its products and become more visible to consumers, Noodler’s decided to release their pens, but it is very difficult to attract the attention of buyers in this oversaturated market, to be able to stand out from other manufacturers. Therefore, Noodler’s decided to strike on all fronts at once and give them. who chose Noodler’s pens, everything that is inherent in expensive models, and even more. What happened in the end, what opportunities its owner gets when using such a pen, can be seen in this video, which I bring to your attention.
Let’s consider the advantages of Noodler’s
pens – a rare opportunity for fountain pens to change the line width over a wide range. In reality, it is a graphical tool.
– the pen is capable of picking up ink using the built-in pump *
– the cap of the pen does not snap into place, but is screwed *
– ebony feeder *
– there are several series of models that differ in appearance: from strict shapes and colors of business options to pleasant smooth and colorful
– a huge range of colors of the pens themselves
– the bodies of the pens are made of natural natural resin
– complete disassembly of the handle to the very last unit by the owner and without the use of any tools
– purchased separately and replaceable O-rings and other elements of the pens
– nibs are purchased in the same way like other elements, there are variants of classic pens for writing with a constant line width
– instead of high cost, pens are very inexpensive and quite affordable: the price is from $ 15, the most expensive is $ 40.
* This quality is generally considered to be inherent in luxury pens from other manufacturers.
Filling a pen with ink from a large-capacity bottle using the pen itself is nothing new and unique, but thanks to the efforts of manufacturers, it becomes possible for most pens only after purchasing a special converter, or is inherent in the class of very expensive pens, in normal cases only replaceable pens are used cartridges. However, any Noodler’s pen immediately has the ability to draw ink on its own.
The screw cap at the handle eliminates the possibility of any accidental cap coming off it with subsequent troubles, and is a very desirable function, but complicates the design of the handle and the requirements for the accuracy of manufacturing of parts, thereby increasing its price, but, nevertheless, for pens Noodler’s cap is screwed on.
The feeder is the node that is under the feather. The feeder draws ink from the ink reservoir of the pen and then feeds it evenly and accurately onto the surface of the pen.The feeder is usually made plastic, while the difference between an ebonite feeder and a plastic one is that ebonite is a porous material and in a feeder made of ebonite ink is located not only on the surface of this unit, but also in its depth, thereby a feeder made of ebonite in comparison with plastic , is ready to give ink to the nib much more abundantly, which is required if the nib writes in wide lines with high ink consumption. A plastic feeder can only have ink on its surface.
Such a feature as replaceable units is also rare.Usually the manufacturer approaches this issue simply – nothing can be disassembled, nothing can be repaired, and if it breaks down, buy a new pen. Even changing feathers is not considered possible and is extremely, extremely rare. In general, many manufacturers aim to maximize the profit from their products. Noodlers in this case are just great. Everything is disassembled, everything is washed and cleaned, and in case of problems, some small units can be bought separately and repaired on their own.
Usually the handles are made of hard types of plastic, acrylic cases are very resistant and strong. However, some series of Noodler’s pens have bodies made of natural natural resin, which makes the pens bright and subtle in shades and, in addition, adds one amusing quality: if you bring the pen closer to your face and smell, you can feel a distinct unusual aroma. This quality in some owners with a subtle instinct causes diametrically opposite feelings: some like it, and some, on the contrary, annoy.I personally like it.
An example of handle colors can be appreciated in the photo of Noodler’s Flex Ahab handles below. Specifically, in my pen, different colors are combined and what I personally saw – basic blue, white, black, and in addition, blue, azure, pink and purple shades are noticed. That is, there is a basic color tone that is diluted with other shades. All this looks like frozen multi-colored jets. And each pen, even from the same batch, has a unique variation of the interweaving of colored lines.
Take a look at the video, what can such a pen do in the hands of an artist and even just in a regular letter
Great possibilities, isn’t it?
If we look at some more technical aspects of Noodler’s pens, it must be borne in mind that the first pen models that had a nib leaving a variable line width were the Noodler’s Nib Creaper Flex and Noodler’s Konrad Flex series of pens. In the future, a number of Noodler’s Ahab Flex appeared, which retained the principle of operation, but had structural differences.The nib of the Noodler’s Nib Creaper Flex and Noodler’s Konrad Flex pens were smaller, the reservoir of the pen was smaller and the pen itself was smaller and lighter than the next generation of Noodler’s Ahab Flex. Ahab Flex are not only larger and more capacious pens, but also an attempt to improve the performance of the pens compared to their predecessors. Of course, Noodler’s pens deserve admiration, but do not forget that any product can have its strengths and weaknesses, and now I will try to consider the nuances of their behavior known to me, what features of their work should be expected.
Let’s start with the notable differences in handle designs. The Ahab Flex is larger and has a larger nib size. The internal capacity of the Ahab Flex ink container is almost twice as large. The Nib Creaper Flex and Konrad Flex pens have an always accessible rotating tip at the top that allows you to draw ink by simply dropping the pen into the bottle. If you just hold the pen in the air and slightly turn the upper part, then when you rotate in one direction, a drop of ink will begin to collect on the tip of the pen, and in the other, the pen will begin to suck in air.And, accordingly, the ink in the bottle will either be squeezed out or sucked in. In Ahab Flex, in order to draw or release ink, you need to unscrew the case, only then you can get to the pen pump and carry out the necessary actions. After the bottom of the pen has been immersed in the ink, instead of rotating, the pump stem must be moved up and down until the hand stops releasing air bubbles. If the bubbles stop appearing, which usually happens after two or three strokes, this means that now the pen reservoir is completely filled with ink.In the Nib Creaper Flex and Konrad Flex pens for ink volume control, the part of the body is made transparent, so that during use the owner can clearly see whether the pen needs refilling. Ahab Flex does not have the ability to visually monitor the amount of ink remaining in the reservoir.
In addition to offering a redesigned handle to customers with the release of the Ahab Flex, Noodler’s has corrected several shortcomings of its predecessors. We are talking about the convenience of holding, the duration of work, the stability of the line.Ahab Flex lies better in a large hand, first of all, this convenience concerns male owners. The Nib Creaper Flex and Konrad Flex are more suitable for small hands, say for women, or for cases where the miniature of the instrument is important, for example, with constant wear. For a large hand, it is more convenient to put the cap on the handle, thereby increasing its length. Ahab Flex allows you to work without lengthening due to the cap.
An unfortunate design flaw is that the handle caps, when put on top to lengthen the handle, can sit loosely on the handle, can swing.It is not wise to apply force for a deeper attachment, it is still a plastic product. It is better not to put the cap on, and even more so on the Ahab Flex, when the handle becomes, well, simply impressive in size.
The sheer width of line that Noodler’s handles can leave, especially the Ahab Flex range, makes a lasting impression. However, there are interesting nuances here. Although Noodler’s pens are formally pens with flexible nibs, which allows its owner to create a line of variable width on paper, nevertheless, the nibs themselves are not flexible at all, but very, very stiff, made of steel of a fair thickness.Structurally, the nib of the Noodler’s pen consists of two rigid halves, which, under the action of applied pressure, diverge to the sides, and not at all softly bend, as might be expected from the term “flexible nib”. So what, what is the problem if the effect is achieved? And it is not, there is just a nuance of behavior. Yes, the width of the line left can be increased to mind-boggling, but from a certain point, the wider the line becomes, the more significant the force applied to the handle becomes. And so, from a certain moment, instead of light calligraphy, you get two plows that must be dragged along the surface of the paper, with furrows left in it, respectively.Making a beautiful curl becomes problematic, and then impossible, because the tip of the pen clings to the paper and does not want to move in the right direction. So, in practice, lines of very large width have limitations on the smoothness of the bend, very dependent on the position of the handle and the direction of its movement. That is, any beautiful curls are easily made up to a certain point, but then difficulties begin.
Due to the fact that these pens not only allow you to write, but also allow you to do calligraphy and graphics, and leave very wide lines, ink consumption during work is very high, and with Ahab Flex, due to its large ink supply, much more pleasant to work.When comparing the behavior of the pens in practice, it becomes clear that the frequency of refueling Ahab Flex is comfortable enough and does not cause irritation, while when working with Noodler’s Nib Creaper Flex and Noodler’s Konrad Flex, you have to interrupt much more often and refill an empty handle in order to continue working further.
If you draw with long enough strokes, the pen may suddenly stop writing altogether, to your complete bewilderment. It’s just that the amount of ink that the pen is capable of delivering for a wide long stroke is not enough, so the increase in the size of the pen and feeder in Ahab Flex is explained by the manufacturer’s desire to smooth out this shortcoming, which was successful: Ahab Flex has much better behavior in this case, although it suffers similar.An example can be seen here at 9:00. If you think about why there is such an unstable operation, then the reason is simple – it is difficult to achieve confident and stable operation under such contradictory modes. On the one hand, it is a pen, from which the ability to write well on paper is still required; it should not at all fill the paper with ink, but simply write – evenly, neatly and economically. On the other hand, at the right time, ink should flow to the tip of the pen without any savings, just a real flow.The designers still managed to achieve this, although not very perfectly.
Another characteristic behavior of Noodler’s pens, which is no longer associated with fast ink consumption, but with long-term operation: all pens, and Nib Creaper Flex, and Konrad Flex, and Ahab Flex, after a while, as the reservoir becomes empty, start badly write. To improve the situation, it is necessary to twist the piston a little, after which the operation of the handle is normalized. Only now, to do it with the Nib Creaper Flex, and Noodler’s Konrad Flex is no problem, and the Ahab Flex will have to be disassembled.
In addition, the pen design allows you to adjust the intensity of the ink supply, in which you can move the feeder under the nib closer to the nib tip, or further away from it. If the feeder is closer, the ink will be fed more actively, if the pen tip is farther from the tip of the feeder, the ink will be fed more economically. To adjust during work, if the pen is already filled in, it is better to wrap the pen and the feeder with a piece of cellophane film, otherwise all hands will be in ink, because the tightly fitting feeder under the pen must be displaced by applying a certain noticeable effort.
If you are going to completely disassemble the pen, for example for flushing or changing the type of ink, be sure to be careful when assembling and installing the pen and feeder. Their seat has a complex shape and both elements must fit into the nest correctly, its shape clearly indicates how the nib should be placed.
The most interesting thing is that Noodler’s pens are not so to blame for their sometimes capricious behavior. This question is very interesting, and in fact applies to all existing ink pens in general.Many factors are responsible for the behavior of the pen when writing. This is the material of the pen, and its design, and the quality of manufacture of a particular pen during production, and the device of the mechanism for supplying ink to the pen, and, most interestingly, the ink itself, or rather, its composition. Experienced penmans know that in addition to color, attention should be paid to ink wettability. Inks are thick or thin, and sometimes the pen and ink may not mix well, even if it is a great pen and quality branded ink. What can be done in this case, I will tell you further.In the meantime, I propose to your attention to watch a video where the pens are completely disassembled and all their nodes are demonstrated. In general, it is most convenient to demonstrate the operation of pens on demo versions of pens, which are produced by all manufacturers of ink pens. Such “demonstrator pens” completely lack coloring of the body, it is made completely transparent so that you can see how the handle is arranged and how its parts work.
Now about ink. Yes, no matter how surprising and unexpected, but an ink fountain pen can write very poorly because of them, and, for good reason, it is best to take ink that is recommended by the manufacturer of the fountain pen.But, for example, it is possible that you already have ink purchased earlier, to which you are already accustomed and whose color you like. And the pen does not write well with them, what to do? Or, for example, take Noodler’s INK itself with its ink, which has a lot of shades and very different writing behavior. For example, the ink called NoFeathers was created for this and practically does not leave “feathers” on paper, even the nastiest and most porous, but this effect is obtained precisely because they are very thick and poorly flowing.
The recipe is very simple – you need to independently change the fluidity of the ink, make it more liquid. However, if you follow it, keep in mind that you act at your own peril and risk, and only you are responsible for the consequences, here you get advice that experienced penmen usually give on the forums. At the very least it is worth trying this recipe on a small batch of ink, cast from the main volume. To change the fluidity, you need regular hair shampoo and a fine needle.Dip the tip of the needle into the shampoo, just a little, a couple of millimeters, so that the needle is moistened with the shampoo. Now dip the tip of the needle into the ink and wiggle the needle through it to wash off the shampoo. The washing part of the shampoo will dramatically increase the wettability and flowability of the ink, after which the pen should begin to write without difficulty with such modified ink.
That’s all, perhaps, that I wanted to tell you. I had to spend a lot of words telling about the complexities of working with Noodler’s pens.however, this is only a forced action, when, by necessity, you had to describe all possible variations in the behavior of the handles, which in practice you may not have at all. Noodler’s pens are really interesting and deserve attention, especially since they are unexpectedly affordable. My first pen, which I would never part with, was bought from me by a calligrapher friend and still uses it with enthusiasm. Thanks to this woman, I had the opportunity to acquire an Ahab Flex, and you, now, find out the general nuances of the behavior of these pens, and what differences they have.
So, in conclusion, it is recommended:
Noodler’s Nib Creaper Flex and Noodler’s Konrad Flex for permanent regular and calligraphic writing, and drawing if desired and in the mood.
Noodler’s Ahab Flex for permanent drawing and calligraphy as well as everyday writing.
And, by the way, Noodler’s does not end there, Noodler’s is also ink of a huge range of shades, it is also Noodler’s Konrad Acrylic Flex fountain pens, Noodler’s Konrad Ebonite Flex, Noodler’s Rollerballs, and even Noodler’s Konrad Brush 🙂
I would like to express my gratitude to:
– the Penmania blog with great reviews on ink pens
– the forum of the ElitPen site, discussing everything he writes, and not only, with its responsive members, always ready to give good advice
– the wonderful leo_tvorit , which is a passionate admirer of art materials and tools, and generously shares his findings and impressions with readers
Compasses.Types and design. Application and how to choose. Features
The compass is a highly specialized tool for drawing correct circles, also used for measuring distances or transferring lengths when marking out. It is mainly used in geometry, drafting, cartography.
How a compass works
The design of a compass may differ depending on its purpose. In the most common version, it consists of 5 parts:
- Rod mountings.
The holder is the central element of the compass. It is a notched pin, for which the direct grip of the tool is carried out during operation. When drawing circles, rotation with a compass is performed by turning the holder with your fingers.
The compass has 2 rods with a swivel attachment to the holder. Due to this, it is possible to breed them up to almost 180 degrees.By increasing the distance between the rods, you can increase the radius of the drawn circle.
There are tips at the end of the rods. One is a needle and the other is a writing tip. The first may not be removable or replaceable. It is less sharp than a sewing needle. The task of the needle is to act as a reference point. It is placed in the center of the future circle and, due to its sharpness, plunges slightly into the surface. This eliminates its shift when turning the compass. At the moment of rotation, the writing tip draws an ideal circle on the surface, the beginning and end of which fall on the same point.
The compass writing nozzle can be a fastening mechanism for the installation of a stylus with a diameter of 2 or 0.5 mm. A tool for schoolchildren usually provides a thick lead, as it withstands mechanical pressure better. A thin nozzle of 0.5 mm is more accurate, it draws a clear line, which is important when making drawings. There are also compasses with clips into which you can insert a pencil, ballpoint pen, ink liner.
The design of the compass provides for a rigid mechanism for fixing the position of the rods.The presence of backlash in it would lead to a mismatch between the beginning and end of the circle. It should be noted that this happens when using a cheap tool, especially in the absence of proper experience in using a compass.
How to use
Basically, compasses are used to draw regular circles, as well as quickly mark segments of the same length. Unlike the template ruler with inner circles, it is adjustable and more compact.
To draw a circle of a certain diameter with a compass, you need a ruler.It is required to spread the tool rods so that the distance between the needle and the writing lead is half the diameter, that is, the radius. Then the needle is pressed against the surface at the center of the future circle. After that, you need to turn the compass 360 degrees so that its writing tip draws a circle.
At the time of drawing, hold the tool strictly by the holder. No pressure on the rods is allowed, as this can cause them to shift away from each other. As a consequence, the correct circle will not work.
Equal line segments can also be drawn with a compass. Stretch the shafts of the instrument so that the distance between the needle and the nib is required for transfer. For example, they can be set at the beginning and end of the segment to be copied. To transfer these indicators, it is necessary to deepen the compass needle in a new place and leave a stroke on the surface with a writing tip. Further, these points are connected by a line drawn along a ruler. This method of transferring distance is very accurate as it does not round off the data.
These are the basic techniques for using a compass for sketching. There are also more sophisticated ways to use it. With the help of the tool, measurements of distances on maps, laying of routes, etc. are carried out.
In general, the compass is a working tool for people of different professions:
Variations in the use of the compass are different for each profession. So, for example, ship captains can use it to plot routes, plot the radius of a search or rescue operation, etc.
Types of compasses
As mentioned earlier, the design of the compass can be adapted to a certain specificity of work. Even the most common sketching tools are available in various sizes. So for children of elementary grades, compasses are produced with a length of 12 cm.They are large enough to draw circles in a notebook. For middle and high school, they make an instrument of 12-14 cm. To perform drawing on Whatman paper, samples of 15 cm and more are made.
In addition to the size, the compasses differ according to their actual purpose. Each of them has its own version of the tool with a separate name.
There are the following types of compasses:
- External caliper.
- Internal caliper.
- Vernier caliper.
The drawing compass is a classic tool, at one end of which a needle is attached, and on the other a lead or pencil. This is the most produced model, as it is used by every student for teaching geometry and drawing lessons.
Marking , also called dividing and measuring. This is a tool, at the end of the rods of which there is a needle, that is, it is impossible for them to draw a visible circle.It is used to transfer the distance from the drawing to the part. The sharp needles of the hardened steel of the compass are good at scratching wood and metals. This is enough to see the edges of the markup. This tool often has a locking screw. With its help, you can fix the rods motionless, so they will not change their position even if you drop the compass.
Caliper for external measurements is quite a recognizable tool. Its peculiarity is in the characteristic arched barbells.They also, in most cases, include a retaining screw. The pointed ends of the calipers are closed in the reduced position of the rods, while the central part of the legs is divorced. This allows you to get the tool to measure the distance in hard-to-reach places. A caliper simply records the gap or distance between points. After that, you can measure it with a ruler, or simply transfer it to the workpiece. This tool is used by locksmiths, it is also traditionally used by coopers in the manufacture of wooden barrels.
The caliper for internal measurements differs from the external one in that it is equipped with straight rods, the tips of which are spread in the opposite direction relative to each other. This tool is used to measure the width and diameter of grooves, holes and other indentations. With it, you can determine the internal section of pipes, etc. The legs of the calipers are placed inward and spread apart until they rest against the walls of the recess with the tips. Thus, accurate data is obtained that cannot be measured with a ruler.The device can also be equipped with a fixing screw. Usually it is used by turners, milling operators, auto mechanics, locksmiths.
A caliper is a compass that contains a ruler, as well as a caliper for internal and external measurements. It is a very accurate tool that allows you to measure diameters, mark out, determine the depth of holes and grooves, as well as other distances. A caliper is a metal ruler with a fixed double-sided jaw. It acts as a guide.A sliding double-sided sponge moves along the ruler. Clamping the parts between the large jaws, you can look at the position of the ruler to determine their cross section. Smaller ones are used as calipers for internal measurements. When sliding the movable jaws, a probe extends from the ruler, which can be used to determine the depth of grooves and holes. The tool error is fractions of a millimeter. It should be noted that the caliper jaws are hardened, so they can scratch metal marks to transfer the size to the workpiece.
Peculiarities of choosing a compass
The compass is a very precise instrument, for the quality of which special requirements are set. In particular, this concerns the material of manufacture and the accuracy of the fit of its parts. A really worthwhile instrument is made only of metal. The use of plastic compasses is justified only for drawing. The fact is that the thin rods and the hinge mechanism for their attachment are very fragile. There are frequent cases of breakage of such a tool simply due to crushing in a portfolio by several books.Also a common problem is the breakdown of the rod spreading mechanism. As a result, they do not move apart together. One can remain vertical, and the other move aside. You can work with such a tool, but in this case, its holder is located at a slope, which interferes with drawing.
It is best if the tool is made of stainless steel, at least aluminum. On sale there are many compasses made of various alloys such as silumin, which do not bend under mechanical stress, but break into pieces.It is advisable to avoid such a tool.
In addition to the material, the quality of the compass is also important. It is worth paying attention to the presence of backlashes in it. Their presence is especially bad for the tool used to transfer dimensions. For drawing, this is not so scary, especially if it is simply used in training.
5. The concept of execution.
Each trick can be performed in different variations.there is no trick that only has one option.
Normal / Reverse
Simple execution concept. Normal is the trick in its usual way. Reverse – the same focus, only in the opposite direction. if a movie is a trick on a video, and then rewind the tape in reverse, we can see the same focus, only in the Reverse concept. Note: these are not all tricks. for example ThumbAround. see Normal and Reverse are very similar.
The trick is performed from the back of the hand, as opposed to the normal version.
This concept is mainly used for combination. when used, it retains the direction of rotation of the handle, but the direction of movement between the fingers is reversed. Currently, the concept is now canceled. Moonwalk (Moonwalk) is simply written slots.
The concept applies mainly to hybrids of tricks. the chip turns out as if reflected in a mirror.the concept is very similar to Reverse, but it has its own nuances.
In this concept, the impulse to rotate the handles is not tied to the fingers, and by movement of the hand. there are tricks that are inherently FingerLess (Mitts) for example BackAround.
When performing a trick in this concept, the pen stops in the middle of the trick and starts in the opposite direction. the concept works on hybrids of stunts.
The concept is only suitable for tapered types of tricks.In this version, the trick does not describe a circle in two dimensions, and only one, to the two ends of the handle. the most common trick is Tipped Charge.
Release / Riser
In this concept, the handle given the push from the trick is the Builder throw. however, the concept of Release is not appropriate for the original BackAround trick mitts, so using them Riser is the impulse imparted to the movement of the hand.
Rising / Falling
This concept is mainly applied in a combination of the same tricks.Rising so that the knob moves to slot 34 and goes to slot 12. Falling – the queue starts at slot 12, ends at slot 34. A very simple example is sonic rise / fall.
This concept creates combinations of two identical tricks performed alternately in normal and reverse. This concept is translated as “harmony”: for example, “thumbaround harmonic” (“thumbaround harmonics”).
Stand for STAMM Mini Pen pens revolving black
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Top_cherch_-2015_final_PDF – Page 2
Task 2.Drawing lines using the extension method.
The goal is to familiarize yourself with the technique of working with a pen and learn how to draw lines using the extension method.
The task consists of two drawings: “Exercise” and “Drawing by extension” (Fig. 14-15).
A feature of this method is drawing lines by gradually increasing the stroke. It consists in the following: a small stroke (1–2 mm) is drawn with a pen (or pencil) by moving the hand “towards oneself”. Then, overlapping the previous stroke by about half, repeat the downward movement, thereby increasing the length of the line.By successively alternating these movements, a line of a given size and shape is drawn. Drawing strokes using the extension method is done slowly, the pen is held straight and does not press hard on the paper. Ink is collected on the convex part of the pen, and drying ink is periodically removed during operation with a damp cloth.
First, the “Exercise” is performed, which is read without grading –
ki. Auxiliary constructions must be performed according to the dimensions indicated on the layout (Fig.fourteen).
1. Work should be started by making straight, arched and curved lines with a thickness of 0.1 mm at intervals of 1 mm (1). Arcuate
and curved lines of deviation from the vertical should be the same and not exceed 1 mm, and the ends should lie on the same vertical.