Pentel hybrid refill: Pentel Hybrid Technica Gel Pen Refill – 0.3 mm – Black

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Pentel Hybrid Technica Gel Pen Refill – 0.3 mm – Black

Pentel Hybrid Technica Gel Pen Refill – 0.3 mm – Black | JetPens JetPens is accepting and shipping orders. See COVID-19 for more details.   >    >    >     >    >    >  

$1.40

Temporarily out of stock. Click on “Get Restock Notification” on the right to be notified by email when this product is restocked.
DescriptionSpecificationsQuestions & Answers
This is one 0.3 mm Black refill for the Pentel Hybrid Technica Gel Ink Pen.

The Pentel Hybrid Technica is a favorite and classic thin gel ink pen. With its strong needle-point tip, the pen writes neat crisp letters and fine lines. The water-based pigment ink is water-resistant and fade-resistant, and provides a smooth writing experience.

Compare Colors & Sizes
Model NumberPENTEL XKFGN3-A
ManufacturerPentel
Diameter – Max 4. 0 mm
Ink Color Black
Quantity in Pack 1
Size – Length 12.8 cm / 5.0 inches
Tip Material Metal
Tip Size 0.3 mm
Tip Type Needle Point
Weight – Item Without Packaging i

For a product that contains more than one of the same item, this is the weight of one single item.

0.06 oz / 2 grams

There are currently no questions.


Customers Who Bought This Item Also Bought


Hands down my favorite…

September 6, 2018

Verified Purchase

Hands down my favorite writing instruments! Unfortunately, I find that the blue refills dry out faster than the black ones. I use the black ones until there’s visibly no ink left in the cartridge. The blue ones I usually swap out when there still appears to be a good 1/2 inch of ink left but it just won’t run smooth no matter how I try to remedy it.

Not the end of the world. I am content to write in black ink! Allows for quick note taking or methodical drawing. Very little if any bleed on Moleskine or Leuchtturm1917 paper. I use them everyday and always receive compliments when people borrow them

3 people found this helpful

I really like this pen,…

July 6, 2017

Verified Purchase

I really like this pen, and I am happy to have found the refills here at Jetpens at such a great price.

2 people found this helpful

This is sturdy for me….

August 9, 2016

Verified Purchase

This is sturdy for me. I like the resist when writing. The ink dries fast, no smearing. The only thing, I always have to wait for ‘re-stock’ supply. This is a great writing instrument, what’s up with always re-stock wait. The style is comfortable, perfect for ledger entries and priced reasonably.

2 people found this helpful

So glad to have a refill…

June 25, 2019

Verified Purchase

So glad to have a refill available and not waste the plastic used for a pen! Refill works GREAT!

1 person found this helpful

January 21, 2019

Verified Purchase

Just realized I could get refills for my favorite pen…great!

1 person found this helpful

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Pentel Hybrid Technica Gel Pen Refill – 0.4 mm – Black

Pentel Hybrid Technica Gel Pen Refill – 0.4 mm – Black | JetPens JetPens is accepting and shipping orders. See COVID-19 for more details.   >    >    >     >    >    >  

$1.40

Temporarily out of stock. Click on “Get Restock Notification” on the right to be notified by email when this product is restocked.
DescriptionSpecificationsQuestions & Answers
This is one 0.4 mm Black refill for the Pentel Hybrid Technica Gel Ink Pen.

The Pentel Hybrid Technica is a favorite and classic thin gel ink pen. With its strong needle-point tip, the pen writes neat crisp letters and fine lines. The water-based pigment ink is water-resistant and fade-resistant, and provides a smooth writing experience.

Compare Colors & Sizes
Model NumberPENTEL XKFGN4-A
ManufacturerPentel
Diameter – Max 4.0 mm
Ink Color Black
Quantity in Pack 1
Size – Length 12.8 cm / 5.0 inches
Tip Material Metal
Tip Size 0.4 mm
Tip Type Needle Point
Weight – Item Without Packaging i

For a product that contains more than one of the same item, this is the weight of one single item.

0.06 oz / 2 grams

There are currently no questions.


Customers Who Bought This Item Also Bought


Works great with my hexagonal…

March 15, 2018

Verified Purchase

Works great with my hexagonal MUJI pens!

2 people found this helpful

November 8, 2018

Verified Purchase

These fit into G-Tek pens too.

1 person found this helpful

I L❤️VE these pens…

March 3, 2021

Verified Purchase

I L❤️VE these pens and would go through ink so quickly – then throw away the whole pen and buy another — NOW — replacement ink – Love it!! If you have not tried these pens they are awesome. And the ONLY place I could find replacement ink was HERE on JetPens – I am now a loyal customer!!

Fast delivery, just what. ..

September 15, 2020

Verified Purchase

Fast delivery, just what i wanted!

These refills work well…

May 19, 2020

Verified Purchase

These refills work well and are just as smooth as the original inks! Very ideal and helpful

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Pentel Hybrid roller refill KFR7 0.7mm, blue

Or choose from list Choose manufacturer Brother Canon Casio Citizen Dell Develop DYMO Epson Fujitsu Gestetner Hewlett-Packard HP IBM Infotec Konica Kyocera Lanier Lexmark Minolta Mita Nashuatec NRG OCE OKI Olivetti Olympia Panasonic Pantum Pitney Bowes Rex Rotary Ricoh Samsung Sharp Toshiba Triumph-Adler UTAX Wincor-Nixdorf Xerox

pentel hybrid technica — Journal — Three Staples

So, yeah! I’m currently using my old Muji pen with the black Slicci refill in 0. 4mm, and I was once again reminded how much I enjoy using it. If you love this pen, too, don’t throw it out when the ink runs out just because Muji is apparently phasing it out. The aforementioned refills come in basic colors: black, blue and red. If you have the same Muji pen in a non-basic color instead, like green or purple, Slicci comes in a variety of colors, and you can liberate the refills from them. The only down side is that it’s a more expensive (and a bit wasteful) way of getting a replacement. But then again, I don’t remember if Muji had refills in non-basic colors for this particular model to begin with… Better than not having any options, right? Anyway, I think I’ll stock up since the future of Slicci refills and Pentel Hybrid Technica seem a little mysterious at the moment. Lesson learned!
 

Links & side notes

  • The US Muji online shop still has some of this pen model, scattered throughout the site in limited colors and tip sizes, here and here, none of them being what I prefer. I couldn’t find them in person the last I checked Muji SF. Not sure about other locations. (Edit 6/20: I checked again and Muji SF now has some but in limited selections).

  • I find Muji’s product naming too generic and frustrating at times, especially when I’m searching online. I suppose it’s to stay true to their “no-brand quality goods” philosophy. But at least they should be consistent. This Muji pen model is listed online (linked above) under different names, as far as my search abilities go: “Gel Ink Ballpoint Pen Hexagonal” and “Gel-ink Hexa Ballpoint Pen”. If you find a secret stash somewhere I haven’t linked yet, let me know!

  • A great review: Muji Gel Ink Ballpoint Pen Hexagonal – 0.3 & 0.4mm – in Blue, Sky Blue, and Light Green | No Pen Intended. The answer to my problem was right there in the comments, too!

  • I bought the Pentel Slicci refill from JetPens. In addition to the regular Pentel Slicci, they also have Slicci in metallic colors, as well as Hybrid Technica refills KFGN3/4/5. Tokyo Pen Shop also has Slicci in a wide variety of colors. This isn’t a sponsored-post; I’m just a happy customer at both stores.

  • Slicci refill can go into Hybrid Technica but not the other way around, unless you trim the top of the Technica refill a little bit, because the Slicci barrel is too short (shorter than the Muji one). I haven’t tried this because I don’t have the Technica but I want to. Tinkering with pen refills is fun, don’t you think? 🙂

UPC 072512050750 – Pentel(R) Hybrid(R) Gel Roller Pen Refill, Fine Point, 0.6 mm, Blue

UPC 072512050750

UPC 072512050750 is associated with Pentel(R) Hybrid(R) Gel Roller Pen Refill, Fine Point, 0.6 mm, Blue

  1. Office Supplies > Office Instruments > Writing & Drawing Instrument Accessories > Pencil Lead & Refills

UPC 072512050750 has following Product Name Variations:

  1. Pentel(R) Hybrid(R) Gel Roller Pen Refill, Fine Point, 0. 6 mm, Blue
  2. PENKF6C Hybrid Gel Rollerball Pen Refill
  3. REFILL,F/K105, BE
  4. Pentel Hybrid Gel Rollerball Pen Refill 12 EA/BX
  5. Wholesale CASE of 25 – Pentel Hybrid Gel Rollerball Pen Refills-Hybrid Gel Rolle
  6. Pentel(R) Hybrid(R) Gel Roller Refills, Fine Point, 0.3 mm, Blue
  7. Pentel KF6-C Hybrid Gel Roller Pen Refill Fine Point Blue Ink
  8. Pentel – Kf6-c 1stück(e) Kugelschreiberauffüllung (kf6-cx) Office Pentel

– more –

More Info

UPC-A:0 72512 05075 0
EAN-13:0 072512 050750
Amazon ASIN: B00007JQSO
Country of Registration:United States
Brand: Pentel
Model #:KF6-C
Last Scanned:2019-10-27 05:04:03
Shopping Info

Products with UPC 072512050750 were listed on the following websites. Product prices are accurate as of the date/time indicated and are subject to change.

Stores Product Info Price Last Updated
Office Depot Pentel(R) Hybrid(R) Gel Roller Pen Refill, Fine Point, 0.6 mm, Blue $0.99 2016-12-07 06:12:39
Sears PENKF6C Hybrid Gel Rollerball Pen Refill $1.29 2016-12-07 05:31:28
TigerDirect REFILL,F/K105, BE $1.29 2015-03-02 09:56:30
Newegg.com Pentel Hybrid Gel Rollerball Pen Refill 12 EA/BX $3.25 2015-07-18 18:59:07
Rakuten(Buy. com) Pentel(R) Hybrid(R) Gel Roller Refills, Fine Point, 0.3 mm, Blue $8.68 2015-03-26 10:30:26
UnbeatableSale.com Pentel KF6-C Hybrid Gel Roller Pen Refill Fine Point Blue Ink $8.90 2016-04-06 23:09:41
eBay UK Used Pentel – Kf6-c 1stück(e) Kugelschreiberauffüllung (kf6-cx) Office Pentel ₤16.29 2019-10-27 05:04:03
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doozycraft.com Home & Garden Pens & Refills Pentel Hybrid Technica Cap Gel Ink Pen Refill Blue 10 set 0.5 mm

doozycraft.com Home & Garden Pens & Refills Pentel Hybrid Technica Cap Gel Ink Pen Refill Blue 10 set 0.5 mm

black, blue ink in Retail package 。 Smooth gel ballpoint pen, red and blue ink 。, : Pentel Hybrid Technica Cap Gel Ink Pen Refill – 0.5 mm – Blue 10 set : Office Products. 10 set 。 Pentel 0.5mm tip gel ballpoint pen refill for hybrid (for hybrid & hybrid Ek105). EnerGel from Japanese stationary Brand Pentel. Hybrid is available for 3 colors.









Pentel Hybrid Technica Cap Gel Ink Pen Refill Blue 10 set 0.5 mm

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Pentel Hybrid Technica Cap Gel Ink Pen Refill Blue 10 set 0.5 mm

Pentel Hybrid Technica Cap Gel Ink Pen Refill Blue 10 set 0.5 mm

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What is better LPG using propane or methane


LPG on propane or methane: what to choose? (Answer)

When installing gas equipment on a car, the question always arises which gas to choose. The type of LPG installed and the performance characteristics of the car depends on this. Today there are two types of gas used: propane and methane.

Propane Features

Propane gas is the main component of liquefied gas (propane-butane mixture). It is a refinery by-product. This gas is stored under a relatively low pressure of 16 atmospheres. Due to this, thin-walled cylinders are used for its storage (wall thickness from 3 mm).This provides a significant advantage in terms of the low weight of the installed equipment. The weight of a filled gas cylinder with a volume of 50 liters is only 44 kilograms.

Another important advantage of propane is its extensive network of filling stations. Thanks to this, vehicle owners practically do not face the problem of refueling, even on long journeys.
The disadvantage of propane is the higher gas consumption.

Features of methane

Methane is a natural gas stored under a pressure of 200 atmospheres in a gaseous state. Considering the significant gas pressure, the wall thickness of methane cylinders is higher. The weight of one cylinder with a volume of 50 liters is 63 kilograms. At the same time, given the gaseous state of methane, it is necessary to use a larger number of cylinders. On average, one propane cylinder is identical to three methane ones in terms of gas cubic capacity.

Modern methane cylinders can be made of composite materials. This allows you to significantly reduce their weight. However, the cost of such cylinders is much higher.
The disadvantage is also the poorly developed network of AGCNS, which are used for refueling with methane. Besides, methane LPG is more expensive.
The advantages of this gas include its lower consumption compared to propane.

Conclusions

In general, in terms of fuel characteristics, both types of gas can be used on cars without special restrictions. However, when choosing, you need to take into account the characteristics of each type of gas and the characteristics of the car.

So, methane benefits from lower consumption and lower cost of the gas itself.This makes its use cost-effective (even taking into account the expensive LPG) for cars with a significant engine cubic capacity, as well as for cars with high average annual mileage. It is methane equipment that is most often used in various types of commercial vehicles. Propane is the preferred option for conventional passenger cars that are used for private purposes.

LPG installation: What is better to choose propane or methane

The question of the expediency of using gas as an alternative fuel for cars has long been removed from the agenda: LPG is a profitable business, the technology of its installation has been worked out.But now, which is better than propane or methane , in this issue we will try to figure it out today.

Propane

  • Propane gas is the main component in a propane-butane mixture, which, in fact, is an automobile fuel;
  • Appears as a by-product of petroleum distillation;
  • Stored in a liquefied state under a pressure of 16 atm.

By the way, if you mentally break the consumer properties of propane into two columns – into pluses and minuses – then a relatively low pressure can be safely recorded in the column – propane pluses, because the thickness of the walls of the propane cylinders is only 3 mm or more.This means that the weight of the cylinder is acceptable: for example, the mass of a full 50 liter cylinder is 44 kg, which, you see, is not much.

In addition, the propane cylinders are toroidal and fit perfectly into the spare wheel well in the trunk of the car. Another advantage is that by equipping the car with LPG propane, you are unlikely to face the problem of refueling with gas, because the network of filling stations is already quite well developed. But propane consumption, all things being equal, will always be higher than methane.

Methane

  • Methane gas , unlike propane, is of natural origin;
  • Stored in a gaseous state under a pressure of 200 atm;

The consumption of methane can be even lower than with gasoline – these are pluses in the column methane . ..

The weight of the cylinder, due to the thickened walls of the vessel, is much more – from 63 kg, and this is a cylinder of only 12.5 cubic meters! In practice, in order to be comparable in terms of “power-to-weight” to a propane-powered car with a 50-liter cylinder, a “methane” car must carry 3 such cylinders on board. This circumstance can be unambiguously entered in the column – methane minuses, because, despite the cylinder capacity of 50 liters, the methane consumption is measured in cubes.

True, methane cylinders are made of composite materials, which halves their weight, but the price increases significantly.Therefore, we will count these facts as balancing each other. But in terms of shape, methane cylinders have no alternative – they are exclusively cylindrical.

The disadvantages should be added to the insufficient ramification of the network of methane refueling stations. To refuel with methane, you will probably have to deviate from your usual route.

Summing up

Modern engines “transfer” gas equally easily – it doesn’t matter methane or propane – that’s why they have parity here. But methane is much cheaper, therefore, although methane LPG costs more, for cars with a large engine (and therefore carrying capacity) and an average annual mileage above average, a methane unit is the best choice.And the underdevelopment of the network of methane gas stations is easily compensated for by the large number of cylinders on board such a car. It is not for nothing that buses and “long cars” are often equipped with methane gas.

But for “civilian” cars in normal operation, propane is the preferred option. This is confirmed by the current situation on the HBO market. Considering the distant prospects, choosing propane or methane here and now, is a thankless task. In the end, when the planet runs out of oil, on which the availability of propane depends, or methane in the bowels of the Earth, we, the consumers, will be the last to know.

Source: gboshnik.ru – site about gas equipment.

which is better, LPG methane or propane

As you know, gas in a car is a fairly popular solution for gasoline cars for a number of reasons. At the same time, the main advantage when deciding to switch a car to gas is the price of gas for the car itself. Compared to traditional fuels (gasoline and diesel fuel), it is gas that is 50-60% cheaper.

In this case, gas-methane, propane, butane are used as gas fuel.It is important to understand that the cost of a particular type of fuel is somewhat different, and LPG also has some differences for one or another type of gas. Of course, among motorists (especially owners of cars) there are disputes about which gas is better and which is more profitable, cars running on methane or propane, to supply LPG on methane or propane, etc. Let’s figure it out.

Contents of the article

Gas vehicles: methane or propane

Let’s start with the fact that high-quality LPG is quite expensive, regardless of what gas is used. However, in addition to diesel fuel and gasoline, at gas stations you can often see CNG (liquefied propane-butane gas) and much less often LPG (compressed gas-methane) for sale.

We go further. If we compare the prices for methane and propane, then the first type of gas is 25-30% cheaper than the second, the consumption for methane is also 10-15% lower. In other words, methane can save about 35% compared to propane. At the same time, if you study the statistical data on gas cars, on average, 2/3 of all cars with LPG drive on propane and only 1/3 uses methane.The reason is that this type of fuel has both pros and cons.

First of all, methane gas (CH4) is natural gas, colorless and odorless. Its main difference from propane is that gas is not liquefied when filled into cylinders, but compressed and is in a gaseous state under high pressure.

Methane cylinders are large, heavy (60-130 kg) and strong, since the pressure reaches 270 atmospheres. The octane number of methane is 110-120. At the same time, refueling with methane is longer than with propane (about 30 minutes).First, the cylinder is filled, then a pause is maintained for about 20 minutes, after which refueling is carried out.

In turn, propane-butane (propane C3H8) is a product that is obtained in the process of oil production. It is a carbon gas and is also odorless and colorless. In cylinders, propane is in a liquefied state. Butane is also partially added to propane.

It is a carbon gas similar to propane. It is needed in order to obtain the required octane number of the gas (102-105).The pressure in the propane-butane cylinder is not higher than 15 atmospheres, the cylinders themselves are lightweight (up to 50 kg), small in size. Special substances are added to both methane and propane-butane – odorants. This is in order to smell in the event of a gas leak.

Propane gas consumption per 100 km will be 10-20% higher compared to gasoline, methane by only 5% (in the urban cycle). At the same time, while driving on the highway on methane, you can additionally save up to 20% in comparison with gasoline, while on propane, visible savings in terms of its consumption are often not achieved.

It turns out that methane is three times more profitable than gasoline (the price of methane compared to propane and consumption is taken into account), propane is only twice as good. It would seem that the only negative is the long refueling and heavy cylinders. However, there are other disadvantages as well.

Methane-fueled vehicle: safety

When considering methane and propane, it is important to take into account that the ignition temperature of a particular type of fuel determines the likelihood of ignition as a result of heating with hot parts of the internal combustion engine and other elements in certain conditions.

In other words, safety will depend on this indicator. Naturally, having made a decision to supply gas, the car also needs to be taken into account. More precisely, the type of transport.

Immediately, we note that a car running on methane will be the safest. Gasoline vapors in some cases ignite already at 170 degrees Celsius, propane will ignite when heated to 365 degrees, while methane needs to be heated to 535 degrees. In general, gas is safer than gasoline, while methane is the safest.

However, the pressure in the gas cylinder must also be taken into account. Although the cylinders in a car fueled with methane are very durable and it is difficult to damage them, the possibility of such an outcome cannot be ruled out. In this case (under the most unfavorable coincidence of circumstances) there will be a strong explosion.

If we compare these cylinders with cylinders for propane, although the pressure in them is less, the cylinders themselves are also quite fragile, they need to be constantly checked. It turns out that although the pressure in the methane cylinders is higher, the use of methane is still safer than propane or gasoline.

Methane equipment: LPG installation methane, availability and prices

So, if a decision is made to supply methane to a car, the price for such equipment will be higher than for a propane unit. There are several reasons for pricing.

If we discard the installation of LPG in a garage (strongly not recommended), the overwhelming majority of large centers for installing gas on cars with the issuance of a certificate for registering LPG put equipment under propane-butane gas.

High-quality LPG for propane of foreign production of various generations can be supplied to carburetor and injection engines, the price of LPG 2 will be about 350 US dollars, LPG 4, on average, will cost about 900 US dollars. Turnkey installation takes about 12 hours.

Gas installation methane (LPG methane) is also of foreign production, suitable for different engines, but the price will be from 600 US dollars for the second generation and about 1000 dollars for LPG 4.The fact is that methane is supplied by much fewer organizations, competition is reduced, and there is less demand. Accordingly, the price of LPG methane is at least 25-30% higher compared to LPG propane.

We also add that the 4th generation of LPG methane is the last in the line. Compared to propane, further development of methane systems is not expected, since methane is in a gaseous state and is not liquefied for direct injection (unlike propane).

LPG methane or installation of equipment for propane: which is better for the engine

As you know, many owners are concerned about the question of how gas affects the car engine. If we compare methane or propane, as well as gasoline, any gas is actually better for the CPG and slightly worse for the timing.

On the one hand, the oil from the cylinder walls is not washed off with gas, the oil itself remains cleaner, does not liquefy from the ingress of gas (unlike gasoline). As a result, the wear of the cylinders on gas is less, the oil “runs” longer, the lubrication system works better.

Also, engine detonation does not appear on gas, since the octane number of methane, as well as propane, is higher compared to AI-92, 95 or even 98-100.When gas is burned, there is no soot, spark plugs are cleaner, there is no carbon deposits on valves, etc. The result is that the spark plugs and ignition coils last much longer, the engine cokes less and the catalyst becomes dirty.

However, the disadvantage is the high combustion temperature of the gas. Moreover, it is methane that burns at the highest temperature. In turn (especially if HBO is configured incorrectly) exhaust valves may burn out, cracks appear in the cylinder head, rubber and other gaskets “dry out”, their tightness is lost, etc. p.

Helpful advice

As you can see, if we are talking about commercial transport, in this case, supplying methane to the car is a more profitable and even safer solution. The cost of methane is noticeably lower than that of gasoline and even propane, and the cost of a more expensive installation of such gas equipment quickly pays off.

In other words, methane gas and the installation of this equipment, for example, on a GAZelle, is a completely rational solution. This is especially beneficial if the car is used for driving on the highway.At the same time, methane is simply not needed for passenger cars.

It is necessary to separately take into account the need to put heavy cylinders, take into account the complexity of refueling and the higher cost of LPG methane. It turns out, comparing propane and methane, the price and low consumption of methane in this case does not cover the inconveniences that may be encountered.

For example, although there are many gas filling stations today, most of them only have liquefied propane. In the case of methane, it is much more difficult to find a methane filling station even in a big city, and even more so on a highway.

We also recommend reading the article on what is the penalty for HBO without registration in 2019. From this article, you will learn why gas equipment must be installed on a car in certified centers, as well as how LPG registration is performed, what are the penalties for LPG without registration, etc.

The reason – for filling with methane under a pressure of about 250 atmospheres, expensive and complex equipment is needed, and a lot of time is spent on filling. Small gas stations are simply not ready to install such equipment.We also note that it will not be possible to put the latest generations of LPG 5 or LPG 6 on methane on modern engines, while LPG systems for propane continue to actively develop.

We also add that in winter, gas refueling is carried out faster than in high temperature conditions. The fact is that when heated, the pressure in the cylinder will increase due to the fact that the gas expands.

To reduce the pressure, you can shake the machine up and down before refueling, the walls of the cylinder will cool slightly.Also, do not try to fill a full gas cylinder. As a rule, the volume should normally be filled not completely, but by 8/10 (corrected for expansion during heating).

For safety, LPG equipment often has a multivalve that automatically shuts off (cuts off) the gas supply to the cylinder at the moment when the permissible pressure limit is reached. However, if the valve is faulty or not present, you need to be extremely careful when refueling and repair / install such a valve as soon as possible.

Finally, we note that when using LPG equipment, it is important to periodically check and regularly maintain the system (perform maintenance for LPG equipment and maintenance of gas equipment on the machine). Before starting the movement, you should pay attention to whether there is a smell of gas in the cabin or near the car, how well the attachment of the gas cylinder is made, to assess the condition of the gas lines, etc.

The result is

As you can see, for passenger cars, for a number of reasons, propane-butane will be the best solution, while methane is more suitable for commercial vehicles.In any case, and regardless of the type of HBO, such equipment should be installed in specialized services that issue a certificate.

Then you need to register the gas for the car, otherwise you will have to pay a fine for LPG without registration and still register the installation. It is also important to undergo regular inspections of gas equipment, perform routine checks of cylinders, etc.

We also recommend reading the article on how LPG and gas affect the engine.In this article, you will learn about the advantages and disadvantages of gas equipment on a car, as well as what effect gas has on the engine, whether gas reduces the engine’s life, etc.

As a result, I would like to note that gas for a car is a profitable solution, modern generations of LPG are distinguished by a high level of safety and efficiency, exhaust toxicity is noticeably lower compared to diesel fuel or gasoline.

In this case, it must be taken into account if the machine is not operated often and the mileage is small (up to 10 thousand kilometers).km. per year), then it is better to pay attention to a car with a hybrid engine or economical diesel internal combustion engines, since HBO is beneficial only if the car is actively used.

The fact is that even in the presence of LPG, engine burnout is still carried out exclusively on gasoline, in high engine loads, the gas is automatically turned off and the engine is switched to gasoline.

Also, the gas equipment itself needs additional scheduled maintenance (replacement of gas filters, diagnostics of gas equipment, etc.)which means certain costs.

Read also

Comparison of two types of LPG: Propane-butane and Methane differences and installation features

Hello. Today at gboshnik.ru we will continue talking about two types of gas fuel and compare in more detail methane and propane-butane. You will learn not only about the differences between methane and propane-butane mixture, but also about the technical features of these two types of fuel.

Once we have already compared propane and methane in one of the articles who are interested in this link.However, then we did not delve into the technical component and only considered the differences between one type of fuel and another. Today, let’s talk about how the installation of LPG using methane differs from the installation of propane-butane LPG.

As you know, as an alternative to gasoline and diesel fuel, gas, which is cheaper and allows you to save a lot, is increasingly appearing today. However, the gas fuel itself, which is used in the automotive industry, can be of two types: methane, as well as a propane-butane mixture.Each type of fuel has a number of differences, and as I have already said, they consist not only in the chemical composition, but also in the equipment that is necessary for the integration of one or another type of LPG on a particular car. We will talk about this today.

Propane-butane

This type of fuel is most often referred to simply as “Propane” or gas, meaning a propane-butane mixture. This is due to the great popularity of this type of fuel and its availability compared to methane. A mixture of propane and butane is stored in a special tank, which in most cases is simply called a 16 atm pressure cylinder.The fuel is in a liquefied state, hence the name LPG LPG. As it is already clear from the decoding of the abbreviation LPG – propane-butane mixture is a product of oil refining. The octane number of propane-butane varies in the range from 95 to 110. That is, as you understand, the engine will operate with an increased compression ratio on this fuel. Due to the latter, the efficiency of the fuel itself increases, as well as the temperature regime of the engine. The walls of the cylinder in which the LPG is stored have a thickness of about 3 mm and a weight in the region of 30-40 kg, depending on what type and volume of the cylinder.The capacity of the tank can reach 120 liters on a car with a large engine volume; the cylinder itself can be cylindrical or toroidal. When using propane, fuel consumption increases by about 10-20%. In addition, due to the peculiarities of the composition of propane-butane fuel, engine power is reduced by about 10-15%.

Methane

Methane is also called compressed natural gas LNG as it is of natural origin. This gas is odorless and colorless and is the simplest hydrocarbon.Due to its special chemical characteristics, it is not possible to store this gas in a liquid state. This type of alternative fuel for internal combustion engines is used less frequently than LPG (propane) for a number of reasons that you will soon learn about. Simple cylinders for a methane plant are not suitable for the reason that methane is contained in special tanks under high pressure of about 220 atmospheres. The walls of such a balloon are quite thick, from 0.6 cm and thicker. A seamless cylinder design is used to increase strength.The weight of such a cylinder exceeds 60 kg, and the volume of gas stored in them varies from 11 to 15 cubic meters. In addition, methane cylinders are used exclusively cylindrical, toroidal are not suitable in any case. The efficiency of the fuel also differs, the engine burns on methane by 10-20% more than on gasoline. That is, translated into figures, it turns out that 1 cubic meter of methane is equal to 1 liter of gasoline. Because of this, it is customary to use several rather bulky cylinders on methane LPG.The decrease in power in this case is about 20%, this is due to the fact that methane has a lower heat transfer, and when it enters the engine it takes up a large volume in the cylinders. Differences also apply to the compression ratio, for LPG the ratio of 11: 1 is acceptable, while for LNG this figure is 13: 1. It should be understood that a significant increase in the compression ratio will make it impossible to use gasoline as fuel.

Gas fuel is supplied by means of diaphragm reducers, for propane one-stage reducers are used, for methane – two.The price of gas reducers is about the same, which cannot be said about cylinders. As I wrote above, a more durable seamless cylinder is used for methane, the price of which can vary from $ 400 to $ 800.

Ignition correction. To improve the efficiency of the engine when using HBO, ignition correction is used. Due to the higher octane number, the gas fuel burns more slowly, which means that it should be ignited earlier. On the 4th generation HBO, a special device called the UOZ variator is used, which I have already talked about in my previous articles.Reprogramming of the microcontroller can also be performed. In carburetor ICEs, the distributor is manually adjusted, it is shifted by a certain angle.

The installation of propane-butane LPG and LPG running on methane is also different. To a greater extent, we are talking about security. So for methane plants, the external filling device (OVC) should be installed outside the luggage compartment, that is, on the outside of the body (usually a bumper). While for propane, the place of the air intake can be located anywhere, in the bumper, in the fuel filler flap, in the trunk, etc.

Much attention is paid to methane gas mains, which must pass in special ventilation hoses. The sleeve itself must be equipped with an ejector with access to the outboard space. The lines should be equipped with deformation coils to prevent rupture, vibration rubbing or deformation in the event of an accident.

Methane cylinders are attached as carefully and reliably as possible; special soft gaskets are installed in places of possible friction.

As for propane-butane, a multivalve must be present here, which performs several functions at once: controls the filling of the cylinder, relieves excess pressure, and also acts as a shut-off valve. The cylinders must be regularly examined and located outside the crash zone. That is, in places with the least probability of damage in the event of an accident, as a rule, this is the area of ​​the rear row of seats, the trunk or the place where the spare wheel is located.

That’s all for today.As you can see, there are quite a few differences between the two types of gas and they are not even in the chemical or molecular composition … It is important to know and understand what kind of gas your car drives in order to know which gas station you need to refuel, as well as how and with what frequency you to service your car.

You can leave your questions and wishes using the form for comments. I would be glad if you complement me, in case I missed an important point. Bye everyone, thank you for your attention and see you again at the GBOshnik.

Difference from propane, transportation features, environmental impact

HBO is no longer news for me – I have been driving on gas for almost 10 years, I install it on every new car. I think it’s not worth describing all the delights of the equipment, and so many things have already been told without me. I’ll tell you better how the LPG installation in the AGTS went. I signed up with the guys a week before, arrived at the appointed time, and I’m already waiting for me. The box is large and well equipped. Two people are allocated for each car, everything is done quickly and smoothly.Standing there, watching them. It is immediately clear that the team has worked well. One installs the wiring, the other connects the cylinder. It can be seen that they know their job here: every car – and on the day I arrived there was a full house. Everyone is busy with business, no unnecessary conversations, only business. At this rate they installed HBO for me for two hours, probably, then one worker explained how it works, what is connected to what, etc. That is, in addition to what they quickly installed, they also gave instructions on how to use and what to do if suddenly something goes wrong.This, it seems to me, is just fine for those who first encounter HBO. Yes, and I, an experienced driver on gas, was pleased to hear) In general, I recommend it!

LPG on propane or methane: what to choose? (Answer)

When installing gas equipment on a car, the question always arises which gas to choose. The type of LPG installed and the performance characteristics of the car depends on this. Today there are two types of gas used: propane and methane.

Propane Features

Propane gas is the main component of liquefied gas (propane-butane mixture).It is a refinery by-product. This gas is stored under a relatively low pressure of 16 atmospheres. Due to this, thin-walled cylinders are used for its storage (wall thickness from 3 mm). This provides a significant advantage in terms of the low weight of the installed equipment. The weight of a filled gas cylinder with a volume of 50 liters is only 44 kilograms.

Another important advantage of propane is its extensive network of filling stations.Thanks to this, vehicle owners practically do not face the problem of refueling, even on long journeys.
The disadvantage of propane is the higher gas consumption.

Features of methane

Methane is a natural gas stored under a pressure of 200 atmospheres in a gaseous state. Considering the significant gas pressure, the wall thickness of methane cylinders is higher. The weight of one cylinder with a volume of 50 liters is 63 kilograms.At the same time, given the gaseous state of methane, it is necessary to use a larger number of cylinders. On average, one propane cylinder is identical to three methane ones in terms of gas cubic capacity.

Modern methane cylinders can be made of composite materials. This allows you to significantly reduce their weight. However, the cost of such cylinders is much higher.
The disadvantage is also the poorly developed network of AGCNS, which are used for refueling with methane. Besides, methane LPG is more expensive.
The advantages of this gas include its lower consumption compared to propane.

Conclusions

In general, in terms of fuel characteristics, both types of gas can be used on cars without special restrictions. However, when choosing, you need to take into account the characteristics of each type of gas and the characteristics of the car.

Thus, methane benefits from lower consumption and lower cost of the gas itself. This makes its use cost-effective (even taking into account the expensive LPG) for cars with a significant engine cubic capacity, as well as for cars with high average annual mileage.It is methane equipment that is most often used in various types of commercial vehicles. Propane is the preferred option for conventional passenger cars that are used for private purposes.

Gross calorific value and lower calorific value

Energy value or calorific value is the same as calorific value and can be calculated from thermodynamic values ​​or measured with a suitable device: constant pressure and standard conditions (0 ° C and 1 bar), and the heat generated is captured by a known mass of water in the calorimeter.If the start and end water temperatures are measured, the energy released can be calculated using the equation

H = ΔT mC p

where H = absorbed thermal energy (in J), ΔT = temperature change (in ° C), m = mass of water (in g), and C p = specific heat (4.18 J / g ° C for water). The resulting energy value divided by grams of fuel burned gives the energy content (in J / g).

Combustion produces water vapor and certain methods can be used to recover the amount of heat contained in this water vapor by condensing it.

  • Gross calorific value (= Gross calorific value – GCV = Gross calorific value – HHV) – the combustion water is completely condensed and the heat contained in the steam is recovered.
  • Low calorific value (= net calorific value – NCV = lower calorific value – LHV) – flue gases contain water vapor and the heat of the water vapor is not recovered

The table below shows the gross and net calorific value of fossil fuels, and also some alternative biofuels.

See also Calorific value, fossil fuels and alternative fuels – Energy content and fuel combustion – Carbon dioxide emissions

Rotate the screen for a complete table with lower calorific value LHV – !

23874 [kg / gallon] [kg / gallon] [kWh / kg] [BTU / gallon] Butanol 0.810 9080 Diesel fuel * Ethane 51.9 900 3.180 108 Marine gas oil * 23.0 40 biodiesel) 38.0 6 840 4 72 90.19 , 53
Fuel Density High calorific value (HHV)
(Gross calorific value – GCV)

9

NCV)
at 0 ° C / 32 ° F, 1 bar
Fuel gaseous [kg / m 3 ] 3 [908 g / ft ] [kWh / kg] [MJ / kg] [BTU / lb] [MJ / m 3 ] / ft [3,043 ] [kWh / kg] [MJ / kg] 9054 7 [BTU / lb] [MJ / m 3 ] [BTU / ft 3 ]
Acetylene 1.097 31.1 13.9 49.9 21453 54.7 1468
Ammonia
Hydrogen 0.090 2.55 39.4 6037 607 341 33.3 120.0 51591 10.8 290
Methane 0.716 20.3 15.4 55.5 39.8 1069 50.0 21496 35.8 964
Natural Gas (US market) * 0.777 14.5 52.2 22446 40.6 1090 13.1 47.1 20262 36.6 983
City gas 483 8 8 900 @ 15 ° C / 60 ° F
Liters [MJ / kg] [BTU / lb] [MJ / L] 48 [kWh / kg] [MJ / kg] [BTU / lb] 9 0547 [MJ / L] [BTU / gallon]
Acetone 0.787 2.979 8.83 31.8 13671 25.0 89792 8.22 29.6 12726 23.3 83580 83580 Butane 3.0 49.1 21109 29.5 105875 12.58 45.3 19475 27.2 97681
10.36 37.3 16036 30.2 108359 9.56 34.4 14789 27.9 99934
12.62 3.202 45.6 19604 38.6 138412 11.83 42.6 18315 36.0 129840 Dimethyl ether (DME) 0.665 2.518 8.81 31.7 13629 21.1 75655 8.03 28.9 12425 19.2 68 14652 2.1652 22313 29.7 106513 13.28 47.8 20550 278
Ethanol (100%) 0.789 2.987 8.25 29.7 12769 23.4 84076 7.42 26.7 11479 21.1 8288 9037 Diethyl ether 0.716 0.716 11.94 43.0 18487 30.8 110464
* Gasoline.737 2.790 12.89 46.4 19948 34.2 122694 12.06 43.4 18659 32.0 83761 Gas oil (heating oil) * 0.84 11.95 43.0 18495 36.1 129654 11.89 42.8 18401 36 , 0 128991
Glycerin 1.263 4.781 5.28 19.0 8169 24.0 86098
Fuel oil * 0.98 3,740 41.81 146974 10.83 39.0 16767 38.2 137129
Kerosene * 837 0.821 12.83 46.2 19862 37.9 126663 11.94 43.0 18487 35.3 126663 Diesel fuel * 0.96 3.634 12 44.0 18917 42.2 151552 11.28 40.6 17455 39.0 8 139841 LNG * 0.428 1.621 15.33 55.2 23732 23.6 84810 13.50 48.6 20894 20.8 7462870 CIS * 2.0 49.3 21195 26.5 94986 12.64 45.5 19561 24.4 87664
0.855 3.237 12.75 45.9 19733 39.2 140804 11.89 42.8 18401 36.6 840 Methanol 0.791 2.994 6.394 9888 18.2 65274 5.54 19.9 8568 15.8 565
0.888 3.361 11.17 40.2 17283 35.7 128062 10.42 37.5 16122 33.3 119460 MTBE 0.743 10116 2.8116 16337 28.2 101244 9.75 35.1 15090 26.1 Vegetable oils (biodiesel) * 0.92 3.483 11.25 40.5 17412 37.3 133684 10.50 37.8 16251 34.8 124772 Paraffin (wax) * 0.907 12.78 46.0 19776 41.4 148538 11.53 41.5 17842 37 134007
Pentane 0.63 2.385 13.50 48.6 20894 30.6 109854 12.60 45.4 19497 28.6 102507 Petroleum gasoline * 0.76 0.76 48.1 20679 34.9 125145 12.47 44.9 19303 116819
Propane 0.498 1.85 13.99 50.4 21647 25.1 89963 12.88 46.4 19927 23.1 82816 0.99752 900 41.8 150072 10.97 39.5 16982 39.2 140470
9 Resin * 907 …00 36.0 15477
Turpentine 0.865 3.274 12.22 44.0 Solid fuels * [kWh / kg] [MJ / kg] [BTU / lb] [kWh / kg] [kWh / kg] [kWh / kg] MJ / kg] [BTU / lb]
Anthracite charcoal 9.06 32.6 14015
Bituminous Coal 8.39 30.2 12984 8.06 29.0 12468 9.11 32.8 14101
charcoal22 29.6 12726 7.89 28.4 12210
Coke 7.22 26.0 coal) 3.89 14.0 6019 17.0 7309
Petroleum Coke 8.69 31.3 13457 8.19 29.5 12683
978 24.4 10490
Sulfur (s) 2.56 9.2 3955 8 2 2.55 9.2 Wood (dry) 0.701 4.50 16.2 6965 4.28 15.40 6621

* Fuels made from a mixture of several different compounds may differ in quality between seasons and markets.Values ​​are given for fuels with a given density. The difference in quality can give rise to heating values ​​in the range of 5 to 10% above or below the set value. In addition, solid fuels will have the same quality variation for different fuel grades.

  • 1 BTU (IT) / lb = 2.3278 MJ / t = 2327.8 J / kg = 0.55598 kcal / kg = 0.000646 kWh / kg
  • 1 kcal / kg = 1 cal / g = 4.1868 MJ / t = 4186.8 J / kg = 1.8 BTU (IT) / lb = 0.001162 kWh / kg
  • 1 MJ / kg = 1000 J / g = 1 GJ / t = 238.85 kcal / kg = 429.9 British thermal units (IT) / lb = 0.2778 kWh / kg
  • 1 kWh / kg = 1547.7 British thermal units (IT) / lb = 3.597 GJ / t = 3597.1 kJ / kg = 860.421 kcal / kg
  • 1 British thermal unit (IT) / ft 3 = 0.1337 British thermal units (IT) / gallon (US liquid equiv.) = 0.03531 British thermal units (IT) / L = 8.89915 kcal / m 3 = 3.7259×10 4 J / m 3
  • 1 British thermal unit (IT) / gallon (American liquid) = 0.2642 British thermal units (IT) / L = 7.4805 British thermal units (IT) / ft 3 = 66.6148 kcal / m 3 = 2.7872×10 5 J / m 3
  • 1 MJ / m 3 = 26.839 British thermal units (IT) / ft 3 = 3.5879 British thermal units (IT) / gallon (US fluid) = 0.94782 British thermal units (IT) / L = 239.01 kcal / m 3
  • 1 kcal / m2 3 = 0.11237 British thermal units (IT) / ft 3 = 0.01501 British thermal units (IT) / gallon (US fluid) = 0.003966 British thermal units ( IT) / l = 4186.8 J / m 3
.

Explosion and flammability limits

Flammability range (also called explosive range) is the concentration range of a gas or vapor that will ignite (or explode) when an ignition source is present.

For an explosion, three basic requirements must be met:

  1. flammable substance – fuel
  2. oxidizer – oxygen or air
  3. ignition source – spark or high temperature

The mixture is below an explosive or flammable mixture. Too lean to burn, and above the upper explosive or flammable limit, the mixture is too rich to burn. The limits are commonly referred to as “lower explosive or flammable limit” (LEL / LFL) and “upper explosive or flammable limit” (UEL / UFL).

The lower and upper explosive limits for some commonly used gases are shown in the table below. Some gases are commonly used as fuel in combustion processes.

Note! The stated limits are for gas and air at 20 o C and atmospheric pressure.

1937 Acetyl 75 24 8 1.0 1249 Isopropylbenzene 540 900 2 Nitromethane 73 2.1 900 2Ox , 3 36 .08 8
Fuel gas “Lower explosion or flammability limit”
(LEL / LFL)
(% by volume of air)
“Upper explosion or flammability limit”
(
% ) air volume)
Acetaldehyde 4 60
Acetic acid 4 19.9
Acetone 2.6 12.8
Acetonitrile 3 16
Acetyl chloride 7.3 10049 900 Acrolein 2.8 31
Acrylic acid 2.4 8
Acrylonitrile 3.0 17
Allylchloride 2.9 11.1
Allyl alcohol 2.5 18
2.228 2.228 Ammonia 15 28
Aniline 1.3 11
Arsine 5.1 78
Benzene 1 2 7.8
Biphenyl 0.6 5.8
Bromobutane (1-bromobutane) 2.6 6.6
Bromoethane, 8 8
Bromobromine 15
Butadiene (1,3-butadiene) 2.0 12
Butanal 1
Butane (n-butane) 1.86 8.41
Butanoic acid 2 10
Butyl acetate 1.7 7.6
Butyl alcohol 840 1180 Butyl formate 1.7 8.2
Butyl methyl ketone 1 8
Butylamine 1.7 9.8
8 Butylbenzene.5 5.8
Butylene 1.98 9.65
Butyl acrylate 1.9 9.9
50837 Carbon disulphide
Carbon monoxide 12
Carbon oxysulfide 12 29
Chlorobenzene 1.3 9.6
.8 15.4
Cyanogen 6.0 42.6
Cyclobutane 1.8 11.1
Cycloheptane 1.17 7
Cyclohexane
Cyclohexanol 1 9
Cyclohexanone 1 9
10.4
Decane 0.8 5.4
Diacetone Alcohol 1.8 6.9
Diborane 88
Dibutylamine 1.1 6
Dichloroethane (1,1-dichloroethane) 6 11
Diesel 0.68 780 Diethanolamine 2 13
Diethyl ether 1.9 36
Diethylamine 2 13
Diethyl ether 1.9 48
Diisobutylketone 8 Diisobutyl ketone 8
Dimethylsulfoxide 3 42
Epichlorohydrin 4 21
Ethane 3 12.4
Ethyl acetate 2 12
Ethyl acrylate 1.4 14
Ethyl alcohol, ethanol 3.3 15.4
Ethyl nitrite 4 50
Ethylpropyl ether 1.7 9
Ethyl vinyl ether 1.7 28
Ethylamine 3.5 14
Ethylbenzene 1.0 7.1
Ethylcyclobutane 8 1.2 8 1.2 Ethylene 2.75
Ethylene oxide 3 100
Ethylene glycol 3 22
Fluoroethylene 2 6 21.7
Formaldehyde 7 73
Formic acid 18 57
Fuel oil – No. 1 0.728 2 14
Furfural 2 19
Gasoline 1.4 7.6
Glycerol 6.7
Heptane (n-heptane) 1.0 6.0
Hexane 1.1 7.5
Hexane (n-hexane ) 1.25 7.0
Hydrazine 5 100
Hydrogen 4 75
Hydrogen 6 908 Hydrogen 6 908 4.3 46
Isobutanal 1.6 10.6
Isobutane 1.80 8.44
Isobutene 1.8 9
Isobutyl alcohol
Isooctane 0.79 5.94
Isopentane 1.32 9.16
Isopropyl alcohol, isopropanol
0.9 6.5
Kerosene jet A-1 0.7 5
Mesityl oxide 1.4 7.2
Methacrylic acid 1.6 8.8
Methane 4.4 16.4
Methylamine 4.9 20.7
Methyl acetate 3 1637 Methyl alcohol, methanol 6.7 36
Methyl Acrylate 2.8 25
Methyl Chloride 10.7 17.4
Methyl Ethyl Ketone 8

4.5

23
Methylhydrazine 2.5 92
Methyl isocyanate 5.3 26
White spirit 7 6.5
Naphthalene 0.9 5.9
Naphthalene 0.9 5.9
Neohexane 1.19 908, 58
Neopentane
Nitrobenzene 2 9
Nitroethane 3.4 17 22.2
Nonane 0.8 2.9
Octane (n-octane) 1.0 7
Oksiran 100
Paraformaldehyde 7 73
Pentane (n-pentane) 1.4 7.8
Pentene (n-pentene) 1.65 7
Pentyl acetate 1.1 7.5
Pentylamine 2.2 22
Phenol 1.8 8.6
Piperidine 10 10
10.1
Propanoic acid 2.9 12.1
Propene 2 11.1
Propyl acetate 2
Propylamine 2 10.4
Propylbenzene 0.8 6
Propyl nitrate 2 100
Propylene 2.0 1128
Propyne 2.1 12.5
Pyridine 2 12
Silane 1.5 98
Styrene 1.1 6.1
Tetrafluoroethene 10 50
Tetrahydrofuran 2 901 1.1 900
Trichlorethylene 13 90
Triethylene glycol 0.9 9.2
Triptan 6.69
Trimethylamine 2 11.6
Turpentine 0.8
Vinyl acetate 2.6 Bini 1.4
Vinyl chloride 3.6 33
o-xylene 0.9 6.7
m-xylene1 7
para-xylene 1.1 7

It is important that the rooms where flammable gases are stored are well ventilated. When designing ventilation systems, take into account the specific gravity of the gas. The gas mixture from the leak will not be homogeneous and the lighter gases will concentrate along the ceiling. Heavy gases accumulate along the floor.

Ventilation, natural or mechanical, shall be sufficient to limit the concentration of flammable gases or vapors to a maximum level 25% of their “lower explosive or flammable limit” (LEL / LEL).

  • Required minimum ventilation: 1 cu. Ft / ft 2 (20 m 3 / hr 2 )
  • Recommended ventilation: 2cc Ft / ft 2 (40 m 3 / hm 2 ) or 12 air changes per hour – half supply and exhaust air near ceiling and half supply and exhaust air near floor
.

Gas welding – Acetylene vs Propane

Facts
  • The flame temperature when burning propane in oxygen is 2800 degrees C
  • The flame temperature when burning acetylene in oxygen is 3100 degrees Celsius

Propane (also called LPG – LPG gas) is a widely used fuel.It is transported and stored as a very cold liquid and can cause “frostbite” or frostbite on contact with the skin. Liquid propane is converted to gas inside a container or cylinder. In its natural form, propane is colorless and odorless. To make propane easier to detect in the event of a leak or spill, manufacturers add a chemical compound to give it its characteristic odor.

Welding

First: propane cannot be used for gas welding. When acetylene burns with oxygen, it creates a reduction zone that cleans the steel surface.Propane does not have a reduction zone like acetylene and therefore cannot be used for gas welding.

Soldering

Propane, like acetylene, can be used for soldering. For capillary soldering (silver soldering) the result is the same. For “welding” brazing (thick flowable solders) acetylene will be advantageous.

Cutting

Propane, like acetylene, can be used for cutting. If you cut with acetylene, you usually place the tip of the inner flame cone on the metal (1mm from the plate surface).If you do the same with propane, you will have to wait a long time. If the burner is lifted so that the outer cone is used, the preheating process will start faster. Propane generates only a small part of the heat in the inner cone of the flame (less than 10%), so most of the heat in the flame goes to the outer cone. Acetylene gives off almost 40% of its heat in the inner flame cone.

Therefore, acetylene is better for cutting than propane. Although acetylene is hotter in temperature than propane, the point is that people misuse propane for cutting.The mistake is that they cut with propane like acetylene, where the heat in the propane preheat flame is not the same as with acetylene. In short, using propane for cutting requires a different technique, and in general, acetylene is preheated faster. In shipyards and scrap / demolition dumps, propane is often used for cutting because the cut quality does not matter.

Heating

… another matter. To say that propane generates less heat is wrong (in fact, it is simply wrong).Acetylene is hotter but generates less heat. Most of the preheating is done with oxygen / propane. It is a fact. The available heat from propane is above.

Hardware

Cutting requires different cutting attachments and cutting nozzles

Economics

Propane has a higher stoichiometric oxygen demand than acetylene. For maximum flame temperature in oxygen, the ratio of oxygen volume to fuel gas is 1.2: 1 for acetylene and 4.3 to 1 for propane. Thus, much more oxygen is consumed when using propane. Although propane is cheaper than acetylene, this is counteracted by its higher oxygen consumption.

Safety

The most important disadvantage of using propane on board is the safety aspect.

Acetylene has a specific gravity of 0.9, therefore it is lighter than air (1). If the gas leaks out, it will rise. The specific gravity of propane is 1.6 or heavier than air (same for other hydrocarbon gases such as butane and MAPP * (modified propane gas)).Any propane leak in a confined space will sink and concentrate at deck level, accumulate and sometimes avoid detection.

For efficient combustion of propane, the mixture of oxygen and gas must be within a certain range. For ideal conditions, there should be four parts propane to 96 parts oxygen. When gas burns outside these parameters, incomplete combustion results; it produces excessive amounts of carbon monoxide. This can be very dangerous if the area is not properly ventilated.Onboard ships are sometimes operated in confined spaces such as ballast tanks and double bottoms. Carbon monoxide poisoning can be fatal as the toxic gas replaces oxygen in the bloodstream.

* MAPP gas is a trademark owned by the Linde Group. The name comes from the original chemical composition, methyl acetylene propadiene propane. MAPP Gas

Download Technical Update – Gas Welding – Acetylene vs. Propane

Visit the Gas Welding Product Catalog

.

LPG Distillation and Vapor Pressure Data

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) IS A GENERAL term for mixtures of ethane (C2) and butane (C4) hydrocarbons that can exist as liquids at moderate pressures at ambient temperature. … Methane (C1, natural gas) must be cooled to below −162 ° C (−259 ° F) to condense by compression into liquefied natural gas (LNG). Pentane and heavier hydrocarbons (C5 +, condensate) are liquids at ambient temperature and pressure and are used in the production of gasoline, naphtha and solvents.Ethane, propane and butane are gases at standard temperature and pressure, but can be liquefied by compressing and condensing steam at or below ambient temperature. Propane (C3), butane (C4) and butane / propane blends (C3 / C4 or B-P blend) are ideal for fuels that are widely used around the world in an amazing variety of applications. It is a stable fuel with a high energy content, relatively low sulfur content, a clean combustible fuel that can be economically transported in liquid form and used either as a liquid or as a gas.Propane can be used at temperatures from about -40 to 45 ° C and butane from 0 ° C to about 110 ° C (vapor pressure from about 0 to 250 psi) or higher, depending on the pressure rating of the equipment being used. The contents of an LPG cylinder are always pressurized at temperatures above the normal boiling point of approximately -42 ° C for propane and 0 ° C for butane, so there is no need for a fuel pump or electrical components for most applications.This makes LPG ideal for a wide variety of portable, mobile or remote applications using mechanically robust and simple equipment. As a result, propane applications are generally robust and reliable. This chapter focuses primarily on ASTM D1835 Standard Specification for Liquid Petroleum Gases (LP) [1] Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), Commercial Propane, and Special Service Propane (commonly known as “Special” products).The same sampling and test methods can be applied to other natural gas liquids (NGLs), which can have a wider range of compositions. The same distribution equipment, rail / truck tanks and storage tanks can be used for propane or BP mixtures, so it is not superficially obvious which grade of LPG is used in a particular region or application. The terms propane, LPG and HD5 “Is commonly used synonymously in North America (although this is technically incorrect).ASTM D1835 and GPA 2140 Gas Processors Association specifications exist for Commercial Blends B-P, but they are rarely used in consumer applications in North America. There is currently no CGSB specification for B-P blends because winter temperatures are too low and demand for butane for winter gasoline is high. Polar climates must use propane year-round for low temperature performance. Tropical climates (no winter temperatures, no winter gasoline) typically use B-P blends to use butane all year round.In temperate climates with large seasonal temperature variations, propane can be used in winter and B-P blends in summer. However, the logistics of seasonal allocation and air / fuel calibration changes, coupled with a more than adequate supply of propane, usually make it possible to use propane throughout the year. The same properties that make LPG so useful pose some unique challenges to its safe use. The properties of water / ice / hydrate are unique.Pressurized systems are more susceptible to leaks even when equipment is idle. The vapor density is higher than that of air, allowing it to accumulate in low points and cavities in the absence of a ventilated air flow. When mixed with air in the correct ratio within a narrow range, it has the potential to be highly destructive in the event of an ignition source that results in an explosion or fire. Consequently, LPG handlers and equipment installers usually need to be trained and licensed.Various safety devices and procedures are used, and LPG is flavored to help detect potentially dangerous leaks.

Falkiner, R.J.
Process Advisor, Imperial Oil Engineering Services Canada, Toronto,

Montemayor, R.G.
Chief Chemist, Imperial Oil Ltd., Sarnia, Ontario

.

Gases – Densities

The densities, molecular weights and chemical formulas of some common gases can be found in the table below:

kg / m 3 ) 1 1092 1)
1.170 2) carbon CO 2 9 16 907 H 4 80 1) NO 7210 72 1 – Normal and Pressure – Defined as 20 o C (293.15 K, 68 o F) and 1 atm (101.325 kN / m 2 , 101.325 kPa, 14.7 psi)in, 0 psi inch, 30 inches Hg. st., 760 torr)

2) STP – standard temperature and pressure – defined as 0 o C (273.15 K, 32 o F) and 1 atm (101.325 kN / m 2 , 101.325 kPa, 14.7 psi, 0 psi, 30 inHg, 760 torr)

  • 1 lb m / ft 3 = 16.018 kg / m 3
  • 1 kg / m 3 = 0.0624 lb m / ft 3

pounds are actually a measure of strength, not mass.Slugs are a sure way of measuring mass; you can divide pounds per cubic foot by 32.2 to get an approximate slug value.

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Gas Formula Molecular weight
(Density – ρ
(lb / ft 3 )
Acetylene C 2 H 2 90 908 0.0682 1)
0.0729 2)
Air 29 1.205 1) 1.293 0.0752 1)
0.0806 2)
Ammonia NH 3 17.031 0.717 1)
0.7840 , 0448 1)
0.0480 2)
Argon Ar 39.948 1.661 1)
1.7837 2)
0.1037 1)
Benzene 900 C 6 H 6 78.11 3.486 0.20643
Blast furnace gas )0780 2)
Butane C 4 H 10 58.1 2.489 1)
2.5 2)
1,1554 )
0.156 2)
Butylene (butene) C 4 H 8 56.11 2.504 0.148 2) 44.01 1.842 1)
1.977 2)
0.11150 1)
0.1234 2)
Carbon disulphide carbon CO 28.01 1.165 1)
1.250 2)
0.0727 1)
0.0780 2)
Carbonated water 0.048
Chlorine Cl 2 70.906 2.994 1) 0.1869 1)
Coal gas 0.5
Coke oven gas 0.034 2)
Combustion products 1.11 2) 0.069 2)
Gas from the digester (waste water or biogas) 0.062
Ethane C 2 H 6 1 0.0789 1)
Ethyl Alcohol 46.07
Ethyl Chloride 64.52

28.03 1.260 2) 0.0786 2)
Helium He 4.02 0.1664 1)
2.17840
0.01039 1)
0.011143 2)
N-heptane 100.20
Hexane 86.17
Water H 2 2.016 0.0899 2) 0.0056 2)
Hydrochloric acid 36.47 1.63 2)
8
8 36.5 1) 0.0954 1)
Hydrogen sulfide H 2 S 34.076 1.434 1) 044 00895 1)
Krypton 3.74 2)
Methane CH 4 16.043 0.0417 1)
0.0447 2)
Methyl alcohol 32.04
Methylbutane 72.15
Methyl chloride 50.49
Natural gas 19.5 0.7 – 0.9 2) 8 0.044 – 0.0844 8 0.044 – 0.0844
Neon Ne 20.179 0.8999 2) 0.056179 2)
Nitric oxide

NO 922.0
1.249 1) 0.0780 1)
Nitrogen N 2 28.02 1.165 1)
1.244
0.0727 1)
0.078072 2)
Nitrogen dioxide NO 2 46.006
N-114.22
Nitrous oxide N 2 O 44.013 0.114 907 1)
Nitric oxide 6200 322821 908.00 908.00 908.00 908.00 908.00
Oxygen O 2 32 1.331 1)
1.4290 2)
0.0831 1)
0.089210 2)
Ozone O 3 48.0 2.14 2) 0.125
N-pentane
Iso Pentane 72.15
Propane C 3 H 8 44.09 1.882 1) 0.1175 1)
Propene (propylene) C 3 H 6 42.1 1.748 1) 044 044 1)
R-11 137.37
R-12 120.92
R-22 86.4
R-114 170.93
R-123 152.93
R-134a 102.03
Sasol 32.06 0.135
Sulfur dioxide SO 2 64.06 2.279 1)
2.926 2)
0.1703 1)
0.1828 2)
Sulfur trioxide SO 3 80.062

SO 48.063
Toluene C 7 H 8 92.141 4.111 0.2435
922 Steam 906 H 18.016 0.804 0.048
Water gas (bituminous) 0.054
Xenon 5.86 92 2