Pap smear test singapore: 5 Clinics for the Best Pap Smear in Singapore [2021]

Содержание

Pap Test

Eligibility

  • Singaporean or Permanent Resident
  • Women aged 25 to 29
  • Have engaged in sexual intercourse or are sexually active
  • For woman aged 30 and above please refer to HPV Test for more information

 

Frequency

An initial test should be performed once a woman is sexually active. Subsequent Pap test screening should be done at least once every 3 years thereafter.

Preparation

When To Make An Appointment

If you are still menstruating, schedule your Pap test appointment 2 weeks after the start of your menstrual period, up to about a week before your next menstrual period is due. This is the ideal time to have a Pap test when the clearest, cleanest sample of cervical cells can be obtained.

If you have reached menopause, you may schedule a Pap test at any time of the month.

 

Things To Avoid

48 hours before your Pap test, please avoid

  • douching
  • swimming
  • taking a tub bath
  • sexual intercourse
  • lubricants
  • spermicides
  • vaginal creams
  • vaginal medications
  • tampons

These activities or products can irritate the cervix. Avoiding these activities will help ensure adequate cell sample collection. Other factors that may affect Pap test results include infection and the intake of medication such as digitalis and tetracycline.

 

What To Wear For Your Appointment

For your Pap test appointment, please wear a two-piece outfit.

It may also be a good idea to bring along a panty liner or thin sanitary pad as light bleeding or spotting may occur after a Pap test.

 

Where to Get Screened

Get screened at no cost at Singapore Cancer Society Clinic @ Bishan
9 Bishan Place
Junction 8 Office Tower #06-05
Singapore 579837
Tel: 1800-727-3333

 

Make an Appointment

To make an appointment for a Pap test, please complete and submit the following form to us and we will be in touch with you within 3 working days.

 

 

* compulsory fields

In line with the PDPA’s Guidelines and under the Private Hospitals and Medical Clinics (PHMC) Regulations, we are required to maintain accurate, complete and up-to-date medical records with personal particulars, which includes full NRIC numbers.  As such, we will be collecting your full NRIC number for your participation in our screening services.

Procedure

The Pap test is a simple procedure that takes only a few minutes. It can be done in a clinic by a doctor or a nurse.

  1. During the procedure, the woman being examined lies on her back with her knees drawn up and apart.
  2. An instrument called a speculum is inserted into the vagina (birth canal) to expose the cervix, which is the lower end or neck of the uterus that extends into and can be seen via the vagina.
  3. The healthcare professional (doctor or nurse) then uses a small disposable brush or spatula to collect a sample of cells from the outer opening of the cervix. The sample is smeared onto a glass slide or put into a container and sent for analysis.
  4. After removing the speculum, the healthcare professional performs a pelvic examination by gently inserting two gloved fingers into the woman’s vagina while placing his or her other hand on the woman’s abdomen to check on the size, shape and consistency of the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

It is important to remain calm and relaxed during the test. Some women may experience mild discomfort or dull pressure during the Pap test or pelvic examination. However, these procedures should not be painful. Please inform the healthcare professional immediately should you experience any pain.

 

Results

You will receive your Pap test results 4 to 6 weeks after the test is done. Your Pap test result will indicate whether the smear is normal or abnormal.

Like all screening tests, the Pap test is not perfect. Because the Pap test takes a very small sample of cells present in the cervical area, early cell changes will not be detected if the smear does not contain enough abnormal cells. It is possible that the Pap test can result in “false positives” and “false negatives”. A false positive incorrectly indicates that there may be cancer when cancer is not present. A false negative incorrectly indicates that all may be normal when a cancer or pre-cancer abnormality is actually present.

 

Follow-Up Actions

If the results are normal or negative, the laboratory report will be posted to you with an accompanying letter from SCS advising you on the date of your next Pap test.

if the results are abnormal or positive, a nurse from the clinic will call you to make a subsequent appointment to either repeat your Pap test or to follow-up with a doctor for further tests.

Resource

Download the cervical cancer brochure to learn more about cervical cancer screening.

 

5 Clinics for the Best Pap Smear in Singapore [2021]

Did you know that cervical cancer is one of the most common cancer types on the island? That’s why it only makes sense to look out for it by regularly taking the best pap smear in Singapore.

Some symptoms of cervical cancer are not easily visible or sensed — that’s why this screening procedure is crucial: so you can detect the possibility before it’s too late. Early-stage cervical cancer is treatable and you can also get vaccinated to protect yourself against it.

So, if a pap smear is not yet part of your regular health routine, you must include it now. Read our list below to know some of the leading clinics that provide the best pap smear in Singapore so you can be more aware of its causes and risks.

Singapore Cancer Society

BEST FOR  No-cost pap smear test
WEBSITE https://www.singaporecancersociety.org.sg/
ADDRESS 9 Bishan Place Junction 8 Office Tower #06-05 Singapore 579837
CONTACT DETAILS 1800-727-3333
OPERATING HOURS Weekdays and Saturday: 9am–6pm

Singapore Cancer Society is one of the oldest medical centres that specialise in treating cancer. They have a number of screening procedures for cervical cancer, such as their best pap smear in Singapore.

They provide the test at no cost so you can easily access their services. Aside from pap smear, they also have HPV tests for women aged 30 and above as well as vaccination to further prevent the risk of cervical cancer.

Highlights

  • HPV test
  • HPV vaccinations

Raffles Women’s Centre

Raffles Women’s Centre offers a pap smear test that they suggest patients take two weeks after a menstrual period or a week before. That’s because it’s the time when the cervical cells are the clearest and cleanest.

However, if you’ve already reached menopause, you can book an appointment anytime.

Being one of the largest medical hospitals in Singapore, they also have a long list of screening tests and for full prevention, they offer different types of health screening packages for men and women. In this way, you can get the pap smear test along with other exams.

Highlights

  • Basic and enhanced screening packages
  • Affordable costs
  • Health insurance

Obgyn Centre

BEST FOR  Advanced cervical cancer vaccinations
WEBSITE https://obgyncentre.sg/
ADDRESS #11-07 Paragon Medical Suites 290 Orchard Road Singapore 238859
CONTACT DETAILS +65 6235 4188 , +65 9100 3874
OPERATING HOURS Monday to Friday — 9:00am-5:00pm

Saturday — 9:00am–1:00pm

Closed Public Holidays and Sundays

At Obgyn Centre, they provide a comprehensive range of gynaecology services including their best pap smear in Singapore. They conduct regular pap smear tests and they specialise in cervical cancer vaccinations.

They have two of the most effective vaccines that give strong protection against cervical cancer and are also extremely safe. Even women above age 26 can also benefit from the vaccine.

Highlights

  • Different types of vaccinations
  • Ultimate women’s health screening tests

Atlas Pacific Medical

BEST FOR  Affordable screening packages
WEBSITE https://atlaspacificmedical.com/
ADDRESS #01-10 [email protected] 428 River Valley Road 248327
CONTACT DETAILS +6563869098
OPERATING HOURS Monday – 8:30am to 8:00pm

Tuesday to Friday – 8:30am to 2:00pm, 5:00pm to 8:00pm

Sunday – 5:00pm to 8:00pm

Saturday and PH – Closed

Atlas Pacific Medical specialises in sexual health, for which they offer a wide range of health screening tests such as their best pap smear in Singapore.

Along with this procedure is the HPV screening to provide a more inclusive diagnosis and to detect the possibility of risk as early as possible. With their latest HPV vaccine, you can rest assured that the potential risk will be decreased by up to 95%.

Highlights

  • HPV vaccine
  • Women and men’s health screening test

DB Clinic

BEST FOR  Broad range of women’s health care services
WEBSITE https://dbclinic.com.sg/
ADDRESS 290 Orchard Road #14-10 Paragon Medical Centre Singapore 238859
CONTACT DETAILS (+65) 6733 7122
OPERATING HOURS Weekdays: 9am–6pm

Saturday: 9am–1pm

DB Clinic is managed by an experienced medical specialist who focuses on personalised female healthcare services with various health screenings, vaccinations, and more. This includes their best pap smear in Singapore where you can be sure that there’ll be no lasting pain.

They state that an abnormal pap smear result doesn’t immediately mean that you have the possibility of cervical cancer. It can be caused due to an infection or hormonal changes after menopause, so they prescribe antibiotics for hormonal cream to manage it.

Highlights

  • Speciality on sexual health
  • HPV test

And that’s the end of our list of clinics with the best pap smears in Singapore! Have you already decided which clinic you’d want to visit and have a consultation with? If so, then you may let us know why you chose them!

And if you’d like to see more options, you might want to take a look at these best women’s clinics in Singapore. They also provide a fair range of screening tests for overall women’s health.

Pap Smear 101: Overview, Procedure & Results

What is a Pap Smear Screening?

A Pap (Papanicolaou) smear is a screening procedure that checks if there are abnormalities in a woman’s cervix, the lower portion of the uterus (womb) that opens to the vagina. After collecting the cells, the healthcare provider then places them inside a bottle with a special solution for preservation. Once sent to the laboratory, a pathologist will check the cells for abnormalities. A pathologist is a doctor who specialises in laboratory results.

Can a Pap Smear Detect an STD?

Now, given that a Pap test checks for cellular abnormalities in the cervix, you may wonder if it also detects sexually-transmitted diseases. However, that’s not the case. Pap smear results do not tell you if you have STDs; you’ll need other tests for that such as the vaginal wet mount test.

The main objective of a Pap smear is to look for abnormal changes in cervical cells that may be indicative of precancerous cells or early-stage cervical cancer. Through routine Pap tests, women will be able to identify the abnormal cells and treat them in a way that prevents or cures cervical cancer.

Moreover, some doctors recommend “co-testing,” which means that some cells collected during the Pap test will also be tested for the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a major risk factor for cancer of the cervix. However, please note that you can also choose to have HPV testing alone, especially when your Pap smear shows abnormal results.

Who Needs a Pap Smear?

Given that a Pap test detects precancerous cells or cervical cancer, every woman needs it. But, of course, there are certain criteria.

Women who have the following criteria are eligible for a Pap smear in Singapore:

  • 25 to 29 years old
  • Have engaged in sexual intercourse
  • Are sexually active

How Often Should I Get a Pap Smear?

There are several answers to this question, so let’s begin with the general approach: according to the Singapore Cancer Society, you should undergo the Pap smear testing once every 3 years provided that your results do not show abnormalities. In case your doctor sees reasons for it, he or she may recommend that you undergo the test more frequently than once every 3 years.

At the age of 30, you become eligible for the HPV testing, which you can undergo every 5 years; again, provided that you have normal results.

Now your next questions will probably be, do I need Pap smear and HPV testing? Is it possible to get just one of these tests?

Generally, a Pap test is recommended for women ages 25 to 29. Once you reach the age of 30, your doctor will most likely advise you to undergo HPV testing instead.

However, you may also have both tests conducted, together or separately. After all, these tests check for two different things: one looks for abnormal cells while the other identifies the presence of a virus that may predispose you to develop cervical cancer.

Do I Need a Pap Test if I am Not Sexually Active?

Having had sexual intercourse or being sexually active is one of the criteria to undergo Pap smear. Does that mean that you won’t need the test if you haven’t had sex yet or you’re not sexually active?

Experts say that those who haven’t had sex yet or are not sexually active have a lower risk of developing cervical cancer. However, they can still consider having a Pap smear. Doctors explain that while the majority of cervical cancer cases are due to the sexually-transmitted HPV, there are still other risk factors like family history and smoking.

Where Can I Get Pap Smear Screening in Singapore?

You can get a free pap smear in Singapore at Singapore Cancer Society Clinic located at 9 Bishan Place Junction 8 Office Tower #06-05 Singapore 579837.

At a certain cost, you can also undergo a Pap smear at a polyclinic or at a Community Health Assist Scheme General Practitioner clinics or CHAS GP clinics.

Cost of Pap Smear Screenings in Singapore

The cost of Pap smear in Singapore varies, but here’s a general breakdown:

  • $15 for Singaporeans at polyclinics
  • $22.50 for Permanent Residents at polyclinics
  • $2 or $5 at CHAS GP clinics

How Do I Prepare for a Pap Smear?

To prepare for your Pap smear, be sure to book an appointment two weeks after the start of your menstrual period. If that schedule is not possible, try to set the appointment at least a week before your next menstruation. According to reports, it is within this period that the cleanest cervical cell samples can be obtained.

Once you’ve set an appointment, avoid doing the following 48 hours before the procedure:

  • Sexual intercourse
  • Swimming
  • Soaking in a bathtub
  • Using lubricants
  • Applying vaginal spermicides, creams, and medications
  • Using tampons

These activities may alter the results of the Pap test because they can irritate the tissues or wash away abnormal cells.

Furthermore, you are advised to wear a two-piece outfit. It’s also a good idea to bring a sanitary pad or a panty liner as there’s a possibility of light spotting after the Pap test.

What Happens During a Pap Smear?

Now let’s talk about what happens during your Pap smear.

The first part is usually the health interview section, wherein the doctor sits you down to ask you some questions regarding your health, particularly, your reproductive and sexual health. For this reason, it’s wise to prepare the answers to the following common inquiries:

  • Are you pregnant?
  • Are you using any birth control method?
  • Do you smoke?
  • Are you currently taking any medications? How frequently do you take them?
  • When was the first day of your last menstrual period (LMP)? How long did it last?
  • Are you currently experiencing symptoms in your genital region, including light bleeding, itching, burning sensation, or painful sexual intercourse?
  • Have you had any surgery involving your reproductive organs?
  • Is it your first time having the Pap test? If not, then have you had abnormal test results?

After the health interview, the doctor will show you to a room and give you some time to remove your underwear and change into a gown. It’ll also be helpful to empty your bladder. Afterwards, the following will take place:

  1. You’ll be asked to lie on your back on the exam table with your knees bent, and heels supported by stirrups.
  2. Next, the healthcare provider will observe your genital area for notable symptoms such as redness or swelling.
  3. They will then gently insert a lubricated speculum inside your vagina. A speculum is an instrument made of plastic or metal which functions to spread the vaginal walls.
  4. Please note that speculum insertion may cause a little discomfort, but in most cases it’s not painful. At this point, taking deep breaths may help you feel more relaxed.
  5. After visually inspecting your cervix, the healthcare provider will then use a brush or cotton swab to collect cells. During the collection process, you may feel a little pressure, but it usually doesn’t hurt.
  6. Note that cells will be collected into two places of your cervix: the ectocervix, which is the part closest to the vagina, and the endocervix which is closest to the uterus. Doctors also call the endocervix the transformation zone since this is where cervical cancer usually develops.
  7. If the pathologist is available at the moment, the healthcare provider will place the cells on a glass slide to be observed immediately under the microscope. If there’s no pathologist onsite, the provider will place the cells inside a bottle with a special solution to preserve it.

Once the procedure is completed the doctor will give you time to change back into your clothes, and then sit you down to inform you of when the results will be available. If you have additional questions, this is also the best time to ask them.

Besides the possibility of slight spotting, you can go about your day as usual since there are no expected side-effects.

How Long Do Pap Smear Results Usually Take?

The duration it takes to receive your Pap smear result depends on the clinic where you underwent the procedure, but generally, results will be ready within 3 weeks. Some may even take as long as a month and a half.

What Do Pap Smear Results Mean?

In general, there are two types of results: normal or abnormal.

Normal Results

A normal result means the pathologist did not find any abnormal cell in your cervix.

However, please note that while it’s generally the best tool to detect cervical cancer, Pap smear is not always 100% accurate. In a small number of cases, the screening procedure may miss the cancer cells. Furthermore, cancer of the cervix usually develops slowly, so routine testing is necessary.

Abnormal Results

Now, what if your doctor tells you that your results are abnormal; what does it mean? There are 5 possibilities here, and they are as follows:

ASCUS

ASCUS is the most common abnormal Pap smear results; it stands for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. It means the pathologists found some abnormal cells and they may be indicative of an HPV infection, but the changes could also be due to other causes such as inflammation or menopause.

LSIL or HSIL

LSIL stands for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. It means that the pathologist found some cellular changes that may be abnormal; usually, they occur due to HPV infection and go away on their own.

HSIL, on the other hand, stands for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. This usually suggests more serious cellular changes that may indicate precancer or cancer.

ASC

Atypical squamous cells (ASC) means the doctor has discovered suspicious squamous cells that may also include HSIL.

AGC

Atypical glandular cells (AGC) is another abnormal Pap smear result. Glandular cells are common cells in the cervical canal and uterus. This result indicates that the doctor found suspicious glandular cells that may indicate precancer or cancer.

What’s Next After Abnormal Pap Test Results?

After getting abnormal test results, what’s next? The next step actually depends on several factors like your age and the type of abnormal results you got. Some options that your doctor may advise you on are:

  • Repeat Pap Test. This means you need to repeat the test after a designated time. For instance, the doctor may order a repeat Pap smear after just 1 year instead of 3. Please note that it’s not advisable to have a repeat Pap test immediately after the previous one as it may only yield the same results (remember that cervical cancer typically develops slowly).
  • HPV Test. The doctor may also order HPV testing, especially if they suspect that the abnormal cells occurred due to HPV infection.
  • Colposcopy and biopsy. In colposcopy, the doctor will magnify the area where they have identified the abnormal cells and then decide whether biopsy is needed. Biopsy is a procedure wherein the doctor will collect some cells or tissues and check for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), which is a precancerous condition. If it’s present, the biopsy will also be able to determine its grade or severity.

Summary: Pap Smear Test

  • Pap smear is one of the best tools to detect precancer or early-stage cervical cancer. Detecting it early means you’ll have a better chance at good treatment outcomes. 
  • Pap smear is a routine test that should be done once every 3 years, provided that you have normal results.
  • In Singapore, women aged 25 to 29 and those who have had sexual intercourse or are sexually-active are eligible for the Pap test. You can get the test done at Singapore Cancer Society Clinic at Bishan for free, or at polyclinics or CHAS GP clinics at a fee.
  • Normal results mean the pathologist didn’t see any abnormal cells or changes. In case of abnormal results, the doctor will most likely order a repeat test, HPV testing, or colposcopy and biopsy.

Wish to get health screening done at home or need care support for a loved one with cancer? Homage can help. Call 6100 0055 to find out more.

References

  1. Abnormal cervical cancer screening test results. (n.d.). value is what Coveo indexes and uses as the title in Search Results.–> ACOG. https://www.acog.org/womens-health/faqs/abnormal-cervical-cancer-screening-test-results
  2. HPV test. (n.d.). Singapore Cancer Society. https://www.singaporecancersociety.org.sg/get-screened/cervical-cancer/hpv-test.html#frequency
  3. Pap smear: Do I need one if I’m a virgin? (2020, April 22). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved December 28, 2020, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/pap-smear/expert-answers/pap-smear/faq-20057782
  4. Pap test. (2019, January 9). Cancer.Net. Retrieved December 27, 2020, from https://www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/diagnosing-cancer/tests-and-procedures/pap-test
  5. Pap test. (n.d.). Singapore Cancer Society. Retrieved December 28, 2020, from https://www.singaporecancersociety.org.sg/get-screened/cervical-cancer/pap-test.html#eligibility
  6. Pap test: MedlinePlus medical encyclopedia. (n.d.). MedlinePlus – Health Information from the National Library of Medicine. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003911.htm
  7. We Can Protect Ourselves Against Cervical Cancer. (n.d.). HealthHub. Retrieved December 28, 2020, from https://www.healthhub.sg/sites/assets/Assets/Programs/nccp/docs/Cervical_Cancer_Screening_Eng.pdf

Pap Smear Singapore – Free & Cheap Screening for Cervical Cancer

Considering that 300 women in Singapore get diagnosed with cervical cancer every year, it’s amazing that there are still lots of women who don’t go for frequent Pap smears.

We don’t mean to sound like a naggy health textbook, but regular Pap smears are crucial for detecting cervical cancer early, because it tends to not exhibit symptoms until it’s too late. Early stage cervical cancer is highly treatable. You can even get vaccinated against cervical cancer with the HPV vaccine!

Come on, people – there’s no reason for cervical cancer to be the 5th most common cancer in Singapore.

In this article we’ll cover what cervical cancer is, how Pap smears work, and (most importantly) where to get a Pap smear done for free or very cheaply in Singapore.

 

What is cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is cancer that occurs in the cervix, which is the bottom-most bit of the uterus, the part that joins it up to the vagina. It happens when the cells in the lining of the cervix begins to grow abnormally and uncontrollably.

The number 1 cause of cervical cancer is HPV (Human Papillomavirus), which accounts for 70% of cervical cancers. HPV is extremely easy to contract. As long as you’ve had sex, even if you’ve only had one sexual partner, even if you have been practicing protected sex, you’re vulnerable to HPV. However, you can get vaccinated against it.

Early stage cervical cancer is virtually symptomless. Pre-invasive cancer often occurs in women in their late 20s to 30s. If left untreated, they can become pre-cancerous lesions, and then invasive cancer. It’s only at the advanced stage that there are symptoms such as abnormal bleeding from the vagina and pelvic pain.

 

How do Pap smears work?

Pap smears (short for Papanicolaou test) help detect cervical cancer in its early stages, where its easier to treat with surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and you have a stronger chance of survival.

During a Pap smear, the doctor inserts a speculum (a duck-bill shaped instrument) into the vagina, and takes a swab of sample cells from the cervix. The procedure is painless, though it is slightly uncomfortable.

Your cells are then examined for abnormalities. An abnormal result doesn’t necessarily mean you have cervical cancer though. It just means it’s something that warrants further evaluation by a doctor. This is done through a colposcopy, where the doctor examines the cervix with a microscope to confirm if it’s cervical cancer.

An infection or the thinning of the skin of the cervix after menopause can result in an abnormal Pap smear result, too.

Sexually active women should go for Pap smears from the age of 25 all the way until 65. Because cervical cancer cells grow very slowly, you only need to go for a Pap smear once every 3 years.

 

Can you get a free Pap smear in Singapore?

There are precious few good things in life that you can get for free, and the Pap smear is one of them. Hooray!

You can get a completely free Pap smear by calling the Singapore Cancer Society at 1800 727 3333 to arrange an appointment.

Alternatively, you can get a Pap smear done for next-to-nothing thanks to the Health Promotion Board. As long as you’re a woman above 25 years old, you can get it done at $5 (Singapore citizen) or $12.25 (PR). You can check your eligibility for the $5 Pap smear here.

Cost of Pap smear Who is eligible
Free Anyone. Call Singapore Cancer Society at 1800 727 3333 to arrange
$2 Subsidised rate for CHAS card holders
$5 Women above 25 (Singaporeans)
$12.25 Women above 25 (PRs)

 

Where else can you do Pap smears & how much do they cost?

Even if you don’t go for the subsidised/free Pap smears above, they probably cost less than you think. You can also pay for your Pap smear with Medisave, so it won’t even be an out-of-pocket expense.

You can get one done almost anywhere: polyclinics, private GPs, gynaecology clinics, and public and private hospitals. Many women prefer to do it at a gynaecology clinic, or request a female doctor at the GP.

Here’s a list of sample Pap smear prices in Singapore:

Where Cost of Pap smear
Polyclinic $15 (Singaporean) / $22.50 (PR) *
AcuMed Medical Group (GP) $20
KKH Women’s and Children’s Hospital $32.50 to $65 (Singaporean) / $48.75 to $65 (PR)
Sidek Clinic for Women (gynae) $40 to $80
Asia HealthPartners (GP) $53.50
Kensington Family Clinic (GP) $60
Lisa Wong Women & Gynae Oncology Centre (gynae) $60
Dr Tan and Partners (gynae clinic) $70
Mt Elizabeth Hospital $60 to $150

*$40.75 if done less than 3 years after your 1st Pap smear

Some choices in life are complicated, but the Pap smear is one of those rare no-brainers. It costs you almost nothing to get tested. Yet it can cost you everything if you put it off.

Yes, it involves the doctor sticking something up there, but it’s only a few seconds of discomfort, and you only have to do it every 3 years. Don’t you think your life is worth it?

Have you ever gotten a Pap smear? Which clinic would you recommend? Tell us in the comments.

 

Pap Smear Singapore, Pap Smear – Womens-health.sg

8 Pap Smear Tips by a female doctor in Singapore. Want to know more about the Pap Smear exam? Here’s everything you need to know about this essential test for women.

Pap Smears (Pap Test) – What every woman wants (and needs) to know!

1. What is a pap smear?

A pap smear test is a simple screening test for cervical cancer in ladies.

2. How is a pap smear done?

A Pap test can be performed by most doctors.

Your doctor will start the examination by positioning you on your back, on a patient examination bed.

A device known as a speculum will be inserted into the vaginal opening, to allow your doctor to see the cervix.

The cervix sits at the top of the vaginal canal.

Speculum

Your doctor will then use a soft tipped brush to gently brush the surface of the cervix – this allows for the collection of cervical cells.

Cyto-brush

These cells will be placed into a special collection fluid, to be taken to the laboratory.

Cervical cells will be examined under the microscope for any cancerous, or pre-cancerous changes.

Your doctor will inform you if your test shows abnormal cells, and advise you on further management.

3. Who should get a pap smear?

If you have had any previous sexual intercourse, you should start having pap smear tests.

4. How often do I need a pap smear?

Pap smear tests should be performed once every 3 years as a minimum.

Your doctor may advise you to have your pap smear tests more regularly, if you have risk factors for cervical cancer, or have a history of an abnormal pap smear.

5. When should I get a pap smear?

It is not advisable to have the pap smear done while you are on your period.

Please ensure that your bleeding has completely stopped before seeing your doctor for this test.

6. Is the pap smear painful?

Some women may experience mild discomfort during the pap exam.

Speak to your doctor prior to the test if you have any concerns about the pap test.

Pap smear test should not cause you significant pain. If you experience significant discomfort at any point during the pap examination, do inform your doctor.

7. Do I need the pap smear even if I have no symptoms and feeling healthy?

Yes!

Cervical cancer in its early stages may not present with any symptoms at all.

Early detection with a pap smear is the best way to protect yourself against cervical cancer.

8. Do I still need a pap smear if I have had my Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccines?

Yes!

While vaccination significantly reduces the risk of cervical cancer, it does not protect against all the cancer-causing strains of Human papillomavirus (HPV).

Therefore, you are still at risk of cervical cancer even after completing vaccinations.

Learn more about HPV Vaccination in Singapore

REMEMBER: The Causes and risk factors for cervical cancer include Human PapillomaVirus (HPV) infection, smoking, taking birth control pills, having multiple sexual partners, and engaging in early sexual contact. Typically, cervical cancer develops slowly over a period of several years, and not every woman will experience symptoms. Therefore, screening with pap smears is the most effective way of protecting yourself against cervical cancer.

Join Our Women’s Health Forum For More Discussion!


Having Women’s Health concerns? Please visit us or contact us at our Women’s Clinic in Singapore. We are open on weekends too.

1. Dr Tan and Partners @Duo Galleria

Main Doctor: Dr Michelle Chia

Address:
7 Fraser Street
B3-18, DUO Galleria (Bugis MRT, Exit E)
Singapore 189356

Telephone: +65 6976 5023

Operating Hours:
Monday, Wednesday & Thursday
9.00am – 5.00pm

Tuesday & Friday
9.00am – 8.00pm

Saturday
9.00 am – 1.00 pm

Sunday and Public Holidays – Closed


2. Dr Tan and Partners @Robertson

Main Doctor: Dr Grace Huang

(Anonymous HIV Testing is available daily too)

Address:
11 Unity Street,
#02-06/07, Robertson Walk
Singapore 237995

Telephone:  +65 6238 7810

Operating Hours:
Monday – Friday
8.00am – 9.00pm

Saturday
9.00 am – 9.00 pm

Sunday
9.00 am – 2.00 pm

Public Holidays – Closed


women’s clinic

Pap Smear Singapore Guide – How to Get Screened for Cervical Cancer (for Free!)

Pap Smear Singapore Guide – How to Get Screened for Cervical Cancer (for Free!)

Considering that 300 women in Singapore get diagnosed with cervical cancer every year, it’s amazing that there are still lots of women who don’t go for frequent Pap smears.

We don’t mean to sound like a naggy health textbook, but regular Pap smears are crucial for detecting cervical cancer early, because it tends to not exhibit symptoms until it’s too late. Early stage cervical cancer is highly treatable. You can even get vaccinated against cervical cancer with the HPV vaccine!

Come on, people – there’s no reason for cervical cancer to be the 5th most common cancer in Singapore.

In this article we’ll cover what cervical cancer is, how Pap smears work, and (most importantly) where to get a Pap smear done for free or very cheaply in Singapore.

What is cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is cancer that occurs in the cervix, which is the bottom-most bit of the uterus, the part that joins it up to the vagina. It happens when the cells in the lining of the cervix begins to grow abnormally and uncontrollably.

The number 1 cause of cervical cancer is HPV (Human Papillomavirus), which accounts for 70% of cervical cancers. HPV is extremely easy to contract. As long as you’ve had sex, even if you’ve only had one sexual partner, even if you have been practicing protected sex, you’re vulnerable to HPV. However, you can get vaccinated against it.

Early stage cervical cancer is virtually symptomless. Pre-invasive cancer often occurs in women in their late 20s to 30s. If left untreated, they can become pre-cancerous lesions, and then invasive cancer. It’s only at the advanced stage that there are symptoms such as abnormal bleeding from the vagina and pelvic pain.

How do Pap smears work?

Pap smears (short for Papanicolaou test) help detect cervical cancer in its early stages, where its easier to treat with surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and you have a stronger chance of survival.

During a Pap smear, the doctor inserts a speculum (a duck-bill shaped instrument) into the vagina, and takes a swab of sample cells from the cervix. The procedure is painless, though it is slightly uncomfortable.

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Your cells are then examined for abnormalities. An abnormal result doesn’t necessarily mean you have cervical cancer though. It just means it’s something that warrants further evaluation by a doctor. This is done through a colposcopy, where the doctor examines the cervix with a microscope to confirm if it’s cervical cancer.

An infection or the thinning of the skin of the cervix after menopause can result in an abnormal Pap smear result, too.

Sexually active women should go for Pap smears from the age of 25 all the way until 65. Because cervical cancer cells grow very slowly, you only need to go for a Pap smear once every 3 years.

Can you get a free Pap smear in Singapore?

There are precious few good things in life that you can get for free, and the Pap smear is one of them. Hooray!

You can get a completely free Pap smear by calling the Singapore Cancer Society at 1800 727 3333 to arrange an appointment.

Alternatively, you can get a Pap smear done for next-to-nothing thanks to the Health Promotion Board. As long as you’re a woman above 25 years old, you can get it done at $5 (Singapore citizen) or $12.25 (PR). You can check your eligibility for the $5 Pap smear here.

Cost of Pap smear

Who is eligible

Free

Anyone. Call Singapore Cancer Society at 1800 727 3333 to arrange

$2

Subsidised rate for CHAS card holders

$5

Women above 25 (Singaporeans)

$12.25

Women above 25 (PRs)

Where else can you do Pap smears & how much do they cost?

Even if you don’t go for the subsidised/free Pap smears above, they probably cost less than you think. You can also pay for your Pap smear with Medisave, so it won’t even be an out-of-pocket expense.

You can get one done almost anywhere: polyclinics, private GPs, gynaecology clinics, and public and private hospitals. Many women prefer to do it at a gynaecology clinic, or request a female doctor at the GP.

Here’s a list of sample Pap smear prices in Singapore:

Where

Cost of Pap smear

Polyclinic

$15 (Singaporean) / $22.50 (PR) *

AcuMed Medical Group (GP)

$20

KKH Women’s and Children’s Hospital

$32.50 to $65 (Singaporean) / $48.75 to $65 (PR)

Sidek Clinic for Women (gynae)

$40 to $80

Asia HealthPartners (GP)

$53.50

Kensington Family Clinic (GP)

$60

Lisa Wong Women & Gynae Oncology Centre (gynae)

$60

Dr Tan and Partners (gynae clinic)

$70

Mt Elizabeth Hospital

$60 to $150

*$40.75 if done less than 3 years after your 1st Pap smear

Some choices in life are complicated, but the Pap smear is one of those rare no-brainers. It costs you almost nothing to get tested. Yet it can cost you everything if you put it off.

Yes, it involves the doctor sticking something up there, but it’s only a few seconds of discomfort, and you only have to do it every 3 years. Don’t you think your life is worth it?

Have you ever gotten a Pap smear? Which clinic would you recommend? Tell us in the comments.

Related articles

Your Medisave Account In Singapore – How To Make The Most Of It

Health Screening in Singapore – How Much Does a Comprehensive Health Screening Cost?

Birth Control in Singapore – Cost Guide to Contraception Options

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Don’t Wait Till It’s Too Late, Here Are Some Affordable Health Screening Options For Women!

As much as we can insure ourselves to tide us through periods of unemployment and bad health, we can’t buy our way to health.

That’s why it’s always about maintaining a healthy lifestyle, complemented with prevention and early detection!

Source: giphy

Even if you lead a really healthy lifestyle, some conditions are hereditary and can be picked up early through routine screening.

It’s also human nature to have the “I’m not that unlucky” mindset, which might delay your decisions to go for health screening.

I mean, we all don’t want to be ill.

But all it takes is a few hours for peace of mind.

In some cases, it’s a few hours in exchange for early treatment.


TL;DR – Affordable Health Screening Options For Women

There are many clinics offering health screening services for women, but some of them can be quite costly or are offered as packages.

On top of your basic health screenings and tests, there are a few additional screenings that you should go for as a woman:

  • Pap Smear
  • HPV Test
  • Mammogram

The Singapore Cancer Society Clinic offers the above screening services for free for Singaporeans, provided that you’ve met their eligibility conditions.

As part of the Screen for Life programme by the Health Promotion Board (HPB), selected CHAS clinics and polyclinics offer these screening services at highly-subsidised rates to encourage Singaporeans to go for regular screenings.


What Are Some Recommended Health Screenings For Women?

Source: giphy

There are some standard tests that are recommended at different stages, regardless of your gender and those tests should be included in most, if not all, basic health screening packages.

Regular screenings are recommended for the following conditions:

  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • High Blood Pressure
  • High Blood Cholesterol
  • Colorectal Cancer (a.k.a colon cancer)

However, as women, we are also at risk for cervical cancer and breast cancer. Similarly, routine screening for these conditions can also help in early detection and successful treatment.


Papanicolaou Test, a.k.a. Pap Smear – Cervical Cancer

Do I Need To Go For A Pap Smear?

More commonly known as the Pap Smear, this test takes a sample of cells from your cervix to detect any cell changes in the cervix, which is a potential sign of cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer was ranked the 10th most common cancer among women, based on a report by Singapore Cancer Registry done in 2015.

Women who are aged 25 – 29 years old and are sexually active are recommended to take the Pap Smear.

Those of you who are vaccinated against the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), which is one of the main causes of cervical cancer, don’t think you can skip this!

There are other subtypes of HPV that your vaccination does not protect you against, so you are still recommended to have your Pap smears even though you are vaccinated against the HPV.

How Often Do I Have To Go For A Pap Smear?

As early detection is key, you are encouraged to go for a Pap Smear once every 3 years.

What Are The Affordable Options?

A regular Pap smear test will typically cost you around $50 – $100 per test.

Clinic Eligibility Conditions Cost
Singapore Cancer Society
Clinic @ Bishan
25 – 29 year old,
sexually active female
Singapore Citizens $0
Permanent Residents
Selected CHAS Clinics 25 years old
& above
Pioneer Generation $0
Merdeka Generation
(from 1 Nov 2019)
$2
Blue & Orange Health Assist (CHAS)
Card Holders
$2
Singapore Citizens $5
Permanent Residents $18
(excl. GST)
All Polyclinics Singapore Citizens $15
Permanent Residents $22.50
(excl. GST)

Besides, if you have previously purchased insurance plans designed specifically for women and are eligible for a complimentary health checkup every 2 years, which includes a Pap smear.

You’ll need to make an appointment regardless of which clinic you visit, just remember that you should not schedule your Pap Smear during your menstrual period.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Test – Cervical Cancer

Do I Need To Take A HPV Test?

Similarly, the HPV test collects a sample of cells from your cervix to test for the presence of the DNA of high-risk cancer-causing HPV strains.

In 2019, the Ministry of Health has recommended the HPV test as the new primary screening for cervical cancer for women who are 30 years and above. 

Likewise, even if you have previously taken your HPV vaccination, you are also encouraged to take the HPV test as the vaccination does not protect against all subtypes.

How Often Do I Have To Go For A HPV Test?

For the HPV test, you are encouraged to take it once every 5 years.

What Are The Affordable Options?

Clinic Eligibility Conditions Cost
Singapore Cancer Society
Clinic @ Bishan
30 year old & above Singapore Citizens $0
Permanent Residents
Selected CHAS Clinics 25 years old & above Pioneer Generation $0
Merderka Generation
(from 1 Nov 2019)
$2
Blue & Orange Health Assist
(CHAS) Card Holders
$2
Singapore Citizens $5
Permanent Residents $73
All Polyclinics Singapore Citizens $22.50
Permanent Residents $33.75

As the recommendation was only pushed out in 2019, it seems that the insurance companies have yet to include the HPV test in their complimentary health screening.

As your HPV test is done in a similar fashion as a Pap smear, do remember to make an appointment and avoid your menstrual period.

Mammogram – Breast Cancer

Do I Need To Go For A Mammogram?

A mammogram is the primary screening tool for breast cancer for women who are not displaying any symptoms, using low-dose x-rays to examine the breasts.

Women who are 40 years old and above are advised to go for mammogram screenings for early detection.

How Often Do I Have To Go For A Mammogram?

Even though it is advisable for women from age 40 – 49 to go for a mammogram once a year, there are limitations to the tool, hence, you should consult your doctor and see if it is suitable for you.

Otherwise, women aged 50 years and above are recommended to go for a mammogram once every 2 years.

If any of your immediate family members have breast cancer and you are 30 to 39 years old, you should also consult a doctor for advice before proceeding with any screening.

What Are The Affordable Options?

A mammogram will typically cost you upwards of $100, but there are many clinics offering subsidised rates for Singaporeans.

Depending on the tier of insurance plan you purchased, some companies offer mammograms as part of your complimentary health screening.

Don’t worry, your mammogram screenings can also be covered by your MediSave at approved clinics.


It’s common that we forget to take care of ourselves, especially if you have a family to look after or a very busy lifestyle.

But it doesn’t take too much time to go online or make a call to schedule an appointment for the screenings that apply to you.

Set a reminder if you’re worried that you won’t remember since these screenings are done so far apart.

Taking care of yourself is also taking care of your loved ones too. 

Ask questions on health insurance here!

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Single Line Text

Pap: Russian translation, definition, meaning, synonyms, pronunciation, transcription, antonyms, examples | English – Russian Translator

So I perform free blood work, Pap smears.

So I’m doing free blood, Pap smears.

Now re-elected, the PAP will continue to deprive Singaporeans of their civil and political rights.

Once re-elected, the PAP will continue to strip Singaporeans of their civil and political rights.

‘scream the outraged teenagers … Only a completely non-critical audience, nourished on the watery pap of pop music, could have fallen for such tenth-rate drivel.

– shout outraged teenagers … Only a completely uncritical audience, feeding on the watery pop of pop music, could fall for such a ten-grade nonsense.

PAP authentication is only done at the time of the initial link establishment, and verifies the identity of the client using a two-way handshake.

PAP authentication is performed only during the initial handshake and verifies the identity of the client using a two-way handshake.

The finding of coccoid bacteria on a Pap test is of no consequence with otherwise normal test findings and no infectious symptoms.

The detection of coccoid bacteria on a Pap smear is irrelevant if the test results are normal and there are no infectious symptoms.

The PAP’s victory was at first viewed with dismay by foreign and local business leaders because some party members were pro-communists.

The PAP victory was initially received with dismay by foreign and local business leaders, because some of the party members were pro-communists.

Chua Chu Kang GRC is both led by Health Minister and current PAP chairman Gan Kim Yong and Senior Parliamentary of State and Mayor for South West CDC Low Yen Ling.

Chua Chu Kang GRC is chaired by Health Minister and current PAP chairman Gan Kim Yong, as well as Senior State Parliament and Southwest CDC Mayor Low Yen Ling.

As Fengshan merged with East Coast GRC, the notional result in 2015 with the two constituencies’ 2015 votes combined is PAP 60.11%, WP 39.89%.

Since Fengshan merged with the East Coast GRC, the 2015 notional result with the combined votes of the two counties in 2015 was 60.11% PAP and 39.89% WP.

The PAP XML contains at the minimum, a element, a element, and an element.

PAP XML contains at least an element, an element, and an element.

Despite these ill omens, the PAP government embarked on a vigorous program to address Singapore’s various economic and social problems.

Despite these bad omens, the MHP government has embarked on a vigorous program to tackle Singapore’s various economic and social problems.

The Pap test can be used as a screening test, but produces a false negative in up to 50% of cases of cervical cancer.

The Pap test can be used as a screening test, but gives false negative results in up to 50% of cervical cancers.

The RADIUS server checks that the information is correct using authentication schemes such as PAP, CHAP or EAP.

The RADIUS server validates the information using authentication schemes such as PAP, CHAP, or EAP.

The Malaysia proposal ignited the long-brewing conflict between the moderates and pro-communists in the PAP.

Malaysia’s proposal sparked a long-standing conflict between moderates and pro-communists in the PAP.

PAP was the standard way of communicating with PostScript printers.

PAP was the standard way to communicate with PostScript printers.

The PAP called for a Malaysian Malaysia, that favored all Malaysians, rather than specific ethnic groups.

The PAP calls for Malaysian Malaysia, which stands for all Malaysians, and not for individual ethnic groups.

The new Chief Minister, Lim Yew Hock, launched a crackdown on communist and leftist groups, imprisoning many trade union leaders and several pro-communist members of the PAP under the Internal Security Act.

New Chief Minister Lim Yoo Hock launched a crackdown on communist and leftist groups by imprisoning many union leaders and several pro-communist PAP members under the Internal Security Law.

Additional capability of PAP can be found in the PAP article.

For more PAP features, see the PAP article.

Despite their successes in governing Singapore, the leaders of the PAP, including Lee and Goh, believed that Singapore’s future lay with Malaya.

Despite their successes in governing Singapore, PAP leaders, including Lee and Go, believed that the future of Singapore lay with Malaya.

In the general election of 7 May 2011, the PAP saw a 6.46% swing downwards to 60.14%, its lowest since independence.

In the general election on May 7, 2011, the PAP saw a 6.46% decline to 60.14%, the lowest since independence.

Pap tests can usually be performed during pregnancy up to at least 24 weeks of gestational age.

Pap tests can usually be done during pregnancy up to 24 weeks of gestation.

Adenocarcinoma of the cervix has not been shown to be prevented by Pap tests.

A Pap test has not shown that cervical adenocarcinoma can be prevented.

Despite their successes in governing Singapore, the PAP leaders, including Lee and Goh, believed that Singapore’s future lay with Malaya.

Despite their successes in governing Singapore, PAP leaders, including Lee and Guo, believed that the future of Singapore lay with Malaya.

As Secretary-General, Goh led the PAP to three general election victories in 1991, 1997, and 2001, in which the party won 61%, 65% and 75% of the votes respectively.

As secretary general, Goh led the PAP to three general elections in 1991, 1997 and 2001, in which the party received 61%, 65% and 75% of the vote, respectively.

Those with a history of endometrial cancer should discontinue routine Pap tests after hysterectomy.

Those with a history of endometrial cancer should discontinue routine Pap tests after hysterectomy.

Pap tests have not been as effective in developing countries.

Pap tests are not as effective in developing countries.

After childbirth, it is recommended to wait 12 weeks before taking a Pap test because inflammation of the cervix caused by the birth interferes with test interpretation.

After giving birth, it is recommended that you wait 12 weeks before taking a Pap test, as the inflammation of the cervix caused by childbirth interferes with the interpretation of the test.

Micrograph of a Pap test showing trichomoniasis.

Micrograph of a Pap smear showing trichomoniasis.

More frequent Pap smears may be needed to follow up after an abnormal Pap smear, after treatment for abnormal Pap or biopsy results, or after treatment for cancer.

More frequent Pap smears may be required for follow-up after an abnormal Pap smear, after treatment for abnormal Pap smears or biopsy, or after cancer treatment.

The provincial government has several programs for early illness detection, including mammography and pap screening clinics.

The provincial government has several early detection programs, including mammography and Pap screening clinics.

In the United States, about 2-3 million abnormal Pap smear results are found each year.

About 2-3 million abnormal Pap smears are found each year in the United States.

In screening a general or low-risk population, most Pap results are normal.

When screened in the general or low-risk population, most Pap tests are normal.

Pap smear screening is still recommended for those who have been vaccinated against HPV since the vaccines do not cover all HPV types that can cause cervical cancer.

Pap smear screening is still recommended for those who have been vaccinated against HPV because vaccines do not cover all types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer.

In Taiwan, most middle- and upper-class people have access to the Pap test and can choose to have one done annually.

In Taiwan, most middle and upper class people have access to the Pap test and can do it annually.

Endocervical adenocarcinoma on a pap test.

Endocervical adenocarcinoma on the Pap test.

The PAP’s victory was viewed with dismay by foreign and local business leaders.

The victory of the PAP was received with alarm by foreign and local businessmen.

Viral cytopathic effect consistent with herpes simplex virus on a pap test.

The cytopathic effect of the virus corresponds to the herpes simplex virus with the Pap test.

Faced with the prospect of a takeover by the pro-communist wing of the PAP, UMNO did an about-face on the merger.

Faced with the prospect of a takeover by the pro-communist wing of the PAP, UMNO sharply changed its mind about the merger.

PAP leaders believed that Singapore’s future lay with Malaya, due to strong ties between the two.

The PAP leaders believed that the future of Singapore was tied to Malaya because of the close ties between them.

In the Microsoft implementation, the tunneled PPP traffic can be authenticated with PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP v1 / v2.

In Microsoft’s implementation, tunneled PPP traffic can be authenticated using PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP v1 / v2.

Lee was the chairman of the PAP Youth Committee, the predecessor to the Young PAP, when it was established in 1986.

Lee was the chairman of the PAP Youth Committee, the predecessor of the Young PAP, when it was founded in 1986.

Micrograph of a Pap test showing changes of herpes simplex virus.

A photomicrograph of a Pap smear showing changes in the herpes simplex virus.

Police obtained a warrant to test a pap smear taken from Rader’s daughter at the Kansas State University medical clinic.

Police received a warrant to check a Pap smear taken from the raider’s daughter at the Kansas State University medical clinic.

PAP also provided for out-of-band status queries, handled by separate ATP transactions.

PAP also provides out-of-band status requests that are handled by separate ATP transactions.

Jinekolojik Kanserlerden Düzenli Tarama İle Korunun Bayındır Sağlık Grubu

The most common types of cancer of the female genital area are: cancer of the uterus (endometrium), cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, cancer of the vulva (external genital organs), vaginal cancer. Cancer of the uterus (endometrium), along with breast, lung and bowel cancers, is one of the most common cancers in women.

Vaginal and vulvar cancer occurs in 2% -5% of cases. Another common type of cancer, ovarian cancer, ranks third among oncological diseases of the genital area in women, but it is in first place in mortality. In 2/3 of advanced cases, late diagnosis is the cause.

What risk factors can trigger the development of cancer?
There are factors, the presence of which can significantly increase the likelihood of cancer. The risk of developing cervical cancer increases with early onset of sexual activity, sexual intercourse with a large number of partners, multiple births, and with HPV (papillomavirus).By the way, the last reason is the most common. Also at risk are women who abuse smoking and alcohol.

Uterine cancer is 3 times more common in women with early menstruation, infertility, nulliparous women and late menopause (after 52 years). Overweight women with diabetes are also at high risk of getting sick. Various hormonal treatment with estrogen-containing drugs before and after menopause for about 5 years increases the risk of cancer by 6 times.

Ovarian cancer can be caused by hereditary factors (ovarian cancer, cancer of the uterus or breast in close relatives), smoking, the presence of genetic mutations, infertility, the use of talc (according to some studies). The development of cancer of the vagina and vulva may be due to the presence of the human papillomavirus in the body.

Can you protect yourself from cancer?
In order to prevent the human papillomavirus, vaccination is now used.The benefits of this method are the subject of debate in academia. The vaccine is available in 3 or 4-phase combinations. In the United States, the production and use of the 9-phase vaccine began. But, even if the vaccine is used, in any case, it is advisable to quit smoking, start leading a healthy lifestyle, adhere to a diet, take B vitamins and beta-carotene.

For the prevention of endometrial cancer, it is first of all very important to maintain an ideal body weight, try to get rid of the habit of eating high-fat foods and stop using unnecessary estrogen.In women genetically predisposed to ovarian cancer and with genetic mutations (BRCA1, BRCA2) – at the end of the fertile period, removal of the tubes and ovaries is an effective preventive method.

It is possible to prevent the high incidence of female genital cancers and save many lives if cancer is diagnosed early. Diagnosing cancer of the female reproductive system at an early stage is possible only with the help of appropriate tests.In addition to the annual gynecological examination and ultrasound of the pelvic organs, it is important to conduct a cytological examination of the cervix (Pap smear).

If for 3 consecutive years the results of the Pap test do not detect changes in the structure of the cells of the cervix, then the Pap test can be performed less often.It is not recommended to conduct an examination during menstruation, in the presence of any inflammatory process, or immediately after sexual intercourse … Every woman after a certain age is faced with a natural and irreversible process – menopause. During menopause, women often experience bloody discharge, which can be different in intensity, abundance, presence of pain and consequences.Even if there was only one bleeding, you still need to be examined. Sometimes patients are advised to undergo an endometrial biopsy to exclude the risk of cancer.

Women with genetic mutations BRCA1 and BRCA2 are recommended to additionally undergo tests for tumor markers CA 125, CA 19-9, CEA and alpha-fetoprotein once a year, and to do transvaginal ultrasound. Studies that are regularly carried out in our clinic:
– Gynecological examination and transvaginal ultrasound
– Pap smear
– Swab for HPV
– Colposcopy and biopsy
– Endometrial biopsy

The decision on a particular method of treating cancer is made for each patient individually.Correct diagnosis can guarantee the patient that she will receive optimal, timely and effective treatment and further the necessary control of the disease. Correct determination of the stage of the disease helps to choose the most appropriate treatment protocols and regimens.

The choice of therapy depends on the type of tumor, the stage of the disease and the results of other studies. Sometimes, one of the main and most effective methods of treatment can be radical surgery.In addition, imaging techniques, such as ultrasound, X-ray, computed and magnetic resonance imaging (CT, MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET-CT), play an important role in detecting tumors and possible metastases.

Associate Professor Omer Chobanoglu
Head of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Bayyndyr Clinic Soyuzu

90,000 Cervical cancer: preventable cancer

Immunotherapy offers a new strategy for the treatment of cervical cancer that can be prevented by vaccination.

  • CERVICAL CANCER is a preventable cancer that can be detected early with regular Pap smears and check-ups.

Decades ago, the treatment for advanced cervical cancer (when abnormal cells in the cervix grow uncontrollably) was radiation therapy. This was followed by clinical trials that showed that adding low doses of chemotherapy during radiation therapy (chemoradiotherapy) improved survival outcomes.It has become the gold standard worldwide for the treatment of this cancer.

Fast forward to the present, and researchers are now developing the next paradigm for cervical cancer treatment – including immunotherapy. The immune system recognizes the human papillomavirus (HPV), which causes cervical cancer, as foreign to our body, says Dr. John Chia Guang, Department of Medical Oncology, Singapore National Cancer Center (NCC). “Preliminary evidence from earlier clinical trials shows that cervical cancer is responding to immunotherapy that blocks the cancer.Attempts are under way to integrate immunotherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer. This is a terrible disease. Half of stage 3-B patients relapse and die of cancer. Doctors really need to do more to move this area forward and improve cure rates, ”said Dr. Chia.

New approach to treatment

A worldwide clinical trial is under way to investigate the use of Z-100 in combination with standard chemoradiotherapy for six weeks in patients with stage 3-B cervical cancer.Phase 3 of the study involves about 500 patients, 20 of whom are in Singapore.

“The results of an earlier study, Z-100, conducted in Japan in patients with locally advanced stage 3-B cervical cancer, were encouraging. This study is intended to confirm earlier findings, ”said Dr. Chia, lead author of the Singapore Study.

He said that Z-100 helps the immune system recognize and destroy cancer. It also helps the body “remember” the cancer so that if it encounters it again, it will kill it more effectively.This immunological “memory” is similar to the immune system being naturally activated against viral infections such as measles. The memory lasts a lifetime, but cancer can compromise the immune system.

The inclusion of immunotherapy in standard radiation therapy appears to have a synergistic effect and can overcome many of the barriers that cancer poses against the immune system. “The development of immunological memory is associated with much better survival, because if there are tiny” seeds “of cancer elsewhere in the body, outside the area of ​​radiation therapy, the immune system will destroy them.We expect this to lead to improved cure rates. ”

Immunotherapy – “The Holy Grail” for cancer treatment

Immunotherapy is now a major new wave and fourth pillar of cancer treatment after surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Immunotherapy has already been shown to work better than chemotherapy in certain types of lung, kidney and skin cancers, Chia said.

“There are currently about 800 immunotherapy clinical trials in progress around the world, studying immunotherapy as a single agent or in combination with other drugs for every type of tumor imaginable.It has become the holy grail of cancer treatment. The immune system is selective and always with you. We need to learn how to optimally use immunotherapy with other cancer treatments and how to make immunotherapy more effective and make it work better. ”

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women, with millions of new cases diagnosed each year worldwide. Stage 1 can be treated with surgery or radiation therapy, with 70 to 80 percent of women cured (defined as healthy from cancer for at least 10 years).

Stage 2-B and above are treated with chemoradiotherapy, but unfortunately survival in the later stages is more limited.

“The standard treatment paradigms for this disease have not changed in the last 20 years. We are happy to promote and develop this area. One thing is for sure – we need to do better, ”said Dr. Chia.

Vaccines can prevent cervical cancer

Vaccines that can prevent infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), which causes cervical cancer, have been locally available for several years.“Vaccines are more than 90 percent effective, but they must be given before a person is sexually active. Parents can and should do more to get their children vaccinated. It is a preventable disease, ”said Dr. Chia.

HPV infection is sexually transmitted. In most cases, the infection is cleared by the immune system, but sometimes it persists and causes genital warts or cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer is also relatively unique among other cancers in that it can be detected with a Pap smear at a pre-cancerous stage.A simple intervention or surgery will help heal the lesions and prevent the development of cancer.

Symptoms include abnormal bleeding (between periods, after sex, or after menopause), pain during sex, or abnormal vaginal discharge. Women should have regular Pap tests and see a doctor for early detection of cancer.

“Vaccinations and screening are very effective. Each new patient diagnosed represents a failure – for our profession, our systems of knowledge, our will and our culture.This is a huge disappointment because the disease is preventable, ”said Dr. Chia.

What are the medical aspects of surrogacy?

Link to this image on your website Please link in this image to https://www.extraconceptions.com.

APPLICATION

Successful surrogate applicant:

  • Previously given birth
  • Under 39 years old
  • BMI under 32 and under 35 is considered in Canada.

Important points to consider:

  • How was your previous pregnancy and childbirth?
  • Do you have any medical conditions?
  • How is your mental health?
  • Are you taking any medications?
  • Do you smoke, use drugs or drink?

Should surrogates be completely drug-free?

Many surrogates take medication. Whether your surrogate mother allows you or not depends on which ones you accept and whether you were with her in a previous pregnancy.Check with your doctor.

DISPLAY

What happens at the screening meetings?

  • Medical tests

This will include a physical examination and a review of your medical, gynecological and pregnancy history.

  • Psychological Screening

This will include a consultation visit.

  • Laboratory Testing

Your blood and urine will be sent to the laboratory.You may also be asked to give a Pap test or cervical samples.

  • Ultrasound
  • Sonohysterogram

This is a water test of your uterus to ensure that the shape of your uterus is normal.

How long does the screening take?

This can usually be done in one visit and will take about half a day.

What happens if my screening shows something abnormal?

These things are often manageable, but may require a small procedure or treatment to continue.

Is there a connection between pregnancy and my thyroid gland?

Yes, but you can take thyroid medications during pregnancy to get things in order.

EMBRYO TRANSFER

Medicated frozen embryo transfer

This process involves the administration of hormones (estrogen and progesterone) up to 12 weeks of gestation.

Natural Frozen Embryo Transfer

Less commonly, this method will be based on your natural menstrual cycle and you will not need to take too much progesterone.You cannot naturally take estrogen.

How is the transfer process going?

  • Generally does not require sedation
  • You will arrive hydrated and with a full bladder
  • You will be prepared in the same way as before the smear
  • A small catheter will be inserted into your uterus
  • The embryo will be inserted painlessly
  • The whole procedure
  • lasts a few minutes.

So what?

  • After 12-14 days, you will have blood tests to confirm your pregnancy.
  • After 6 weeks, you will have a viability ultrasound. After that, there will be ultrasound examinations.
  • After 10 weeks, you will have a NIPT test.
  • After 12 weeks, you generally continue as you would with a “normal” pregnancy.

Cost of services | Medical Center “Mother and Child”

  • Minimally invasive suture perineoplasty

    36310

  • Colpoperineolevatoroplasty

    21070

  • Anterior colporrhaphy

    16035

  • Posterior colporrhaphy

    16035

  • Anterior colporrhaphy and posterior colporrhaphy

    40505

  • Radio wave conization of the cervix (with morphological examination and anesthesia)

    7115

  • Cervical biopsy (with morphological examination)

    3100

  • Biopsy of the cervix (ecto- and endocervix, including polyps)

    1270

  • Testicular or epididymis biopsy (under intravenous anesthesia) (TESE)

    15000

  • Biopsy of 2 testicles or epididymis (under intravenous anesthesia) (TESE)

    18710

  • Removal of atheroma

    7000

  • Testicular sperm aspiration (TESA)

    9700

  • Sperm aspiration from 2 testicles (TESA)

    12850

  • Suture on the cervix with isthmic-ceric insufficiency

    9250

  • Bougie of the cervical canal (with anesthesia)

    4455

  • Curettage of the mucous membrane of the cervical canal

    7240

  • Separate diagnostic curettage (WFD) (with intravenous anesthesia)

    11450

  • Puncture of the ovarian cyst (without intravenous anesthesia)

    6815

  • Puncture of the Bartholin gland cyst without administration of sclerosing solutions

    1200

  • Puncture of the Bartholin gland cyst with the introduction of sclerosing solutions

    1500

  • Surgical treatment of phimosis

    7910

  • Diagnostic hysteroscopy

    8495

  • Hysteroresectoscopy of the 1st category of complexity

    10625

  • Hysteroresectoscopy of the 2nd category of complexity

    11470

  • Hysteroresectoscopy of the 3rd category of complexity

    13615

  • Operative-diagnostic laparoscopy, 1st category of complexity

    14405

  • Operative-diagnostic laparoscopy, 2nd category of complexity

    18950

  • Operative-diagnostic laparoscopy, 3rd category of complexity

    22425

  • Operative-diagnostic laparoscopy of the 4th category of complexity

    24580

  • Diagnostic hysteroscopy with separate diagnostic curettage of the walls of the uterus and cervical canal

    9505

  • Laparotomy.Supravaginal amputation of the uterus with appendages

    26770

  • Laparotomy. Extirpation of the uterus with appendages

    33190

  • Laparotomy.Extirpation of the uterus without appendages

    33190

  • Laparotomy. Conservative myomectomy

    24580

  • Laparotomy.Adnexectomy

    22390

  • Laparotomy. Cystectomy

    26890

  • Laparotomy.Tubectomy

    26890

  • Catheterization of the urinary tract

    1755

  • Transvaginal extirpation of the uterus with appendages

    37065

  • Transvaginal extirpation of the uterus without appendages

    36810

  • Transvaginal extirpation of the uterus with plastic of the anterior vaginal wall with alloplastic materials (without alloplastic materials)

    53660

  • Transvaginal extirpation of the uterus with plastic of the posterior wall of the vagina

    30635

  • Transvaginal extirpation of the uterus with plastic surgery of the anterior and posterior walls of the vagina

    39815

  • Plastic surgery of the hymen during overgrowth and rigidity

    15895

  • Removal of vaginal cysts and fibroids

    17240

  • Removal of vaginal septa of various localization

    15645

  • Reconstructive surgery for urinary incontinence without alloplastic materials

    18630 ​​

  • Reconstructive surgery for urinary incontinence using alloplastic materials

    49950

  • Removal and suturing of recto-vaginal fistulas

    27840

  • Removal and suturing of vesicovaginal fistulas

    27840

  • Colpopoiesis from own tissues of the urogenital sinus

    53750

  • Colpopoiesis from the paretal peritoneum

    60300

  • Colpopoiesis from the sigmoid colon according to Gigovsky

    82980

  • Colpopoiesis from the small intestine

    82980

  • Plastic surgery of small labia

    19050

  • Restoration of the hymen

    21505

  • Reduction of the size of the vagina

    23880

  • Surgical treatment of bleeding from the external genital organs

    21780

  • Suturing of the ovary in apoplexy

    20245

  • Diathermoexcision of the cervix

    17470

  • Vulvar biopsy

    15885

  • Segmental vulvectomy

    20225

  • Total vulvectomy

    24310

  • Amputation of the cervix

    19050

  • Wertheim’s operation

    79875

  • Resection of the greater omentum (omentectomy)

    55020

  • Extended extirpation of the uterus

    55020

  • Operation on Marmara

    15970

  • Operation to eliminate inguinal hernia (modification-0)

    16900

  • Operation to eliminate inguinal hernia (modification-0) using alloplastic materials

    19520

  • Sectoral breast resection

    17045

  • Quadrantectomy of the mammary gland

    14525

  • Radical breast resection with plastic restoration elements (without the cost of an implant)

    27005

  • Radical mastectomy (without implant)

    30570

  • Trepanbiopsy of the mammary gland (without implant)

    3200

  • Removal of paraurethral cysts

    8370

  • Removal of the Bartholin gland cyst (without anesthesia)

    16410

  • Removal of genital warts with Surgitron apparatus up to 5 elements

    1135

  • Removal of genital warts with Surgitron 6-10 elements

    3275

  • Removal of genital warts with the Surgitron apparatus more than 10 elements

    5115

  • Vasoresection (with anesthesia)

    9900

  • Operation for unilateral hydrocele (according to Bergman, Winkelmann)

    10385

  • Removal of the cyst of the epididymis

    9385

  • Radio wave destruction of papillomas / genital warts (up to 2 cm2) without the cost of anesthesia

    2290

  • Radio wave destruction of papillomas / genital warts (more than 2 cm2) without the cost of anesthesia

    3875

  • Radio wave excision of cervical pathology (without anesthesia)

    3870

  • Radio wave conization w / m (without anesthesia)

    2670

  • Radio wave destruction (ablation)

    2640

  • Radio wave coagulation of small stellate and punctate hemangiomas

    1835

  • Cryodestruction of benign skin lesions of the 1st category of complexity (1 wart, 1 papilloma, 1 condyloma, keloid scar up to 5 cm square)

    1065

  • Cryodestruction of benign skin formations of the 2nd category of complexity (2-3 warts, 2-3 warts / papillomas, keloid scar up to 10 cm square)

    1670

  • Cryodestruction of benign skin formations of the 3rd category of complexity (more than 3 warts, warts / papillomas, keloid scar more than 10 square cm)

    2185

  • Laser removal of exophytic warts (one removal)

    590

  • Laser treatment of cervical dysplasia (within zone I)

    3200

  • Laser treatment of cervical dysplasia (within I-II zones)

    3500

  • Laser treatment of cervical dysplasia (within I-III zones)

    4066

  • Laser treatment of vaginal and vulvar cysts

    1779

  • Laser treatment of postpartum vaginal scars

    890

  • Laser treatment of retention cyst

    1144

  • Laser treatment of cicatricial deformity of the cervix

    3177

  • Laser treatment of subepithelial endometriosis of the cervix

    1525

  • Laser treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    2796

  • Laser treatment of ectopia of columnar epithelium (within zone I)

    2844

  • Laser treatment of ectopia of columnar epithelium (within I-II zones)

    3025

  • Laser treatment of ectopia of columnar epithelium (within I-III zones)

    5000

  • Diagnostic videocystoscopy (service separately)

    2250

  • Transurethral resection (TUR) of bladder formations

    16520

  • 90,000 Treatment of cervical cancer in Israel

    Oncogynecology is one of the main directions of development of medicine in Israel.The level of technical equipment and experience of treatment, numbering several decades, make gynecological oncology in Israel one of the most effective in the world.

    Cervical cancer is a type of malignant tumor. A feature of the course of the disease is its asymptomatic nature. Pain, bleeding and profuse leucorrhoea can manifest itself only in a neglected form, when it is quite difficult to carry out effective treatment. Therefore, the main means of preventing cervical cancer should be an annual routine examination of all women who have reached the age of 30.

    Diagnostics of cervical cancer in Israel

    The cervix is ​​perfectly visualized during a routine gynecological examination. Therefore, any changes, deformations, ulcers are easily diagnosed. But even if the doctor does not see any external changes, the obligatory Pap smear will immediately show whether there are hostile cells on the cervix or not.

    Colposcopy (examination of the cervix and vagina using a special device under multiple magnification) and biopsy of the affected tissues will answer the question of what is the nature of the malignant tissues if a Pap smear revealed abnormalities.

    The diagnosis of cervical cancer does not end there. Several clinical studies are needed to determine the stage of the disease. And most importantly, it is necessary to determine the extent of the spread of cancer cells.

    If the disease is running, and the cancer has metastasized to neighboring organs, computed tomography and positron emission tomography are performed. These two types of examination make it possible to assess the work of internal organs and detect even the smallest changes and seals in the tissues.As a result, the doctor gets an accurate picture of the spread of cancer cells in the body, which cannot be done only thanks to a biopsy or colposcopy.

    Diagnosis and final diagnosis takes 4 to 7 days. This is enough for a specialized oncologist to determine the methodology and develop an individual treatment program for you.

    Treatment of cervical cancer in Israel, depending on the stage

    Stage I. The initial stage of the course of the disease.The borderline state between dysplasia (tissue hardening) and cancer itself. Israeli doctors practice non-surgical methods of treatment at this stage.

    In particular, biological therapy – the launch of special inhibitors that awaken the body’s immune system, help to recognize hidden cancer cells.

    If the precancerous line is passed, in this case, sparing surgical methods of influencing the tumor are used. In particular, cryosurgery , laser surgery (the famous cyber knife ), excision of the tumor with electric loops and conization (removal of only the affected part of the cervix).Such operations help to preserve the reproductive capacity of a woman. However, after sparing treatment, observation by a gynecologist-oncologist is necessary throughout life.

    Supplements various types of treatment radiation therapy . Brachytherapy is especially effective. This is a method in which titanium capsules with radioisotopes strung on a thread are implanted into the body. Irradiation is performed locally without damaging healthy tissue. The period for which the capsules are implanted is determined by the doctor.

    Stage II. Surgical removal of the cervix. In some cases, removal is performed together with the lymph nodes. Radiation therapy is used to avoid relapses of the disease.

    III-IV stages . Removal of the uterus together with the lymph nodes, it is also possible to remove the ovaries, tubes and other affected organs. The operation is preceded by a course of chemotherapy. A course of internal and external radiation therapy is being carried out.

    The stage of treatment takes from two weeks to several months if a long course of chemotherapy is required.

    Radical removal of the affected organ is always used if the patient is over 50 years old or if the woman is not going to give birth anymore.

    Postoperative period

    Within two weeks after the operation, the patient is under constant medical supervision. It is important to prevent recurrence of the disease. If cancer cells re-form on the surviving tissues, a second operation is performed with complete excision of the organs of the female reproductive system and the parts of the genitourinary system affected by the tumor.

    Further observation by specialists from Israeli clinics is carried out for two to five years.

    Prevention of cervical cancer

    Israeli specialists are vaccinating against viruses, which more often than others cause the appearance of cancer cells on the cervix. In particular, human papillomaviruses. There are several types of HPV. The vaccine works on four of them. Giving the vaccine to girls aged 11-12 can reduce the risk of cervical cancer by 95%.

    In addition to vaccination, an effective method of prevention is regular sex life with a regular partner, as well as systematic medical examinations.

    Prices for the treatment of cervical cancer in Israel

    The most advanced Israeli clinic “Assuta” provides treatment and diagnosis of patients from abroad according to the price list from the Israeli Ministry of Health.

    Treatment of cervical cancer in Israel Prices in USD
    Detailed blood tests (general, biochemistry, coagulation, electrolytes, tumor markers) 700
    Biopsy revision (bring material) 650-1250
    Gynecological ultrasound 450
    Consultation with a gynecologist, including colposcopy,
    biopsy and histopathology
    1650
    Positron Emission Tomography (PET-CT) 195
    Surgery (Radical hysterectomy) 15900-18900
    Radiotherapy – brachytherapy 12500

    The official price list is subject to constant revision depending on Israel’s policy regarding medical tourists.Please ask our medical managers for prices up-to-date at the time of your request.

    Upon arrival in Israel, our guide accompanies the patient to the agreed place of residence, helps with the settlement.

    Day 1. Accompanied by a medical manager, the patient is sent for the delivery of tumor markers. If the patient has glasses of a previous biopsy, they will be transferred to the Institute of Pathology and Cytology for revision. During the day, radiological diagnostics are also carried out, the results of which will be received the next day.In the evening of the first day, there is also a consultation with a specialized gynecological oncologist.

    The finished biopsy analysis is provided by the evening of the 4th day of the examination.

    In case of detection of leukoplakia (the initial stage of tumor development), a minimally invasive conization operation is performed, requiring the patient to be hospitalized in the Assuta ward for 6 hours. The cost of the operation is $ 6500. Postoperative recovery under supervision – 10 days. The operation is most often performed during the first week of a patient’s stay in Tel Aviv.

    For advanced stages without metastases, radical hysterectomy is performed.

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