American Made Pens & Writing Instruments
About American Writing Instruments
You can never go wrong purchasing and owning an American brand fine writing instrument. American pen companies are some of the most historic and important in the industry today.
American Made Pens
Very few American pen companies still manufacturer their pens themselves in the US. Franklin-Christoph is one such company still making their own pens in the United States with the same dedication to quality that has kept them in business for over 100 years.
Fisher Space Pens are made in USA just outside of Las Vegas. Their ballpoint pens come with a refill that is unmatched and can write upside down, underwater, through grease and in extreme temperatures. If you are looking for an American pen the Fisher Space Pen is one of the best.
American Pen Brands
Other companies are traditionally American but have outsourced their production elsewhere. Conklin, established in 1898 and Sheaffer Pen Company established in 1912 continue to be well respected today. These American pen brands are known for producing historic, innovative and quality fine writing instruments for over 100 years, all at a great value, including the iconic Sheaffer Ferrari collection and the historic Conklin Mark Twain Crescent Filler collection.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art pen company produces unique and inspiring pieces based upon historic priceless works of art. Although fairly new to the industry, established in 1978, Monteverde has become well know and well respected for producing high quality writing instruments at an exceptional value. Monteverde also has one of the most elaborate ink offerings (roller ball & ballpoint pen refills, Fountain pen bottled ink, fountain pen cartridges, etc.
Most of these no longer make their pens in the United States and out source them overseas. Brands such as Monteverde, Sheaffer, Conklin or Metropolitan Museum of Art are based in the United States, not all parts used in their pens are necessarily made in America. These American brands may import various parts or entire pens. We list them here because they are American owned companies. Buy pens from these American pen companies today at Pen Chalet.
American Made Pens & Writing Instruments Made In The USA – Goldspot Pens
What Pens Are Made In USA?
American pen companies Edison Pen Co, Fisher Space Pens, Franklin-Christoph, Schon DSGN, and Noodler’s Ink make their pens in USA.
American pen companies Conklin, Sheaffer, and Esterbrook manufacture their pens and fountain pens outside of the USA.
American Made Pens
The history of American writing instruments has deep roots in the “golden age” of fountain pens – when the only way to communicate with people long distance was to handwrite a letter and send it via the pony express. Today, it is assumed that there is no such thing as an American pen company. Everything is outsourced. While that may be true of some pen companies in the USA, there are several noteworthy fountain pen companies continuing the heritage of pens proudly made in the USA.
Legend has it when Lewis Edson Waterman lost a sale due to a faulty fountain pen leaking all over an insurance contract, he designed and patented the first fountain pen with a capillary feed. In 1884, the Waterman Ideal Pen Company was born in New York City, occupying an entire building in the Hudson Square neighborhood. After a rise to global prominence, the Waterman USA shuttered in 1954, leaving the French Waterman subsidiary to continue pen production thereafter.
A similar fate befell the Parker Pen Company. George S. Parker started the company in 1888, building the world’s largest pen factory in Janesville, Wisconsin. Parker’s mission to “make a better pen” resulted in such iconic models like the Duofold, the Vacumatic, the “51”, and the Jotter. The company established a worldwide network of factories, only to be sold off and downsized. In the early 2000’s Parker was sold to the Sanford writing instruments division of Newell Rubbermaid. Its previous headquarters in the UK, along with the Janesville office, closed by 2011. The company is now headquartered in France.
Recently, you may have seen the black and gold Cross Century II rollerball pen signing President Joe Biden’s executive orders. Although based in Rhode Island, the modern Cross pens are made in China. Another American pen company that came to prominence in the early 20th Century, Sheaffer was purchased by Cross in 2014. The Sheaffer factory in Fort Madison, Iowa produced American-made pens for over a century until it was shut down in 2008.
If you were a writer or business professional in the early 1900s, you would be familiar with two other major American fountain pen companies still around today – Conklin and Esterbrook. Founded in 1898 by Roy Conklin in Toledo, Ohio, the brand was best known for its spokesperson and father of American literature, Mark Twain. His lauded Crescent-Filling mechanism is still in production today. However, the manufacturing takes place overseas while the company is owned by Yafa Pen Co. of Canoga Park, California.
Yafa also owns and operates Monteverde Pens – a brand known for their affordable pen designs manufactured overseas. ACME Studios of Hawaii and Retro 51 of Texas are also American pen brands that outsource their manufacturing.
Esterbrook was established in 1858 by Richard Esterbrook in Camden, New Jersey. If you thought that having 5 nib sizes to choose from is a lot of variety, Esterbrook was known for its massive range of dip pen and fountain pen nib sizes. To this day, many pen collectors source vintage Esterbrook pens and their replaceable nib units that continue to endure for over 70 years. After ceasing operations in 1971, the Esterbrook Pen Company was reborn in 2018 by Kenro Industries in Mineola, New York. The modern Esterbrook Pen designs (like the Estie, Camden, and JR pocket pens) are designed here in the USA and manufactured in Taiwan.
One American pen manufacturer that has kept the production of writing instruments in the USA is Franklin-Christoph. Started in 1901 by J.W. Franklin in Marietta, Georgia. The Franklin Co originally produced ceramics. Five generations later, the company rebranded as Franklin-Christoph and started selling fine accessories, including their first fountain pen in 2001. Since then, Franklin-Christoph became a fan-favorite American pen manufacturer, delighting enthusiasts at pen shows around the USA.
Another American pen company that still produces writing instruments that are “out of this world” is the Fisher Space Pen Company. Its founder, Paul C. Fisher, patented the first “zero gravity” pen in 1966. After vigorous testing, NASA agreed to outfit the Apollo astronauts with these pens during their historic space missions. To this day, the famous Bullet and AG-7 Astronaut pens are manufactured in a suburb of Las Vegas, Nevada.
Pioneering a more durable, forge-resistant fountain pen ink, Noodler’s Ink founder Nathan Tardiff formulates and bottles hundreds of colors in Massachusetts. While the components of Noodler’s Pens are imported from India, they are designed and assembled in the United States.
To find the new generation of American pen makers, we first look at the birthplace of the famous American inventor, Thomas Edison. Brian Gray founded the Edison Pen Company in his garage in Milan, Ohio. In 15 years of building the business, Edison Pens now have a worldwide distribution of retailers with every pen being produced and finished by American hands.
Several 21st Century American pen companies were founded with the help of crowdfunding and continue producing pens made in the USA to this day. Karas Kustoms (of Arizona) was founded in 2008 thanks to a successful Kickstarter campaign. Also with help from Kickstarter, Tactile Turn began machining premium writing instruments from its Texas workshop in 2012. Philadelphia’s Ian Schon Kickstarted Schon DSGN in 2012 as well. In 2021, Mike Allen of Woodshed Pen Co (of Charleston SC) crowdfunded the purchase of a CNC lathe to produce a line of shimmering fountain pens.
If you’re looking for a one-of-a-kind, handmade acrylic resin pen, the artistry of a Jonathan Brooks Primary Manipulation (Carolina Pen Company) or a Tim McKenzie Diamondcast (McKenzie Penworks) might be on your shopping list. These materials are cast in the USA and shipped to pen turners around the world to craft unique works of functional art.
If you’re looking for an American-made pen, Goldspot Pens carries a broad collection of fountain pens, rollerballs, and ballpoint pens made in the USA from established brands and start-up small businesses. Please explore our list of brands and contact us to suggest your favorite American pen maker if we do not carry them.
American Pen Brands Made In USA
We are proud to offer our full list of American pen brands and manufacturers:
Fisher Space Pen | Made in USA
Fisher Space Pen celebrates Fifty Years in Space with a new Limited Edition – AG7 Original Astronaut Space Pen and Coin Set.
When it comes to American innovation and technology, it doesn’t get much better than Fisher Space Pen Co. The company was founded in 1948 by inventor and pen manufacturer Paul C. Fisher and by 1953, Fisher had invented a Universal Refill Cartridge – a standard size cartridge that could fit most brand name pens. In the early 1960s, when President Kennedy announced the U.S. Space Program, Paul Fisher started thinking how ordinary ballpoint pens would have trouble writing in space, but if a pen could be sealed and pressurized, it would keep the solvents from evaporating in the gravity-free vacuum of space.
When manned space missions began, astronauts had a problem writing in the vacuum of space. The ink in regular ball-point pens wouldn’t flow in zero gravity. Many people have asked and continue to ask even now: “Why not just use a pencil?” Well, it turns out, a pencil’s graphite lead point could break and float into electrical instruments aboard a spacecraft and become a fire hazard.
Fisher came up with the idea that if resin could be added to the ink, it would not dissolve in the vacuum of space, nor depend on gravity to flow. In 1966, After spending over $1 million dollars of his own money and years of research, Fisher finally developed his patented pressurized ink cartridge. The Fisher Space Pen writes upside down, under water, in extreme temperatures from -30 to +250 degrees F (-35 to +121 Celsius), over almost any surface and three times longer than the average pen. Watch “How It’s Made” video.
“CELEBRATING FIFTY YEARS IN SPACE, THE ICONIC FISHER AG7 ORIGINAL ASTRONAUT SPACE PEN IS USED ON EVERY MANNED SPACE MISSION SINCE 1968.”
Fisher sent samples of his prototype to Dr. Robert Gilruth, Director of the Houston Space Center. The prototypes were thoroughly tested by NASA and passed all tests. NASA astronauts began using the Fisher AG-7 Anti-Gravity Space Pen aboard the Apollo 7 Mission and Fisher Space Pen has been used on all manned space flights since, including NASA’s Space Shuttle Program missions, the Mir Space Station and the International Space Station as well as the Russian and Chinese space programs.
The Fisher Space Pen brand has become an iconic symbol of American technology and design. Its popular Bullet Space Pen is in the permanent collection of the New York Museum of Modern Art for its bold, futuristic look. Fisher Space Pen has also become part of American pop culture. It is not only used and enjoyed by millions around the world, it is also the subject of hundreds of fan videos and has been featured on several TV programs including an episode of the hit series “Seinfeld” entitled “The Pen.”
Today, Fisher Space Pen Co.is still a family-owned company run by Paul Fisher’s son Cary and grandson Matt, based in Boulder City, Nevada, manufacturing Made in America products, This year, they celebrate the 50thAnniversary of the maiden flight of its iconic AG7 Original Astronaut Space Pen aboard NASA’s Apollo 7 Mission on October 11, 1968. The anniversary was recently featured on ABC World News Tonight with David Muir’s “Made in America” series. Watch video.
To commemorate this historic occasion, Fisher Space Pen has issued a Limited Edition – AG7 Original Astronaut Space Pen and Coin Set. The pen’s barrel is made of brass with gold titanium nitride plating and an engraved design featuring a constellation and the Apollo 7 capsule. The set is accompanied by a beautifully-designed coin featuring the Apollo 7 capsule on one side and the Fisher Space Pen “50” logo on the other. The set is complemented by a plaque engraved with a quote from Walter Cunningham, Lunar Module Pilot on the Apollo 7 Mission: “50 years ago, I flew with the first flown Space Pen on Apollo 7. I relied on it then, and it’s still the only pen I rely on here on Earth.” Click to purchase your Limited Edition Fisher Space Pen and Coin Set.
“We are extremely proud to be celebrating fifty years in space,” says Cary Fisher, President of Fisher Space Pen. “My father Paul Fisher was a visionary who personified American entrepreneurship and innovation. Our products are sold all over the world but we are still a family business manufacturing high-quality, state-of-the-art writing instruments, proudly Made in the USA.”
The Apollo 7 Mission is a historic firstin many respects: It was the first manned space flight of NASA’s Apollo Program; the first time a Saturn IB vehicle flew into space; the first three-person American space mission; the first space mission to include a live TV broadcast from an American spacecraft; and the first time astronauts began using the newly-developed Fisher AG7 Anti-Gravity Space Pen.
Please join us in supporting this Made in USA company! One of their pens would make a quality gift for a friend or loved one this Christmas.
American Made Hand Turned Wood Pens from The Wood Reserve Tagged “Made in USA”
All Wooden PensCustom Engraving OptionEco-friendlyMade in USANotebookPenPens
If you want to step up your professional game then you do not want to miss out on our gorgeous collection of wooden pens.
Produced using the finest quality woods available, in several exotic varieties, these solid wood pens are long lasting and stylish.
Are you searching for a unique graduation present? How about the perfect gifts for husbands or Father’s Day gifts?
Custom engravings can be added to any of the wooden pens in this collection.
Bolt Action – Cherry Wood Pen
Write in style with the Cherry Wood Bolt Action Pen from The Wood Reserve. Hand turned from solid cherry wood right here in the United States. Custom Engraving Add a…
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Solid Walnut Bolt Action Wood Pen
Named for the intimidating bolt action rifle, the Solid Walnut Bolt Action Wood Pen packs a lot of punch. Its bullet-inspired tip and metal hunting rifle clip make it the…
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Bolt Action – Whiskey Barrel Wood Pen
Do you want to take your love of whiskey to a new level? Then don’t miss out on these incredible bolt action whiskey barrel wood pens! Just as the name…
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Executive – Hand Turned Walnut Wood Fountain Pen
The dark, rich tones of natural Walnut wood are on full display with this sleek Executive style Fountain Pen. The perfect gift for writers… this is more than just a…
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Executive – Cherry Wood Fountain Pen
Our sleek Executive Solid Wood Pen features gorgeous hand turned cherry wood that has a unique an eye-catching grain pattern. This is not your ordinary fountain pen… this is a pen…
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Executive – Maple Burl Wood Fountain Pen
The high quality fountain pen comes with a 24k gold, fine fountain nib for smooth flowing ink that provides an enjoyable writing experience. This gorgeous option showcases the natural beauty of…
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Black Rifle Pen Case
Take your pen to the next level with our one of a kind pen box that is designed to replicate an actual rifle case. The outer shell is polycarbonate for…
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Office Box – Notebook & Pen Set
Our Office Box is an American made gift set that comes with a soft bound notebook, Gatsby ballpoint pen, and a re-useable wooden box for the perfect all in one set. …
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4th-Generation Pen Makers Have Used This Strategy for 90 Years to Keep Operations in the U.S.
Welcome to Thomas Insights — every day, we publish the latest news and analysis to keep our readers up to date on what’s happening in industry. Sign up here to get the day’s top stories delivered straight to your inbox.
This article is sponsored by Pen Company of America, an injection molder and U.S.-based manufacturer of writing instruments.
If the state of industry in 2021 could be predicted with only one word, it would likely be ‘reshoring.’
According to Thomas survey data, 69% of manufacturing and industrial companies “are likely to bring manufacturing production and sourcing back to North America” as a result of disruptions they experienced in 2020.
But the team at Pen Company of America, helmed by siblings Colleen, Greg, and Matt Shea, won’t have to worry about reshoring their operations this year. Their company’s entire line of ballpoint pens and markers has been manufactured in the U.S. since the 1920s, even down to the injection-molded plastic components and writing cartridges.
“I think a lot of people don’t know that pen manufacturing in the U.S. still exists,” Colleen explained. “All the big guys have gone offshore in some way, shape, or form, whether completely or partially. So I don’t think people know there is a company that still makes writing instruments in the U.S.”
While Colleen and her two brothers currently lead the multi-generation family business, they were not initially involved in the company’s operations. The siblings had each pursued their own career paths but were drawn back to Pen Company of America when the family business nearly went up for sale to big players who would likely offshore the company’s operations. The Sheas realized their family business’ rich history and American-made values were too important to let go, so they left their jobs in order to return to the family business and keep operations firmly headquartered in the United States.
Thomas Insights sat down with the three siblings to get to the root of their passion for keeping operations stateside and discuss how they continue to stand by that decision, even as their competitors continue offshore production.
Owners of Pen Company of America, Colleen, Greg, Matt, and Hap Shea.
(Provided by Pen Company of America)
Q: What are the most common questions you get from prospective clients and customers, and how do you respond?
Greg Shea (GS): “The biggest one is probably ‘Are your pens really made in the U.S.?’
People are a little cynical of claims by companies, so we get that question a lot. We say we’re a USA-made company, and the common reply is, ‘Okay, so you import the parts from China…’ We respond, ‘No, we actually manufacture it all here in the U.S.’
I think just explaining the whole process to them — that we do the molding, assembling, decorating, and packaging here with our own tool shop to upkeep our molds and create new ones — really gives them the reassurance they need.”
Colleen Shea (CS): “Manufacturing in the U.S. is part of our company’s history. My great-grandfather started making fountain pen tips back in the 1920s, and then, after serving in WWII, my grandfather moved into injection molding plastic for the ballpoint pen. Back in the day, my grandfather was synonymous with U.S. pen manufacturing.
We’ve manufactured pen components that are used by the U.S. government since the 1970s through an expansion by Congress of the Javits-Wagner-O’Day Act, known as the JWOD Act. As part of that expansion, the AbilityOne program and the Industries for the Blind were able to employ blind and disabled workers who assembled our pens for the U.S. government — the FBI, all the armed services, and other departments. And my grandfather created that pen, which is still used to this day!”
Q: What sets Pen Company of America apart from the competition?
CS: “I think the custom products we are capable of providing set us apart. We can do custom molding — and not just special PMS colors. We have our own tool shop that enables us to even change the look of a pen.
We had a large Fortune 100 company contact us a few years ago to partner with them on a campaign. They wanted their pen made in the U.S. but something no one else had. They came in and sat with us to discuss their project. We actually made a modification to one of our existing tools in order to develop a pen for them.
They’ve now used that pen for the last five or six years when they do their annual campaign drive! That’s just one example of what we can do, and we can do it a lot quicker than a manufacturer overseas.”
Q: How do you measure success at Pen Company of America?
Matt Shea (MS): “If you are in the Northeast, you’re going to find our pens almost everywhere. Our pens go to some of the largest companies in the region along with a number of financial institutions located here.
I measure success when I go into a dry cleaner, a liquor store, or a gym, and I see our pens being used. Not because that business purchased our pens, but because we printed branded pens for another company and that pen did what it was supposed to do as a marketing tool. It made its way around the marketplace, and our customer’s name, logo, and message are being seen by the general public.
I’ll go to Florida on vacation and the hotel will be using our pens. Greg even went to Antigua once and saw our pens there!
We also manufacture ballpoint pens for many of the major sports leagues, like the NFL, NCAA, MLB, NHL, MLS, and the NBA. We produce these pens for a licensing company, and they are sold by a major retailer. To this point, we have manufactured over 2.5 million of these pens.”
Pen Company of America production line.
Q: What do you think is the biggest challenge facing the industry today given the pandemic, and how is the Pen Company of America working to overcome it?
GS: “We’re seeing fewer people going to banks, restaurants, or local stores where you typically see promotional pens. If their volume is down 50%, they’re giving away a lot fewer pens which means they’re ordering fewer from us. The promotional industry is taking a hit because people aren’t traveling. They’re not going to the resorts. They’re not going to hotels. Many trade shows have been canceled. For that side of our business, it’s a huge challenge.
In order to overcome this, we have increased our online presence and expanded our retail line. Companies can now purchase our pens, pencils, and markers under our RevMark® retail brand on Amazon and our website. Our office supply products, industrial markers, and carpenter pencils have done extremely well during this time.”
Q: What’s something about your business that isn’t widely known that you’d like to highlight for our readers?
CS: “I think one of the most important things readers should know is that we’ve been extremely successful when we collaborate with companies on their specific project needs. Those customers come to us and they ask, ‘Can you tweak this here? Can you change the shade of this color there? What about this adjustment? Can you use blue ink? How about red ink?’
That kind of feedback and customization is exactly what we want and excel at.
Companies are surprised to find out how competitive we are against imports and how we can help them represent their brand. Customers who come visit us in person at our factory and later partner with us on a major project often become long-term customers, and their campaigns are very successful.
Something else that isn’t widely known is that during the COVID-19 pandemic we repurposed part of our New Jersey factory to make face shields because the region had such a dire need for PPE in the spring. We had the capabilities, the contacts in the world of plastics, and the manufacturing awareness to very quickly move part of our production into face shields.
Since then, we’ve supplied over 2 million face shields during COVID — and we’re still making them today. We ship over 100,000 face shields a week to some of the largest hospital systems in New Jersey as well as private businesses up and down the East Coast. We plan on continuing this new division of our business going forward.
We mold more than 500 million pen components annually. We ship out 750,000 pens a week. So we’re not small, yet we can pivot and turn like a small business because when you talk with the three of us, you are talking to the decision-makers and a family that has been making writing instruments in the U.S. for four generations. We act like a small family business because we are family, but we manufacture like a large one.”
Image Credit: Provided by Pen Company of America.
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How Are Ballpoint Pens Made – Step By Step
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Writing Utensils. Retrieved from,
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Iron and Steel: Characteristics, Uses and Problems. Retrieved from,
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Worldwide in 2017 and 2025. Retrieved from,
90,000 How Americans spent a million on a pen for space: levik – LiveJournal
Pretty soon after I moved to the United States, I heard an interesting story. As a boy and a recent immigrant from the USSR, I really liked her then, because she was A) About space, and B) About what kind of Americans are stupid, and Russians are so smart:
During the development of the space program, NASA faced a problem: ordinary ballpoint pens do not write in zero gravity.And then the agency attracted the best scientists in the country, and spent several million dollars of taxpayers in order to develop a special “space pen”. This miracle of technology could write in zero gravity and vacuum, in heat and cold, and in general was the best pen of times and peoples. Meanwhile, the Soviet leadership provided their astronauts with simple and cheap pencils.
This beautiful bike underlines for the American layman the wit and ingenuity of the Soviet people, in contrast to the wasteful straightforwardness of “their” people.But, as it turned out, this story completely reversed the essence of the “space pen” (which was really developed, and for a lot of money).
Inventor Paul Fisher founded the pen company in the late 1940s and caught the “space fever” of the time in the 1960s. In those years, mankind advanced into space by leaps and bounds, overcoming one line after another. It seemed that there were a couple of decades left before the colonies on the moon and cities on Mars. And Fischer decided to design a pen for space.He did this with private money, and on his own initiative. It is very likely that the development really cost him a million dollars …
The first American astronauts, like the Soviet cosmonauts, used pencils. NASA even ordered a special batch of 30 mechanical pencils from a private supplier. However, due to the special requests of the agency, and the small volume of the order, each of these pencils cost the taxpayers $ 130! When this story was made public, a small scandal erupted, after which American astronauts were forced to switch to “simpler” writing instruments.
Who knows what this is wrapped around them?
Pencils, although they write well in zero gravity, present their own number of problems. The graphite in the pencil shaft tends to crumble, and the resulting dust floats freely inside the spacecraft. Moreover, graphite is a conductor of electricity, and theoretically, this dust could close some important circuit.
And then in 1966 Fischer came to NASA with his invention. Its technology is not very complicated, but it is well executed: the ink in the pen shaft is under pressure from compressed nitrogen, so it can really write from any angle, and in zero gravity.
After the scandal with mechanical pencils, officials did not immediately decide to purchase new wonder pens. This took two years of testing and inspection. However, in 1968, NASA still bought a batch of 400 “space pens” from Fischer. Various sources cite prices ranging from three to six dollars apiece.
And a year later, in 1969, the USSR bought pens from Fischer’s company for its cosmonauts. Thrifty Russians bought a hundred pens and a thousand rods for a new program called the Union!
Here one could ask a little with bewilderment, is this Fischer such a fool? Even if he sold two thousand pens to the cosmonauts of the USSR and the United States, even if for $ 10, it is still $ 20,000 in sales! But how did he recoup the spent million?
Don’t worry about Fischer.He did not remain at a loss. He was selling the Fisher Space Pen to simple, grounded, buyers. Having patented his space pen, he became the sole supplier to two of the world’s major space programs. In the era of space fever, who could wish for better publicity ?! By selling these pens, Fischer has repaid his investment many times over.
Fischer’s company still sells them! The same “astronautical” pen costs $ 60 on their website today. So the history of the space pen is the history of the prosperity of private business, and not at all about the extravagance and stupidity of the Americans…
More interesting about the USA
History of Parker
Parker is a brand of writing instruments. For many years, the Parker Pen Company, along with Conklin (later Wahl-Eversharp), Sheaffer, and Waterman, was part of the famous Big Four – the group of the world’s largest writing instrument manufacturers. Engineering and design solutions implemented by Parker specialists at different times, starting from the beginning of the 20th century, are still used by different manufacturers.
The official registration date of the Parker Pen Company is March 8, 1892 , although by that time George Parker had been manufacturing fountain pens for four years and even managed to patent his own model in 1889
Until 1889, George Parker served as sales agent for the John Holland Gold Pen Company. Corporate legend has it that he often had to repair fountain pens that were returned by customers, which led him to consider creating a “perfect fountain pen.”
In 1891, George Parker formed a partnership with insurance specialist W. F. Palmer. Palmer convinced Parker to sell him half of his stake in the patent and company for $ 1,000. A check issued to the Parker Pen Company marked the beginning of a successful and highly lucrative partnership between Parker and Palmer.
The Parker Pen Company was officially incorporated on March 8, 1892.
In 1894, Parker patented the Lucky Curve feeder, which practically eliminated the very acute problem of the time – the ink remaining in the feeder channels leaking out when the pen was in an upright position in the pocket.Thanks to this technical solution, the sales of Parker pens have grown exponentially.
1896 Giacomo Puccini wrote his famous opera La Bohème with the PARKER pen.
In 1899, the first JOINTLESS PEN pen was developed and patented. It marked the biggest success of the pen era and once again used the proven LUCKY CURVE principle. In this design, there were no threaded connections that could break, and joints that could leak.The product was considered perfection itself, with the vital parts of the fountain pen enclosed in a sleeve that never allowed leakage. This pen is famous for the fact that Judge Day, President of the American Peace Commission, with its help signed the famous Peace Treaty, signed in Paris on February 10.
1903 – A lot of time and effort was spent on the development of “THE BETTER PEN” (the best pen) and the expansion of the company. George Parker embarked on a world tour, establishing overseas chapters along the way.The first of these was discovered in Scandinavia.
In 1905, Parker patented the Button Filling System. This has greatly improved the usability of the fountain pen. Up to this point, ink was poured into the pen with a pipette.
The “Giant” pen came into vogue, personifying the highest symbol of the prestige of fountain pens. PARKER’s answer to the dinosaur pen was “BLACK GIANT”. It was a huge handle, fitted with a sliding cap and a smooth, non-stop section.It was filled with a pipette and had a conventional threaded body connection. It lived a long life and was very popular until it was discontinued in 1921.
Another important Parker’s invention was the Safety Cap, which essentially consisted of two caps – an outer one that was screwed onto the pen body, and an inner one that sealed the cavity around the nib by tightly fitting the mouth to the shoulder of the body.
In 1906, the EMBLEM pen was launched on the market with the emblems of secret societies inscribed on it.It was the forerunner to the products of the corporate market divisions.
1914 – The First World War, which was supposed to have a negative impact on most companies, could not slow down the movement of the Parker Pen Company. It was during this period that the TRENCH pen was released. This pen was completely unique in its area – it had a compartment for storing black pellets, which, when added to water, turned into ink, giving the soldier the ability to refill the pen while remaining in the trenches.It was in this year that Russell Parker joined his father’s company to focus on manufacturing and specific management areas.
The clip, invented in 1916, has been the hallmark of Parker models for years and is still in use today. In the same year, the JACK KNIFE safety handle was released. This pen was the first to use a new type of safety cap, and in style it was the predecessor of the now famous PARKER DUOFOLD pen.
In 1918, the annual turnover of the Parker Pen Company exceeded $ 1 million for the first time.Doll.
In 1919, Kenneth Parker joined the Parker Pen Company to focus on marketing. In Janesville, construction began on a building to house manufacturing facilities and administrative services. This building served as the corporate headquarters until 1986.
1920 saw the launch of the PARKER MECHANICAL PENCIL mechanical pencil. George Parker completed an extensive tour of Europe, Australia, India and the East, leaving behind new distribution companies.
In 1921, the Parker Pen Company launched its biggest and most striking achievement, the Parker Duofold (or as it was later called, BIG RED). This eye-catching pen, with a sturdy orange barrel, symbolized everything the Roaring Twenties stood for. She was big, cocky, and quite dapper. It was not only the most attractive pen on the market, but at $ 7, it was much more expensive than the average pen on the market at the time.But this price did not frighten buyers, and as a result, the Parker Duofold pen was one of the most popular pens of the 20s, and the term “BIG RED” became almost synonymous with fountain pens of that generation. The Parker Pen Company was so confident in its products that it backed Parker Duofold with a 25-year warranty. Parker Duofold writing instruments are still in production today.
In 1922 Sir Arthur Conan-Doyle, the author of detective stories about the famous Sherlock Holmes, wrote to Lord Molesworth, a member of the Board of Directors of the Parker Pen Company, admitting that in the PARKER DUOFOLD he had finally met a kindred spirit among the pens.
The first manufacturing subsidiary, PARKER, was established in Canada in 1923. In addition, the first PARKER DUOFOLD pencil was launched this year.
In 1924, the first wholly owned distribution company was established in London with the task of dealing with most of the products from Canada. From London, PARKER pens were distributed throughout Europe.
1927 – In an attempt to move away from its traditional reliance on vulcanized rubber, which was somewhat fragile, PARKER introduced an ultra-strong plastic that the company called Permanite.The first pens, identical to the PARKER DUOFOLD SENIOR and named JADE GREEN, MANDARIN YELLOW and LAPIS BLUE, joined the PARKER DUOFOLD family in 1927. The advertising campaign that accompanied the release of PERMANITE included spectacular tricks designed to wow the public. To prove the strength of the handles, they were thrown from the edge of the Grand Canyon and from an airplane flying at 3000 feet (1000 m). By switching to this new high-strength material, PARKER began to give its products an eternal guarantee.PEARL & BLACK pens were released.
In 1931, the Parker Pen Company introduced Quink inks. The ink was marketed as being quick-drying and easy to wash off clothes and hands. Later, an additive was added to Quink ink, which supposedly protected the pen parts from ink corrosion. The effectiveness of this additive has not been proven, some believe that it was nothing more than a marketing ploy.
In 1933, the PARKER VACUMATIC pen was released, another engineering breakthrough.It featured a refueling mechanism that held twice as much ink as the PARKER DUOFOLD, unique for its time. This pen was the market leader in the 30s. It was considered a masterpiece by George Parker, an achievement that crowned his long career as the world’s leading manufacturer of pens. In the same year, New York’s best artist Joseph Platt was commissioned to design the most recognizable trademark of PARKER pens, the eye-catching arrow clip. Since then, the arrow clip has become part of the PARKER corporate logo and a hallmark of the excellence of its writing media worldwide.And in the same 1933 Russell Parker fell ill and soon died. It is said that nothing in the entire life of George Parker shook him as deeply as the death of his son. He changed a lot and became a sad person. In the same year, he retired at the age of 70.
On the morning of Monday July 19, 1937, George Parker died at Billings Hospital in Chicago.
In 1941 the Parker 51 was released. Probably the most recognizable Parker pen of the era, it became a role model and outright forgeries.It was with the Parker 51 pen, owned by Dwight D. Eisenhower, that the capitulation of Germany was signed in 1945, and with the same pen, General MacArthur signed the surrender of Japan. The body of these pens was made of lucite (polymethyl methacrylate). In the same pen, the Aero-metric filler was used for the first time, allowing the pen to be used in airplanes even with pressure drops during takeoff and landing. Parker 51 was produced until 1972.
In 1949, a subsidiary was opened in South Africa.
In 1954, the first high quality PARKER JOTTER ballpoint pen was launched. Thanks to its unusually capacious refill, it wrote more than five times longer than regular ballpoint pens, and its unique revolving nib was far less prone to wear. In the first year of production, over 3.5 million PARKER JOTTER were sold.
In 1957, a textured tungsten carbide ball – T-BALL, as it was later called, was released. It used a unique gorgeous stainless steel sphere that adhered to the surface of the paper to provide drip-free writing.This invention has become an industry standard.
1958 Parker Pen Company opens a subsidiary in Australia.
In 1959 PARKER JET FLIGHTER and PARKER INTERNATIONAL JOTTER were released. New subsidiary established in Argentina.
In 1960, the “Parker 45” model was released, which to this day holds the record as the best-selling fountain pen in the world. In the first 20 years of the release of this model, more than 75 million copies were sold.
1962 PARKER is granted “royal approval” for the exclusive supply of pens and ink to the British royal court. PARKER pens have been and still are used by royalty and government officials around the world. Subsidiaries opened in Peru and Colombia.
In 1964 the “Parker 75” pen was released, the prototype of which was the “VP” model. This model will remain in history as the most commercially successful.It was she who brought Parker the largest profit during production. In the first 5 years, 11 million copies were sold, which brought the company $ 111 million. In this pen, a nib block with an adjustable nib plane angle was applied.
In 1966, the TOUCHE pen was launched. This was to be the first entry for the Parker Pen Company into the Soft Tip (ballpoint / capillary) writing realm.
1968 saw the launch of the SPECIAL EDITION CLASSIC with a pure silver finish.One of the main materials used was the metal of the Atlas launch vehicle, which was used when the first American astronaut was launched into Earth orbit in February 1962. Only 250 of these pens were made, and they were donated to the heads of state of the time. In the same year, the AUTOMATIC MECHANICAL PENCIL, or CARTRIDGE PENCIL, was released, which could write up to 50,000 words.
In May 1968, George Parker’s wife Martha died.
In 1970, the BIG RED pen was released in America.It was a cheap product that reflected the PARKER DUOFOLD style and had interchangeable ballpoint and rollerballs.
On January 27, 1973, former Secretary of State William P. Rogers used the PARKER 75 safety fountain pen to sign the Paris Peace Accords over Vietnam that ended the Vietnam War.
In 1975, the first PARKER roller handle – SYSTEMARK was launched. It used interchangeable ink cartridges with a soft writing element and a plastic nib.This new way of writing featured a fountain pen ink system and a tungsten carbide textured ball, and again PARKER set the industry standard.
1981 – The ARROW collection of writing tools is released, featuring a highly stylized pocket clip.
In 1982, the PARKER VECTOR roller handle was released, which was an immediate success. She was accompanied by the equally successful fountain pen, ballpoint pen and pencil.
In 1983, the PARKER PREMIER luxury writing collection was launched. These handcrafted “works of art” were plated with precious metals and could take up to six weeks to complete. Prices ranged from £ 75 to £ 3,000.
In February 1986, a British group of company managers succeeded in acquiring a majority stake in the Writing Division. The company’s headquarters are relocated to New Haven, England.Despite the global downturn, Parker Pen has increased its turnover by almost 50% in the five years since the acquisition of a controlling interest, which has proven both the effectiveness of the regional managers of the Parker Pen Company and its strategy as a whole. This strategy means launching new products and gradually moving towards the highest market frontier in every sector in which PARKER competes, thus ensuring greater prestige for the entire series.
1987 – this year was interesting with the re-release of the most famous PARKER pen – PARKER DUOFOLD, which appeared under the new name PARKER DUOFOLD CENTENNIAL.This was done to commemorate the upcoming 100th anniversary of the company. As with the pen’s predecessor, it was a huge success. This classic style pen is handcrafted using modern writing technology, which can take up to six weeks. Its sales were so successful that demand again exceeded production. It was this year that US President Reagan and Soviet Secretary General Mikhail Gorbachev used custom-made PARKER 75 pens in pure silver at the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty in Washington.This year, PARKER also launched the PARKER 88. The concept of this pen was influenced by the French fashion center, and it embodies European design with its precious metals, lacquer and epoxy finishes.
In 1988, the Parker Pen Company celebrated its 100th anniversary and PARKER DUOFOLD fountain pens were selected for the Industrial G7 Economic Summit in Toronto, Canada.
In 1989 THE PLATINUM CLUB was formed in the USA and Australia.This club is unique in the writing industry as it offers elite privileges and value-added services to PARKER DUOFOLD pen holders.
1990 – When it comes to the signing ceremonies of historic treaties by world leaders, be it Bush, Reagan, Major or Thatcher, it is the turn of the PARKER pens. It was this year that the PARKER DUOFOLD ballpoint pen was presented to the members of the G7 at the economic summit of the industrialized countries in Houston.It was released in addition to the PARKER DUOFOLD fountain pens used at the previous Economic Summit. This year, the distinctive orange finish of the PARKER DUOFOLD was adopted. The PARKER DUOFOLD collection has been expanded with the worldwide release of the PARKER INTERNATIONAL fountain pen, which is a sleeker, shorter version of the CENTENNIAL fountain pen and roller pen. The ballpoint pen and pencil use an original, elegant brass cup design. These attractive writing implements are made from solid blocks of hand-molded acrylic and edged in 23K gold.Their brilliance, provided by diamond polishing, is not subject to wear, the 18K gold nib is plated with the precious metal ruthenium, and both CENTENNIAL and INTERNATIONAL are offered with 24 nib options. This PARKER DUOFOLD collection was also an immediate success, and again the demand exceeded all expectations.
In 1991, bespoke PARKER 75 roller pens with a sterling silver finish were used by President Bush and Secretary General Mikhail Gorbachev to sign a historic treaty, this time in Moscow.The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty was signed on July 31st using a 22K gold-plated pen topped with a red sapphire star. This year the PARKER DUOFOLD pens are available in gold and sterling silver. The PARKER INSIGNIA collection of ballpoint pens and pencils was released. This technically advanced, meticulously crafted collection has been designed to meet the needs of professionals. PARKER INSIGNIA is available in 10 different finishes.
In 1992, the PARKER DUOFOLD collection was expanded to include the gorgeous PEARL & BLACK pens and the classic black.PARKER has expanded the 88 collection with a number of new colors and has modified the entire collection with black edging.
In 1993, PARKER DUOFOLD roller pens were used again in January by Presidents Bush and Yeltsin to sign the START-2 agreement in Sochi, a Russian city on the Black Sea. 1993 also saw the release of the PARKER SONNET series, another major technical achievement. In addition to this, the PARKER PENMAN series of writing accessories has been launched on the market.
In May 1993, the Parker Pen Company merged with The Gillette Company to become an even more powerful force in the pen industry.
Parker’s Janesville facility closed in 2000.
Currently, the Parker brand is owned by the American company Newell Rubbermaid, Parker products (pens and accessories) are manufactured in Great Britain (Parker Jotter, Parker Vector, Parker Frontier, Parker Duofold, Parker 45 series) and France (Parker Sonnet, Parker IM series).
Parker Manufacturing Date Code System
In mid-1934, Parker pens began to be marked with the production date of their pens. The first manufacturing codes found on Vacumatics, consisting of two digits, with the first representing the quarter of the calendar year and the second representing the year of manufacture. Following the logic of the markings of those years, this nuance must be taken into account. For example, a 45 indicates that the nib was produced in the fourth quarter of 1935, not 1945.
In the second quarter of 1938, the coding system changed. To save production time, a point system was also adopted. The number of points decreased by one every quarter by one, starting from three, that is, the first quarter corresponds to three points, and the fourth – zero (no points). Since these marking systems existed at the same time, copies were issued in the second quarter of 1938 with an imprint of 28 or “.8.” In addition, since the “two-digit” coding system has been in use for over ten years, the knob marked “38” could have been produced in the third quarter of 1938 or 1948.
In 1950, a new system was introduced for the coding date, where two digits indicated only the year of production, the quarter was not subject to marking. Consequently, the code “50” means that the pen was manufactured in 1950. This system was used in the United States until 1955, and in Canada for several years longer.
Experts say that Parker began labeling some of his pens back in 1970. So far, the earliest pen production date code of 1979 is NL, and all of these pens were made in the USA.But evidence of this has not yet been found.
In 1980, Parker officially announced a change in production date marking codes. The code now consisted of two parts – the first letter was taken from the slogan “QUALITY PEN”. Each letter corresponds to the year of production. From 1980 to 1987, after the first letter, the second was put, meaning the quarter: E – the first, C – the second, L – the third, I – the fourth. In 1987, the index of the second part of the code was replaced with Roman numerals and became in the reverse order (descending).In 2000, the index underwent minor changes again, now the quarter and year codes were swapped and separated by a dot.
Ballpoint Pen is … What is a Ballpoint Pen?
Ballpoint pen tip with ball: magnification
Ballpoint pen tip. Video
Drawing with a ballpoint pen. Video
Ballpoint pen – a pen that uses a so-called rod (a tube filled with pasty ink) for writing with a ballpoint pen at the end.The channel through which the ink passes is blocked at the end by a small metal ball, which, when writing, rolls along the surface of the paper, wetting it with ink from the back. The small gap between the ball and the walls allows it to rotate and leave a mark on the paper when rolling. These are the cheapest, simplest and therefore the most common pens. The ink used in ballpoint pens is different from fountain pen ink. It is oil-based and thicker, which prevents it from flowing out of the rod.
The principle of the pen was patented on October 30, 1888 in the USA by John Loud. In the following years, various designs of ballpoint pens were invented and patented: May 3, 1904 – by George Parker, in 1916 – by Van Vechten Reisberg (Van Vechten Reisberg).
The modern ballpoint pen was invented by the Hungarian journalist László József Bíró in 1938. In Argentina, where the journalist lived for many years, such pens are called “biroms” after him.
Originally ordered by the Royal Air Force of Great Britain, as conventional fountain pens were leaking in airplanes from the drop in atmospheric pressure as they climb.
On June 10, 1943, the ballpoint pen was patented in the USA by Milton Reynolds.
In 1953, the Frenchman Marcel Bich improved and simplified the design, getting the cheapest (disposable) ballpoint pen model in production called BIC (Bic Cristal).
Ballpoint pens became widespread in the USSR in the late 1960s, after their mass production began in the fall of 1965 on Swiss equipment  . For quite a long time in Soviet schools, junior schoolchildren were not allowed to use ballpoint pens, considering that it was impossible to develop correct and beautiful handwriting with them.   .This ban gradually came to naught in the 1980s.
There are two main types of ballpoint pens – disposable and refillable.
- Space Pen – Fischer’s space pen
90,000 5 most unusual pens – New Retail
Ballpoint pen was first patented on October 30, 1888. Since then, its design and functionality have undergone many changes.Pens for status, pens for self-defense, and even pens with which you can scribble an indecent word in zero gravity – in our review.
In Russian, the word “pen” has several meanings. They are sometimes touched, if the handle is a lady’s, pulled, if it is a door handle, in moments of despair they reach it, and, of course, they write with it.
A little history
The first analogue of a modern writing pen appeared around the 30th century BC.An ordinary reed stick, a clay tablet – and you’re done.
Much later, from the love of mankind for recording their ingenious and not very thoughts and feelings on paper, parchment and other improvised materials, birds suffered greatly. No wonder the English word pen comes from the Latin penna, that is, the feather of a bird. Geese, swans and turkeys will never forget this. It is good that in the 20th century their suffering came to an end – the bird’s feather left the writing person’s desk forever.
Today we write with felt-tip pens, fountain and capillary pens, gel and rollerball pens and even biopolymer ink pens, but ballpoint pens remain the most popular, cheap and convenient product in this category.
Officially, the invention of the principle of operation of a ballpoint pen dates back to October 30, 1888, when it was patented by John Loud. More than 50 years later, in the late 1930s, a Hungarian journalist Joseph Laszlo Biro, who studied methods of making ball bearings for cars and weapons, received a patent for a similar modern ballpoint pen.
American salesman Milton Reynolds, while traveling in Argentina, bought several of these pens on the street, thought about it, made inquiries and – bingo! Entry with goods to the American market was just free.A little later, Reynolds flooded the United States with comfortable handles, patenting this useful invention there and setting up its production.
Interestingly, Reynolds’ pen was marketed as “the first fountain pen that writes underwater.” Practicality, cheapness and fantastic slogan made it very popular among Americans. For example, one of the departments of a large New York department store sold more than 10,000 pens during lunch on October 29, 1945.
Later, the Frenchman Marcel Beek earned millions in the production and sale of ballpoint pens.He created the cheapest model to manufacture and modestly named it – BIC. This product laid the foundation for the BIC Corporation, which currently controls a third of the American ballpoint pen market.
In a word, since October 30, 1888, a long way has been passed. It is clear that producing the same ballpoint pen for 126 years is both boring and unprofitable. Therefore, retail never ceases to amaze the consumer with the unexpected design and functionality of such a familiar subject, familiar from the first grade of school.
The Limited Edition Mystery Masterpiece. 730 thousand dollars – and it is yours. The pen, which is as expensive as a comfortable pleasure yacht, is a collaboration between Montblanc and Van Cleef & Arpels. According to the creators, this is “a real masterpiece of jewelry art.” We readily believe, because where else can 840 diamonds and more than 20 carats of other precious stones, secured by the secret technology of Van Cleef & Arpel, go?
The most brilliant
The frame of the La Modernista Diamonds pen from the Swiss company Caran d’Ache took 5,072 diamonds, but even it cannot compete in price with The Limited Edition Mystery Masterpiece.The cost of the most diamond pen in the world is “only” 265 thousand dollars. In addition to diamonds, the handle, made by hand by master Robert Perron in 6 months of continuous work, is adorned with 96 rubies of 32 carats.
The most cosmic
A special feature of the Space Pen ballpoint pen, created by Fisher Spacepen Co., is that the ink is inside a special pressurized cartridge. Therefore, it can be written in zero gravity, as well as on wet and oily paper, at any angle, in extreme weather conditions and even under water.
Interestingly, the inventor Paul Fisher spent over $ 1 million on the development of the pen. Later, NASA became interested in his project, which now supplies the Space Pen to the participants of the Apollo project. True, the current price for Fischer’s fountain pen is only $ 6.
The most combatant
In the early 2000s, the so-called “tactical pens”, which are made of titanium, aluminum or stainless steel, became widespread throughout the world.With this object, you will surely not disappear face to face with danger on a dark deserted street, since due to the significant thickness of the walls of the case and maximum resistance to any load, this handle can be used as a knuckle duster.
The very first domestic
The main problem with the production of the first ballpoint pen in the USSR was that domestic manufacturers could not create a high-quality batch of very small balls.At first, very arbitrary geometric bodies came out that could not be used in such a precise mechanism as a pen. In addition, the USSR could not derive the ideal ink formula in any way.
But by 1965 the balls began to come out, as expected, spherical in shape, and a solution for ink was found: castor oil + rosin.
Citizens of the USSR began to use pens on a massive scale in the early 70s, despite the initial ban on writing with fountain pens in schools.
Most Popular Today
Ballpoint pens of various shapes and colors of the rainbow are currently produced in the world. Pens are used as a tool for mass advertising marketing, printing company logos on them and presenting them to clients.
The functionality of some pens is simply amazing: pens with combs, bottle openers, laser sights, screwdrivers, calendars, cheat sheets and much more. Human fantasy in this regard simply has no boundaries.
Nowadays it is popular not only to collect pens, but also to decorate their other acquisitions with them. The first art project using fountain pens was launched by Kostas Schuler in 1981. The American attached more than 10 thousand of these stationery to his 300SD Mercedes Benz car! And in general, he amazed the inhabitants of his city with a suit, to which about 300 ballpoint pens were also sewn.
The Japanese gave the world another strange kind of use of pens – pen spinning, or “twisting the handle”.This popular hobby has spread all over the world. Many consider this activity to be absolutely pointless, however, according to fans of penspinning, it develops hand motor skills, finger dexterity and attentiveness.
Tanya Barbotina, who has not yet forgotten how to write by hand
beauty of the world in every frame
1. Despite the fact that the prototype of a ballpoint pen was created in Hungary, Argentina is considered its homeland.
The idea to create a ballpoint pen came from the Hungarian journalist Laszlo-József Biro in the mid-1930s.By the nature of his work, he often visited the printing house. One day, as he watched the rotary press release nearly dry newspaper sheets, he thought it would be great if the fountain pen ink dries as quickly as the ink. Laszlo conducted research and realized that it was not yet possible to develop such a comfortable fountain pen. For ink to dry quickly, it must be thick enough to clog the fountain pen capillary system quickly. But Laszlo didn’t stop there.”If thick ink cannot be used in a regular pen,” he decided, “then some other writing instrument must be invented.” His brother Georg, a chemist, was carried away by his idea, and together they were able to develop a handle of a new design.
The brothers decided to replace the sharp nib with an ink-filled cylinder rod with a freely rotating ball at the end. In the summer of 1938, the prototype ballpoint pen created by the brothers actually turned out to be usable. But the war was coming, and the liberal journalist Laszlo Biro did not want to live in Hungary, which supported the Third Reich.Soon, capturing a prototype pen, he emigrated to Paris, then lived in Spain and, finally, settled in Argentina. In 1940, brother Georg also moved to Argentina, and in the same year, the Hungarian brothers and their Argentine friend Juan Mein, who became an investor in the project, began to prepare for the production of a ballpoint pen. The first pens went on sale in 1942 under the name Birome (a combination of the names Biro and Meyne). It is curious that in Argentina, ballpoint pens of various brands are still called “biom”.Just as we call SUVs “jeeps” and diapers “diapers”.
2. The first ballpoint pens cost more than good fountain pens.
Previously, everything was the other way around: it was ballpoint pens that cost more. But they were bought for the convenience they gave. The pilots appreciated the “biroms” especially highly. Unlike a fountain pen, a ballpoint pen did not flow when raised to a height. As a result, Laszlo and his partners licensed the pen to the Royal Air Force.And soon large American companies began to acquire licenses for the production of ballpoint pens.
3. Laszlo Biro’s partners were not the first to sell a ballpoint pen in the US market.
The story of the conquest of the US market with a ballpoint pen is reminiscent of an action-packed novel. The fact is that in 1943 the American traveling salesman Milton Reynolds, while traveling in Argentina, accidentally bought a “birom”. The enterprising businessman immediately realized that a ballpoint pen would make him rich if he mastered its mass production in America.Returning to his homeland, Reynolds immediately inquired about the pen, patented Biro’s invention in the United States under his own name (before the inventor himself did it) and, without a license, mastered the mass production of a ballpoint pen. When, after a massive advertising campaign on October 19, 1945, the first batch of Reynolds Rocket pens went on sale at the major New York department store Gimbels for $ 12.5, 50 police officers had to be called to keep order. Ten thousand pens were sold out in a few hours!
Laszlo Biro and his American partners were outraged by Reynolds’ impudence.The management of the Eversharp company, which officially bought the license from Biro, filed a lawsuit against Reynolds, but they failed to defend their right to the American patent. Milton Reynolds in court referred to the American patent of John Loud, dated 1888. The Lauda marker, which was similar in design to today’s roll-on deodorant, was designed to apply numbers and marks to the surfaces of burlap, cardboard and boards. Reynolds stated that his pen is a miniature copy of Lauda’s invention, and Biro’s design has nothing to do with it.
4. Due to price wars, a ballpoint pen has fallen in price by 50 times in two years.
For several years, Eversharp and the Reynolds International Pen Company have been fierce competitors. In their quest to dominate the American market, both companies are embroiled in a price war. As a result, in two years the price of ballpoint pens fell from $ 12.5 to 50 cents! Eversharp was able to push the competitor out of the market, but in the end it itself was in dire straits. Moreover, due to the decrease in the cost of ballpoint pens, their quality has also dropped.So in 1951, fountain pens were outselling ballpoint pens in the United States again, as in the old days. The Americans switched to the ball again later, when the expensive and high-quality Parker Jotter ballpoint pen appeared on the market. These pens could write five times longer than the Eversharp models, but retailed for between $ 3 and $ 9.
5. The ballpoint pen triumphed over the fountain pen in America in the mid-1950s.
If in the early 1950s fountain pens and ballpoint pens fought each other with varying success in the market, then in the middle of this decade it became clear that the ballpoint pen had become a leader for a long time.This is partly due to a new player in the market – the company BIC. Its engineers were the first to create a ballpoint pen that, with acceptable quality, sold at a really low price. So, in 1960, BIC pens cost from 29 to 69 cents in America.
6. In the late 1960s, a zero-gravity pen was developed specifically for astronauts.
“After the first launch of astronauts into space, it became clear that conventional ballpoint pens did not work in zero gravity. NASA had to spend five million dollars, six years and 200,000 man-hours on research, and finally a unique zero-gravity pen was created.Russian cosmonauts used a pencil ”. This anecdote has long become bearded, and many continue to believe that this is a real story. There are indeed plausible elements here, but the main anecdote is unreliable: NASA has no direct relation to this invention.
The pen, writing in zero gravity, upside down and at temperatures from minus 45 to plus 200 degrees Celsius, was invented by the American inventor and entrepreneur Paul Fisher. Moreover, his firm Fisher Space Pen Company invested about a million dollars in the invention of the “Fisher space pen”.In 1968, Fischer invited NASA to try his invention. After that, his pen was accepted by the American and Soviet space agencies for further use.
The secret of the Fischer pen is that its tungsten carbide nib is precisely seated in the tip of the nib to prevent leakage. The ink here is thixotropic: solid in its normal state, it liquefies when writing. The ink itself is in a special pressurized nitrogen cartridge that is separated from the ink by a sliding float.By the way, until the second half of the 1960s, astronauts used felt-tip pens or mechanical pencils to write down, while astronauts used ordinary pencils. In the late 1960s, however, astronauts actually began using a special zero-gravity pen.
7. There is a whole independent genre in art – drawings with a ballpoint pen.
On the Internet, you can find impressively realistic drawings made with a ballpoint pen. This is a completely independent genre. By the way, the inventor of the ballpoint pen Laszlo-Jojer Biro himself retired in 1947 and devoted himself to painting.True, he did not become the founder of a new genre: he painted his paintings with a brush. In the video you will see how “master of ink painting” James Mylne paints a portrait of Audrey Hepburn.
Touching concern: 5 main sources of coronavirus infection named | Articles
SARS-Cov-2 loves dry and cool places, scientists have found. Most viruses, according to experts interviewed by Izvestia, are collected by handles of refrigerators in grocery stores.In second place in terms of risk of infection are door handles in public institutions and POS terminals. Next in terms of danger are buttons in elevators, table surfaces in air-conditioned cafes, and, finally, door handles and intercom buttons in residential buildings. The potential for catching an infection exists if you touch the object on which the coronavirus “sits” and then touch your hand to your mouth, nose or lips.
Touch the invisible
Scientists around the world have repeatedly investigated how long SARS-Cov-2 lives on certain surfaces.The general conclusions are as follows: on clothes and wood, this period is about two days, on glass – about four, on stainless steel and plastic – almost a week. Most of the surfaces that people are forced to touch in everyday life are made of these materials.
So far, there is no scientific research confirming cases of COVID-19 infection through contact with infected surfaces. However, it is theoretically possible to become infected in this way if you touch the object on which the virus “sits”, and then touch your hand to your mouth, nose, or rub your eyes.
– Of course, the most infectious surfaces are in polyclinics, hospitals and medical centers where patients with coronavirus come, – said a leading researcher at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology at Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov Roman Zinovkin. – Most likely, they will include door handles, elevator buttons, table surfaces, buttons on information, vending and bank machines.
Photo: Izvestia / Zurab Javakhadze
However, nowadays it is not only medical institutions that pose a danger. The period of active self-isolation has passed, cities began to live in their usual rhythm, people walk, visit public places, keep in touch with each other. Obviously, the more citizens touch a particular surface, the more likely it is that they may be infected.
– It is worth noting that sunlight very quickly kills the virus, it lives longer in the shade, – explained Albert Rizvanov, professor of the Department of Genetics at the Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology of Kazan Federal University (the university is a participant of the project to increase the competitiveness of education “5-100”) Albert Rizvanov …
The period of existence of SARS-CoV-2 on a surface without sunlight at a temperature of 21-24 degrees Celsius and a humidity of 20% is 18 hours, according to the presentation by the US Undersecretary of Homeland Security for Science and Technology William Brian.
Increased humidity and temperature also accelerate the process of eliminating SARS-Cov-2. At a temperature of 21-24 degrees and 80% humidity in the summer sun, the period of inactivation of the virus on surfaces is two minutes.This follows from an analysis by the National Center for Bioprotective Analysis and Countermeasures in Maryland (USA).
Do not touch – it will kill
Thus, the most potentially dangerous surfaces are those that are not exposed to sunlight and located in dry and cool places.
According to Oleg Batishchev, associate professor of the Department of Biophysics and the Department of Physics of Living Systems of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, the ideal surfaces for SARS-Cov-2 are iron and plastic.
Considering these factors, the experts classified refrigerator handles in stores as the most dangerous items, as well as other surfaces that people often touch in rooms with powerful air conditioning.
It should be noted that most air conditioners reduce the level of humidity in the room by about 20%, while not renewing the air in the room at all. The supply of fresh air can be fully ensured only by supply ventilation.
In addition to refrigerator handles in stores and shopping centers, people most often touch the buttons of POS terminals – devices for paying by card. Indoor door handles and elevator buttons in shopping centers and office buildings also serve as breeding grounds for the virus. Slightly lower viral load is carried by surfaces in residential buildings – theoretically there is less viral load based on the total number of people touching these items.
Photo: Izvestia / Pavel Bednyakov
Finally, there is less chance of infection from touching doorphone buttons and doors that are exposed to sunlight.
Thus, first of all, it is worth disinfecting your hands after touching the doors of refrigerators in stores.Next, in terms of the likelihood of infection, are door handles and POS terminals in air-conditioned rooms. In fourth place are buttons in elevators, table surfaces in air-conditioned cafes, and, finally, it is least dangerous to touch door handles and intercom buttons on the street – sunlight quickly leads to the death of the virus.
However, the risk of infection when touching surfaces is not a reason not to leave the house.
– You should perceive your hands as potentially infected and wipe them with a sanitizer or wash them with soap after potentially dangerous contacts , – said Sergey Netesov, Head of the Laboratory of Biotechnology and Virology at the Faculty of Natural Sciences of NSU, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.- In the meantime, have not washed, do not touch their face.
After all, neither the presence of supply ventilation, which renews the air, nor exposure to UV rays, gives one hundred percent protection against infection when touching the surface on which SARS-Cov-2 is located.
Stamped Concrete Tool USA
The range of imported hand tools for working with printed concrete is tailored to meet user needs.
PRINTED CONCRETE TOOL (USA made)
Large starting trowel for concrete (aluminum profile, USA)
Designed for smoothing concrete after laying and grouting a colored layer (fixer) on large areas.
Large finishing trowel for concrete (steel sheet, USA)
Designed for finishing smoothing of a colored layer on large areas.
Swivel arm for large ironers, KraftTool and BonTool (USA)
The bracket attaches to large trowels. Made from durable and lightweight aluminum. Designed to turn the trowel blades using a handle. Allows you to turn the trowel at the desired angle when smoothing concrete.
Large handle for trowel (USA)
Telescopic handle made of durable and lightweight aluminum.
Small starting trowel (wooden), KraftTool (USA)
The trowel is made of durable mahogany wood. Designed for smoothing concrete after laying and grouting a colored layer (fixer) in small areas and in hard-to-reach places (abutment to a wall, stairs, near columns, etc.)
Small finishing trowel (steel, USA)
The trowel is made of blue steel. Designed for smoothing concrete after laying and grouting a colored layer (fixer) in small areas and in hard-to-reach places (abutment to a wall, stairs, near columns, etc.).
Angle trowel (steel, USA)
The trowel is made of stainless steel with a wooden handle.Designed to create a 12mm radius around the edges of concrete slabs, which prevents the edges of printed concrete from chipping during operation and gives a neat appearance.
Corrugated stair tread cutter (steel, Bon Tool USA)
The seam saw is made of stainless steel with a wooden handle. Designed to create tactile grooves at the edge of steps.
Rusting thin (jointing, USA)
Designed for extruding seams or finishing seams immediately after printing a pattern. Constant thickness – 10 mm.
Rusting thick (jointing, USA)
Designed for extruding seams or finishing seams immediately after printing a pattern. Variable thickness from 4 to 20mm.