Pronounce hue: How to pronounce hue in English

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Hue – How to pronounce Hue

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English borrowed `llama’ but altered pronunciation

Q. Why is the word “llama” spelled with a double “l”?

A. “Llama” has two “l”s (els) because English speakers borrowed the name of that South American ruminant from Spanish. In Spanish, the double “l” is pronounced the way English speakers would pronounce the “y” in “yard.” In English, the double “l” at the beginning of a word like “llama” is pronounced just as if it were a single “l.” In other words, English speakers borrowed the spelling from Spanish but altered the pronunciation.

Two other double “l” words that have made their way from Spanish to English are “llano” (meaning “an open grassy plain in Spanish America or the southwestern United States”), “llanero” (meaning “a cowboy or herdsman in Spanish America”).

Q. I’ve always wondered about the expression “hue and cry.” The “cry” part of the phrase makes sense to me, but the “hue” part is confusing. Doesn’t “hue” mean “color”?

A. The answer to your second question is “absolutely nothing.” It’s true that “hue” can mean “color” (or “gradation of color”), but the “hue” in “hue and cry” is a different word altogether – one meaning “shout” or “outcry.” Like you, most people have never heard of this meaning of “hue.” Though alive and well as part of the set phrase “hue and cry” (meaning “a clamor of pursuit or protest”), on its own this “hue” is now a most uncommon word.

Ultimately, it can be traced to the Old French word “hue,” which also meant “outcry.” Its meaning may have once been more specific (and distinct from “cry”), perhaps referring to a something like a trumpet call or a wordless yell, as opposed to spoken words.

The expression “hue and cry” itself dates back to Medieval England. Forms of the term can be found as early as the 13th century in Anglo-French legal documents (Anglo-French was the official language in England for a time following the Norman invasion), and by the 15th century the phrase had found its way into English.

Originally a “hue and cry” was a loud outcry used in the pursuit of a suspected criminal. In those days there was no organized police force in England, so the job of fighting crime largely fell to ordinary citizens. If you were the victim of or a witness to a crime, you were expected to make a lot of noise – yelling something like “stop thief!” – and anyone who heard you “raise the hue and cry” was legally bound to join in the pursuit.

How do you pronounce the name Hue? – JanetPanic.com

How do you pronounce the name Hue?

I pronounce it Hué. I prefer Hyooo! It is a single syllable name – “H-Way” .

What is a correct pronunciation?

Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken. This may refer to generally agreed-upon sequences of sounds used in speaking a given word or language in a specific dialect (“correct pronunciation”) or simply the way a particular individual speaks a word or language.

What is Vermilion?

1 : a vivid reddish orange. 2 : a bright red pigment consisting of mercuric sulfide broadly : any of various red pigments.

What is sindoor called in English?

noun. Red pigment made from powdered red lead, especially as applied as a dot on the forehead or in the parting of the hair of married Hindu women. ‘The bindi is made of red powder (called sindur, traditionally made from powdered turmeric and fresh lime juice), sandalpaste or cosmetics.

Is Vermilion a Sindoor?

The vermillion (sindoor) is red, a colour that signifies power and passion. Traditionally, sindoor is made of organic/natural and herbal substances like turmeric, lime, alum, mercury or saffron.

Is Vermilion poisonous?

Vermilion is a dense, opaque pigment with a clear, brilliant hue. The pigment was originally made by grinding a powder of cinnabar (mercury sulfide). Like most mercury compounds, it is toxic.

What happens if we eat Sindoor?

Side effects of using sindoor Itching and dandruff problems. Food poisoning, if consumed by mistake. Harmful for brain, kidney, eyes and reproductive system if inhaled, absorbed or eaten. Lead poisoning or lead nephropathy (Read: 7 harmful chemicals in beauty products that can ruin skin)

How poisonous is Sindoor?

Toxicity concerns Modern material being sold as sindhoor mainly uses vermilion, an orange-red pigment, the purified and powdered form of cinnabar, which is the chief form in which mercury sulfide naturally occurs. As with other compounds of mercury, sindoor is toxic and must be handled carefully.

Which Sindoor is best?

7 Best Liquid Sindoor In India

  • 1.Lakme Jewel Sindoor.
  • Lotus Make-Up Divine Dew Herbal Sindoor.
  • Shahnaz Husain Herbal Sindoor.
  • Jovees Herbal Sindoor.
  • Colorbar Sindoor.
  • 6 . Coloressence Aqua Sindoor.
  • Blue Heaven Artisto Liquid Sindoor.

Which Sindoor is best powder or liquid?

7 Best Sindoors in India

  • 7 Best Sindoors in India. Product (Best Brands)
  • Lotus Herbals Divine Dew Herbal Sindoor.
  • Lakme Jewel Sindoor.
  • Keya Seth Aromatherapy Aromatic Jewel Liquid Sindur.
  • Colorbar Cosmetics Sindoor.
  • Blue Heaven Fashion Sindoor Matte.
  • Swiss Beauty Bridal Liquid Waterproof Sindoor.
  • Coloressence Aqua Sindoor.

Does sindoor cause hair fall?

IT MAY CAUSE SKIN ALLERGY AND RASHES: The chemicals used to prepare red colour powder can cause hair loss, skin rash and itching.

Is kumkum and sindoor the same thing?

Questions & Answers on Kumkum kumkum is natural material , made from 95% turmeric and 5% limestone (amount is low for limestone so not dangerous) while on the other hand Sindoor is poisonous chemical,made from burnt of mercury and led both are harmful to health.

Why do we apply sindoor after marriage?

Put on by the husband during wedding rituals, sindoor is then applied by women every day to mark his presence in her life. In actuality as well, it is considered to be the symbol of matrimony in Indian households and an essential part of a woman’s marriage.

Which chemical is used in Sindoor?

The sublimed red sulfide of mercury is termed as rasasindur (alias rasasindura, rasasindoor, rasasinduram, sindur, or sindoor) in Rasashastra and is used extensively in various ailments and diseases [10].

What happens if sindoor falls on floor?

If it falls down smear a little kumkum to the ground as the offering to mother earth. Take off the remaining kumkum and offer it to plants or trees nearby. It is a signal that Mother Earth is asking to propitiate her with Kumkum. So it is not a bad happening anyway.

Where should we keep Kumkum?

Kumkuma at temples is found in heaps. People dip their thumb into the heap and apply it on the forehead or between the eyebrows. In most of India, married women apply red kumkuma to the parting of their hair above their forehead every day as a symbol of marriage. This is called vermilion, or in Hindi, sindoor.

Why did Bihari wear sindoor from nose?

It is said that sindoor is considered a symbol of good luck and during Chhath Puja, women who wear long thick yellow vermilion, by the grace of Chhath Mata, their husband is long and always happy. This is the reason why fasting women apply vermilion from nose to head.

What does it mean when sindoor falls on nose?

There is a saying – regarding the amount of sindoor that falls on a bride’s nose when her groom puts it on her forehead. It determines how much the husband will love her. It is said that Goddess Parvati protects the husbands of those women who put sindoor and also wards off all evil spirits.

What does sindoor symbolize?

Sindoor is made up of vermilion, a red powder that is applied as a red streak along the parting of a woman’s hair. It is a symbol of matrimony and is never applied by unmarried women or widows. It is always applied in the centre and is a symbol of female energy.

How do you protect the bride from the evil eye?

The Evil Eye Brides would also paint henna on their hands and feet as a way to protect them from the evil that was thought to lurk below. All these are believed to be trials of warding off the evil eye!

How do you keep sindoor on your forehead?

There is no rule that you can wear sindoor only with traditional Indian clothes. Just put on a little red dot on your forehead and it will look great with your smokey eyes. From an LBD to shorts, you can wear your it with everything.

Can sindoor be used as lipstick?

Emergency Bindi and Sindoor For Indian women who are already wearing their traditional outfit and in need of a bindi to complete your look, red lipstick can be the emergency bindi that you need. On the other hand, married women can apply red liquid lipstick as sindoor.

What does the red dot mean on Indian woman’s forehead?

bindi

What does the red dot mean on Indian man’s forehead?

The tilak and pottu cools the forehead, protects us and prevents energy loss. The tilaka symbolizes the third eye, or mind’s eye, associated with many Hindu deities, and the idea of meditation and spiritual enlightenment. The red dot or “Tilak” of varying sizes represents the third eye.

What does a black bindi mean?

When she is unmarried, she is thought to be as in, not in love with anyone, and ash which was used as black color Bindi earlier, denotes no worldly love. A sandalwood white Bindi was adorned by widowed and priestesses, to show their love towards divinity, the God. Interchangeably they have used Black Bindi too.

What do the different color dots on the forehead mean?

No it shows a women who is married. Its called Bindi. It is mostly worn only by Hindu women. If its red color it depicts, she is married, if its black or any other color it may denote to be a fashion or a mark of hindu religion.

What does the bindi dot on the forehead mean?

The bindi can symbolize many aspects of the Hindu culture, but from the beginning it has always been a red dot worn on the forehead, most commonly to represent a married woman. The bindi is also said to be the third eye in Hindu religion, and it can be used to ward off bad luck.

Why is New York’s Houston Street pronounced ‘How-stun?’

Photo by Tdorante10 via Wikimedia Commons

One of the surest ways to know an out-of-towner is if they pronounce it “HUE-stun” instead of “HOW-stun” Street. But have you ever wondered why we don’t say it like the Texas city? The Times received this question from a reader and turned to Gerard Koeppel‘s book “City on a Grid: How New York Became New York” for the answer. According to Koeppel, “Houston the city is named after Sam Houston. Our street was named after a fellow named William Houstoun, who was a prominent Georgian, from a long line of Scotsmen.”

East Houston Street looking west in the 1890s, via NYPL

William Houstoun was born in 1755 in Savannah, Georgia. He began legal training at London’s Inner Temple, but returned to Georgia in 1783 to represent his state in the Continental Congress. He was a delegate in the 1787 Constitutional Convention and was one of the original trustees of the University of Georgia at Athens, but despite his “southern pedigree,” it was his wife who “had the kind of clout that earns a person a street named in his honor,” according to Koeppel.

Houstoun married Mary Bayard in 1788. She was a member of the prominent Bayard family, mostly lawyers and politicians from Wilmington, Delaware who were leaders in the Democratic party and traced their roots to Peter Stuyvesant. In New York, the family owned several large farms, but the same year she was married, Mary’s father, Nicholas Bayard III, fell on financial trouble and had to sell his 100-acre farm in present-day Soho.

In a separate interview with NY1, Koeppel explained, “He figured the only way he was able to hold onto the land was to lay it out into a grid and sell it off in lots.” So he carved it into 35 blocks, naming the east-west streets and numbering the north-south streets (the latter were later renamed for Revolutionary War generals like Wooster and Greene). He named one of these thoroughfares “Houstoun Street” in honor of Mary’s husband. The southern boundary was renamed Bayard Street, which also still exists today. But why do we now spell it “Houston?” Koeppel’s theory is that Sam Houston was gaining so much fame that people began confusing the two spellings.

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Editor’s Note: This story was originally published on January 27, 2017.


Tags :

Gerard Koeppel, Houston Street, William Houstoun

How to Pronounce Certain Luxury Brands – Pawn Shop Boca Raton – Boca Pawn

[youtube_sc url=”https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q3CqJ3mJcXc”]

It seems like most high end luxury brands have names that are hard to pronounce if you are American.  Cartier, Louis Vuitton, Hermes, all words that don’t sound like how they’re spelled.  If you’re in the market for one of these brands you want to make sure you know how to pronounce the company you’re buying.  This is a guide on pronouncing certain luxury designer brands.  Pawn Shop Boca Raton.

Cartier

Cartier was founded in France by Louis-Francois Cartier.  If you look at the word, it looks like it’s pronounced (Car Tee Air).  But since it’s a French name it is actually pronounced (Car Tee Aye).  Cartier is considered one of the top high end designer jewelry brands in the world.  They are a worldwide company and have stores in over 125 different countries.

Patek Philippe

Patek Philippe is considered by watch enthusiasts the absolutely number one watch company in the world.  Every other watch brand is aspiring to making watches as nice as Patek Philippe.  They make watches that are meant to last forever and be passed down from generation to generation.  At first glance it looks like it’s pronounced (Pa Tek Phillip) but it’s really pronounced (Paa Tek Phil Eep) with an emphasis on the eep.

Breitling

Breitling is one of those words that just looks weird.  The company has been making watches since the 1800’s but because very popular recently with the trend in watches becoming larger.  They are inspired by pilots watches which tend to be large and easy to read unlike the name the brand.  Some people like to call them (Bret Ling) but the correct pronunciation is actually (Bright Ling).

Hublot

This is another watch brand that has exploded in popularity over the last few years.  You can see their watches on the arms of celebrities and athletes all over the world.  It looks like you would say (Hue Blot) but the right way to say it is (Hue Blow).  The T is silent unlike their watches which are very loud.

Louis Vuitton

If you’ve never heard of Louis Vuitton before you have been living under a rock.  They might be the most recognizable luxury handbag brand in the world.  The classic LV monogram pattern on the bags is something that you will always remember.  Unfortunately a lot of people pronounce it (Lou is) instead of (Lou Eee).

Audemars Piguet

This is one of the harder names to figure out how to say.  The first word is actually the easiest.  It sounds exactly how it’s spelled except there is a silent S at the end.  The second word most people would pronounce (Pee Gwet) but it is actually said (Pee Gae).  You could just say AP for short if you know what’s up.

Submariner

This isn’t the name of a brand but rather the name of a specific Rolex model.  But it gets on the list because it is the most popular Rolex in my opinion.  Since it’s a diving watch a lot of people think it’s pronounced (Sub Mar Eee Ner) but it’s supposed to be pronounced (Sub Mar In Er).

how to pronounce the name nguyen

Pronounce Nguyen in English (UK) view more / help improve pronunciation. Combine both syllables of the name to pronounce “Siobhan” as “Shi-vawn.”. If you’re ordering a gyro for lunch, you pronounce it yee -roh or zhihr -oh. 🙂 It’s unusual for us to start any word with an “ng” sound, so we use the closest pronunciation we know. NAWNG DOOK M-EYE. No one could pronounce my name. (Audio and phonetic pronunciation) Pronunciación de Thai Nguyen con 2 pronunciaciones de audio, 5 traducciones, y más de Thai Nguyen. Exactly How To Pronounce Nguyen. Most gringos mispronounce it like this: NEW-yen. Varies slightly depending where you are, but most Vietnamese will pronounce it: ngwin The initial ‘ng’ can sound (to Western ears) more like a prot… We would love to hear from you! Jan 23 2009 05:22:10. Pronuncia Perto De Nguyen con e altro ancora per Perto De Nguyen. How do you pronounce that? Ä°sveç PHUC NGUYEN nasıl söylerim? Pronunciation of Nguyen : How to pronounce Nguyen. How To Pronounce Nguyen Huu Thang (football born 1972) How To Pronounce Nguyen Huu Thang (footballer born 1972) How To Pronounce Nguyen Huu Thang (footballer born 1980) How To Pronounce Nguyen Anh Duc. On a related note, how do you pronounce the name Nguyen? In this video, I’ll show you How to Pronounce Nguyễn. Before you can pronounce the word Nguyen, you must learn to pronounce each letter first. You can find the results below. ; Record yourself saying ‘nguyen’ in full sentences, then watch yourself and listen.You’ll be able to mark your mistakes quite easily. The English style is First (Given) Name, Middle (Given) Name, Family Name (Surname). Notes: The inogolo “anglicized pronunciation” is pronounced as 1 syllable with a short “n” before the “WEN”. Pronounce Nguyet in English (Canada) 10, 2021 – www.nj.comN.J. Chinese family names have lost their function in distinguishing families. Permission to use microphone is blocked. My understanding is it’s pronounced similar to ‘when’. I taught English at a school with a lot of Vietnamese students and found their names very di… Ng = “ing”. A popular name in Ireland where the anglicised versions are often used. Pronouncing this name right is a Nguyen Nguyen situation. . Pronunciation: nWEN. How to pronounce this Vietnamese last name? A more correct pronunciation would be: n-WIN. Read about Daniele List Of Celebrities With First Name Nguyen. These are things I just can’t sound out in English. How To Pronounce Nguyen Anh. 2. singular the way in which a particular person pronounces the words of a language • Your pronunciation is excellent. https://www.thecut.com/2019/03/how-to-pronounce-pete-buttigieg-name.html https://stujay.com/producing-the-initial-ng-n-in-asian-languages Feb 18, 2004 #16 alien . Learn the audio name pronunciation of Nguyen and know more about the name such as meaning, origin, phonetics spelling, popularity and much more. Hue is said different ways depending on province–If you live in Hue City–It is pronounced “HHHHwhay “–like in the old nursery rhyme ” mary ,mary quite contrary played with her curds and whey”—heavy emphasis on “H” —in HCMC , Nguyen Hue Street is simply “Win way”. Please don’t cringe. 1. I did a quick google and came up with 3 different recommendations: Fu Kwok Foo Wook Foo Kwaa which one’s correct? Yes, we would add a short “i” sound there. Christine Nguyen Pronunciation – The Name Engine. How To Pronounce Nguyen An. August 17, 2018 September 10, 2019 Name Pronunciation Guides by nameshouts. Suzanne Russo Adams, a genealogist for Ancestry.com, studied the last names of Italian immigrants and found that most who came to the U.S. in the early 1900s changed the pronunciation … Outside of Vietnam, the surname is commonly rendered without diacritics as Nguyen. By some estimates, forty percent of Vietnamese people have this surname. To assert a particular definition of correctness and to answer what is correct requires strong endorsement of some sort of prescriptivism. In the c… Since this is in the English section, I guess you’re asking how the average English-speaker would pronounce these names. element. Go. 8, 2021 – www.recordonline.comGlider crash at Wurtsboro Airport kills New Jersey man – Times Herald-Record “Nguyen is a very common Vietnamese last name. The Vietnamese pronunciation is [ŋwǐˀən] (listen) in northern dialect or [ŋwĩəŋ] (listen) in southern dialect , in both cases, in one syllable. Vietnamese are called by their given name and not their family name alone. audio. PHAM BINH MINH. Easy. Pronounce the “Saoir” portion of the name as “Seer,” which rhymes with “clear. It’s hard to pronounce Vietnamese names. However, Dung (female name) is different from DÅ©ng (male name). Word Origin: late Middle English: fr –> Nguyen. Pronounce the “Sio” portion of the name as “Shi” with a soft “ih” sound. Comment dire PHUC NGUYEN en Suédois? Record the pronunciation of this word in your own voice and play it to listen to how you have pronounced it. Once you know how a single letter should sound, pronouncing a full name becomes much easier. Re: How do you pronounce Hue. enunciation of nguy with 1 audio enunciation and also even more for nguy. MEANING of SIOBHAN: Siobhan is another Irish form of Joan meaning “God is gracious.”. Nguyen … it’s not pronounced WIN. there is no english translation of it. it’s literally a name so it is to be pronounced as it is in Vietnamese; it is a Vie. .. Daniele: learn how to pronounce Daniele in Italian with the correct pronunciation approved by native linguists. Nevertheless, Westerners are becoming more accustomed to Asian and other styles of name-writing, and you are liable to be asked to confirm which is your surname, no matter which way you write your full name. We address Vietnamese people by using the 3rd (given) name, same examples above (1) Mr Quang, (2) Miss Vinh (they use this convention mainly because certain surnames are very common) Pronunciations (general rules only) The name “Dang” is pronounced with the sound of “a” in the English word “far”. Thao Nguyen live on WNYC It was just six posts ago that the name “Nguyen” became the topic of conversation, and it was in that same post that we found out Thao Nguyen … How to Pronounce Nguyen Phan Que Mai. Share your NameBadge with one click on Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest. Create a NameBadge by voice-recording your name. It’s Australia’s seventh most common surname and the third most common surname in our largest city, Sydney. Feb 18, 2004 #15 I think it’s pronounced “nig” S. SaintGRW Golden Member. Let the world really know your name! Viet Thanh Nguyen’s name is pronounced as: Viet Tang When – Pronunciations vary but the closet English is usually considered to be Nwen or When Thanks for your vote! Prononciation de PHUC NGUYEN à 1 prononciation audio, et de plus pour PHUC NGUYEN. How To Pronounce Nguyen Anh Dung (chess player) How To Pronounce Nguyen Anh Tuan. 2. So the French decided to give those people a last name, and they chose Nguyen. They chose this name due to it being the final monarchy in Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh, the most influential public figure during the Vietnam War also shared Nguyen as a part of his name. His real name is Nguyen Sinh Cung. 1 out of 187 results, On Funtalk, Listen to native speakers and try to imitate their pronunciation of the word. It’s the most common Vietnamese surname and corresponds to the Sino-Vietnamese symbol 阮. A submission from Canada says the name Nguyen means “As a given name, spelled Nguyen, means ‘complete, whole’; as a last name spelled Nguyen, it is the name of the final Vietnamese imperial dynasty. ” and is of Vietnamese origin. How to pronounce the name Nguyen Minh Triet. Pronounce the “bhan” portion of the name as “vawn.” “Vawn” should be pronounced to rhyme with “lawn” or “gone.”. How many people have the last name Nguyen? I recently asked a friend of mine with the last name of Nguyen, how to pronounce his name. sees more people from different places calling the … nuh- WEE- ehn vahn tee- YOO. A Vietnamese friend says there are lots of “smiling” sounds in Vietnamese… you know, lots of “n” sounds.—– nguyen pronunciation : Related News. The pronunciation of this author’s name has been verified by the publisher. Permission to use microphone was denied. 3. Learn how to pronounce names correctly. It’s pronounced [ŋwǐˀən] in North Vietnam and [ŋwĩəŋ] in South Vietnam. Visit: Inogolo. FAHM … Difficult. Q. QueHuong Platinum Member. DougK62 Diamond Member. completed. There are numerous answers to the question of how to pronounce gnocchi, but the one that seems the most interesting and true to the Italian language is the pronunctiation with a rolling “nyoh” sound.

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90,000 How to pronounce the names of fashion brands correctly

TOPBEAUTY has prepared a cheat sheet for you with the correct pronunciation of the names of the most popular fashion brands, so that you don’t lose face!

Difficulties with the correct pronunciation of the names of various fashion brands arise for everyone, even for those who have been working in the fashion world for a long time. Often this is facilitated by not very high-quality translation of films and TV series and a banal ignorance of foreign languages.In order to deal with this issue once and for all, we have collected for you 15 brands, the names of which cause difficulties in pronunciation most often.

  • Nike – Nike . No, not just Nike, but Nike. By the way, the mispronunciation of the brand name has taken root so much, especially here, in Russia, that the Russian representative office of the brand itself began to call it incorrectly.
  • Levi’s – Levi’s . If we proceed from the rules of English grammar and take into account the fact that the creator of the brand was called Levi, then “Levis” would be correct.However, more and more sources insist that Levies is right after all.
  • Hermès – Hermes . No “Hermes” and “Hermes”! And the letter “c” at the end is also not worth losing. Still, this name comes from the founder’s surname, which means that the usual rules of the French language do not quite apply here.
  • Christian Louboutin – Christian Louboutin . The French sometimes still remove both “n” at the end. But this is not as important as the fact that “Louboutin” and not “Louboutin” or “Louboutin”.
  • Hervé Léger – Hervé Léger . On the advice of Karl Lagerfeld, the brand’s designer changed his last name to Leger to make it easier for customers to remember.
  • Burberry – Burberry . Remember this the next time you say that you dream of their trench coat.
  • Moschino – Moschino . There are no “h” here.
  • Lanvin – Lanvan . It is not read as it is written here.
  • Vera Wang – Vera Wong . As a last resort – Wang (Americans often say that). But not Wang!
  • Chloé – Chloe . Not Chloe.
  • Calvin Klein – Calvin Klein . Some people don’t even read Calvin, but Kevin for some reason …
  • Zuhair Murad – Zuher Murad . Yes Yes exactly.
  • Carolina Herrera – Carolina Herrera .The designer’s surname is read in Spanish.
  • Tommy Hilfiger – Tommy Hilfiger . How much surname can be distorted?
  • Mulberry – Mulberry . Not Mulbury.

How to pronounce brand names correctly | Vogue Ukraine

Representatives of perfume and cosmetic brands told vogue.ua on how to pronounce their names correctly

Kevyn Aucoin [Kevin Okuan ‘]

Kevin Okuan (not “Ocoin”) was the person who created the concept of “sculpting” (fans of the Kardashian family and those who believe in the primacy of Kim in this matter, you have to put up with it), invented a lot of makeup techniques, published several books and worked with all the celebrities of Hollywood. Makeup mega-star Kevin Okuan’s signature cosmetics brand is featured in Aromateque.

Kevin Ocuan and Linda Evangelista Getty

Acqua di Parma

“Parma water” is the Italian name for the brand that produces exquisite accessories, fragrances and candles. Aqua di Parma – all with accent on the first syllable.

Bergamoto di Calabria, Acqua di Parma, limited edition 2021

Azzedine Alaïa [Azzedine Alaya]

The famous French-Lebanese couturier, whom everyone calls out of habit as “Alaya”, with a “French” accent on the last syllable, – on in fact – “Alaya”. In 2017, he died in Paris.

Azzedin Alaya

Zuhair Murad [Zuhair Murad]

Lebanese designer is traditionally responsible for the most feminine and romantic outfits: flying dresses, lace corsets, floral embroidery and appliqués from the finest lace.His name, which we most often pronounce as “Zuhair” with an emphasis on the second syllable, is actually Zuher.

Zuhair Murad with models behind the scenes at Zuhair Murad Couture Fall-Winter 2017/2018

Carolina Herrera [Carolina Herrera]

Carolina Herrera, the founder of the brand that has been producing elegant clothes for several decades, was born in Venezuelan Hispanic Caracas. Accordingly, the first letter of her surname is not readable according to the rules of the Spanish language. In 2016, the fragrance Good Girl was released, which became the flagship in the brand’s perfume portfolio.

Carolina Herrera in New York, 2018 Getty

Chanel

This legendary name is simple. The only stumbling block is the sound at the end of a word: snobs always say “Chanel” with a hard and uncompromising “L” at the end. Americans also pronounce the brand name with a hard “L” at the end. But the French themselves prefer a rounder, softer sound. Their example is worth following. Chanel, voila. This year the legendary # 5 celebrates its 100th anniversary.

CHANEL N ° 5, Sem, lithograph, 1921 – 1924

Chantecaille [Shantekai]

The name of a family beauty brand that supports eco-responsible initiatives (from fundraising wildlife to tree planting in the Amazon) pronounced [Shantekai]. Wildlife shadows on the lids are intended to raise awareness of endangered African species.

Luminescent Eye Shade – Lion, Chantecaille

Set of shadows, Chantecaille

Clarins [Clarence]

The name of a French brand of cosmetics, very popular in Ukraine, reads like “Clarence” with an accent on the last syllable.

Still from the Extra-Firming Energy campaign, Clarins

Comme des Garçons [Comme des Garçons]

Like boys – “com de garçons” is the translation of the famous Comme des Garçons brand, famous for its deconstructivist clothing and minimalist but complex fragrances popular all over the world. The latest creation of the house was released in collaboration with the fashion brand Stüssy: the fragrance is called Laguna Beach and smells of sea, sun, white flowers.

Stüssy Laguna BeachComme des Garcons

Diptyque

The name of the famous French niche perfumery brand is pretty simple.The only thing people get confused with is stress: those who often speak English put it on the first syllable. And rightly so – on the last one: “Diptyk”.

Diptyque California Boutique Getty

DSquared2 [Deeskwɛəd]

With this name, the main thing is not to repeat the common mistake that even the fashion community quotes in unison. “Discuead” with an emphasis on “e”. Not Disquayd. In 2021, a new unisex fragrance is released with notes of pink pepper and cedar.

2 Wood, DSQUARED²

Guerlain

Everyone has long been accustomed to the fact that Guerlain is Guerlain.One caveat: in Paris, the brand name is pronounced in the nose and it turns out something like “Gya’lan”. In May, the brand launches Muguet, a limited-edition collectible lily of the valley. Read more about the fragrance, which is released once a year, here.

Terracotta Powder, Guerlain, Limited Edition Getty

Hermès [Hermes]

The old French House is not named correctly. The most common variants are literal transliteration “Hermes” and pseudo-intellectual “Erme”.In response to the question, how correct is it, the French, the representatives of the House, are surprised: “Only“ Ermes ”, and nothing else. Erme is a Parisian pastry chef “( Pierre Hermé – ed. .).

Rose Hermès Silky Blush, Pommette powder case and two brushes, all Hermes

Lanvin

Lanvin and Lanvan “- incorrect options. ” Lanvan “is what you need. If you want to shine, you can pronounce a little in the nose and” round “the letters – you get something like [Lo’nvo’n].In any case, the stress is on the last syllable. The name of the most popular fragrance in Ukraine Éclat d’Arpège sounds like [eklya d’arpege]. Its latest version, Éclat d’Arpège Sheer Lanvin, came out in 2020.

Éclat d’Arpège Sheer Lanvin

Loewe

The name of the Spanish brand, famous for impeccable leather goods and exquisite fragrances, is often tried to “ennoble”. There are many options: “Loew”, “Loew”, “Love”. In fact, everything is much simpler here: as it is written, so it is read: “Lo-e-ve”.An interview with Jonathan Anderson, Creative Director of the brand, can be read here. We wrote here about how the young perfumer Nuria Cruejes is rethinking the perfume heritage of the House.

LOEWE 001 Woman EDP by Nacho Alegre

Maison Francis Kurkdjian [Maison Francis Kurkdjian]

The famous French perfumer of Armenian origin became famous not only for his great works for Nina Ricci, Burberry, Elie Saab, but also for the fragrances released for his own House of niche perfumery whose name is pronounced “Maison Francis Kurkjan”. In 2021, the line of fragrances will be replenished with the new Aqua Universalis Cologne Forté – a fragrance that is the quintessential concept of purity, equivalent to a crisp white shirt.

Aqua Universalis Cologne Forte Maison Francis Kurkdjian

Moschino [Moschino]

The name of the Italian brand, which in 2021 released the next version of the fetish bear cub (with the scent of fruit and gum), is no longer a problem for anyone: Moschino.

Still from Toy 2 Bubble Gum Moschino campaign

Penghaligon’s

British niche brand that produces an ironic collection of scent portraits.Something like “Downton Abbey”, only in an olfactory manner (you can read more about them here). The brand name reads “Penchaligons”.

The Inimitable William Penhaligon Penhaligon’s

SACHAJUAN [Sashahuan]

Professional Swedish hair care brand founded by celebrity stylists, Sasha Mitik and Juan Rosenlind. The brand name is formed by the merger of their names.

Serge Lutens

Perfumes argue constantly about how to pronounce the name of a French brand name. The most common (and erroneous) option is Serge Lutens, the second is Serge Lutens. And the only correct one is “Serge Lutens”. This is what the couturier of fragrances calls himself, this is how he is called in France. The rule that the “s” in the ending of French words is not read does not work in this case.

Serge Lutens

Tommy Hilfiger [Tommy Hilfiger]

Many people seem to believe that the name of the famous designer who produces fresh and vibrant youth fragrances is “Halfiger”.The most exotic option is the Hilfiger. And the correct one is the most obvious: “Hilfiger”. An excerpt from the book “American mriynik. My Life at the Fashion Industry »Tommy Hilfiger we published here.

Fragment of the book “American mriynik. Can live at the fashion industry “Tommy Hilfiger

Valmont [Valmont]

In the case of this brand of expensive and effective Swiss cosmetics, the classic French reading rule works: the last letter” t “is not readable:” Valmont “, a little in the nose.

Yohji Yamamoto

This is a case where the spelling seems a lot more intricate than pronunciation. Yohji Yamamoto, that’s all the wisdom. What designer Yohji Yamamoto has done for the fashion world, read here.

Boutique Fragrances

Recently, many Houses, including Chanel, Dior, Guerlain, Giorgio Armani, have launched fragrances that can only be found in their own boutiques. The term “boutique fragrances” has become extremely common – along with mispronunciation.It is correct to say “butykovye” – with an emphasis on “and”. We published a report from the Chanel boutique on the Champs Elysees here.

Chanel boutique on the Champs Elysees

Follow the beauty instagram @vogueua_beauty.

Pronunciation of English sounds with and without rules ∣ Enguide.ru

The phonetics of the English language is so complex and interesting that we have devoted more than one article to it. Here you can find reading rules in English, and here you will find dictionaries that sound English words. General information about English phonetics for beginners is presented in this article, and today we want to talk about how English sounds are pronounced correctly. English transcription and a convenient table of English sounds with pronunciation will help us with this.

Why does the pronunciation of English sounds raise so many questions? Primarily due to the mismatch in the number of letters and sounds in the English language. There are almost half the number of letters in the English alphabet (26 letters and 48 sounds). Consequently, the pronunciation of sounds is impossible to correlate each with its own letter.Hence the confusion. More precisely – certain conditions that allow you to master the English pronunciation correctly.

What determines the pronunciation of English sounds?

As long as we read “to ourselves,” that is, silently, we will not be able to recognize the sound of English words. Only pronunciation aloud allows you to cope with practical phonetics. And in practice, the sounds of the English language and their pronunciation directly depend on the so-called articulation. That is, on how we use the organs of speech.

The organs of speech, or the articulatory apparatus, are the larynx, tongue (tip of the tongue, front of the tongue, middle and back of the tongue with the root ), soft and hard palate, teeth of the upper and lower jaw, lips, nasopharynx. A whole system of organs involved in the creation of speech and voice sounds .

To correctly pronounce all sounds, you need to use all organs of articulation. At the same time, different organs are needed for different sounds. For example, to pronounce voiceless consonants, the vocal cords are not tense and spread apart.But for vowels and voiced consonants, you need to strain the vocal cords and literally make them vibrate. Of course, this is not done deliberately. The correct pronunciation of sounds itself “turns on” certain parts of the articulatory apparatus. But for correct English pronunciation, it is useful to know exactly how the sounds appear.

Pronunciation of vowels and their types in English

There are two types of vowel sounds in English:

  1. Monophthongs are vowel sounds, during which the articulation does not change during the entire period of sounding.Monophthong example: [ɔː].
  2. Diphthongs are vowel sounds with two components. When pronouncing a diphthong, the speech organs first occupy one position for pronouncing the first component, and then change position for pronouncing the second component. The first component is called the nucleus of the diphthong, it is longer and more distinct. The second component of the diphthong sounds shorter and gives the sound a certain “flavor” of the sound. An example of a diphthong: [aɪ].

Consonants are divided into more varieties:

1) Labial consonants:

labial-labial articulated with both lips: [w], [m], [p], [b]

labiodental are pronounced with the lower lip and upper teeth: [f], [v].

2) Front-lingual consonants:

interdental, when the surface of the anterior part of the tongue forms an incomplete obstruction with the upper teeth: [θ], [ð]

apical-alveolar, the anterior edge of the tongue is raised to the alveolar arch: [t], [d], [n], [l], [s], [z], [∫], [ʒ], [t∫], [dʒ]

cacuminal-postalveolar, the anterior edge of the tongue is raised up and slightly bent to the posterior slope of the alveoli: [r].

3) Mid-lingual consonants, the barrier is formed by raising the middle part of the tongue to the hard palate: [j].

4) Back-lingual consonants, which are articulated by raising the back of the tongue to the soft palate: [k], [g], [ŋ].

5) Laryngeal consonant unique in English: [h].

6) Bows consonants: [p], [b], [t], [d], [k], [g], [m], [n], [ŋ], [t∫], [ dʒ].

7) Slotted consonants: [f], [v], [θ], [ð], [s], [z], [∫], [ʒ], [h], [w], [l ], [r], [j].

8) Bows noisy consonants:

explosive, when the full obstruction opens, air leaves the mouth, producing an explosion noise: [p], [b], [t], [d], [k], [g]

affricates, when the opening of the speech organs that form a complete obstruction occurs smoothly: [t∫], [dʒ].

9) Fricative consonants: [f], [v], [θ], [ð], [s], [z], [∫], [ʒ], [h].

10) Nasal sonants, a complete obstruction is formed in the oral cavity, the soft palate descends and air exits through the nasal cavity: [m], [n], [ŋ].

11) Oral sonants: [w], [r], [j], [l].

Sounds of English and their pronunciation

Reading aloud and pronouncing English sounds is the best, if not the only, way to get rid of the Russian accent in colloquial speech.And for beginners to learn English, this is an opportunity to immediately remember how to pronounce sounds in English correctly. All of them are collected in tables of English sounds with pronunciation:

English vowel sounds.

English Vowel Sounds

Sound

Description

Example words

Long vowel sound.

When pronouncing the sound [iː], the tongue is in front of the mouth. The tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth. The middle part of the tongue is raised high towards the hard palate. The lips are somewhat stretched.

feel

read

ɪ

Short vowel sound.

When pronouncing the sound [ɪ], the tongue is in front of the mouth. The middle part of the tongue is raised to the hard palate, but not as high as when pronouncing the Russian sound [and].The tip of the tongue is at the lower teeth, the lips are slightly stretched.

unit

wind

ʊ

Short vowel sound. Pronounced with a slight rounding of the lips. When pronouncing the sound [ʊ], the tongue is at the back of the mouth, but not very far away. The back of the back of the tongue is raised to the front of the soft palate, but not as high as when pronouncing the Russian sound [y]. The lips are slightly rounded, but hardly protrude forward.

put

look

Long vowel sound. When pronouncing the sound [uː], the tongue is at the back of the mouth. The back of the tongue is significantly raised. The lips are rounded, but slightly. By the end of the sound, the lips are rounded more.

noon

blue

e

Short vowel sound. When pronouncing the vowel sound [e], the tongue is in front of the mouth.The tip of the tongue is at the base of the lower teeth, the middle part of the tongue is raised to the hard palate. The lips are slightly stretched. When pronouncing the sound [e], the lower jaw should not be lowered.

bed

desk

ə

Short neutral vowel sound. This sound is always unstressed, therefore it is very easily influenced by neighboring sounds. When pronouncing the sound [ə] at the beginning or in the middle of words, the entire language is slightly raised.The sound [ə] should not be similar to the Russian sounds [e], [a] or [s].

again

under

ɜː

Long vowel sound. When pronouncing the sound [ɜː], the tongue is raised, the back of the tongue lies flat. The tip of the tongue is at the lower teeth. The teeth are slightly exposed, the distance between the upper and lower teeth is small. The lips are tight and slightly stretched.

work

burn

ɔː

Long vowel sound.When pronouncing the sound [ɔː], the tongue is at the back of the mouth. The back of the tongue is raised to the soft palate. The lips are slightly protruding and well rounded.

small

morning

æ

Semi-long vowel sound. When pronouncing the sound [æ], the mouth is wide enough, the tongue is in the front of the mouth, lies flat in the mouth, and its middle part is slightly raised. The tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth.The lips are slightly stretched, and the corners of the lips are slightly pulled to the sides. There is no such sound in Russian.

bad

exam

ʌ

Short vowel sound. When pronouncing the sound [ʌ], the mouth is half-open, the lips are neutral, the tongue is slightly pushed back. The back of the tongue is slightly raised.

nut

cut

ɑː

Long vowel sound.When pronouncing the sound [ɑː], the tongue is at the back of the mouth. The back of the tongue is slightly raised. The tip of the tongue is pulled away from the lower teeth, the lips are neutral, that is, they are not stretched or pushed forward. Do not open your mouth wide.

dark

are

ɒ

Short vowel sound. When pronouncing the sound [ɒ], the tongue is at the back of the mouth. The back of the tongue is slightly raised. The mouth is open wide, the lips are rounded.

not

wash

The longitude of vowel sounds, which in transcription is denoted by a colon, is very important. If you do not take into account the duration of the vowels, then you can confuse the meaning of the words. For example: short sound ship [ʃɪp] – ship and long sound sheep [ʃiːp] – ram.

English diphthongs. English Diphthongs

Sound

Description

Example words

ɪə

Diphthong.The core is the vowel sound [ɪ]. After pronouncing the sound [ɪ], the tongue moves towards the center in the direction of the neutral vowel [ə], which has the tone of the sound [ʌ].

real

beer

The nucleus of the diphthong is the vowel [e]. After pronouncing [e], the tongue makes a slight upward movement in the direction of the sound [ɪ], but does not reach its full formation.

say

table

ʊə

The core of the diphthong is the vowel sound [ʊ].After pronouncing the sound [ʊ], the tongue moves towards the center in the direction of the neutral vowel [ə], which has the tone of the sound [ʌ].

tour

jury

ɔɪ

The core of a diphthong is a vowel that is a sound in between [ɒ] and [ɔː]. After pronouncing the first element of the diphthong, the tongue moves in the direction of the vowel sound [ɪ].

boy

noise

əʊ

The nucleus of the diphthong is close in sound to the vowel sound [ɜː], after pronouncing which the tongue makes a slight upward movement and moves back in the direction of the vowel sound [ʊ]. At the beginning of pronouncing the diphthong, the lips are slightly rounded, then gradually the lips are rounded even more.

coat

flow

The core of the diphthong is a vowel similar to the Russian sound [e] in the word it, after pronouncing which the language moves in the direction of a neutral vowel [ə] with a tone of sound [ʌ].

where

their

The core of the diphthong is a vowel similar to the Russian sound [a] in the word tea, when pronounced the tongue is in the front of the mouth and lies flat.The tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth, the lips are slightly stretched. After pronouncing the first element of the diphthong, the tongue moves up in the direction of the sound [ɪ].

five

my

The core of the diphthong is a vowel similar to the Russian sound [a] in the word tea, when pronounced the tongue is in the front of the mouth and lies flat. The tip of the tongue touches the lower teeth, the lips are slightly stretched. After pronouncing the first element of the diphthong, the tongue moves back in the direction of the sound [ʊ], which should be very weak.

how

cloud

Pronunciation of consonants in English

If you have noticed that the intonations of the English language are more energetic in comparison with Russian, then this fully applies to English words as well. And that means, and sounds. English consonants are pronounced energetically, with great impulses and energy expenditure. Do not forget about this when reading tables of English consonants with pronunciation:

English consonants.English Consonant Sounds

Sound

Description

Example word

b

Voiced consonant sound. When pronouncing the sound [b], the lips first close, and then instantly open, and the air exits through the oral cavity.

book

d

Voiced consonant sound.When pronouncing the sound [d], the tip of the tongue is pressed against the alveoli (small tubercles behind the upper teeth), forming a complete obstruction. A jet of air with an explosion opens this barrier.

door

ʒ

Voiced consonant sound. When pronouncing the sound [ʒ], the tip of the tongue is at the alveoli (small tubercles behind the upper teeth), and the middle part of the tongue is raised to the hard palate.

television

ʤ

Voiced consonant sound.

When pronouncing the sound [dʒ], the tip of the tongue touches the alveoli (small tubercles behind the upper teeth), at the same time the middle part of the tongue rises to the hard palate. Gradually, the tip of the tongue moves away from the alveoli. The sound [dʒ] is pronounced like [tʃ], but loud, with a voice.

Jim

g

Voiced consonant sound. When pronouncing the sound [ɡ], the back of the back of the tongue touches the soft palate, forming a complete obstruction.A jet of air with an explosion opens this barrier.

go

v

Voiced consonant sound. When pronouncing the sound [v], the lower lip is slightly pressed against the upper teeth, and a stream of exhaled air passes into the gap between them.

five

ð

Voiced interdental consonant. To pronounce the sound [ð] correctly, you need to place the tip of your tongue between your teeth.The tongue should be flat and not tense, and the teeth should be bared. The tip of the tongue between the teeth forms a small gap, and you need to exhale air into this gap.

this

z

Voiced consonant sound. When pronouncing the sound [z], the tip of the tongue is against the alveoli (small tubercles behind the upper teeth). A jet of air with friction passes through a groove formed between the anterior dorsum of the tongue and the alveoli.

Zoo

p

A voiceless consonant. When pronouncing the sound [p], the lips first close, and then immediately open, and the air exits through the mouth.

pen

t

A voiceless consonant. When pronouncing the dull sound [t], the tip of the tongue is pressed against the alveoli (small tubercles behind the upper teeth), forming a complete obstruction.A jet of air with an explosion opens this barrier.

ten

ʃ

A voiceless consonant. When pronouncing the sound [ʃ], the tip of the tongue is at the alveoli (small tubercles behind the upper teeth), and the middle part of the tongue is raised to the hard palate.

show

ʧ

A voiceless consonant. When pronouncing the sound [tʃ], the tip of the tongue touches the alveoli (small tubercles behind the upper teeth), at the same time the middle part of the tongue rises to the hard palate.Gradually, the tip of the tongue moves away from the alveoli.

chair

k

A voiceless consonant. When pronouncing the sound [k], the back of the back of the tongue touches the soft palate, forming a complete obstruction. A jet of air with an explosion opens this barrier.

key

f

A voiceless consonant. When pronouncing the sound [f], the lower lip is slightly pressed against the upper teeth, and a stream of exhaled air passes into the gap between them.

five

θ

Voiceless interdental consonant. To pronounce the sound [θ] correctly, you need to place the tip of your tongue between your teeth. The tongue should be flat and not tense, and the teeth should be bared. The tip of the tongue between the teeth forms a small gap, and you need to exhale air into this gap.

Thanks

s

A voiceless consonant.When pronouncing the sound [s], the tip of the tongue is against the alveoli (small tubercles behind the upper teeth). A jet of air with friction passes through a groove formed between the anterior dorsum of the tongue and the alveoli.

sister

m

Labial-labial consonant. When pronouncing the sound [m], the lips are closed, the soft palate is lowered, and the air stream passes through the nasal cavity.

moon

n

Nasal consonant.When pronouncing the sound [n], the tip of the tongue touches the alveoli (small bumps behind the upper teeth), the soft palate is lowered, and air passes through the nasal cavity.

nine

ŋ

Nasal consonant. When pronouncing the sound [ŋ], the back of the tongue touches the soft palate, the soft palate is lowered, and air passes through the nasal cavity.

song

h

A voiceless consonant.The sound [h] is formed without the participation of the language, while at the time of its pronunciation, the language takes the position for the subsequent vowel.

hand

l

Consonant sound. When pronouncing the sound [l], the tip of the tongue is pressed against the alveoli (small tubercles behind the upper teeth), but the lateral edges of the tongue are lowered, forming a passage for a stream of air.

look

r

Consonant sound.When pronouncing the sound [r], the tip of the tongue is raised to the posterior slope of the alveoli (small tubercles behind the upper teeth). The tip of the tongue should be kept tense and motionless.

red

w

Labial-labial consonant. When pronouncing the sound [w], the lips are strongly rounded and pushed forward, forming a round slit. The back of the tongue is raised to the soft palate. Then instantly the tongue and lips move to the position for pronouncing the next vowel.

well

j

Consonant sound. When pronouncing the sound [j], the middle part of the tongue is raised to the hard palate, but not as high as when pronouncing Russian [y]. The edges of the tongue are pressed against the upper teeth, creating an air passage along the middle of the tongue.

your

All these subtleties may seem complicated only in theory.In practice, the position of the tongue and lips is remembered after several repetitions. And the best exercises for practicing the pronunciation of English sounds are also practice. Listen to the speech of native speakers, high-quality audiobooks (by the way, here is an excellent selection of audiobooks in English) and try to repeat the pronunciation of words.

You should always pay attention to the shades of sound, because in learning English there are no insignificant trifles, every detail is important. But on the other hand, this approach will give the desired result: correct English pronunciation of sounds and words, and as a result – clear speech without an accent.

90,000 On the unexpected benefits of foul language – BBC News Russian service

  • Tiffany Wayne
  • BBC Future

Photo author, Thinkstock

The habit of using foul language usually does not say anything good about a person at the same time, the abuse has unexpected advantages, according to the observer

BBC Future .

I grew up with a sister who is much older than me.Therefore, it is not surprising that by the time I was ten, I could swear like a shoemaker.

And it’s still quite late: a recent study showed that children start swearing at the age of six, or even earlier. On average, swearing is about 0.5-0.7% of all speech – that is, an average person can pronounce up to several dozen obscene words per day, depending on individual talkativeness.

Square swearing – according to those who are not inclined to it – makes a person ignorant, rude and untrustworthy.

Mothers explained to us about the same thing in childhood. But it turns out that swearing can have its advantages: it helps us to convey thoughts more convincingly and … it is easier to endure pain.

It is possible that foul language activates other parts of our brain than the rest of the vocabulary.

According to Richard Stevens, author of White Crow: Why It’s Good to Be Bad, the brain processes swearing differently than normal speech. The cerebral cortex and a number of specific areas in its left hemisphere are responsible for the latter, while swearing is associated with more evolutionarily ancient and primitive parts of the brain.

“People with aphasia (speech disorders) usually have damage to the left hemisphere of the brain and difficulty speaking. But there are many described cases of aphasia in which patients were able to use stereotypical language quite freely – that is, sing songs or use foul language.” Stevens says.

Photo author, Thinkstock

Caption,

Profanity may involve completely different brain regions than the rest of the vocabulary

swearing is associated with deeper parts of the brain – with its subcortical nuclei. “

Needless to say, the set of obscene words varies from culture to culture.

In English, the verbs swear and curse, denoting the process of pronouncing abuse, also mean “swear” and “curse”, which tells us about the religious roots of the English taboo vocabulary.

In the Middle Ages, it was the curses associated with religion that sounded especially offensive to the Englishman, as well as the completely harmless “damn” (damn), says Melissa More, author of a recently released book on obscene language.

But rude words denoting intimate parts of the body were perceived much more calmly. They figured in street names and surnames. “There is evidence that people were not jarred,” says Mohr. “In crowded conditions, with the virtual absence of personal space, people saw each other naked much more often than now. Therefore, body parts were considered not so taboo.”

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Photo caption,

The emotional impact of abuse on a person depends on how much he was scolded in childhood for using “bad words”

According to Mohr, everything changed in the Renaissance, when they began to recognize more offensive swear words with sexual connotations.

“But where there have been no Protestant revolutions, religious curses are still considered cruder,” she notes.

That is, insulting religious figures (and even artifacts), say, in Spain or Italy, is still perceived as a strong curse.

In Asian cultures, many swear words are associated with social status, ancestors and the issue of face preservation.

“According to a widespread myth, there are supposedly no swear words in the Japanese language,” says More.“But Japanese has words for just about every aspect of sex or bowel movement, and there are a lot of offensive phrases associated with losing face. Therefore, in Japanese, the word “fool” – baka – sounds much more offensive than in English. ” In sign language, the demonstration of an additional word takes time, so other techniques are used – for example, changing the sequence of signs, you can add a touch of vulgarity to a sentence or change the meaning of a word.

“For example, many harsh words are associated with touching the nose – such as ‘ugly’, ‘boring’, ‘snob’ or ‘piss,’ explains Donna Joe Napoli, professor of linguistics at Swarthmore College in Pennsylvania. “So touching your nose is a way to add nasty things to speech.”

Another example – a double touch of the thumb to the chin with the middle finger extended means a rude action with the participation of the interlocutor’s mother, since a similar gesture with all fingers extended means simply “mother”.

Sound more convincing

Recent research has shown that profanity can also be beneficial. The most obvious plus is that it helps you communicate your message more effectively.

By screwing in harsh words, we convey not only the meaning of the sentence, but also our emotional reaction.

This allows us to express anger, disgust, or pain, or to demonstrate to our interlocutor that we want them to stay away – without resorting to physical violence.

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Photo caption,

In Asian cultures, a person can be insulted in many different ways

Scientists have found that obscene language can increase the effectiveness and persuasiveness of the transmitted information, especially when it is used to express a pleasant surprise. This can even apply to political figures.

In 2014, the results of a study were published in which subjects were asked to read the blog entries of a fictional politician.

It turned out that records containing swear words are perceived by readers as less formal and make them treat the author with more sympathy.

At the same time, the subjects said that it would not make them vote for this politician.

Scientists have suggested that such results are characteristic of statements on the Internet – which is understandable given that we tend to use bad language more often on the Internet than in real life. For example, according to the results of the Twitter study, it turned out that the users of this platform use foul language at 1.15% of the text, which is 64% more than in live speech.

Stevens and his colleagues also conducted a series of experiments showing that swearing can increase a person’s resistance to pain.

Student test subjects who swore violently while holding their hand in a bucket of icy water could hold out longer than those who spoke censorship words.

“In addition to the shift in pain threshold, the subjects also experienced an increase in heart rate. When a person scolds, their pulse quickens, which tells us that swearing itself triggers an emotional response,” Stevens says.“Thus, the body exhibits a stress response, and it acts as a pain reliever.”

Friendly swearing

another word.

And this, in turn, is usually determined by how much a person was scolded in childhood for using such words.

A 2013 study showed that people who were more often punished for abuse in childhood show more pronounced skin galvanic reaction (it is associated with physiological arousal) when reading aloud a list of obscene words in the laboratory.

Contrary to popular belief, foul language can also mean a polite attitude.

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Photo caption,

According to research, swearing can increase the heart rate – it looks like it is tied to emotions

For example, New Zealand experts from Queen Victoria University in Wellington have studied the use of the word “b ** * “in the communication of the workers of the soap factory.

It turned out that the workers regularly scolded within their brigades, but were more restrained in dealing with other brigades.

Researchers concluded that in this working context, a harsh word was associated with an expression of solidarity and was used to bring the team together, reduce tensions, and equalize people with varying degrees of responsibility and authority.

Foul language, they seemed to say: “I know you so well that I can afford to scold when communicating with you.”

In general, there seems to be some benefit from foul language. But what does the habit of swearing say about a person?

Most of us know from personal experience why it is worth holding back your language when dealing with your boss or grandmother: swearing makes a bad impression.

In surveys conducted in the 1970s, swearing people were rated as less competent and less trustworthy.

In the five-factor personality model, the frequency of using foul language is positively correlated with neuroticism, extraversion and openness to new experience, and negatively – with benevolence and conscientiousness.

Fortunately, it doesn’t stop there.

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Photo caption,

Swearing helps to satisfy basic human need

A recent study has largely defeated the myth that bullying is an indicator of speech poverty, lack of good education and belonging to lower social layers.

Timothy Jay and colleagues found that profanity in general correlates with general fluency and is not associated with a lack of vocabulary.

Stevens in the already mentioned book “White Crow” cites the conclusions made in 2004 by specialists of Lancaster University in Britain: in its class society, the frequency of the use of obscene language is generally lower, the higher the class, but at the same time the well-to-do representatives of the middle class curse more than the less well-off.

It seems that at some point people stop thinking about what impression they make.

“At social events, where everyone is exaggeratedly polite, it can be a situation where no one really communicates and nothing interesting happens,” Stevens says. ice”.

One more aspect should not be ignored.

“Everyone has taboo words,” Mor concludes.“Swearing helps us satisfy a basic human need.”

So don’t hold back too much when you hit your finger with a hammer. LiveJournal

The presenters and commentators of the Match TV channel received at their disposal a document, according to which they are prohibited from pronouncing certain words on the air, mainly borrowings from the English language.Journalist Sergei Gridasov, who published information on his Telegram channel, spoke about the innovation on Match TV . He also reported on the reasons for the introduction of restrictions for commentators.

It is common knowledge that the chief boss of Gazprom, Zenit and Match TV, Alexei Miller, is an ardent fighter for the purity of the Russian language on the air, and his assistants periodically call trusted commentators to convey new valuable instructions to them.

Mikhail Boyarsky, Sergei Migitsko and Alexander Kerzhakov.Illustration by SpecialOne Creative Agency

A complete list of prohibited words with their meaning and Russian synonym:

  • “underdog” is an outsider, in sports it is a semi-slang word meaning an obvious outsider in the confrontation between teams or rivals, for example, in boxing
  • “Assist” – Assist
  • “beck” – central defender, used mainly in football
  • “background” – translated from English means background or background, in relation to sports – old information about an athlete, usually wearing a scandalous shade
  • Goleador – Scorer
  • “def” – a defender or a defensive player, the main difference from a “back” – can be an extreme defender
  • “capper” – a person who deals with bets at a professional level
  • “keeper” – goalkeeper
  • “shadow carpet” – translated from English – “cover with a shadow”, in relation to football – this is a technique in pressing, when a player blocks the direction of transfer
  • “corner” – corner kick
  • “coach” – trainer
  • “like” – designation in social networks “I like”
  • long ball is a football term for long ball
  • “loser” is a loser
  • midfielder – midfielder
  • “no-name” – without a name, in sports they say this about unknown or little-known players
  • “know-touch-pass” – a pass without touching, in relation to football, less often to hockey, when a player deliberately misses the ball / puck to a partner in the best position
  • “okay” – “yes” or “good”
  • “performance” – in sports it is active support by fans of their team using any means, it can be a fire show or a large banner in the stands
  • Pivote – defensive central midfielder in football (Spanish term)
  • “play-out” is a hockey term meaning the position of teams that in the knockout play-off system retain their chances of continuing the fight
  • “ref” – judge, arbitrator
  • “roster” – team composition
  • “sweeper” – in football – a player who cleans up after partners, the same term is used in curling, but in this context the word can be pronounced
  • “skills”, “skills” – a set of certain qualities of an athlete
  • “slowshn” – slow replay
  • “standby” – translated from English – standby mode, can be used in this context in various forms
  • “stopper” – defender
  • Sryker – effective striker
  • “targetman” – a striker in football with powerful dimensions
  • “team building” – team event
  • “team spirit” – team spirit
  • “training” – training
  • “Fleet” – a kind of serve in volleyball
  • Hav – midfielder
  • “Highlight” – an overview of dangerous moments in the game
  • “short list” – a list of candidates, for example, the term is actively used in football when looking for a new coach for the team
  • Championship – the second strongest division in English football

In addition, a few more words were included in a separate list, the pronunciation of which is allowed on the air, but subject to an explanatory context. Here they are: “Role”, “Bisiclelet”, “Box-to-Box”, “Double-Ve”, “Winger”, “Derby”, “Inside”, “Insider”, “Lateral”, “Pipe”, “ regista “,” teraflex “,” tiffozi “,” trequartista “,” fantasist “,” challenge “.

○ Alexander Boyarsky. “Arguments and Facts”. January 13, 2021

90,000 Which words are better not to use and why

Illustrator: Sonya Korshenboim

“Nigga” and any words similar to it

The taboo tradition is widespread among primitive tribes living outside of civilization.It can relate to an object, place or word – when a taboo is imposed on it, it becomes forbidden and cannot be pronounced on pain of death.

Progressive society returned to this ritual, replacing the fear of death with the mortal fear of offending. There are several “code words”, each of which opens a portal to the abyss of political correctness, but the main thing among them, of course, is the word with the letter “n”.

In the United States, the old-fashioned designation for black African slaves has taken on an offensive connotation over time.Anyone who pronounces it or its derivatives, regardless of the context, can be declared a racist and sentenced to expulsion from decent society. Even if he just repeats after the black rappers “yo, nigga!” – Russian designers Ulyana Sergeenko and Miroslava Duma were convinced of this by personal example.

Ulyana signed an invitation to her fashion show “To my niggas in Paris” – this is a direct quote from Kanye West and Jay Z’s song Niggas in Paris – and her friend Doom posted a snapshot of the invitation on Instagram.For this they were accused of racism by the famous model Naomi Campbell, photographer Adam Katz Sinding and other representatives of the fashion industry.

The girls apologized, but it was too late – the show was miraculously not disrupted, although it was held in a scandalous atmosphere, but Miroslava also had to be responsible for the 2012 video, in which she allegedly insults gays and transgender people. As a result, she was stripped of her post on the board of directors of the online store The Tot, which she also launched.

“My dear white people, for the last time, you can’t use the n-word … I don’t care if you are not American and consider yourself excluded from this discussion of racial issues – what kind of logic is that? Now it’s 2018 and you have been warned more than once, ”Tyler McCall, the editor-in-chief of Fashionista, explained as clearly as possible why girls are being bullied.

Interestingly, McCall herself is clearly not African American, her understanding of the n-word does not coincide with the vision of the great musician and one of the most influential hip-hop performers in the history of Tupac Shakur. The deceased divided the word into the letter “n” and nigga – despite the similarity, they are written and pronounced differently. Their meanings are also different. If in the first case we are talking about people who were lynched on a rope, then a “nigga” is a tough guy who hangs a rope around his neck and it is golden, “Tupac explained in one of his interviews.

“Fagot” and any insults to LGBT people

Questions of sexual orientation in Western society must also be discussed very carefully and without the use of harsh words. It is not known why Miroslava Duma suffered more – because of a scandal with a word that was considered racist, or because of a video in which she speaks about her dislike of male models who go to shows in women’s clothes, which was considered homophobia and transphobia.

It should be noted that some LGBT activists can accuse even a gay person of homophobia.It is enough, for example, to mention the term “non-traditional orientation” – it is correct, from the point of view of the politically correct canon, to speak of a variant of the norm. You also need to be respectful of other non-heterosexual orientations. So one of the designation options for the LGBT community sounds like LGBTKIAPP +. In addition to gay, lesbian, transgender, bisexual and transgender people, it includes queers, intersex people, asexuals and PP (pansexuals and polyamorous).

Violation of informal etiquette is especially dangerous in the most public areas: the fashion industry and show business.Moreover, even belonging to an ethnic minority will not save from accusations of homophobia.

The career of the talented African American actor Isaiah Washington was on the rise in 2007 – he was already included in the list of “50 most beautiful people” by People magazine and became a television star, embodying on the screen the image of Dr. Preston Burke in the medical series “Grey’s Anatomy”.

Seven years later, he will say: “I can tell any stories without worrying about my career, they killed the actor in me on June 7, 2007.”On that day, his contract was not renewed – his hero was simply deleted from Anatomy. The reason was the “pi-word” used out of place by Washington in a dispute with a colleague on the set. Later he made a public apology, but the scandal grew like a snowball and even Isaiah’s joke that he loves gays and wants to become one of them did not melt the hearts of show business sharks, for which there is only one law – do not say forbidden words, or at least don’t do it publicly.

“Chick”, “bitch” and any words that are offensive to women

In the modern political climate, it is absolutely contraindicated to use any words for which you can be accused of sexism.

In the United States, the new wave feminist movement is one of the key parts of the powerful opposition to the current US President Donald Trump. For the second year in a row, the “Women’s March” has gathered hundreds of thousands of participants, many of whom are dressed in characteristic pink hats in the shape of a vagina – Trump once disgraced himself by offering to grab the women he liked for this place.

The dirty proposal did not prevent the famous billionaire and playboy from winning the election, but his interlocutor, TV presenter Billy Bush, lost his job.The recording was made during their private conversation in 2005, but Bush’s inability to argue against Trump put an end to his career as early as 2016. He had to leave NBC, and in September 2017, Billy divorced his wife after 20 years of marriage.

“I was disgraced and ashamed. I had to go through a lot of suffering due to my career collapse. For a man, this is the height of humiliation, ”Bush recalls in an interview what he went through. However, considering the recent sex scandals surrounding the harassment and harassment of women by influential actors and celebrities, Bush got off pretty easily.

Sexism-related scandals are not uncommon in Russia, too – radical feminists like Nicky Wodwood (nixelpixel) and Bella Rapoport often unleash their anger on politically incorrect statements or inappropriate use of the female image. One of the first high-profile scandals of this kind in our recent history was the use of the word “chicks” in the official Twitter of Meduza. “Instructions on how not to offend chicks” advertised material about domestic sexism, which, as a result, was much less discussed than the tweet itself.

For those directly involved in that story, everything ended well, showing that the levels of Russian and Western political correctness still differ – no one was fired, and the former publisher of Meduza Ilya Krasilschik invited all the debaters to visit Riga.

And yet, if you do not want to become the next hero of Nicky Wodwood’s blog, it is better to give up too brightly colored gender definitions. Hip-hop culture is one of the last bastions of “bad behavior” in the United States, but its participants are already discussing the need to reject bitch in poetry – the word “bitch” addressed to a girl has become considered too boorish.

“Jew” and any anti-Semitic words

It so happens that initially the word is neutral in nature, but over time it acquires a contemptuous connotation. This happened with the n-word in the United States, in Russia there is a word with the letter “g”. If you don’t want to be branded as an anti-Semite, never use it. However, there are exceptions to any rule.

There are many versions of how the word “Jew” acquired a negative connotation from its abuse in the Black Hundred propaganda to the emergence of an additional meaning – this is how the curmudgeons and flayers were called. This did not prevent the Strugatsky brothers from naming one of their best theatrical plays “The Jews of the City of St. Petersburg”.

“Zhidovka” in Russian is the name of the opera by the outstanding French composer of Jewish origin Fromanthal Halevy. In 2010, it was staged by director Arnaud Bernard on the stage of the Mikhailovsky Theater in St. Petersburg. The name was first changed to “Jewess”, but in the end they returned the classic translation.

These examples show that context is more important than the rudeness of the word itself and thoughtless political correctness is the inability to see the forests for the trees.The use of the worst and most forbidden word can be justified if creative necessity requires it, and vice versa – you can be anti-Semite, racist and homophobic, remaining within the bounds of an unspoken verbal code. For example, the American far-right avoids being banned for anti-Semitism by simply placing parentheses “((())” around any Jewish surname or business.

It should be noted that in the West, despite the severity of politically correct prohibitions, exceptions are made for truly talented people.The heroes of Quentin Tarantino’s films do not spare the ears of the politically correct listener and sometimes, it seems, abuse the use of the word with the letter “n”, but this has never caused a scandal that could ruin his career.

“I am annoyed by the constant mention of the screenwriter’s skin color – how does it even affect the text he wrote?” – justly noted Tarantino in response to attempts to accuse him of using an “unpronounceable” word.

90,000 What the woman is silent about.How many shades of the word “no”, if pronounced by a woman? :: TV Center

Men like the biblical legend about how God created Eve from the rib of Adam. A great occasion to feel superior. Although the rib is actually not the strongest bone in the skeleton. But women throughout the history of mankind prove that there are situations in which it is impossible to break them.

One of the heroines of the documentary “What the Woman is Silent About” Natalya Kasperskaya is one of the most successful business women in Russia.Having married a famous programmer, she learned to sell the computer antivirus he created and made her husband’s surname famous. But they could not invent a way to keep their own family. Didn’t her husband see the strength that she possesses behind the silent character of his wife?

In a world dominated by men, the success of a beautiful woman is viewed with condescension. On the way to her career, Anna Semenovich fell more than once in the literal and figurative sense. The parents brought the future figure skating champion to the ice at the age of three for the first time.At the peak of her sports career, Anna was seriously injured. It cannot be said that they did not lend a helping hand to her. On the contrary, she was invited to the famous ice show. But she decided to take a chance by going on an independent voyage. The famous athlete had to forget about past victories and literally start from scratch. After several years of endless auditions and auditions, she was lucky: Anna was invited to replace one of the soloists of the “Brilliant” group. Today she has a lot of work, she is invited, she is in demand. Someone will say that it was a lucky break.But you know, luck comes only to those who fight for it with clenched teeth. And what Anna was silent about, making her way to new heights, perhaps, is the most important thing …

Children with ballerinas are a rare, almost exclusive phenomenon. At first there is no time for them, and then it’s too late. All life is at the bench and on the stage. Ilze Liepa’s daughter was born when the ballerina was 46 years old. You will see the first television filming of little Nadia. And at the same time you will find out why the ballerina’s first marriage with violinist Sergei Stadler broke up, and how true love appeared in her life.

Unlike many stars of show business, Elena Vaenga diligently hides the details of her personal life from the audience, refuses interviews, avoids journalists. What grievances does a popular singer carry in her soul? What is Elena Vaenga silent about? She talks about this herself in an exclusive interview.

After watching the film, you can also learn about what lies behind the sly oriental smile of the famous artist Aidan Salakhova, and what secrets are hidden behind the silence of the famous actress of the Theater of Satire Nina Arkhipova.And most importantly, you will understand what a modern woman lacks for complete happiness.

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