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A Center of Technology in Asia: The Singapore Mint

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It’s March 26, 2019, about 10 in the morning. I find myself standing inside the opulently furnished shop of The Singapore Mint. At 20 Teban Gardens Crescent, Singapore 608928 you will find not only the mint, but also the biggest of four stores, where The Singapore Mint sells its own products. And not only its own products. Collectors can also purchase coins from other mints here.

A peek at the modern Singapore Mint shop. Photo: UK.

While others might be hesitant to place their products next to their competitors’, The Singapore Mint banks on whatever benefits the coin market. It cannot rely on a century-old network of coin collectors, coin dealers and coin cabinets as is the case in many other countries in the world. Rather, its Mint Director Yip Pak Ling (the last name is stated first, by the way, as is the norm in Singapore) is the one who has to set things in motion in order to turn Singaporeans, who are both eager to buy and financially strong, into coin collectors – remember, Singapore is one of the richest countries in the world with the highest density of millionaires after all.

Singapore. 250 dollars 1975 in celebration of the 10th anniversary of independence. From Künker Auction 292 (2017), No. 5313.

But let’s start in the beginning. In 2018, The Singapore Mint celebrated its 50th anniversary, as it is very closely connected to the small nation’s independence. August 9, 1965 is officially celebrated as the day when Singapore became an independent state. Back then, citizens still used the same currency that had also been in circulation in Malaya and British Borneo since 1953. One of the young state’s priorities was thus to create its own currency, even though said first currency was compatible with the coins of Brunei and Malaysia, and the three of them constituted a monetary union.

With the passing of the 1967 Currency Act, the Board of Commissioners of Currency of Singapore was established. The Board of Commissioners of Currency of Singapore was later merged with the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) which took over the responsibility of all currency issuance.

In 1968 already, the Minister of Finance decided to establish a national mint. He founded The Singapore Mint in the same year.

Singapore’s first commemorative coin: 150 dollars in gold in celebration of the 150th anniversary of the city’s founding. From Sincona AG Auction 1 (2011), no. 3017.

Thus, it was The Singapore Mint which struck Singapore’s first commemorative coin in celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Founding of the City of Singapore.

A look into the minting hall of The Singapore Mint. Photo: UK.

While The Singapore Mint was first run as part of Chartered Industries of Singapore, it was turned into a private corporation in the 1980s, whose shares are fully held by state-owned companies.

A small technological marvel as a symbol representing 50 years of The Singapore Mint: the ultra-high relief of the 1 oz. silver medal was created by a concave reverse; and the color application is more reminiscent of valuable enamel than pad printing, which is a technology The Singapore Mint is very proud of – and rightfully so. Photo: The Singapore Mint.

Au contraire: The Singapore Mint is proud of creating products which serve as a symbol of what the country represents and carry it out into the world. One fitting example is the orchid, which plays a very special role in Singapore’s culture. And one of the city’s most popular sights is the National Orchid Garden with its 1000 species and 2000 hybrids on display covering the entire color-range of a rainbow. Orchids have been bred here since 1859 – a fact that UNESCO honored by adding it to the World Heritage Site list.

Just one of the countless orchids you can find at Singapore’s magnificent National Orchid Garden. Photo: UK.The Singapore Mint did not only finance the exhibition of historical orchids at the Orchid Garden: it has also dedicated many of its coin images to these wonderful flowers. Photo: UK.

The Singapore Mint has dedicated numerous products to this facet of the country. The “Native Orchids of Singapore” series began in 2006. It features endemic orchid species. Every visitor of the National Orchid Garden can see that The Singapore Mint assumes an obligation to this World Heritage. They can find a sign there stating that The Singapore Mint provided funds to finance a part of the garden.

5 dollar 2013 featuring a Dendrobium crumentatum. Photo: The Singapore Mint.Was this the model for the orchid on this coin? Photo: UK.

The National Orchid Garden is a must-see in general, even for numismatists. You won’t realize how diverse those fantastic flowers really are until you look for nature’s models for the coin images.

A selection of the series of different Buddha images, issued on behalf of the Kingdom of Bhutan. Photo: The Singapore Mint.


A triumph of precision in terms of minting and color application: this wavy coin issued on behalf of the Kingdom of Cambodia was made in several parts, which in themselves constitute individual coins. Photo: The Singapore Mint.
In 2016, The Singapore Mint celebrated the Year of the Monkey with this coin struck on behalf of Macau. It won the most beautiful Gold Coin award at the Mint Directors Conference. Photo: The Singapore Mint.

Let’s return to some facts. The Singapore Mint has become a global player in the past years. It cooperates with more than 20 countries, among them many of the ASEAN nations, i.e. nations that are part of the Association of South East Asian Nations. But more exotic destinations, too, such as Bhutan, Cambodia, Macau and Nepal are their clients – and let’s not forget about several Direct-Marketing-Associations in Germany and other European countries, who make use of the knowhow from Singapore to have numismatic products created for their customers.

The model and its minted implementation: the high relief coin minted on behalf of Bhutan in celebration of the Year of the Boar – the customary take on the better known Year of the Pig. Photo l.: UK. Photo r.: Singapore Mint.

At The Singapore Mint, every single coin is still created by using a plaster model. Which doesn’t mean that the talented designers therefore refrain from using state-of-the-art technology. Quite the contrary.

The design is first turned into a three-dimensional coin image on a computer. Photo: UK.

At first, the two-dimensionally drawn draft is turned into a three-dimensional draft by using the same software usually used in the trade.

Mr Ge Jia Cheng, The Singapore Mint’s youngest Engraver to join the Engraving Team shows us high relief plaster moulds. Photo: UK.

In a next step, the basic line work of the key design elements on the plaster model is created by using a milling machine on the basis of computer-generated data. The finer details of the coin designs are then meticulously engraved by hand onto the plaster mould by The Singapore Mint’s master engravers. The Singapore Mint prides their workmanship and craft, and engraving is a key process that involves the human touch, crucial to ensuring the essence of the design elements are well encapsulated.

From the engraved moulds, the master die and working dies are then created. This process adds a human touch to the manufacturing process which makes these depictions so charming.

Elizabeth See, Assistant Vice President of Technical Services oversees the polishing process, which is also done by hand. Photo: UK.

Other manufacturing processes, too, which are done by machines at the largest mints, are deliberately done by hand at The Singapore Mint as part of their emphasis on craftsmanship. Dies are still polished manually by mint employees, which have been working at the mint for decades.

The second Singapore 13-in-1 Puzzle Coin – a numismatic rarity issued at a mintage of 2000 pieces. Photo: UK.

The Singapore Mint banks on a mix of manual work and state-of-the-art high-performance technology. This is the other side of the coin when it comes to the perfect mastery of the craft, after all. One mint employee, who guided us through the technological department, told us that everyone gets a little nervous whenever the “Boss”, Mint Director Yip Pak Ling, has a vision.

When this happens, he will not rest until the engineers have turned it into a real product. This endeavor is often accompanied by many attempts of the trial-and-error kind.
Hence, a number of technologies have been developed at The Singapore Mint that no other mint uses. Which is why some parts of the manufacturing site are “off limits” for pictures. One of those is a printer, which was developed by The Singapore Mint, that creates the unique enamel-style printing application.
The Puzzle Coin, three of which have already been issued, is a great example for those amazing products that can be developed by means of precise craftsmanship and ideas. It is made up of twelve individual puzzle shape coins and one centre piece. The twelve coins form the Chinese lunar zodiacs with the corresponding years, and the centre-piece holds all 12 pieces together in a three way interlocking puzzle set. To strike the puzzle-shaped blanks so accurately that you can actually assemble them to make up one single coin later truly is an art!

This symbol of luck, a fish (Jing yú), that serves to protect the minting process here, is associated with wealth and abundance (Jing yù), which can be obtained by showing perseverance and determination. Could there be a better picture to describe the work at The Singapore Mint? Photo: UK.

The Singapore Mint is able to apply the following technologies: unique coin shapes, special color effects, dynamic hologram effects, selective gold-plating, latent imaging effects, gem embedding, special UV a ray effects, antique finish and ultra-high relief.
The Singapore Mint has received multiple awards for all of the above, for example an award at the Mint Directors Conference 2012 for a coin featuring elaborate latent technology.

Many thanks to The Singapore Mint for the intensive and interesting guided tour: from left to right Tan Ying Hui (Manager, Program Management), Yip Pak Ling (Mint Director) und Tan Joo Kiang (Vice President of the Mint and International). Photo: UK.

The manufacturing of commemorative and circulation coins is only one of the numerous jobs done at The Singapore Mint. It is also the coin logistics center – i.e. the inspection, repackaging and recycling of circulation coins. Mints from all over the world can make use of its consulting services. Here, medal programs and distribution channels are created. Last, but not least, The Singapore Mint also has its own money museum, which unfortunately remains closed at the moment.

Commemorative coin in celebration of the Year of the Pig, which began issuance on January 1, 2019. Photo: UK.

After my tour through the production site, it had gotten quite late. I saw a lot, heard a lot, learned a lot, and slowly, but surely, I understand the important role The Singapore Mint plays here in Asia.
“Our commitment to innovation and quality continues to drive us as we advance on our journey for the future,” mint director Yip Pak Ling said about The Singapore Mint at the end of the tour.

And indeed, The Singapore Mint is well equipped to respond quickly and easily to the demands of the global market.

This link will take you to The Singapore Mint website.

You can order their products online.

We visited The Singapore Mint in the context of attending the Singapore International Coin Fair.

We have presented an abundance of new issues of The Singapore Mint in the past.

I’ll admit, my personal favorite is the commemorative coin issued in celebration of Bruce Lee’s 75th birthday.

The Singapore Mint of course also has a Facebook profile. 12,527 people already follow their updates.

The Singapore Mint stores can be found in several popular shopping malls around the city. To find them use this shop locator.

Here, you can learn more about the Heritage Orchid Garden, sponsored by The Singapore Mint.

And here’s some nice trivia: This website about the enchanting Singapore Zoo gives an entirely new meaning to the expression “Animals on Coins”…

S’pore Mint selling 2021 Year of the Ox collectible coins featuring Coney Island bull – Mothership.SG

The Monetary Authority of Singapore has unveiled the 2021 Year of the Ox Almanac coins.

The coins feature the ox against the backdrop of Coney Island’s rustic scenery, perhaps alluding to the wild bull that roamed the island for years before dying in 2016.

Range of prices

This series of collectible coins is the fifth issue in the Singapore Fourth Chinese Almanac Coin Series, which will be issued from 2017 to 2028.

Each year’s coin series will depict a Zodiac animal against a park or natural landscape in Singapore, while the other side of each coin will bear the Singapore Coat of Arms with the year 2021.

The 2021 coins will comprise different metallic compositions, shapes and minting relief effects. All 10 versions will be issued on Jan. 1, 2021.

The coins, which come in gold, silver or nickel-plated zinc, have a face value ranging from S$2 to S$200.

Here are what the coins look like and their corresponding prices from the Singapore Mint website.

Price: S$25

Price: S$50

Price: S$120

Price: S$130

Price: S$800

Price: S$2,888

Price: S$160

Price: S$1,088

Price: S$4,280

Price: S$19,998

Price: S$248

Price: S$288

Price: S$4,488

Price: S$20,588

Pre-orders for the coins can be placed with the Singapore Mint from Nov. 19 to Dec. 20.

Coin orders can be placed via the Singapore Mint’s phone numbers (6566 2626 / 6895 0288 / 6222 2486 / 6336 2878) or their website here.

The coins will be allocated via balloting if oversubscribed.

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Top photo from Monetary Authority of Singapore

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NGC, NCS and PMG Appoint The Singapore Mint an Official Submission Center

The companies’ collaboration will make NGC, NCS and PMG services more accessible to collectors and dealers in Singapore and throughout the region.

The Certified Collectibles Group (CCG) has appointed The Singapore Mint an Official Submission Center in Singapore. CCG’s independent member companies include Numismatic Guaranty Corporation (NGC), Numismatic Conservation Services (NCS) and Paper Money Guaranty (PMG).

Established in 1968, the Singapore Mint’s initial mandate was to produce coins for circulation for the new nation. It now produces a variety of commemorative coins and currency-related collectibles.

The Singapore Mint is the first mint to act as an Official Submission Center for the CCG companies. This relationship will make it easier for collectors and dealers in Singapore to buy NGC-certified Singapore coins directly from the source.

The Singapore Mint will also help collectors and dealers submit to NGC. (Assistance with NCS and PMG submissions will be available at a later date.) It can also answer questions about the companies’ services and benefits.

The Singapore Mint is the second Official Submission Center for the CCG companies in Singapore. The first, Mavin International, was appointed in 2008.

Established in 1987, NGC is the world’s largest third-party collectible coin grading service with more than 42 million coins certified. PMG, the world’s largest third-party paper money grading service, has certified more than 3.5 million banknotes, more than half of them from Asia. NCS is a leading professional coin conservation service with more than 1 million coins conserved.

“We are honored to work directly with the Singapore Mint, a numismatic leader in Southeast Asia for half a century,” said Mr. Steven R. Eichenbaum, CEO of CCG. “The Singapore Mint has long been known as an innovator, bringing together advanced technology and superior craftsmanship. Our shared commitment to excellence provides many opportunities for synergy.”

“NGC, NCS and PMG are highly respected in Singapore and around the world for their expertise and impartiality,” said Mr. Yip Pak Ling, Director of the Singapore Mint. “Our collaboration with these companies will benefit our customers and help to grow the hobby in Singapore.”

To submit to the Singapore Mint, contact: +65 6566-2626, [email protected], or visit singaporemint. com. To learn more about the CCG companies, visit, or

I Tried 10 Expense Tracking Apps And Here’s What I Found

As I inch into adulthood (and one step closer to retirement), the need to manage my expenses well has become inexplicably important.

The many hats of adulthood also meant that I needed to keep a close tab on my expenses. But more often than not, I find myself overspending my slated budget despite my efforts. There’s always something new that I want, and the temptation to hold back on that spending is a tough one.

So in a bid to curb my overspending, I turned to expense tracker apps. They are super easy to use and readily available on any smartphone which makes them my new best friend!


Best Expense Tracker Apps

1. Spendee

Spendee is a great fuss-free expense tracker app that is suitable for any and everyone. By linking your credit card and bank account to your Spendee account, you can gain better control over your personal finances.

All incoming and outgoing transactions are automatically tracked by the app, which makes it extremely convenient. And most importantly, the app is free, with the option to upgrade your plan.


2. Seedly

If you’re a frequent reader of the Seedly blog, you’ll be glad to know that they have their very own free expense tracker app!

What makes the Seedly expense tracker app stand out is its decluttered and minimalist user interface. Most expense tracker apps often feature complex graphs and charts to help you “visualize” your spending, but I often find it difficult to understand them instead.

To put an end to that, the expense tracker app from Seedly is a breath of fresh air that allows users to easily navigate through the app, while also providing key features such as budgeting and month on month comparisons.


3. Pocket Expense with Sync

Pocket Expense is one of the few expense tracker apps that allow users to link multiple bank accounts for free. It greatly reduces the hassle of having track individual bank transactions, and gives you a bird’s eye view of all bank transactions at once. 

Pocket Expense also helps to keep track of your bills so you’ll never miss a payment date again. Other notable features include password management, and a standard monthly budget management.

Unfortunately, you’ll have to upgrade to a paid version to access unlimited transactions.


4. Expensify

Known to be the best expense tracking app for corporate purposes, Expensify is a popular expense tracking app for companies of all sizes. All employees using the same email domain can be linked via the app, making the tracking of all employee transactions and submission of claims more convenient.

My personal experience in using Expensify as an employee has been positive and super easy to navigate. Its SmartScan features is incredibly accurate and saved me tons of time from manually keying in all the information, which is also subject to human error.


5. Household Account Book

The cutest expense tracker app on this list, Household Account Book makes expense tracking much more enjoyable than actual. The adorable user interface is splashed out in colours and yet, its features are still easily accessible. If expense tracking is stressful for you, then this expense tracker app will make it more bearable.

There aren’t any fancy features and transactions are limited on a monthly basis. However, this expense tracker is well functional and aesthetically pleasing that I will have no complains about it.

6. Monny

If you’re new to using such expense tracker apps, Monny is a great place to start. What makes Monny stand out is how it challenges users to use the app and in turn, save their money. The challenges encourages a cumulative habit and award incentives for users to continuously head back to the app to keep track of their expenses. Pretty genius, I would say.

Access to the premium version is also available at an extra fee, but I think the free version of Monny will will more than suffice for those looking for a free and reliable expense tracker app.


7. Zenmoney

Zenmoney is arguably, the smartest expense tracker app here. It can automatically make transaction entries based on incoming text messages, which will save you tons of time.

The app also encourages users to save by showing the accumulated amount that you have saved in the app, and if you would like to transfer that amount to your savings account.

Zenmoney is also able to predict future expenses based on your spending habits, which is pretty impressive. In fact, that gave me an urge to tackle its prediction and in turned, I actually spent below my budget in the previous month. Which proved its reverse psychology trick was working on me.


8. Money Lover: Expense Tracker & Budget Planner

Let’s admit it. Money Lover is aptly named for its purpose. This award-winning expense tracker app has all that you will ever need. It is jam-packed with features, including linking of credit cards and accounts, and even includes crypto-currency, if that’s your kind of thing.

The top-notch security also boasts fingerprint recognition should your phone support. And if you upgrade to their premium version, you’ll be able to export your monthly expenses into an Excel Sheet or PDF report which is pretty neat.

However, there are many categories in the app which can feel a tad cluttered at times. But if you’re a pro expense tracker and is used to them, then Money Lover will be the best expense tracker app for you.


9. Spending Tracker

Spending Tracker is as simple and intuitive as its name suggests. This expense tracker app is extremely user-friendly with its minimalist user interface. It does away with the fancy features but gets it basic job done extremely well. Finance and expenses tracking can be easily view and understand at a single glance.


10. Toshl Finance

I was a little overwhelmed when I read the description of the Toshl Finance app on the PlayStore as the many features sound overwhelming. Fortunately, despite packing a ton of features inside, the app was streamlined and easy to use, simply because it didn’t try to overload you with information at one.

Keying in your expenses is seamless and the app also allows you to connect to various banks across the world. Similar to some of the other expense tracker apps, multiple accounts and credit cards can be linked to Toshl Finance which makes it convenient for the users.

Advanced features which includes unlimited financial accounts and fingerprint scanning is also available at a monthly fee. But personally, the free version of this expense tracker app is more than sufficient for personal expense tracking uses.

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The Mint is … What is the Mint?

Mint is a manufacturing company that produces custom coins. There are both private and public mints. In some modern mints, in addition to coins, medals, orders and badges are sometimes produced.

The first mint was established in Ancient Rome at the temple of Juno-Coin (hence the term “coin”).

On the territory of Russia, the first mints appeared in the Greek Black Sea cities of Gorgippia and Phanagoria, and some of the oldest courtyards operated in Derbent and Tmutarakan.

Mint Country, city Site Founded A Brief History of the Courtyard
Austrian Mint Austria, Vienna 1194 The Vienna Mint was founded in 1194. After the collapse of Austria-Hungary, the courtyard remained the only courtyard in Austria. In 1989 the name of the yard was changed to Austrian Mint [1] .
Bavarian Central Mint Germany, Munich 1158 The court was founded by Duke Henry the Lion in 1158. In 1295, the courtyard was destroyed during the uprising, then rebuilt. Since 1871, the designation of the mint is D. During World War II, the building of the courtyard was partially destroyed, restored in 1950-1962. In 1986 the yard was transferred to a new building. In 2006 the yard became the property of Bavaria [2] .
Hungarian Mint Hungary, Budapest 1925 After World War I, part of the equipment of the Kremnica mint was transported to Budapest, where the Hungarian Royal Mint was opened in 1925. In 1946 the yard was renamed the Hungarian Mint. In 1992 the yard was reorganized into a limited liability company. Since 1998, the sole owner of the company is the Hungarian National Bank [3] .
Hamburg Mint Germany, Hamburg 834 The Hamburg Mint is the oldest of the currently existing German courts. The minting of coins in Hamburg began in 834. In 1842, the mint building was destroyed in a fire. In 1873, a decision was made to restore the courtyard, in the same year the designation of the courtyard was established – J. In 1875, a new courtyard building was built. In 1943, the mint was destroyed during air raids, and rebuilt in 1948. In 1982 the yard was moved to a new building [4] .
State Mint Romania, Bucharest 1935 On 24 February 1870, the Bucharest Mint was founded. Since 1890, the courtyard has practically not minted coins, and in 1912 the courtyard building was demolished. On December 20, 1935, the building of the new mint was opened. In 1936, the court began minting coins [5] .
Baden-Württemberg State Mint Germany, Stuttgart, Karlsruhe The Stuttgart Mint was founded in 1374 by Count Eberhard with the permission of Emperor Charles IV. For the following centuries, the yard was the main mint of Württemberg. In 1944, the building of the Stuttgart mint was badly damaged, after the war, the building was restored. In 1967 the mint was moved to a new building. The designation of the yard in Stuttgart is F. In 1732 the mint was founded in Karlsruhe (Baden). The modern mint building was built in 1827.The designation of the courtyard in Karlsruhe is G. Currently, the two courtyards are subdivisions of one enterprise – the State Mint of Baden-Württemberg [6] .
Berlin State Mint Germany, Berlin 1280 The yard was first mentioned on April 4, 1280. In 1871 the yard was named the Prussian State Mint. In 1947, the yard was renamed the Berlin Mint, and then the People’s Enterprise Mint of the GDR.In 1990, the yard was renamed the Berlin State Mint. Since 2005, the yard has been located in the urban area of ​​Reinickendorf. Yard designation – A.
State Printing and Monetary Institute Italy, Rome 1928 The manufacture of coins in Rome began in the 4th century. BC NS. In 1870, after the annexation of Rome to the Kingdom of Italy, the Roman Papal Mint was transformed into the Royal Mint. In 1928, the State Printing and Monetary Institute [7] was established.
Indian State Mint Mumbai India, Mumbai 1829 The first mint in Bombay began minting in 1672. In 1824-1830 the building of the new mint was built (now this building belongs to the Reserve Bank of India). The yard is currently a division of Security Printing & Minting Corporation of India Ltd [8] .
Kazakhstan Mint Kazakhstan, Ust-Kamenogorsk 1992 In January 1992, trial coins were minted, work began on organizing coin production at PA UMP. In November 1992, the first commercial batch of coins was issued. In 1995 the mint was separated into an independent enterprise – Non-ferrous metal products plant. In 1998 the enterprise was reorganized into the Republican State Enterprise “Kazakhstan Mint” [9] .
Royal Australian Mint Australia, Canberra 1965 The Mint opened on 22 February 1965, began minting coins in 1966 [10] .
Royal Danish Mint Denmark, Copenhagen 1739 In 1739, the Copenhagen Mint, formerly a leasing company, was transformed into the Royal Danish Mint. In 1849 the yard was subordinated to the Ministry of Finance. Since 1864, the yard has been the only Danish mint.Since 1975, the yard has been owned by the National Bank of Denmark [11] .
Royal Canadian Mint Canada, Ottawa 1908 The yard was opened on January 2, 1908 [12] .
Royal Mint United Kingdom, Llantrisant 886 The Romans started minting coins in London. In 388, the minting of Roman coins was discontinued.In 650 in London, minting of Anglo-Saxon coins began on the model of the Merovingian coins. In Great Britain at different times there were almost a hundred mints [13] . The history of the modern mint dates back to 886. For more than 500 years, the courtyard was located in the Tower castle, then it was transferred to the building of St. Mary’s Abbey, which was converted for it. In 1968 the yard was transferred to Llantrisant (South Wales). In 2009, the yard was transformed into Royal Mint Ltd., whose capital belongs to the Royal Treasury [14] .
Belgian Royal Mint Belgium, Brussels In 1969, the Brussels Mint was renamed Royal Belgian Mint [15] .
Royal Mint – National Coin and Stamp Factory Spain, Madrid 1893 Since 1869, the Royal Mint in Madrid is the only mint in Spain.On August 29, 1893, through the merger of the Royal Mint and the Stamp Factory, the Royal Mint was created – the National Coin and Stamp Factory. Before the merger since 1861, the two enterprises were located in the same building, but had different management. Since 1940, the yard has been printing Spanish banknotes. In 1964 the yard was moved to a new building [16] .
Royal Thai Mint Thailand, Bangkok 1860 The Mint was founded in 1860, began minting silver coins in 1861, copper – in 1862, gold – in 1863 [17] .
Royal Dutch Mint Netherlands, Utrecht 1567 The first Dutch coins were minted in Utrecht, whose bishop was given the right to mint coins by Emperor Otto I in 937. The minting of episcopal coins was discontinued in 1528. A new mint was opened in Utrecht in 1567 by the Duke of Utrecht, to whom the mint privilege was transferred, until 1806 it worked as a provincial mint.In 1806, the provincial mints were closed, leaving the only nationwide mint in Amsterdam. Some time later, the Utrecht Mint resumed its work under the name of the Royal Mint. In 1814 the mint was renamed the National Mint. In 1902 the yard was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Finance, in 1911 it was transferred to a new building, which it currently occupies, in 1912 it was reorganized into a state enterprise. In 1999 the mint was renamed the Royal Netherlandish Mint.The designation of the yard is caduceus [18] .
Lithuanian Mint Lithuania, Vilnius 1990 The minting of coins of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania began in the 14th century. In 1666 the Lithuanian mints stopped minting. In 1925-1938, the coins of the first Lithuanian republic were minted in Kaunas. On December 10, 1990, the Lithuanian Mint was founded, which began minting coins in 1992 [19] .
Argentine Republic Mint Argentina, Buenos Aires 1881
Bulgarian Mint Bulgaria, Sofia 1952 The yard was opened on July 28, 1952. In the same year, the minting of small coins began. Since 1965 the yard has been minting commemorative coins [20] .
Brazilian Mint Brazil, Rio de Janeiro 1694 The court was founded in 1694 in Bahia, then transferred to Rio de Janeiro, then to Pernambuco and again to Rio de Janeiro [21] .
Perth Mint Australia, Perth 1899 In 1899, a branch of the Royal Mint of Great Britain was opened in Perth. The court minted coins from gold mined at the Kulgardi and Kalgoorli deposits. Since 1931, the yard has been producing gold bars. In 1940-1964 and 1966-1973 bargaining coins were minted in Perth. On July 1, 1970, the British property was transferred to the ownership of the Western Australian government.In 1987, the Gold Corporation was created by an act of the State Parliament, and the Perth court became its division. Australian gold, silver and platinum coins are minted in Perth. In 2003 the new mint building [22] was opened.
Kremnica Mint Slovakia, Kremnica 1328 The mint in Kremnica was one of the most important courtyards in Hungary, and since the end of the 19th century. – the only court of the Hungarian kingdom.after the First World War, the yard equipment was taken to Budapest, the government of Czechoslovakia had to rebuild the yard from scratch [23] .
Mexico City Mint Mexico, Mexico City 1535 America’s oldest mint, minted in 1536. In 1732, the first mechanical press in America was installed, which made it possible to mint perfectly round coins with a pattern on the edge. In addition to Mexico City, mints operated during the carved time in Alamos, Guadalajara, Guadalupe y Calvo, Guanajuato, Durango, Culiacan, Oaxaca, Real de Catorse, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, Chihuahua 900, Hermosillo, Tlalpana and dr. [24] .
Singapore Mint Singapore 1968 The yard was founded in 1968 [25] .
US Mint USA, Washington 1792 The United States Mint (ministry) was founded on April 2, 1792. He runs the Philadelphia and Denver Mints, the San Francisco Assay Office, the Fort Knox Gold Storage, and the West Point Silver Storage [26] .
Finnish Mint Finland, Vantaa 1860 Courtyard in Helsinki was founded on April 19, 1860. The minting of coins began in 1864. In 1984, the yard was transferred to the city of Vantaa [27] .
Chilean Mint Chile, Santiago 1743 The court began minting coins in 1749. In 1783-1953, it was located in the La Moneda Palace, now the official residence of the President of Chile [28] .
Swiss Mint Switzerland, Bern 1853 The Swiss Constitution, adopted in 1848, transferred the right to minting coins to the exclusive jurisdiction of the federation. In 1853, the Swiss government decided to create a federal mint based on the mint of the canton of Bern. All other courtyards were closed.
Japan Mint Japan, Osaka 1871 In 1879, a branch of the courtyard in Tokyo was opened, closed in 1907 and reopened in 1927. In 1942, construction began on a branch of the courtyard in Hiroshima. In 1945, the Hiroshima branch was destroyed by bombing, in 1946 its restoration began, in September 1948 the yard began minting coins [29] .
National Printing House – Mint Portugal, Lisbon 1972 The company was established in 1972 by the merger of the National Printing House and the Mint [30] .
New Zealand Mint New Zealand, Auckland The court mints commemorative coins, mostly from precious metals. The court is one of the first to start minting coins from 999.9 fine gold [31] .
Norwegian Mint Norway, Kongsberg 1686 In 1686, the Royal Mint was founded, which minted silver from the Kongsberg mine.The connection between the yard and the mine continued until the depletion of its silver reserves in 1957. In 1962, the yard was subordinated to the Norwegian Bank. On January 1, 2001, the mint was transformed into a limited liability company, the sole owner of which was a Norwegian bank. Since June 30, 2003, 50% of the shares have been owned by the Finnish Mint. On July 1, 2004, the name of the company was changed to Norwegian Mint. The yard is marked with crossed hammers [32] .
Paris Mint France, Paris, Pessac 864 The court was founded by a royal edict dated June 25, 864. In 1973, the production of coins was moved to the city of Pessac (department of the Gironde), in a historic building on the Quai Conti in Paris: the production of medals and coins from precious metals, a museum and shop [33] .
Polish Mint Poland, Warsaw 1766 The Warsaw Mint was founded on February 10, 1766.In 1796, after the third partition of Poland, the courtyard was closed. Reopened in 1810, closed in 1868. Resumed work on April 14, 1924. In 1944, the courtyard building was blown up, the courtyard stopped working. In 1950 the yard was restored, in 1953 the minting of coins began. In 1994 the yard was transformed into the joint-stock company State Mint, the only shareholder is the Polish Treasury. In 2008 the yard was renamed to the Polish Mint [34] .
Turkish State Mint Turkey, Istanbul ​​ 1476 In 1476, the first state mint was founded in Istanbul by Sultan Mehmed II. Later, Turkish mints were opened in Algeria, Baghdad, Bursa, Van, Damascus, Egypt, Constantine (Algeria), Kosovo, Monastery, Mecca, Thessaloniki, Tiflis, Tunisia, Aleppo (Aleppo), Edirne, Erzerum, etc. – about 40. The main yard was the Istanbul mint. By 1843, most of the other courtyards were closed [35] .
Croatian Mint Croatia, Zagreb 1993 The yard was founded on April 23, 1993, began work on January 14, 1994 [36] .
China Central Mint Republic of China, Gueishan, Taoyuan County 1920 The Shanghai Mint was founded in 1920. In 1928, the yard was renamed the Central Mint of China. In 1949, the yard was evacuated to Taiwan [37] .
Czech Mint Czech Republic, Jablonec nad Nisou 1993 The Czech Mint was founded on 1 July 1993 as a division of Bižuterie a.s. [38]
South African Mint South Africa, Pretoria 1919 In 1892, the South African Republic (Boer) Mint was opened in Pretoria. In 1900 the courtyard was closed. In 1919, the Pretoria branch of the Royal Mint was founded. The court began minting coins in 1923.In 1941, the yard was transferred to the South African government and renamed the South African Mint. In 1988 the yard was reorganized into the South African Mint Company (Pty) Ltd, 100% of the capital of the company belongs to the South African Reserve Bank [39] .



$ 5 2009



Obverse: In the center there is the coat of arms of Singapore, over which the name of the issuing country is minted in Malay: “SINGAPURA”.Under the coat of arms in two lines are the year of minting and the name of the issuing country in English: “2009 / SINGAPORE”. The name of the issuing country is shown on the left in Tamil, and on the right in Chinese.

Reverse: In the center of the coin field there are color images of the Wanda Amy orchid, a hybrid variety developed as the first of more than four hundred new varieties developed by Singapore breeders under the government’s orchid hybridization program since 1928.Above, a semicircle indicates the name in Latin: “VANDA AMY”. At the bottom, the weight and the sample of the metal are minted in a semicircle. The denomination of the “$ 5” coin is depicted to the left of the orchid flower.

Designer: Christopher Ironside

Vanda (Latin Vanda) is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants of the Orchid family.

Includes 53 epiphytic, rarely lithophytic or terrestrial species.

Abbreviation of the generic name – V.

Distributed in continental Southwest Asia, Indonesia, in the north of Australia.The name of the genus comes from the Sanskrit word “vanda”. This is what the inhabitants of India call these plants.

The stem is cylindrical, densely leafed with fleshy, belt-like or rounded leathery, two-rowed leaves.

Plants have strong aerial roots of gray-green color.

Inflorescences erect or inclined, axillary, racemose, loose, few or many flowers.

Small to large flowers, often brightly colored and variegated, sometimes fragrant.

Thermophilic plants (require a temperature of 22-25), very light-loving, demanding air humidity (70-90%).

Get to work! … Russia is not Singapore. What kind of GDP do we need?

In our world, politicians and simply people rushing into power are experts on how to “fairly share” the wealth of the people. Marxists and persons of a similar persuasion know that “just” is when everything is divided equally, their opponents are sure: how much they stole is all yours! And this is their “justice”.Around these politicians, scraps of “economists” are picking up, who in abstruse language will explain to you why you need to divide exactly as those politicians who pay them for it say.

But there are practically no people among these people who know how to get something that can then be divided. There are no creators of national wealth. There are many divisors, few factors.

Ah Li Kuan Yew was the creator of the people’s wealth. Not without reproach (since only the one who does nothing is not mistaken), but a creator.

So, first about the amount of labor.

Outwardly, it would seem that the question with the number is simple – the more firms you invite to the island, the more employees there will be, the more Singaporean labor you sell. But look at those Singaporeans that Lee went to as workers.

“The Chinese in Singapore were mostly descendants of agricultural workers from the southern provinces of China, many of whom were brought in as day laborers for heavy manual labor, loading and unloading ships, and rickshaws.The first Indian immigrants also came to Singapore as contract workers for rubber plantations, road building and trenching. Many of them belonged to the lower castes. Among them was a small group of Indian merchants and employees. The most capable were traders – Sikhs and Hindu Brahmins, especially priests, whose descendants are very capable people. The Malays generally excelled better in arts and crafts than in sciences. ”

And it was possible to bring Singapore to maximum income only with the involvement of high-tech industries.Well, who, say, at a company producing cameras or video recorders could these people work? Janitors, room cleaners?

To give its citizens to earn on the production of attracted firms, it was required to carry out huge preparatory measures. Lee writes about them, but the specificity of his descriptions of the leader is such that sometimes, without his own explanations, even a specialist finds it difficult to understand what exactly he was planning.

Here he praises his team of like-minded people and casually writes about one of the first Singaporean enterprises that they put into operation in Singapore: “With the help of the Australian expert in the production of artillery systems Sir Lawrence Hartnett, Ken Swee founded our mint – “Chartered Industries of Singapore” – and an ammunition factory that was housed together … “Having read this far, it’s impossible to understand why they needed these factories? Why did tsarist Russia need coins – 500 times more than Singapore, and had its own mint, but Russia did not hesitate to give an order for minting its coins in London.Ammunition is usually sold by someone who sells both weapons and start competing with experienced arms dealers with just ammunition? A thought flashes: perhaps Lee somehow contrived and found long-term consumers for the mint and ammunition plant? It probably was, but the end of the sentence clarifies Lee’s intention: “… since both industries had high demands on safety and good tooling.” Now everything became clear.

All those products that were going to be produced in Singapore in the future had to be in-line, mass and consist of hundreds and thousands of precise parts – like coins or parts of fuses.These parts are produced by stamping and die casting. Dies and molds are tools that are made at tool factories, dies and molds wear out, a lot of them are required, and they are made by workers who have a talent for particularly high-precision mechanical work. Such workers cannot be trained in schools; their training requires years of their practical work in production and their careful selection. That is, not yet knowing exactly which of the high-tech goods in Singapore would be produced and sold by not yet invited firms, the Singaporeans created a working and intellectual base for such industries.And look in which direction this ammunition production has rolled: “Under the leadership of the practical and resourceful director, Ong Kah Kok, the enterprise developed successfully. The young permanent government secretary, and later the chairman of the UED, Philip Yeo, soon took over the management of this enterprise and founded new production facilities on it, which later led to the creation of the high-tech company Singapore Technologies. This company has also formed chip manufacturing joint ventures with leading MNCs (Multinational Corporation.- Yu.M. ) “.

Of course, this was not the only way to dramatically improve the skills of former rickshaws and loaders. There was also the standard Soviet way of training workers in vocational schools.

“To overcome investor concerns about the quality of our workforce, I asked the Japanese, Germans, French and Dutch to establish their own training centers in Singapore to train our technicians with their own instructors.Some centers were funded by the government, others were created in partnership with corporations such as Philips, Rollay and Tata. During 4-6 months of training, workers trained in conditions close to production were able to familiarize themselves with the work system and culture of other nations, so companies willingly hired them. ”

However, sometimes it is impossible to understand at all for what purpose Lee implemented this measure. So he reports that in order to decorate Singapore, he collected 8000 species of beautiful trees and bushes in the equatorial zone of the whole world and tried to acclimatize them on the island.Some plants did not take root, some did not bloom, the result was 2000 new species now growing and blooming on the island. It would seem that everything is clear – each boss has his own cockroaches in his head, and only when the extra money started up! However, Lee ends this story not with assurances that “beauty will save the world,” no: “Greening the city is one of the most cost-effective projects I have started.” But what does profitability have to do with it? How much profit can you get from bushes planted along the road, even if these bushes bloom beautifully? Lee does not explain how and how he managed to profit from planting ornamental plants, and even the highest profit.I will try to do this.

Men with aptitude and an interest in work will master any challenging job that requires making decisions every second – jobs that require the worker to create. These are real men’s jobs that men love and strive for. But, one way or another, there are a lot of such men who find difficult creative work a burden, who do it at random, who need something simpler. This was noticed by Henry Ford, who, as an example of such workers, described a worker who, all his life, took out parts with a wire hook from a paint tank and hung them on a conveyor belt for drying.He worked well and did not want to change his job for any other. Should such men be given a job in Singapore? Necessary! This is the work of waiters, cook assistants, cleaners, and various lackeys. And if you attract tourists to Singapore, then there will be a lot of such easy work. But how to attract tourists to the bare island? Beaches? And where on the equator are they missing? But the place where almost all equatorial plants would be concentrated becomes unique. Yes, this is not God knows what an advantage over other tourist destinations in the world, but it also gives Singapore 7 million tourists a year per 5.3 million inhabitants.So from this beauty, the profitability of landscaping is also obtained – the work of hundreds of thousands of not very capable men in hotels and restaurants has been added to the gross national income, and taxes on their salaries – into the budget.

But the wives of these men stayed at home and did not add anything to the gross domestic product. For a good owner, this is a mess! And Li writes:

“After 1975, we started building housing further away, on the site of former fields and farms. After discussion with UED officials (Department of Economic Development.- Yu.M. ), I ordered the UZHGR (Department of Housing and Urban Development. – YM ) to leave plots of land during the development of these areas for the construction of non-polluting enterprises, on which numerous housewives and young women could work, whose the children have already gone to school. The idea turned out to be a good one, which was confirmed when Phillips built a factory in Toa Peio in 1971. Since then, in most of the new neighborhoods, clean, air-conditioned MNC-owned factories were built that produced computer components and electronics: Hewlett-Packard, Compac, Texas Instruments, Apple Computer, Motorola, Seagate. , “Hitachi”, “Quince”, “Mitsubishi” and “Siemens” (“Compaq”, “Apple Computer”, “Motorola”, “Seagate”, “Hitachi”, “Aiwa”, “Mitsubishi”, “Siemens”) …They created over 150,000 jobs, mostly for women living nearby. This helped to double or even triple the family income. ”

You see, Lee has the gut of the master. Here he flew on scheduled planes. Why? To put the dust in the eyes of someone? No, for the owner this is impossible for other reasons – “the soul will not accept”: “I also remember the Prime Minister of Bangladesh Sheikh Mujibur Rahman who was present at this meeting, a hero who opposed Pakistan and achieved the formation of an independent state of Bangladesh on the territory of East Pakistan.He arrived in Ottawa on his own plane. When I landed, I saw a Boeing 707 with the words Bangladesh in the parking lot. When I flew out of Ottawa, the plane was still in the same spot. For eight days the plane was not used, stood idle, without bringing any income. ” And for the owner, such a lost profit is an insult to his master’s essence!

“Smiled” at me and this is the line from Lee’s memoirs about visiting Moscow: , where Stravinsky also stayed) and did nothing else. “Lee Kuan Yew, as you can see, imagined the work completely differently than his grandmother and those who planted her near the elevator. But he has not yet seen hundreds of thousands of Soviet “specialists with higher education” sitting in offices and institutes, drinking tea and discussing the question that in the West they would receive a salary ten times higher than in the USSR.

So, Lee Kuan Yew raised everyone he could to work for the prosperity of Singapore. But this was still only the amount of labor, and real income could only be obtained on the condition that the labor of Singaporeans was of high quality and therefore expensive.

Expensive work is highly skilled work – work that requires a lot of intelligence. From the one working with his hands he also demands a special precision of his hands, but this is again connected with the development of the mind. Thus, in order to sell their labor dearly, first at smart foreign enterprises (high-tech), and then at their own, Singaporeans had to dramatically increase their mental abilities. Lee confesses that he did not immediately realize this: “It took me some time to understand the obvious thing: talented people are the most valuable asset of the country.And for small, resource-poor Singapore, which had a population of 2 million when it gained independence in 1965, that was simply the determining factor. ”

And it is precisely the search and disclosure of talent that has become a constant headache for the Singapore government. Moreover, I will emphasize and give them their due – as they began the struggle for honesty with themselves, so the struggle for mental abilities also began with themselves, but more on that later.


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