Mediaeval wedding dresses: 7 Medieval Wedding Dresses in a Modern Style


7 Medieval Wedding Dresses in a Modern Style

In this article, let’s think outside the box by looking at medieval-style wedding gowns! We’ll dive into the traditions behind medieval wedding dresses, show you some fabulous and varying styles, and provide examples of some of the most breathtaking medieval wedding dresses out there.

Readeth on my lady and discov’r the quaintest dresses thee’ve ev’r laid eyes upon. Sorry, couldn’t help myself with a little nod to old English!

Why Choose A Medieval Wedding Dress

It understandable if you haven’t considered this style before, or you feel it’s out of your comfort zone. However, there are many, many reasons to choose a beautiful medieval wedding dress.

1. Memorable

When it seems like everyone you know is getting married, it can be diffcult to find a dress that stands out and makes a lasting impression. One thing I can certainly say about medieval wedding gowns is that they’re completely distinctive and wonderfully unique in appearance. Right from the corseted bodice down to the beautiful trumpet sleeves.

2. Sync With Your Venue

Medieval dresses can be worn for any wedding. If it’s the dress you want, it’s the dress you should have. However, if you’re lucky enough to be marrying in a historical setting such as a castle or an abbey, a medieval dress will certainly enhance that coveted medieval style. 

Castle setting like this one provides an amazing ambience. Not sure if that dress would have been in medieval times, but we love it nonetheless!

3. The Romance Of It All

There’s just something about this style of dress that screams romance. Perhaps its the sense of enduring tradition, maybe the sumptuous fabrics and floaty skirts or simply their fairytale-like appearance. Whichever reason you most identify with, you’re sure to feel the love in the air the moment you slip into a medieval wedding gown. 


Which Gown Style is for You?

Whether you’re going for a completely traditional take on medieval or a slightly more updated version, there are many beautiful gown variations out there to choose from.


A traditional medieval gown is likely to be jewel-toned in colour with a dramatic, voluminous skirt and a corseted bodice. This is perfect if you’re looking to embody the classic look of a medieval bride, if your wedding is medieval-themed or you’re simply wanting to move away from a white gown and go for a bolder bridal look. 


If you love the idea of a medieval-style dress, but the reality of a replica is too much for you, opt for a more contemporary design with medieval influences. Identify the elements that you love (such as gorgeous trumpet sleeves), and subtly incorporate them into your blended bridal look. 


7 Medieval Style Wedding Gowns

Now, on to the dresses! Though it’s a time long passed, there are a great number of wedding dress designers out there designing gowns that truly capture and celebrate the medieval style. Below are seriously stunning examples, including my top picks for each style.

1. Fairy Tale Style Medieval Wedding Dress

by CelticFusionDesign

Marrying the love of your life should feel like the final page of a fairy tale — with the gown of your dreams to match! Live your happily ever after in this stunning dress by Etsy seller CelticFusionDesign.

2. Modern Medieval Wedding Dress

by Azazie

If you’re wishing for a subtle medieval touch on an otherwise modern gown, wedding boutiques like Azazie are a good place to shop. This breathtaking diamond white gown is one of my top picks.

3. Sleeveless Medieval Wedding Dress

by WeddingBeautifulDay

A spring/summer wedding or a ceremony abroad deserves a dress like this beautiful lace-up corset gown. It has all of the beloved features of a medieval wedding dress, but with the coolness of a sleeveless bodice. 

4. Game of Thrones White Meereen Dress + Cape

by Hidylle

Game of Thrones is the epitome of medieval fantasy looks. One of my favorite shows of all time may have come to an end, but that doesn’t mean you can’t relive Game of Thrones in all its glory on your wedding day. This handmade replica can be paired with a statment necklace for a stunning look.

Or, for that matter, wear this gown at a party around Halloween time and all eye will be on you – Mother of Dragons!

5. Galadriel Elvish Style Medieval Gown

by CostureroReal

A mix of boho meets medieval style sounds like an absolute dream. This stunning design by 5 star Etsy seller CostureroReal is the real-life proof. The dress is handmade to order, and could be the perfect look for a beach wedding or for brides wishing to inject a small medieval touch to a bohemian aesthetic.

6. Celtic Medieval Wedding Dress

by LoreTree

For a truly romantic medieval bridal look, a Celtic style gown is a wonderful choice. This stunning silk chiffon dress is composed of a fluid tunic in pure silk and a detached corset belt. The tunic dress is made with two layers of silk chiffon, guaranteed to take your future spouse’s breath away.

7. Affordable Medieval Wedding Dress – Etsy

by CostureroReal

Brides on a budget needn’t rule out this opulent looking style. Take this particular design from 5 star Etsy seller CostureroReal — an equally beautiful medieval design for a fraction of the cost.


The History Of Medieval Weddings & Gowns

Amazingly, the basic structure of a medieval wedding day has long endured and is very similar to our weddings today. A religious blessing, the exchanging of vows and rings, followed by a feast with friends and family. That being said, there are some interesting practices that while not unrecognisable, haven’t exactly stood the test of time either!


Today you may wish to announce your engagement in the local paper or, more likely, spread the word all over Facebook and Instagram! In medieval times, however, a notice would be placed on the church doors for the whole town to see.  

The Cake

If you’re dreaming of a delicious tiered vanilla cake with pure white frosting and an adorable bride and groom topper, it’s lucky you’re marrying in the 21st century. Medieval couples would instead be gifted with a pile of small buns stacked into a pile over which they would have to share a kiss. A successful smooch was an indication of a long and happy marriage, adorable!

The Gown

Forget those crisp white and ivory gowns, ladies of years gone by would be decked out in jewel-coloured dresses for their big day. Blue was also a popular colour believed to symbolise the brides’ innocence and purity. If you hadn’t already guessed it, this is where the blue in some old, new, borrowed and blue originated!

The Hair

Love those oh-so-natural curls styled with a bohemian flower crown? Well, we all have brides of medieval times to thank for that. Their hair too was traditionally styled loosely and adorned with flowers. Now that’s what I call timeless style!


What Does A Medieval Wedding Look Like

This is a question with a few different answers. Your wedding day can take on many different forms, depending on whether you opt for a historically faithful interpretation of a medieval ceremony or a day simply influenced by this theme.

Introduce the traditions listed above to add a fun historical element. Additionally, opt for dramatic medieval decor and have guests sit around a long banquet-style table for dinner. You’ll feel instantly transported to another time to celebrate your union!

Alternatively, incorporate a few select traditions into your day that speak to you. For example, try blue cuffs on your dress or style your hair with a traditional flower crown. Combining these elements with your medieval gown will give a classical twist on an otherwise modern wedding day. 

Whether you’re definitely opting for a medieval gown, or you’re slightly inspired to discover a more unique look for your wedding day, I hope your eyes are open to something new and exciting as you search for the one.

We are certain you’ll look perfect on your wedding day, whichever gown you choose. May all of the love and luck in the world come your way!

Wedding Dresses in the Middle Ages and Renaissance

Plenty of webpages will cheerfully tell readers all about medieval wedding dresses, or wedding dresses of the Renaissance — usually, they’re generalizations based on little or no factual information. Take, for example, the color of a wedding dress — should it be green? blue? white? And must it be a cotehardie?

In truth – there seems to be no overwhelming trends, in terms of color or style. Most of the examples below cover the later Middle Ages and the Renaissance; colors and styles generally cover the same array of what was fashionable at the time (or, in the case of the 16th century “peasant weddings,” of what was worn by women of that social status).

Some 14th century brides carry a set of purses (see Michael Camille’s The Medieval Art of Love for further discussion on this practice).

Some 15th century examples dress the bride in a sideless surcoat that was, at that late date, associated with ceremonial costume, primarily for princesses and queens; however, many of the illustrations depicting brides in such a costume seem to illustrate the wedding of a princess, anyway.

  • The Wedding at Cana by Duccio di Buoninsegna, 1308-1311

  • The marriage of Gilbert Becket and the Saracen emir’s daughter, The Queen Mary Psalter (British Library Royal 2 B VII, fol. 289v), c. 1310-1320

  • Marriage, The Stefaneschi Missal (PML M.713, fol. 152r), late 1320s

  • A marriage ceremony, Guido da Baysio’s commentary on the Liber Sextus Decretalium (St. John’s College MS MS A.4(I), fol. 101r), c. 1335-1350

  • A marriage ceremony, the Liber Sextus Decretalium of Boniface VIII (St. John’s College MS A.4(II), fol. 67v), c. 1335-1350

  • A marriage ceremony, Giovanni dAndrea’s Glossa ordinaria in Librum Sextum (St. John’s College MS A.4(IV), fol. 60v), c. 1335-1350

  • A bride and bridegroom (fol. 165v), a bride led to a flower-covered bed (fol. 166v) and another bride and bridegroom (fol. 181v), Concordantiae caritatis (Stiftsbibliothek Lilienfeld 151), c. 1349-1351

  • The Marriage; the Kiss of the Bride; the Bride Abandoned by Nicolo da Bologna, c. 1350s

  • Marriage, Omne Bonum (British Library Royal 6 E VI, fol. 286v), c. 1360-1375

  • The sacrament of marriage on a base-de-page in the Trés Belles Heures de Notre Dame (BNF NAL 3093, fol. 175v), c. 1380

  • The marriages of King Philip III of France and Mary of Brabant (fol. 10), and Philip, Duke of Burgundy, and Margaret of Flanders (fol. 182),

    Chroniques de France ou de St. Denis (British Library Royal 20 C VII, fol. 10), end of the 14th century

  • Betrothal scene: the lady of the house (in the red gown) joins the couple’s hands, wall-painting at Sværdborg church in Denmark, c. 1400-1410; in this scene, the the bride is the crowned figure, second from the right

  • The weddings of Tanor and Celinde (fol. 1), Mark and Isolt (fol. 52), and Tristan and Isolt of the White Hands (fol. 64), Tristan de Léonois (BNF Fr. 97), first quarter of the 15th century

  • The marriage of David and Michal, the Bedford Psalter and Hours (Brit. Lib. Add. 42131, fol. 151v), c. 1414-1435

  • Marriage, Facta et dicta memorabilia (BNF Fr. 286, fol. 79v), second quarter of the 15th century

  • Liturgy: the sacrament of marriage, Pèlerinage de vie humaine (BNF Fr. 376, fol. 6v), second quarter of the 15th century

  • The weddings of Bertrand de Roussillon and Gilette de Narbonne (fol. 102v), Ricciardo Manardi and Caterina da Valbona (fol. 150v), Federigo Alberighi and Giovanna (fol. 162), and Gualtieri di Saluzzo and Griselda (fol. 295), The Decameron (BNF Fr. 239), second quarter of the 15th century

  • Jacob’s wedding-feast in a Bible Historiale (KB 78 D 38 I, fol. 31r), c. 1430

  • Cassone panel with scenes from a marriage ceremony, Florence, c. 1430

  • The wedding-feast of Peleus and Thetis, The Epistle of Othea, (KB 74 G 27, fol. 56r), c. 1450-1475

  • Wedding banquet in the Histoire d’Olivier de Castille et d’Artus d’Algarbe (BNF Fr. 12574, fol. 181v), 15th century

  • Detail from The Seven Sacraments Altarpiece by Rogier van der Weyden, c. 1445-1450

  • A marriage scene, Livre de Valerius Maximus (British Library Royal 17 F IV, fol. 65v), second half of the 15th century

  • The marriage of Syphax and Sophonisba, Ab urbe condita (BNF Fr. 274, fol. 262), c. 1455-1460

  • St. Thomas at the wedding banquet, Speculum historiale (BNF Fr. 50, fol. 330v), 1463

  • The weddings of

    St. Julian of Antinoe and St. Basilissa (fol. 77), Anastasius and Ariadne (fol. 412v), St. Arnulf of Yvelines and St. Scariberga (fol. 420v) and St. Hermenagilda and St. Ingonthe (fol. 453v), Speculum historiale (BNF Fr. 51), 1463

  • The weddings of Tanor and Celinde (fol. 1), Mark and Isolt (fol. 59v), and Tristan and Isolt of the White Hands (fol. 73) in a 15th century manuscript of Tristan de Lonois (BNF Fr. 102), c. 1470

  • The marriage of Philipe d’Artois to Marie, daughter of the Duc de Berry, Froissart’s Chronicles (British Library Harley 4380, fol. 6), c. 1470-1475

  • St. Thomas at the wedding banquet, The Golden Legend (BNF Fr. 244, fol. 20), 1480-1490

  • The marriage of King Henry V of England and Catherine of France, Chroniques de France ou de Saint Denis (British Library Royal 20 E VI, fol. 9v), 1487

  • King John of Portugal marries Philippa of Lancaster, Chronique d’Angleterre (Brit. Lib. Royal 14 E IV, fol. 284r), late 15th century

  • Marriage of Bohemond I, Prince of Antioch, and Constance, daughter of King Philip I of France, Chronique d’Ernoul et de Bernard le Trésorier (British Library Royal 15 E I, fol. 170), late 15th century

  • The Marriage Feast at Cana by Hieronymus Bosch

  • The Marriage at Cana, c. 1495-1497

  • Bridal couple on an oven-tile, c. 1495-1505

  • The Story of Patient Griselda, Part I, c. 1493-1500

  • The bride in The Marriage at Cana by Gerard David, c. 1500

  • June: The wedding, a book of hours, 1522

  • Marsilio Cassotti and his bride Faustina by Lorenzo Lotto, 1523

  • The bride in the Peasant Wedding by Pieter Bruegel the Elder, c. 1568

  • A Venetian bride before her marriage, and a bride from the Friuli region, De gli Habiti antichi et moderni di Diverse Parti del Mondo, 1589-1590; see also Brides Before Their Wedding in Our Time and Brides at Their Wedding and Brides Outside the House after They Are Married

  • A Venetian bride, Album Amicorum of a German Soldier, 1595

  • The Peasant Wedding by Marten van Cleve

  • The dress of a bride and her dancing-master from Habiti d’huomeni et donne venetiane by Giacomo Franco, 1609

  • Wedding Dance, The Peasant Wedding, and Wedding Dance by Pieter Brueghel the Younger, c. 1600

  • The Wedding Dance in a Barn by Pieter Brueghel the Younger, c. 1616

  • Wedding Banquet by Jan Brueghel the Elder

  • The Wedding Dance in a Barn by Pieter Brueghel the Younger

Many thanks to Camilla Luise Dahl for her suggestions on Danish church paintings!

How Wedding Dresses Have Changed: Evolution of the Wedding Gown Through the Ages

Nowadays, white wedding dresses are considered to be classic. However, the things were different many years ago. A white wedding dress history started only in 1840, when Queen Victoria wore the one for her wedding ceremony. And before, the brides chose wedding dresses of other colors.

But, let’s dig a little deeper and see how wedding dresses have changed.

Ancient Wedding Dresses

Ancient Roman wedding dress

In ancient times, the majority of weddings were more economic unions than unions of two people in love. But, brides preferred to wear bright dresses in order to show their happiness of getting married.

In the Ancient Rome, the brides wore one-piece floor-length tunics, which were knotted around the waist with a girdle. The girdle was tied by the bride’s mother using “knot of Hercules”, which only a husband had a right to untie. A bright yellow veil was worn over the tunic. As a rule, the tunic was of a white color. So, it seems that the white gowns tradition has its roots already in the ancient times.

The History of Wedding Gowns in Medieval Times

Green medieval wedding dress

In Medieval times, marriages were a union of two families, businesses and even countries. That’s why, the marriages of convenience were still the most widespread. As a rule, a bride put on a dress, which her family considered to be the most appropriate to show their wealth and status.

The research of wedding gown history of those times shows that the medieval brides had wedding dresses of rich colors and expensive fabrics. Their wedding outfits often featured silk, velvet and fur. The brides, who couldn’t afford such dresses, sewed the gowns of simpler and cheaper materials though tried to repeat the elegant styles. As to the colors, if to have a look at the medieval paintings, it seems that red was one of the most popular colors among brides maybe because it symbolized fertility.

An interesting fact is that the first white wedding gown appeared already in the Middle Ages. In 1406, princess Philippa of England wore a white gown for her wedding.

The History of Wedding Dresses in 16-19

th Centuries

18th century wedding dress

The history wedding dresses continued to be different. The brides usually wore in the manner, their social status allowed. The girls from wealthy families had the gowns from the richest and boldest materials. But the average bride didn’t usually buy a new dress for a wedding, but just put on the best gown she had.

Moreover, the social status of the bride was demonstrated by the amount of material used for the dress. The wealthier the bride was the longer the train and the more flowed sleeves her dress had.

In 1500, blue was the most popular color for the wedding dress. By 1600, red became the trendiest color among brides. In 1700, the gowns in purple, pink and pastel colors were the most fashionable.

The Legendary White Gown of Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria’s wedding dress

Clearly, the royal wedding dresses through history impressed by their luxury and beauty. But there is the gown, which changed everything. In 1840, Queen Victoria wore a white dress for her wedding and set a new wedding tradition. Since then, the women were recommended to wear a white gown for their weddings as well as a veil.

At that time, white was the color of wealth and not purity. The blue color symbolized it and that’s why, many brides married in blue gowns. The choice of Victoria was a surprise, which later turned into a trend.

Of course, not all brides suddenly started to wear white for their weddings as the majority of them put on a gown, which they could afford and wear after the wedding. Even if they gave preference to white, it was usually a simple dress or a two piece suit, which could be used in everyday life. A white dress was also a symbol of a well-off bride as only the richest families could afford buying it as white was a hard color to obtain and preserve.

History of Wedding Dresses in 20

th and 21st Centuries

Audrey Hepburn’s wedding dress

During the Great Depression, the history of white wedding dress seemed to be over. Because of the bad economic situation, the majority of brides couldn’t afford buying a gown they would never wear again. That’s why, they returned to the tradition of wearing the best dress of whatever color it was.

During the war, the majority of people couldn’t afford buying a wedding dress. Some brides hired wedding gowns while the other sewed the dresses by themselves out from the curtain fabric. After the war, the mid-calf ballerina-length gowns were in trend, especially among the working women.

Wedding gown of Princess Diana

The situation changed in the second half of the 20th century after the economic boom. A white wedding gown became more popular than before and turned into a real wedding tradition. The wedding gowns of Grace Kelly and Princess Diana were the proof of that. Simultaneously, the creative wedding dress history started. In 1960-70s, the first mini wedding dresses and the wedding suits appeared.

In 1990s, minimalism ruled the world and had its influence on the history of the wedding dress. Many brides wanted to go to the aisle in simple minimalistic gowns, not like the voluminous gowns, which were popular in 1980s.

Nowadays, white gowns remain traditional. However, many brides seek for more creative variants. They walk to the aisle in wedding gowns of various colors and different styles. The color range is from stark white to entirely black. While white and its numerous shades are the most popular, the brides also wear light-colored gowns like blush, light blue, pink and light violet ones.

If to answer the question of how wedding dresses have changed, to say a lot is to say nothing. The wedding gowns looked so different in various times in both colors and styles. Moreover, the development doesn’t stop as new wedding gown trends appear every year. Maybe, some time will pass and we will stop to consider white gowns to be the classic outfit for a wedding.

The Best ‘Cheap’ Places to Get Married in Europe

Planning on getting hitched at a super lovely location, but don’t want to take out a mortgage in order to do it? Here are the top budget wedding destinations for 2021.

These days, an increasing number of couples are choosing to get married abroad. This decision is usually prompted by several reasons, the most popular among which usually involve the desire to get hitched in an ‘exotic’ location, falling in love with someone from another country (or the country itself), or the chance for the newlyweds and their loved ones to enjoy a post-wedding holiday. Fantastic idea, yet is it affordable?

It is. And cheap doesn’t have to mean it’s, you know, cheap. With the right wedding destination matched with the right wedding suppliers, including a wedding planner, you don’t have to make a dent in your savings at the beginning of your married life. Let’s see what 2021 has to offer in terms of affordable dream wedding destinations.

Dubrovnik, Croatia  

Right at the end of Croatia’s stunning Dalmatian coastline stands one of the oldest and well-preserved trading ports in Europe. Dubrovnik is a historic gem of the Adriatic. Its Old Town affords beautiful ancient architecture that Game of Thrones fans will agree makes for superb wedding photos (for white weddings, not red, to be clear).

With its relaxed Mediterranean vibe, outstanding views, and superb food, Dubrovnik is a cheaper wedding destination alternative to some more prominent Italian counterparts. Hint: gondolas and masks.

Budapest, Hungary

Another historically very lush place is the Hungarian capital. Listed among Europe’s most elegant and charming cities, Budapest also happens to be a popular wallet-friendly wedding destination. Divided into two gorgeous sections by the Danube river, the city is dotted with UNESCO World Heritage sites, numerous hot springs, and offers some tasty local cuisine in its stylish restaurants. All this at a very affordable price. And the choice of venues is exceptionally broad.

Santorini, Greece

Snow-white walls, blue dome-shaped roofs, windy streets and breath-taking sea views. Yes, Santorini is a dream wedding destination that has been a popular choice for couples for years, and due to its affordability, it will probably remain one for a long time to come.

Santorini’s natural beauty, which comes in the form of mesmerising cliffs and a thousand shades of blueness, has earned it the title of a fairy-tale budget wedding location that is complimented by top-grade wine and scrumptious banquets. A proper Greek wedding with a modern twist.  

Lake Bled, Slovenia

From the Mediterranean we travel north to the Alpine jewel of Lake Bled. Located in unbelievably scenic surroundings and drenched in mystery and legends, this place is home to the best affordable wedding venues in a very small area.

Its iconic Lake Bled island with a romantic church, a powerful medieval Lake Bled castle atop a spectacular cliff and attractive villas along its shoreline, the town of Bled prides itself with a long history of hosting the most incredible civil and church ceremonies. Thanks to their prime settings, weddings at Lake Bled also come with the perfect opportunity to explore the rest of Slovenia at, you guessed it, a budget-friendly rate.  

Bologna, Italy

Emilia- Romagna region of Italy is renowned for its historic, gastronomical and cultural excellence. Its capital, Bologna, is a perfect fusion of its best qualities. Getting married here will not set you back a fortune, but it will make you feel priceless, as you stroll across the city’s piazzas and arch-topped sidewalks, lined with artisan shops, boutiques and pretty cafés.

A wedding in Bologna presents you with the fancy perks of a classic romantic Italian atmosphere, but without the head-spinning prices which usually accompany such a venture.

Porto, Portugal

Portugal is an up-and-coming tourist destination, which happens to be ultimately romantic. Its trendy yet very old city of Porto can only be described as an unforgettably cool place to get married on the cheap. If you want to soak up the sun on the beaches and get a dose of culture among the famous tile-covered buildings, you should definitely consider Porto as the location of you big day.

Sipping the world’s best wines, marvelling at the famous façades, bridges and palaces, getting your wedding photos taken in the Old Town or in the nearby rustic villages in the Douro Valley, Porto guarantees a wedding of the ages for all ages.  

Other top wedding locations on a budget are: the fun and classy city of Prague, the melting pot of East and West called Istanbul, the centre of antiquity that is Athens, the party place of Ibiza, and the picturesque paradise of Sorrento.

Whichever of these cheap places to get married you choose, know that cheapness will be the last thing you can expect. As the world becomes a tightknit community, amazing wedding venues turn into fairy-tale destinations you can afford.           

NSW’s top English student Eszter Coombs shares her major work with us

To which Mr Johansson replied, “Yes. Very smart.”

Moya shuffled on the spot and the leg of the stool gave a squawk. Moya squawked too, and flapped her arms. The assistant with the camera turned around and gave the Johanssons a funny smile.

A few years before he died, Walter Freeman bought a new van. It was a while after Mortensen and he had colon cancer (he didn’t know yet) and he decided to go off in a van and find the people he had operated on so that the tiny niggly feeling that he had high up in his chest (maybe the beginning of his throat, like a lump) would go away. So he bought a van from a dealership in Los Altos a few years before he died. He also bought a portable tape recorder and a tube of pineapple now and laters.

And a multipack of white ribbed socks. That was three weeks in when he realised he hadn’t brought enough socks and that his feet felt damp and smelt rubbery. So he stopped the van in a Walmart car park in Weston, West Virginia, and went in for some new socks.

It was about noon on a Tuesday and the Weston Walmart was almost empty. There was a pop song playing and the aisles were very white and the floors were mopped, and a toilet paper pyramid had just been arranged across from the sliding entrance. A teenager who stood next to it said, “Good morning, Sir.”

Freeman bought some white ribbed socks. He needed compression stockings for his circulatory issues, but this was Walmart in 1967 and they didn’t start selling compression stockings in select branches until 1974.

He kept feeding it pineapple now and laters but the lump got tighter.

Transcript of doctor-patient interchange during a transorbital lobotomy conducted at the George Washington Medical University. Performed on a conscious patient

Doctor: And this is going to help you, isn’t it?

Patient: (anxious) Mmm.

Doctor: Alright, then. That’s alright. Alright, here we go, . Eyes wide open.

Patient: Jesus, doctor. I don’t know. I don’t think so.

Doctor: Not long. Here we go.

Patient: Shit! Son of a bitch! You’re killing me!

Doctor: (patient digs nails into my hand) You’re holding onto my hand real tight there

Patient: Please! You’re splitting me open! Aww…

Doctor: Alright. That’s alright.

Patient: Stop! Shit! Stop! You’re killing me! Youvemadeamistake!

Fig. 2: Diagram showing the manner of incising the white matter of the frontal lobe. Manoeuvre is repeated bilaterally.

Doctor: Nice and calm. Go on and let go of my hand. Patient: Awww…doctor… Aww God.

Doctor: Better? Can you tell me who the president of the United States is? Patient: Aww..

Doctor: Can you tell me that?

Patient: (still shaky) … Rrr-rr-rro (sudden release of breath)

Doctor: – Uh-uh. Come on. Concentrate real hard for me. Next one.

Patient: I dunno, doctor.

Doctor: That’s fine. We’re done. Well done. Extra well done. Where’d that fear go, huh? Patient: I dunno…went away

Doctor: Feel good?

Patient: mhmm.

Doctor: Will you go ahead and let go of my hand?

Patient: mmm.


Bernadette Rogers was Walter Freeman’s 1764th patient. She was very white and very skinny. She was so skinny that her cheeks had sprouted a fine layer of blonde fuzz, like a jacket. She was also so skinny that Walter Freeman could fit his hand round her ankle with extra space. He experimented after some electroshocks.

“Look,” he said to the junior neurologist and the nurse, and held up her ankle. “Look how skinny she is.”

Uncovered in twelve cardboard boxes sealed with red-and-white FRAGILE tape were 3, 874 black-and-white photographs and 150 reels of 16 mm film. The neurologist who found them, a Dr. Kalina Kalcheva (newly arrived from the Sofia Academy of Medicine) told the local paper; “I could not sleep. Seeing the eyes of those people, I could not sleep for days.”

The eyes, everyone agreed, were the worst bit.

Dr. Kalcheva watched the first reel in the faculty auditorium next to the operating theatre. The technology assistant fed the film into the projector.

She crossed her legs.

The auditorium was black for a time and then the screen crackled into a fuzzy image of a very white profile. It was positioned against a very black curtain. And two large hairy arms appeared above it, one decorated with an expensive looking wristwatch. No gloves. No gloves? thought Dr. Kalcheva, who was finicky about protocol.

And one of the hairy arms ended in a set of fingers bent sort of delicately, like fingers holding a crochet hook, around a pointy metal instrument. Sort of delicately, and the camera operator moved to give us a closer view, and all the time white milliseconds were being counted in a black box at the bottom of the frame – 00:02:55.29, 00:02:55: 30, 00:02:55:31, 00:02:55:32, 00:02:55:33, 00:02:55:34, 00:02:55:35, 00:02:55:36, – and the hairy arm that was decorated by a wristwatch brought the pointy metal tool up over the head, and the other arm lifted the eyelid of the head on the table which was positioned against a black curtain and then lifted it a bit more and positioned the leucotome above the eyeball with meaty fingers arranged delicately and pushed it a tiny little bit more and the seconds went 00:03:36:46, 00:03:36:47, 00:03:36:48, 00:03:36:49, 00:03:36:50, and the camera moved to get a good shot of the eye, which could not see because it was in an electrically-induced sleep but which to Kalina Kalcheva seemed to be looking directly at her (“the eyes were the worst bit”), and then the leucotome went in with this strange force, and she watched as it was bonked on the end with a hammer, one time, and another time, and she watched as it was cranked from side to side, and she felt like they were looking right at her and then up and down with a strange force. Oh my God. Kalina Kalcheva uncrossed her legs and looked away. Oh my God.

Irene Martin came in with the jitters. Sitting next to her husband, she bounced gently through the consultation, and then on the way into the operating room, and then she bounced on the table through the first four electric shocks.

Mr. Martin had brought her to Washington after she defecated on their new cream carpet for the first time.

The wall paperers and the carpeters had come the previous afternoon, and the house was a new and beautiful shade of cream. The plates and the tea set were also cream, but a slightly darker shade, because the store had almost sold out of its porcelain selection.

Still, when it was all finished, it really looked quite nice, thought Mr. Martin, closing the cream front door on the men with ladders and paint rollers. Somewhere nice for Irene to spend her day. Somewhere that would calm her nerves.

Mr. Martin had read an article that had been reprinted from the American psychiatric journal which found, in a study of institutions in Nebraska, that off-whites were the most effective paint pigment in soothing patients with psychiatric disorders. Across the country, he read, hospitals were calling in painters to creamify entire buildings. Landscape paintings in greens and reds were being driven off in skips by the hundreds.

She had been getting sicker since their wedding in early June. That was when the jitters started, and the ill-timed secretion of bodily fluids.

The couple arrived in a hotel after a dinner with both of their sets of parents, during which the bride had refused to touch the lamb and potatoes on her plate or say anything to her family.

He unlocked the door and she got into bed in her high heels and closed her eyes. For a few seconds he observed her. She was angelic, really. He had thought she was in a mood, but he saw now that she was angelic. Mr. Martin pottered into the bathroom and took a piss. When he came out, she was further under the covers, with only the top of her head and some little silver barrettes sticking out. He liked the barrettes; he had told her that she should wear the barrettes.

Should he tickle her? Would that be fun? He might reach over and stroke her head silently until she started murmuring and breathing heavily and then she would turn over and look at him with her little eyes … So should he stroke her head? Or start kissing her neck? That’s what he had

imagined. He had imagined her gazing at him longingly (“Oh Duncan…“) and then him inching over and starting to kiss her neck. But she wasn’t gazing longingly at him yet, and he very much wanted her to gaze longingly at him. So maybe he should touch her first to wake her up, get her

to turn over. He could touch her lightly on the shoulder first. He would have to reach a little under the covers and then he would give her a sort of loving pat on the shoulder, so she would turn around in bed and gaze longingly at him. That was good. He was sure she longed.

And that was when the jitters started. Mr. Martin froze. It felt like she sensed his hand coming, and that is what really hurt his feelings.

She let out a yelp and began to bounce gently (or quiver violently) under the bedspread like an epileptic.

Later, he told people “I thought she might be having a fit,” which was a lie. Mr. Martin knew that his wife was quivering because of his large sweaty palm which was moving towards her like a meteor that bit by bit was going to block out the world (light and animals and buildings) and make everything into a small cream nothingness.

So she leapt, frog-like, out of the bed with one great big jitter before he could deliver the pat, and urinated in a corner of the hotel room. A large pale yellow stain formed on the carpet.

After that, it was impossible. Mr. Martin went to sleep on the sofa in the adjoining room. Little Irene Martin, in a great white cloud of crepe and chiffon, jittered on top of the covers of the king sized bed until she fell asleep and the odour of bridal piss hung evenly over the whole suite. Then she looked angelic again.

When Mrs. Martin woke up in a hospital bed with a nurse bobbing above her holding a bowl of chicken lemon soup, she did not know where she was, and she started to scream.

The nurse pushed a spoonful of the soup against Mrs. Martin’s lips. “Mr. Martin told us it was your favourite.”

It was. She stopped screaming and slurped it all up.

Thirty-eight minutes later he entered the room, an intense shade of purply-red, holding a bouquet of lisianthus. His propped-up wife observed him silently with multiple chins.

Mr Martin sat at the end of the mattress. He was careful not to sit on her legs, in case they snapped. He was also careful not to look her in the eyes, because they had him spooked.

When Freeman’s career was done with, so a couple of days after the hemorrhage, a man called the office from the Herrick Memorial Hospital. He was sorry to inform Dr. Freeman that the board had made a decision on the outcome of the Helen Mortensen operation.

On Estelle Lamb’s last day (although she of course did not know that it was her last day) she thought she might go to the zoo. She got up early and prepared a mortadella-and-pickle sandwich which she put into her skirt pocket. She decided not to do anything special with her hair because she was only going to see animals, and animals do not care about hair.

She rode the 52 bus across town in an outrageous fur coat. It was cold, and the bus windows were foggy. There were only four other people on it. There was a man with a newspaper and an old woman with her hair pulled back into a low bun with a small child, who would not stop biting the old woman’s knee.

On the other side of the bus was a very large man who smelled of cigars. Everyone who got on avoided him.

No one said anything except the old woman, occasionally. She would say: “Stop that!” and then she would slap the boy on the neck. After that the boy would go back to biting her knee. She also, every now and then, eyed Estelle’s outrageous fur coat disapprovingly.

Estelle knew it was outrageous.

She got off opposite the zoo, having thanked the driver.

At the gates, she bought a day pass and complimented the woman in the box on her hair colour. Estelle felt self-conscious about her own hair, which she had decided not to do. She also felt self conscious about her outrageous fur coat, which was a constant. She sat underneath a large palm tree and ate her mortadella-and-pickle sandwich.

Female, 32, ill three years,

Severe depressive

Mood swings, occasional outbursts

Generally compliant

She threw the crusts and a little chunk of mortadella on the ground, and a group of pigeons warbled over. Pigeons warbled over. Warbled Pigeons warble… that’s a noise they make. Warbling. One pigeon, puffing out his chest, pushed through to the front of the pack and ate the chunk.

Estelle wondered if pigeons were allowed to eat processed meat. Because dogs aren’t, and humans who eat too much of it get fat. Estelle had a cousin who ate lots of ham, and any time

Estelle went to visit there would be platters of pinky folded strips of ham and her cousin, who was very fat, would say, “Estelle! you have to try this ham you have to I’ve just come from the deli!” The fat would be the splotches. The mortadella has bits of pepper and splotches in it. What is that? Fatty splotches. That are more pale than ordinary ham colour. And then on top of that (as well as that) it has little bits of pepper in it. How disgusting. The splotches like little bits of fat that do not taste of anything at all,

“Bleurgh,” thought Estelle. She had been a vegetarian until she left college.

At college Estelle was a sociology major. She liked it. She met Roy Lamb there in her second year and they went to a spaghetti house on student Sunday where they ate half-price spaghetti and Roy talked. And after a while she said, “excuse me” and went to the bathroom to change her tampon even though it had only been in half an hour because she was paranoid about leaking onto her skirt (or worse, smelling) on her first date with Roy Lamb (and you know how it feels to pull out a dry tampon; Estelle, wincing, made that sacrifice for love) and when she returned and saw him slurping up a long strand of spaghetti in an intelligent-looking corduroy jacket she decided she really was in love.

And they got married after a while.

According to the map she was given, Seal City was holding a live demonstration at 10:00. Seal City had a very small population of two seals, who swam around and around in a big circular tub. At one point there was a viewing deck facing onto a large glass window, through which toddlers would observe the two seals, who were called Hamish and Lavinia, and clap their hands and gargle.

And as Estelle climbed the tiered seats to find a good view of the demonstration, one of the seals lifted its head out of the water and went “auw, auw. Auw, auw auw.“, so Estelle turned around and looked Lavinia square in the eyes (tiny, sad and black) for ten seconds, and quietly it seemed she was going crazy, because she thought the stupid seal was talking to her. But she wasn’t, and Estelle sat down next to a family and patted her undone hair. Lavinia fell back into the tub.

“Welcome to Seal City!” said a young man in khaki.

On the Saturday that Estelle went to the zoo, a luncheon was held at the Mayflower Hotel.

The private events room in the Mayflower Hotel is a high-ceilinged sort of hall with limited lighting, dark wood walls and a long table. All a bit mediaeval.

The first course was a nice lobster bisque, over which, one by one, Mrs. Edward Lewis, Mrs. John Tillman and Mrs. John Mason took the opportunity to congratulate Dr. Freeman on his achievements.

“Congratulations, Dr. Freeman,” they said, “on your achievements.”

And Dr. Freeman received their congratulations on his achievements very graciously, doing the thing that people do when they are trying not appear pleased with themselves: bending his head and wincing and giving a little voiceless laugh,

“Oh, thank you very much,” he said, “Thank you very much.”

The second course was claggy raviolis in a sweet ketchupy sauce. Mrs. Norris L. Crandall, Mrs. John H. Lyons and Mrs. Arch L. Riddick took the opportunity to congratulate Dr. Freeman on his achievements.

“Dr. Freeman,” they said, “may I take this opportunity to congratulate you on your achievements.”

“Oh, thank you. Thank you very much,” he said.

Over dessert there wasn’t much left to say.

There was a little bronzey sign hanging on the door which said WALTER FREEMAN, MD PhD. Helen Mortensen knocked two times. WALTER FREEMAN, MD-PhD opened the door.

Radio interview from 1946. The recording is a little fuzzy but Dr. Freeman is the one with the cough and the deep voice.

…Host: Just finally now, Dr. Freeman, ‘cos we’re about to pass to a commercial, what about the, uh, the risks? I (ha) read one bold young journalist write of your procedure that “sometimes if you hit a broken watch it’ll start again.” Is that what your tran-transital

Freeman: transorbital.

Host: Yeh. Tra-transorbital. Is that what your transorbital lobotomy is? Hitting a broken watch? I mean, what do you say to the critics? What about the risks? Because it seems to me

Freeman: David, do you have children?

Host: Uh…No. No, I haven’t had children.

Freeman: No? Okay that’s fine. That’s no problem. Let me tell you something then… When I get a phone call from the parents of a young lady who used to refuse to speak to her family, who refused to change out of the one dress for months at a time and sulked at all hours of the day, to tell me that she now, two years after my coming into the institution she lives in and undertaking this procedure on her frontal lobe (coughs) that she now takes pride in her appearance, that she just celebrated thanksgiving with the whole family…David, when I get a call like that, it makes everything I do worth it. So I say simply (coughs again) that my aim is not to produce candidates for the Nobel prize in- in science, nor is it to produce patients with an IQ or a reaction time of

such and such, to pass this test or that test set by the, the…unqualified individuals who set their minds to criticising me. My aim is to relieve the daily nightmare lived by the most fragile among us, so they can return to loving homes. (pause) David, I dare you to find fault with that.

Host: (rustle) No, no, no, well, from what I’ve heard it sounds like you’re doing good, amazing work on the frontlines there. My listeners know we just like to put across everyone’s point of view here, Doctor Freeman. So thanks so much for coming in today and speaking with me and after this we’ll have a short break.

Freeman: I am always so glad when I can collabora….

The recording ends.

Freeman, in the early days, had a recurring dream. He would find himself at a long banquet table in a high ceilinged hall, around which a few thousand women (his guests) dined, with the tops of their heads cut off and their brains sticking up in the air, wobbling slightly as they conversed. They were all made up a little sloppily, with lipstick smudges on front teeth and a general excess of over-yellow powder, but elegantly dressed, and they chatted quietly amongst themselves, clinking glasses and laughing politely behind little gloved hands. It felt, Freeman always thought to himself, like a wonderfully civilised occasion. And he had the honour of being seated at the head of the table in front of a plate of duck. Prepared rare, with a greyish pinkish tinge.

He woke up after a woman sitting next to him started to pour him a glass of pinot noir, accidentally tipped it onto the front of his scrubs, and exclaimed, “Oh my goodness, Dr Freeman!”

“Oh my goodness, Dr Freeman!”

That was when he woke up, feeling confused.

Roy Lamb was called to the zoo on Auburn Street at noon.

“Your wife,” said the woman at the gate, with large eyes, “is in a bad way” —


Mariana Barrios was Walter Freeman’s 1256th patient. When he pulled up in his van outside the Weston State Hospital in Weston, West Virginia, she had just celebrated her forty sixth birthday, which involved a hamburger, a pointy hat and a visit from her sister Fernanda.

Mariana, until “well, you know” (as her parents referred to it) had lived in the home of Mr. and Mrs. Barrios and worked in a factory where she canned mashed potato. She was mostly deaf, which, although no one would admit it, everyone found a bit irritating. Nonetheless, her family told people, she seemed happy enough. She seemed happy enough.

In the period that followed “well you know” she was moved to the Weston State Hospital.

Everything at Weston was a whitey-yellow colour that buzzed very faintly because of the faulty neon lighting that the local government installed in 1947 (there was an article in the gazette and a celebration in the staff kitchen involving chips and dip). So anywhere Mariana went – or, more often, was taken – was lit by a strange not-quite-sunlight that refused to keep still.

The person who did the taking was a young woman called Matilda with pretty very thin arms and a mole on the side of her neck that looked like it might be cancerous. Nurse Matilda would take Mariana to sit places after breakfast. Nurse Matilda would read illustrated magazines. Mariana usually found herself thinking about mashed potato, which was odd (this was another thing she thought about) because she had never been very attached to her job in the factory.

She went in to apply three months before the war ended and the morning after her mother accused her of being “una inútil” at the dinner table. That is Spanish for a waste of space.

Mr. Turner gave her a full-time position that paid sixty five cents an hour and involved arriving at 6:30 in the morning six days a week. She would put a white dust coat over her dress and a net over her silly crispy bleached hair, and Mr. Turner and his large moustache would direct her and forty two other “ladies″⁣ (he called them ladies – “ladies, may I have your attention please!” etc.) to their places along a conveyor belt.

There were a few beeps and some levers were pulled, and then the steel vats on the other side of the factory floor would start grinding and sloshing potatoes, which tumbled down a complex

system of interconnected tubes. And by the time the first batch of mush hit the conveyor belt at 6:52 am daily and Turner’s ladies held their scoops ready, the product, Turner’s Special Formula®, was already perfectly creamy and very slightly grey. Nothing like grubby, lumpy potatoes, but, Mariana sometimes thought as she scooped and canned and pressed and sealed, more like nothing. And so efficient. Turner saw that each lady canned 630 portions per shift, and it was always achieved. Then she could take five cans home. Free (!)

After work Mariana would sit behind the bins out the back, where trucks arrived, and she would eat half a tin of Turner’s Special Formula® and a pepperoni stick. When she sat on the ground with her knees bent to her chest, she rocked slightly.

It was the nice time in the morning when lines of white light go zooming around the room every time a nurse walked past the curtains, and Helen Mortensen was watching the zooming with her head propped up. Three neurology students watched her from the tiered seats. Last time there had been more than three. Walter Freeman’s head bobbed. When you lie down on an operating table, and when they take the pillow out from under your head, everyone bobs around above you.

Irene went home on a Saturday. It was humid, and her calves were sweaty, and they stuck to the leather seats inside the station wagon.

“Are you hungry?” Mr. Martin asked her.

“I don’t know,” she responded in profile.

“I have some mandarins,” he said, “would you like a mandarin?“

“I don’t know.”

“Do you want a mandarin?”

“I don’t know.”

So Mr. Martin put the key in the ignition and drove out the gates of the George Washington University Hospital.

Mariana did not go home on a Saturday or on any other day. Mr. and Mrs. Barrios died. Fernanda, who worked as a receptionist, and had four children between the ages of two and seven, did not have space for her deaf, diabetic, schizophrenic sister. When she went to visit, and she felt very guilty about this, she found Mariana intensely annoying. Sometimes she felt like slapping her across the face. Which she felt very guilty about. Probably, if she had felt less guilty about how much she hated visiting, she would have visited much less. As things stood, she drove to the hospital every month. Her sister died of something or other the day after her 61st birthday, which involved one of those visits, a hat and a hamburger.

Estelle became very pretty after Freeman put a sharp tool into each of her eye-sockets and cut up her brain. …

She still has the unfortunate beaky nose, but she is very pretty now. Much prettier.

Roy Lamb collected Estelle also, coincidentally, on a Saturday. His was raining though, and cold, for California. He brought a card that read:

“Thank you, Doctor Freeman. We are excited for this new phase in our lives,”

and there was a little pencilled line that drew that message to the open mouths of two tiny smiling stick figures, who were labelled ROY and ESTELLE. Roy had sad eyes.

Dr Freeman put the card in his filing system, between LAGUARDIA and LAMBERT. He thought it was cute.

Turner’s mashed potato factory shut down after a group of his ladies went on local radio in early 1952 to expose a violation of labour laws. The minimum wage was in fact seventy five cents an hour.

“I give them free mashed potatoes!” Mr Turner exclaimed, over dinner, to his wife.

“Bitches,” said Mr Turner’s wife.

Walter Freeman, prominent neurologist, dies aged 77

Walter Jackson Freeman II, the eminent American neurologist and inventor of the five minute ‘ice pick lobotomy’, has died due to complications arising from an operation for colon cancer performed on Saturday, the 30th April in the Menlo Private Hospital in Los Altos, California.

In a partnership with James Watts that formed during Freeman’s three-decade term in the neurology department of George Washington University, he performed upwards of 3500 operations across the United States.

He leaves behind a wife and four children.


Helen Mortensen watched the light zooming around because a nurse was walking past the curtains with a cup of jelly. Some buttons were pressed and she thought how sticky the section of operating table under her arms was, and then Walter Freeman’s head bobbed above her and put cloth everywhere except her eyes. She thought maybe she might buy a newspaper on the way back from the hospital. She might tell the taxi to stop so she could go into the newsagent and buy a copy of the Sunday Star and she might ring a number in the classifieds section and get a job in an office not far from her apartment, which might be located on a third floor with a nice view, and she would come in in the mornings in a two piece suit with a nice waist and with stockings that wouldn’t hurt when they scraped the hair on her legs in the wrong direction because once she got the job she would start doing something about the hair and on her lunch breaks she might sit in the kitchen and share jokes and baked treats which she would bake on the weekends and her colleagues (suited, very handsome) would say “Helen! These biscuits! You’re a star!” and when they nodded that she must have one she would give a little laugh and say she wasn’t feeling hungry. Then everyone put their hands on Helen Mortensen, and there were several jolts, which sent her into an electrically induced sleep.

Kalina Kalcheva left the auditorium without talking to the technology assistant and went down to the cafeteria. She was wearing a pair of nude wedges that she liked a lot, and they clonked when she went down the stairs. They echoed. And when she stood in line, she crossed one shin in front of the other, for ease of balance. She bought a wrap and put sixty five cents in the tip jar. The tip jar said TIPPERS ARE SEXY.

“The eyes,” she thought, “were the worst bit.”

The first thing that happens is that the patient is administered a series of low level electric shocks which stun them into unconsciousness for a period of four to six minutes.

There was a jolt and Helen Mortensen closed her eyes which were the only things that could still feel the cold because everywhere else was covered with cloth. There were a few more jolts and then she couldn’t have opened her eyes even if she wanted to.

“Leucotome,” said Freeman

A nurse passed him a nice freshly sterilised leucotome.

He took a forefinger and thumb covered in powder-free blue latex and prised open Mrs Mortensen’s right eye. The leucotome went in.

Everything was a bit quiet so one of the three neurology undergraduates blinked.

Freeman held out his other hand, and the nurse put a sort of wooden hammer in it. He bonked the end of the leucotome, and coughed again.

Another student took a note in very quick biro.

“Leucotome,” said Walter Freeman, and the nurse passed him a second sterilised leucotome.

He did the eyelid again and then the second leucotome slid in. The neurology students looked at each other.

Helen’s left eyeball looked at Walter Freeman. It stared at him, and was white. It was very white, and then it became a pale yellow, and then pink, and then a circle of red formed all the way around it, and it was pink and wet with a circle of red around it, and then blood started welling at the edges, and the eyeball wasn’t white anymore but it was red and blood was pooling and welling at the edges and trickling out of the edges.

Walter Freeman swore under his breath.

When Helen Mortensen was about seven and a half and her aunt was on the toilet she went into the kitchen and made herself a ketchup sandwich. She didn’t want to use a knife in case she cut herself and in case she left evidence that she had been eating ketchup sandwiches which wasn’t allowed between meals, so she snipped off the crusts with her teeth and spat them out in the dustbin.

And then she took the sandwich up into the tree in the garden, and propped herself against the trunk and ate it (it was delicious), watching white light go zooming around inside the bubble formed by the leaves, and watching the blue in the cracks in between.

Eszter Coombs was a student at Fort Street High School and state dux of English extension 2 in the 2020 HSC.


Armstrong, Aurelia. “Foucault, Michel: Feminism”. Iep.Utm.Edu, 2020.

Beauvoir, Simone de, Constance Borde, Sheila Malovany-Chevallier, and Sheila Rowbotham. The Second Sex. London: Vintage Books, 2011.

Berlin, Lucia. A Manual For Cleaning Women. New York: Farrar, Straus and Girroux, 2015. Bomer, Paula. Inside Madeleine. New York City: Soho Press, 2013.

Bordo, Susan. Unbearable Weight. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2003. Chesler, Phyllis. Women And Madness. London: St. Martin’s Griffin, n.d.

Curthoys, Ann, and John Docker. Is History Fiction?. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, n.d. Edson, Margaret. Wit. London: Faber & Faber, 1999.

Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish. [S.l.]: Penguin Books, 2020.

Freeman, Walter, and James W Watts. Psychosurgery. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1948.

Freeman, Walter. “West Virginia Lobotomy Project”. JAMA 156, no. 10 (1954): 939-943. doi:10.1001/jama.1962.03050390036012.

George Washington University. Transorbital Lobotomy. Video, 2018. Goodman, Barak, and John Maggio. The Lobotomist. DVD. PBS, 2008.

Gooldin, Sigal. “Being Anorexic”. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 22, no. 3 (2008): 274-296. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1387.2008.00026.x.

Johnson, Jenell M. American Lobotomy. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2014.

Lennon, Kathleen. “Feminist Perspectives On The Body (Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy)“. Plato.Stanford.Edu, 2019.

O’Connor, Frank. The Lonely Voice.. Brooklyn: Melville House Publishing, 2011.

Pizarnik, Alejandra. “The Bloody Countess”. In Other Fires: Stories From The Women Of Latin America. New York City: Three Rivers Press, 2020.

Rhys, Jean. Good Morning, Midnight. London: Penguin Books, 2000.

U. S. National Library of Medicine. Prefrontal Lobotomy In The Treatment Of Mental Disorders. Video, 2018.

Jamaican Flag Pole

Jamaican Flag Pole Suggestions

  • jamaican
  • jamaican flag
  • jamaican food
  • jamaican music
  • jamaican patties
  • jamaican news
  • jamaican language
  • jamaican bobsled team

Jamaican Flag Pole links

    Images for Jamaican Flag Pole

          Site feed


    Jamaica flag on pole icon stock illustration. Illustration

    JAMAICA HAND WAVING FLAG medium 9″ X 6″ wooden pole flags

    Jamaica flag on pole icon stock illustration. Illustration

    3dRose ht_157061_2 Flag of Jamaica on a Flag Pole with

    JAMAICA COUNTRY 3′ x 5′ Flag, Pole And Mount.

    JAMAICA Medium HAND WAVING FLAG 9″ X 6″ with 10″ pole

    Flag Of Jamaica With Flag Pole Waving In The Wind Over

    Jamaican Flag Stock Images, Royalty-Free Images & Vectors

    3dRose Flag of Jamaica on a flag pole with blue sky

    Vector Waving Simple Triangle Jamaican Flag Stock Vector

    2017 10pcs the Small Jamaica flag 14*21CM Jamaica Flag the

    Jamaica Flag PNG Clip Art – Best WEB Clipart

    Jamaican Flag On A Pole Clipart – Png Download (#476129


    Jamaica Sticker – Jamaica Flag Pole Png, Transparent Png

    Jamaica Flag Waving In Slow Motion Against Clean Blue Sky

    Jamaican Illustrations and Stock Art. 3,581 Jamaican

    Jamaica 3′ x 5′ Outdoor Nylon Flag

    Gambar Gambar Raggae Jamaica »

    Jamaica Flag Waving In Slow Motion Against Clean Blue Sky

    Flag Icons of Jamaica | 3D Flags – Animated waving flags

    Jamaica Fringed Flag with Pole Hem |

    Jamaica Flag Stock Footage Video | Shutterstock

    Jamaican Flag | Buy Flag of Jamaica | The Flag Shop

    Large Jamaica Flag – 5×8 ft – Royal-Flags


    Jamaica Flag Waving In Slow Motion Against Clean Blue Sky

    jamaican national anthem | My Jamaican Life

    JAMAICA – Table Flag

    Free art print of Jamaican flag. Flag of Jamaica with flag

    NorthPeak – Jamaica Hand-Held Flag

    Jamaican flag. Flag of jamaica with flag pole.

    Jamaican Flag 1800 x 900mm, Buy Flag of Jamaica – Mapworld

    Jamaica Flag Waving In Slow Motion Against Clean Blue Sky

    90,000 From the history of the wedding dress. Part 1. Middle Ages – 20th century

    As they say, in one of the jokes, a woman, in addition to a small black dress, should also have a big white one =)

    As you already know, a wedding dress in Europe was not always white. And even more so in other regions. Let us today plunge into the history of the European wedding dress .
    I’m not a costume historian at all, I just want to do a little tour – if there are any corrections – you are welcome.When there is time and desire, I will try to do the second part – about the 20th century. =)

    Source: (approximate translation)
    Image sources:, http: // pinterest .com / msgaleann / historical-wedding-dress /,

    Wedding has always been one of the most important events in a woman’s life, so the wedding dress had to be appropriate for the occasion.

    Middle Ages , when often marriages were concluded between representatives of the nobility for political purposes, the bride had to look great at the wedding, as a representative of her family, a representative of his honor and wealth. In those days, dresses were sewn from the most expensive materials – corduroy, silk, satin and trimmed with fur and gold embroidery. According to moral norms, dresses were closed, with very long hems and sleeves. Since the colors were natural, the brightest and most saturated colors – red, blue, purple – could only be afforded by the richest ladies.And dresses of more natural “earthy” colors were common among the less wealthy. Dresses were embroidered with precious stones – diamonds, sapphires, rubies, emeralds and pearls. In some cases, the embroidery could completely hide the fabric of the dress. There is a story that Margaret, Countess of Flanders, who lived in the 15th century, wore a dress so richly and generously decorated with precious stones for her wedding that she could not walk for a long time because of its weight, and she was brought into the church.

    modern stylizations:

    With the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in Europe, weddings began to play a dynastic rather than political role.However, the tendency for brides to impress with their costume remained. Unfortunately, sometimes there were incidents due to the difference in fashion in the regions of Europe. For example, the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza, who married the English king Charles II, appeared at the wedding in a pink dress with a frame, fashionable in Spain and Portugal, which English society considered strange. (Although later the fashion for these dresses spread throughout Europe)
    something like this could look like her dress, only it was pink =):

    During the Renaissance, women from the middle class wanted a richer dress.Often the dress was trimmed with fur. Mink and sable were more expensive, fox and hare were cheaper. ( Cinderella’s shoes, by the way, in the original were also trimmed with fur, as a sign of wealth and sophistication – they became crystal ones from Russian translators a long time ago =) ). Girls from ordinary families used linen and li soft wool instead of the usual thick and rough fabric that went to everyday clothes. The long hem, train and sleeves were also a kind of indicator of the bride’s status.


    Styling: Renaissance Dresses

    From the beginning of New Time to Victorian times.

    As for the style and cut of the dress, the silhouettes changed as follows:

    For a girl from a simple semmb, a wedding dress often remained a “dress for going out”, which she wore for a long time on holidays. Some associations and superstitions have always been associated with the color of the dress.
    Although white was associated with purity and innocence, it was impractical and easily soiled color, so often the color of a wedding dress in Europe in modern times was blue – it was associated with the purity and innocence of the Virgin Mary.From there came the omen in English-speaking countries at a wedding to have “something blue” – something blue. Another popular color was pink, although some omens opposed it.
    In the 18th century, a lady, the wife of the English sculptor Joseph Nollekes, appeared at her wedding in a beautiful white dress with pink flowers and shoes with the same pattern on 8 cm heels, and everyone liked her dress.
    Red until the end of the reign of Queen Victoria was taboo at the wedding – it was considered the color of women of easy virtue.Green was also not honored – it was considered the color of fairies and other spirits, it was believed that it attracts their unwanted attention to the bride.

    This is how the shoes could look like

    All shades of brown have long been considered the lot of girls from poor families. but yellow sometimes gained popularity. For example, in the 18th century it was very fashionable, but for a long time it was considered the color of the pagans and was not welcomed in the church.

    Among the common population of that time, gray was a popular color for a wedding dress – a very practical color that could then be used in everyday life.Later, towards the end of the 19th century, this color became associated with maidservants.

    Black was associated with mourning and the bride did not wear it. At some wedding ceremonies, guests were forbidden to wear black, so as “not to bring trouble.”

    In the 19th century, girls who were not allowed material wealth to have a wedding dress as only a dress for a wedding, and not as a dress for all special occasions, decorated the dress with ribbons for their weddings. The guests then tore off these ribbons and left them as souvenirs.Then the ribbons were replaced with flowers. The guests had flowers, and the bride had a bouquet of flowers, flowers in her hair or on a dress. At first, rosemary and myrtle flowers were popular, and then orange blossom became popular. This tradition has passed to the higher strata of society, and still remains.



    orange blossom

    wedding hat decorated with ribbons

    A traditional wedding dress similar to the modern one appeared in the late 18th century.With the invention of machine-made fabric, the import of fabrics from India, and interest in antiquity, the white dress with a veil began to gain interest, which was worn by Queen Victoria in the mid-19th century.
    In the 19th century, all wedding dresses were worn more than once. After marriage, the bride visited relatives in such a dress, but without flowers, and often adapted for a more everyday look. Queen Victoria herself repeatedly wore her slightly modified wedding dress

    Queen Victoria

    Queen Victoria dress without a lace skirt, as she used it later

    New era dresses:
    18th century

    19th century
    1874 year, england 1837, france 19th century, England

    1841, USA 1887, USA, detail USA, late 19th century

    France, late 19th century England, mid 19th century

    Mid 19th century

    late 19th century

    Wedding dresses in medieval style and wedding ceremony

    There is almost no place for romance in modern life, it is full of haste and fuss.The standard painting in the registry office, a photo against the background of a beautiful landscape, a traditional solemn banquet with a toastmaster have long become boring and uninteresting for newlyweds. In order to plunge into the world of unforgettable, mesmerizing adventures, and feel like the heroes of a fairy tale, organize a wedding in medieval style!

    A medieval style wedding will not leave anyone indifferent

    This era, where Dignity and Honor reign uncontrollably, excite the hearts of many today. A medieval-style celebration will be like a fairy tale, which will be attended by brave knights, beautiful maids of honor, tournaments and battles.

    Where to celebrate your wedding

    An ideal place for a medieval-style wedding would be a real medieval castle. Where to get it – you ask? There would be a desire and financial opportunities, but there will always be a castle!

    This may be one of the beautiful castles of the Czech Republic, Italy, France, Latvia, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine or other countries.

    Many of them offer a medieval style wedding service.

    The castles have everything you need to create the right atmosphere: antique cups, real knightly armor, heavy medieval candlesticks, tapestries, bridal thrones and much more.

    Based on the number of guests invited, one of the halls of the castle can become a venue for a wedding feast.

    Banquet can be held in the courtyard with a beautiful view of the majestic castle.

    And what spectacular wedding photos the newlyweds can take against the background of the ancient castle and in its surroundings!

    If you cannot afford to rent a castle for a wedding, you can create a medieval ambiance in a restaurant, the interior of which at least a little overlaps with the medieval theme.

    Long wooden tables, which do not have to be covered with a tablecloth, benches or high-backed chairs, will be appropriate to create a medieval atmosphere. Rough stone or brick walls can be decorated with shiny armor, weapons, coats of arms.

    Various “medieval” features will complement the interior in this theme: lots of candles, massive candelabra, cups, homemade thrones for newlyweds and, of course, beautiful early music.

    Thematic photo session in the castle

    A photo session in an old castle will help you feel the spirit of the Middle Ages, when every man wanted to become a knight. The pictures taken will help you remember the wedding for a lifetime, and you don’t have to look for old clothes, the classic groom’s suit and the bride’s snow-white dress are perfect. To make a bright and unforgettable photo session, dress your girlfriends in maid of honor, and dress men in knightly armor.

    The image of the groom

    At a wedding in medieval style, it is desirable that the newlyweds’ outfits correspond to the chosen theme. The easiest way to rent such suits is from a specialized salon or store. The groom’s outfit can imitate knightly armor.

    Armor varied quite strongly in different regions in shape and design. So there are many options.

    A lighter version of the knight’s clothing of the early Middle Ages includes a tunic, as well as tight or leg-fitting pants-stockings (chaussures).A cloak was worn on top.

    The man’s suit consisted of two tunics: the lower one – kamiza and the upper one – cotta. The bottom tunic was most often long-sleeved. The upper one was made of expensive fabric, decorated with embroidery and was always belted. The longer the cotta, the higher the status. A surcoat could be worn over the cotta – a more voluminous robe, most often ceremonial. Surko not belted.

    However, it is not worth strictly adhering to the historical fidelity of the costumes. And in most of these weddings, the very concept of this historical period is very vague.We can say that this is rather a unifying motive.

    The most important thing is that your wedding day is one of the brightest and happiest moments in your life.

    If for some reason you cannot get an outfit stylized as the Middle Ages, do not despair. A classic men’s suit will be quite appropriate for the groom.


    Medieval wedding dresses were chic.

    The bride’s dress must be made of heavy velvet or satin.It needs to be embroidered or embellished in a tapestry style, and the sleeves and bodice must be carefully tailored. The colors are dark, saturated. A traditional white outfit is also possible, but with the obligatory presence of elements of the Middle Ages – hand embroidery, a fluffy skirt, a snow-white veil.

    The bride’s hair should be smooth and the makeup should be done in natural colors.

    The groom’s suit should include tight trousers and rich, rich colors. He wears a white cotton shirt.The presence of a cat is a must – a long cape decorated with embroidery.

    The following accessories can be prepared for guests: ladies pointed hats, fans, stylized capes, swords, men’s hats with feathers, veils.


    Bride’s image

    You can try to find a bride’s dress for a “medieval” wedding in wedding salons, but the most beautiful dresses, as a rule, are made according to individual orders.

    A medieval style wedding dress should be closed, with a long hem and sleeves.Often the dress was also lengthened with a train. It was believed that the longer the train of the dress, the more noble its owner. Dresses were pulled together by lacing, since the darts did not yet exist.

    The sleeves of the dress were also lengthened, they could be either flared or narrow.

    In the Middle Ages, dresses of bright and dark colors were chosen as a wedding dress: red, purple, blue, green.

    It is not at all necessary to wear an exact replica of a medieval dress for a medieval wedding.

    This may well be a wedding dress styled in the Middle Ages.

    In such dresses, a rather deep neckline may be present, and the shoulders may be completely open.

    For a wedding styled in the Middle Ages, the bride can wear a classic wedding dress. After all, the main thing is the general atmosphere, and the rest is just pleasant decorations.

    In the Middle Ages, women did not show their hair, carefully hiding it under headdresses, but considering that this is just a stylization, you can show the beauty of your hair.Make-up is desirable to be kept to a minimum.

    Wedding ceremony

    Such an important element as a wedding in the church began to be carried out around the 13th century. Previously, a medieval priest could perform this wonderful ceremony in any place he liked. The priest read prayers at the wedding, after which he asked the young people if they wanted to be together and bear together all the sorrows and joyful events before God. If the newlyweds confirmed their mutual consent, then a marriage union was concluded.

    Then, according to custom, the priest conducted a prayer service, asking for perfect love, the same thoughts from the young, a life devoid of vices, and the birth of children. When the priest was finishing the wedding ceremony, he joined the hands of the happy newlyweds.


    A medieval-style wedding should be imbued with the romantic atmosphere of a medieval fairy tale. And for this, it is important to provide for every detail: let’s start with invitations for guests. For a medieval-style wedding, invitations are best made in the form of old paper scrolls.

    You can try to write the invitation text yourself with a real pen and ink, or use the services of wedding calligraphy.

    Family coat of arms

    Given the medieval style and royal scale of the wedding, you should create your own coat of arms for the new married couple. To do this, it is better to turn to a professional artist who can visualize the symbol of the life of future spouses. This coat of arms can be used to decorate invitation cards, festive premises, bonbonnieres and cards for guests.

    Editors’ Choice: Wedding Film Ideas: Stylish Filming

    Create a Medieval Atmosphere

    Ideal for a medieval-style wedding celebration would be a real castle or a restaurant stylized for this era. A banquet hall for celebrating a wedding should be decorated so that once in it, guests can immediately be transported to the mysterious and fascinating era of the Middle Ages.

    But it is possible to recreate the medieval surroundings with the help of small details.You should start by decorating the walls. The best decoration of the hall will be images of coats of arms and other knightly heraldry.

    To create a truly historical and romantic atmosphere, you can use the rental services of fake weapons, shields, swords, knightly armor. Make the room dim. The atmosphere of the Gothic mystery of the candle in massive candlesticks is well emphasized.

    Organize a makeshift throne for the newlyweds.

    Venue of the celebration

    The main question that the newlyweds should be puzzled with, who decided that a knightly wedding is an unusual solution for their first family holiday, the venue for it. Any old dresses and outfits, a rich feast and a corresponding musical accompaniment against the backdrop of a modern restaurant complex will look strange. Therefore, a wedding in a knightly style should be held against the background of the walls of the fortress, inside the castle premises with high ceilings, fireplaces, towers.

    If in the places of residence of the newlyweds there is no appropriate castle, inside which you can organize a wedding banquet, then you can settle down under the walls of a majestic building or among the ruins of some count’s castle. The spring-summer wedding will have a solemn format if snow-white tents for guests are placed on the lawn near the walls of the fortress with covered, various dishes, tables. An interesting photo session with the newlyweds will turn out against the backdrop of an abandoned park or a pond with flowers.


    A medieval-style wedding must be filled with interesting events. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully consider the scenario and entertainment in advance.

    The ransom of the bride can be turned into a real chivalrous feat. The groom, in order to win the heart of a beautiful lady, will need to fight with the best knights of the kingdom.

    After the bride has been redeemed, the official part of the wedding ceremony follows – the registration of the marriage.A visiting medieval ceremony will be very exciting and romantic.

    A romantic horseback ride is perfect for a medieval wedding.

    Horseback riding can be combined with a wedding photo session.

    Conduct a real knightly tournament where you can demonstrate your military prowess. Such a spectacular performance will not leave anyone indifferent.

    According to the rules, the tournament began with a javelin duel.Objective: to knock the enemy out of the saddle or break your spear on his shield without falling yourself.

    It is believed that it was at tournaments that the tradition of handshaking appeared, which the knights exchanged after the battle, as a sign that they did not hold any grudge against each other.

    After the equestrian duel, the knights’ fight on foot followed.

    At the end of the tournament, the names of the winners were announced and awards were handed out.

    Archery competitions can be arranged as entertainment.

    At a wedding in medieval style, you just need to organize a costume photo session.

    Participation in the process of photography itself will be an interesting entertainment for guests and will give a lot of positive emotions. You can use the services of an on-site photography with instant printing of pictures, so that all participants in the celebration will have memorable photos.

    At a wedding in the medieval style, live ancient music should sound.It is best to invite a musical ensemble performing medieval music.

    A medieval wedding feast was accompanied by dances, which in many ways were still improvised. Medieval dances are distinguished by simple steps, which will allow all participants in the wedding celebration to take part in them.

    Bride and groom can learn an interesting medieval dance. The music of the first dance of the newlyweds should also correspond to the Middle Ages.

    Guests at the wedding can enjoy dance performances.

    Memes, acrobats, joggers, buffoons, jesters, stilt-walkers and other artists of the original genre will decorate such a holiday, and will give an unforgettable experience to everyone present.

    Entertainment may include theatrical performances and performances, in which both invited artists and anyone interested in the wedding celebration can participate.

    How they got married in the Middle Ages

    Until the 19th century, society was widely distinguished by strict patriarchal foundations.Both in Europe and in Russia, a woman was deprived of elementary rights and freedoms. The right to love was also not envisioned. According to medieval traditions, girls were considered ready for marriage from the age of 12, young men were entitled to a delay until 14.

    Expert opinion

    Expert Daniil Rodionov

    Historian, USSR State Prize Laureate, Doctor of Historical Sciences

    In Europe of the 10-15th century, marriage was not considered as union of loving hearts, but as a legal formality is often aimed at improving the financial situation of families.

    In Russia, children could be married at a very young age, thus the families agreed on a commonwealth for many years to come. According to this principle, princes and kings were married, and the ties between the royal houses in Europe were strengthened. There were frequent cases when a newborn daughter was already promised to marry the heir to a neighboring state, trying to strengthen foreign policy ties and avoid wars with their favorite forces.

    Punishment for infidelity in the Middle Ages

    The immaculate bride, doomed from childhood to become the wife of an unloved husband, was deprived of illusions about a happy family life.Its goal is procreation, birth and upbringing of children. Such unions between husband and wife were often the reasons for mutual betrayal. The male half got away with such adultery. There are cases when, having a family and legitimate children, a spouse spent most of his life with a lady of the heart. Children born out of wedlock could not be heirs or claim the title of father.

    Wives of infidelity did not get away with it. The deceived husband could imprison his wife in a monastery, prison, or bring the Inquisition to court. Unfaithful wives were punished cruelly.


    The wedding feast should be in keeping with the medieval style of the celebration. It is necessary to carefully consider all the details, including serving. Of course, you should not give up plates and cutlery at a wedding for the sake of historical accuracy. Use earthenware and wooden dishes for table setting: pots, bowls. Wines and other drinks are best poured into jugs. Use different types of cups instead of glasses and glasses.

    The wedding menu can be very extensive, because sometimes the feasts of the Middle Ages turned into a true demonstration of culinary skills.Previously, all dishes were served at the same time. Meat, fish, pies and sweets – everything was on the same table during the many hours of feasting. Then the custom of “changing dishes” appeared.

    During the feast, meat was an obligatory treat. Its use was also a sign of wealth and social status.

    Fried venison, roast piglet, roasted wild boar, rabbit stew, pork on the bone, lamb legs with saffron, cutlets, sausages. Various birds – chickens, ducks, geese, swans, pigeons, blackbirds.In the Middle Ages, they ate a lot of fish. It was most often served boiled, baked with vegetables or stuffed. They ate raw and boiled vegetables. There were no tomatoes and potatoes yet. Of the more popular vegetables, one can single out – cabbage, turnips, beets, carrots, garlic, onions.

    Cakes were served at the table. They were prepared open and closed. Meat, fresh or salted fish, poultry, mushrooms, vegetables, fruits, cheese were used as the filling. Wine was consumed diluted with water with honey and spices.Beer (ale) was also a popular drink.

    At a wedding in medieval style, do not forget about the main decoration of the table – the wedding cake. It can be made in the form of a medieval castle or decorated with figurines of knights.

    Talented pastry chefs will be happy to help you create your perfect cake that will fit the general theme of the celebration.

    A medieval style wedding will give the bride and groom a unique opportunity to turn their wedding into a real fairy tale, where there is a place for gentle princesses and noble knights, as well as beautiful and endless love … Be happy!

    Wedding image of the bride and groom in a knightly style

    The attention of the invited guests at the wedding will be riveted on the bride and groom.It is worth taking care of the outfits in advance, because the images of the young should fully correspond to the medieval style. A true lady should give preference to the classic white model. Such a wedding dress can be decorated with unique medieval elements – a bright bodice, contrasting lacing, an elongated silhouette, which will be obtained with the help of long smooth folds flowing into a train.

    Preparing the bride’s wedding dress can take a lot of effort. Please note that before, ladies were married in the best dress, which does not have to be white.If you want to express your own personality and love bright colors, feel free to choose a colored wedding dress. Embroidery or precious stones can be used to decorate the fabric. The bride’s makeup for a knightly wedding should be light, unobtrusive. Pick up your hair and tie it with a ribbon to match the dress – this is the perfect hairstyle for a medieval bride.

    The groom’s look must match the chosen style. You should not try to put knightly armor on your beloved.They are very heavy, the groom in them will feel very uncomfortable. The ideal option would be an elongated tunic, tight trousers, a bright raincoat draped over the shoulders. Such an outfit will turn a lover into a noble medieval knight.

    A real knightly wedding in nature

    A wedding in the bosom of nature has many advantages, here are some of them:

    • unlimited free space;
    • the opportunity to organize theatrical knightly tournaments;
    • the exit registration against the background of nature will look very nice;
    • It will be possible to organize the preparation of game on a spit.

    KNOWLEDGE BASE: Wedding in purple – for fans of secrets and mysticism

    To protect from bad weather, a tent is set up in the meadow, in which you can place banquet tables.

    When drawing up the menu, you should give preference to meat dishes and vegetables, pies. Various types of wines, liqueurs, cognac are suitable for drinks.

    Room decoration

    After the room is selected, proceed to its design. This must be done so that guests are completely immersed in the atmosphere of the knightly era.

    Look in the knights book for illustrations of their houses. Bulky furniture: high backs on chairs, tables made of oak. Above them is a beautiful large chandelier with candles instead of lamps. An important addition will be a lighted fireplace and candles in beautiful candlesticks, portraits and paintings. Tapestries are also symbols of that era. For inspiration, you can see photos:

    History of a wedding dress from the Middle Ages to the Victorian era

    15 January 2019 22:00

    It seems to us that the wedding dress has always been white.But this is not the case. The traditional white dress of the bride appeared in the 19th century, to be more precise – on February 10, 1840. On this day, Queen Victoria of England walked down the aisle in a white dress. Since then, every bride has dreamed of wearing a white dress for a wedding.

    Read also Church calendar of weddings 2019: when not to get married

    Prior to the wedding of Queen Victoria, brides were married in just about anything. Not literally, they also tried to surprise those around them as much as possible with the wealth of festive decorations.It was just that the colors of the dresses were any, like the style – everything depended on the fashion. What were the wedding dresses in the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the New Age?

    Wedding dress in the Middle Ages

    Read also Murphy’s 35 Laws of Love, Marriage and Family

    In the Middle Ages, the wedding was one of the greatest events in a woman’s life. Commoners could not afford a rich wedding dress, but high society had to show their fortune with a bride dress.In those days, marriages were often concluded for political and economic purposes. Therefore, the bride’s wealth was, so to speak, on the face, or rather on the dress. They were sewn from the most expensive fabrics – corduroy, silk, satin and trimmed with fur and gold embroidery, as well as precious stones.

    The dress was in the Gothic style and as closed as possible: no neckline and open shoulders. Sometimes the dresses were so richly decorated with precious stones that the bride needed help to get to the church in heavy dress.The rich chose bright dresses – red, blue, purple. The middle class chose dresses in natural shades. This was due to the fact that staining with natural paints was very expensive. The more fabrics were used when sewing a dress, the richer the bride was considered.

    Medieval wedding dress was the only joy from the marriage of a girl whose consent to marriage was not even asked.

    An interesting fact, but in Scandinavia, which adhered to the puritanical views of life, for a long time the bride’s dress was completely black.

    Wedding dress in the Renaissance

    In the Renaissance, for the first time, a delicate wedding dress in pastel shades comes into fashion. It was not necessarily white, all shades of milky, pink, ivory were used. This was due to the fashion for holding “white balls”. The wedding dress was decorated with numerous ruffles and a fluffy skirt. For the first time, Queen Marguerite of Valois appeared in a light dress at her own wedding. This wedding dress was fashionable for only 200 years.Then it was replaced by other colors.

    Maragarita Valois in a wedding dress

    The colors of wedding dresses in different regions were different. Therefore, sometimes there were incidents. There is a known case when the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza, who married the English king Charles II, appeared at the wedding in a pink dress with a frame, fashionable in Spain and Portugal. The British found this dress odd and tasteless.

    Read alsoWedding anniversaries from 1 to 100 years: what are they called and what to give to spouses

    During this period, dresses continued to be decorated with embroidery and jewelry.Those who were poorer decorated it with fur: mink and sable for richer brides, or a hare and a fox for bankrupt brides. At this time, the bride’s dress “comes out” more than once – for a wedding. It was not considered bad taste to periodically appear in it at balls and other celebrations.

    Replica of the wedding dress of Ekaterina II

    Read also Second wedding without divorce: remarriage is introduced in Ukraine

    The history of dress from the modern era to the Victorian era

    During this period, the wedding dress still continues to be a dress for going out.Although white was considered a beautiful color, it was not practical, especially if the girl planned to wear this dress further. Therefore, the dress was often chosen in blue, associating the color with the purity and innocence of the Virgin Mary. By the way, this tradition has survived in modern England; they consider it a good sign to have something blue at a wedding.

    Read also20 Secrets of a Happy Family Life: How to Build a Strong Marriage

    It was forbidden to wear for a wedding red was the color of women of easy virtue.A dress of earthy shades was considered a bad sign, since this color belonged to otherworldly forces: fairies and forest spirits.

    Poor girls chose gray wedding dresses – this color could serve them for a long time. This is how the style of the dress changed:

    In the 19th century, if a girl could afford to wear a wedding dress once, then she decorated it with ribbons. After all the celebrations, each of the guests could tear off his ribbon, it was a good omen. Then the ribbons were replaced by flowers.They began to be used as a decoration for hair, dresses and even in a bridal bouquet.

    Queen Victoria Wedding

    Read also 10 Christmas traditions of Queen Elizabeth II that will surprise you

    A wedding dress similar to the modern one appeared at the end of the 18th century. In the middle of the 19th century, Queen Victoria wore such a dress. These dresses looked like transforming dresses. Girls could continue to wear them, but in a slightly modified form, for example, the train was removed.After the appearance of Queen Victoria in a white dress at her own wedding, a new round of wedding fashion began. But that’s a completely different story.

    You will also be interested to know very indecent fashion: how aristocrats emphasized their manhood.

    Photo in text from open sources

    Wedding dress through the ages. Bridal dress

    As soon as people started organizing weddings, brides started thinking about dressing up for the occasion.After all, a wedding is an exceptional and special day, every woman wants to be absolutely irresistible on this day. Wedding portal continues to help you make a difficult choice and offers a historical overview of wedding dresses that remain relevant in the modern dynamic world.

    Antique sophistication, severity and elegance

    Brides in Ancient Greece, the ancestral home of modern art in the West, wore a peplos dress for their weddings. It was a long, loose, white dress that fastened on the shoulders with clasps.Today the Greek style is making a comeback. A greek-style dress is perfect for an elegant wedding during the warmer months.

    Expressiveness of Ancient Egypt

    Ancient Egyptian brides wore tight white fabrics that covered the body from shoulder to toe, emphasizing the figure. Amulets, adornments and jewelry were important elements of the outfit. The current “Mermaid” style dresses have their roots in ancient Egyptian wedding dresses. Modern dresses successfully emphasize the silhouette of a woman, without hindering her movements.

    Wealth of the Byzantine Empire

    Heavy fabric wedding dresses, lavishly decorated with gold embroidery and pearls, are descendants of their Byzantine counterparts. A white dress trimmed with lace and delicate gold patterns looks great in the spring.

    The drama and passion of the Middle Ages

    A medieval wedding dress is drama and romance, battles and poetry, a storm of deep feelings and courage. Noble ladies married in red dresses, heavy fabrics, trimmed with gold and precious stones.Today, despite many prejudices, red wedding dresses remain popular. The centuries-old traditions are making themselves felt. In addition, red has long been considered a symbol of beauty and passionate love in our culture.

    Intricate Renaissance Outfits

    Medieval wedding dresses underwent some changes during the Renaissance. The dress now had very long sleeves, a high waist, and fur trim. High (up to 1 meter) hats – “enen” – have become a distinctive feature.Our website advises those brides who do not want to hide their hair under a veil, adopt the traditions of the Renaissance and try on any elegant headdress, with or without a veil.

    Brilliant Baroque

    With the advent of the Baroque style, fluffy dresses richly decorated with pearls, gold, ribbons, etc. came into fashion. The main color of the wedding dress is gold. Today, combining white and gold shades, intricate decorative details can achieve an interesting result.

    Tenderness and sweeping of the 17-18 centuries

    The fashion for elastic corsets and puffy dresses continues. However, the main festive colors were pastel: pale pink, light coral, ivory, pale blue. The dress was often decorated with embroidery. At this time, flirty garters with bows become a must-have for the bride.

    The apogee of the lush dress – Rococo

    The peak of the splendor of the dress falls on the Rococo era. Brides wore incredibly wide dresses while pulling tight corsets with rich trimmings.Wedding dresses were often silver in color. The train was not uncommon. Today’s princess dresses inherited the style of the Rococo era.

    The era of romanticism, poetry and empire

    The 19th century was an era of romanticism, stormy emotions, bold aspirations, morality, poetry, and the triumph of the spirit. Brides are abandoning huge dresses from previous eras, modesty is back in bridal fashion. The dresses are sophisticated, with small sleeves. The main materials are satin, silk and lace. Such dresses are as relevant today as they were two centuries ago.

    Formula of the “correct” wedding dress

    British brides have believed for centuries that a wedding dress should be something old, something borrowed, something new and something blue. Heirlooms are often old and borrowed (tiaras, hairpins, brooches, earrings, necklaces). The dress is new, of course. But blue or light blue often acted as the main color of a wedding dress, being considered the color of purity, loyalty and spirituality. Today, a ribbon, belt, flower, hairpin or garter can act as a blue detail.

    It is not difficult to notice that a wedding dress has undergone many changes through the centuries, but at the same time, many ideas remain relevant today. Often the fashion for this or that style returns. Today, brides are free to choose their wedding dress, be it the Greek style or the rococo. Nevertheless, the past gives us an amazing legacy that will sound in a delightful melody if you add a few modern notes to it.

    Japanese Wedding Bride Dress

    The wedding ceremony in Japan has its own characteristics.They can be seen not only in rituals and traditions, but also in wedding dresses, costumes and images of the newlyweds. Japanese brides differ in many ways from European ones.

    • 23 photo

    Wedding dresses for pregnant women: photos and ideas

    Your interesting position is an unconditional reason for happiness, and not in any way for giving up your dream wedding. Maternity wedding dresses and belly-hiding styles will help you recreate the perfect bride look.The main thing is to choose the right outfit.

    • 18 photo

    Vintage wedding dresses – an overview of models and styles of different centuries with photo

    Wedding at all times was, along with the birth of children, the most significant date in a woman’s life. It is logical that they tried to make the dress appropriate for this special occasion. Interestingly, a wedding dress used to be able to have any color – not necessarily snow-white.And the style was often very different from what we are used to. Let’s take a tour of the history of wedding dress – from the Middle Ages to the present day.

    back to content ↑

    What dresses were worn for a wedding in the old days?

    During the Middle Ages, representatives of powerful families often married not for love, but for political reasons. It is clear that the girl at the wedding was supposed to look just stunning, because the honor and wealth of the whole family was judged by her outfit. Then, for sewing wedding dresses, exquisite and expensive fabrics were used – silk, satin, tulle and corduroy, which were generously decorated with embroidery with gold threads and valuable fur.

    In keeping with the customs of the period, the dresses were closed, and the hem and sleeves were of the maximum length. Paints of that era were made from natural ingredients, so only representatives of wealthy families could afford bright shades (scarlet, blue, pink). Dresses of natural “earthly” colors were widely used by poor girls.

    Expensive dresses were adorned with jewelry: pearls, diamonds, emeralds, sapphires. Sometimes there were so many decorations that the material of the dress itself was practically hidden from the eyes of outside observers.It is said that Countess Margaret of Flanders wore a very rich dress adorned with thousands of jewels for her own wedding ceremony. She did not even have the strength to take a few steps, the countess was literally brought into the church.

    Since the 17th century, weddings have already played a dynastic role. Nevertheless, the brides did not stop trying to impress the guests with their own outfit. But sometimes people did not evaluate their choice, in different countries the fashion was different. For example, the Portuguese princess Katrina of Bragana came to the wedding with the English king in a pink wedding dress with an inner frame, which is fashionable in her homeland.But the British reacted dryly. True, later the fashion for such outfits reached England.

    back to content ↑

    18th century

    In the eighteenth century, girls from middle-class families wanted their wedding attire to look rich. For this purpose, dresses were often trimmed with natural fur. Mink or sable fur was an expensive option, and a hare or fox was more economical. Representatives of poor families could simply use linen instead of the usual rough fabric from which ordinary clothes and even linen were sewn.And the length of the train and sleeves was a sign of the bride’s status.

    For girls from ordinary families, their wedding dress often remained a “weekend” and was worn by them on every significant holiday. Interestingly, the shade of the dress played a big role. There were a lot of superstitions and prejudices about color. For the wedding dress of the bride in the 18th century, mainly the following shades were chosen: blue and pink.

    White, despite the associations with purity and purity, was an impractical color, because such an outfit was very easy to stain.In this regard, blue was often used for a wedding dress. He was associated with the innocence of the Virgin Mary. From here, in English-speaking countries, the custom arose to take something blue with you to the wedding ceremony. Pink was also widespread.

    So, in the 18th century, the wife of the British sculptor Joseph Nolekes dressed up for her own wedding in a light openwork white dress with flowers embroidered with pink threads. Shoes decorated with floral embroidery were also matched to him.The heel was very high for that time – as much as 8 centimeters. Unbelievable, but the outfit of the girl liked everyone present.

    Shades of red were not used for wedding dresses for a long time. This tone is used to associate with dissolute women. A similar fate awaited the green color – it was considered the color of forest spirits, elves and fairies. In order not to draw unnecessary attention to the young from their side, they tried to avoid such shades. Black was considered mourning at all.At some weddings, even guests were not allowed to come in black clothes, so as not to incur unnecessary troubles.

    The brown tone was used by poor brides for decades, and the yellow was only at the peak of its popularity. Three centuries ago, it was fashionable, but it was considered the characteristic color of the pagans, so the church did not receive it very well. In the poorer strata of society, gray was also used for a wedding dress, primarily due to its practicality. After about a hundred years, they began to associate him with a servant.

    back to content ↑

    19th century

    At the beginning of the 19th century, a new tradition appeared – to decorate wedding dresses with colorful ribbons. They were needed so that the guests, having torn off the ribbon, left it for themselves as a souvenir. Later, they were replaced by flowers. Guests came to congratulate the newlyweds with beautiful bouquets, and a special wedding composition acted as an accessory for the young wife. Flowers could still be attached to the dress or in the hair of the bride. Rosemary, myrtle, and orange blossom were widely used.The tradition is still alive today.

    The first wedding dresses, vaguely similar to modern models, began to be sewn at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. Then the machine production of fabric began, the import of material from India gained momentum. Dresses with a veil have become popular. In the middle of the century, openwork gloves and various precious stones began to be widely used. Among the minerals, pearls and natural crystal were especially popular, and satin from fabrics. By the end of the century, tight skirts became fashionable.

    back to content ↑

    What wedding dresses were fashionable in the 20th century?

    At the beginning of the 20th century, wedding dresses with large skirts were no longer considered fashionable. They began to trim them with the so-called “crepe” – small wooden knobs wrapped in lace. Wedding dresses were sewn so that even the bride’s neck was covered. For this, a stand-up collar was used. The length decreased, the hem of the skirt covered only the ankles. The corset was no longer a fashionable attribute, but from time to time it was used to highlight the silhouette and hide the flaws in the figure.

    back to content ↑

    50’s Style

    In the middle of the last century, the popularity of the romantic style returned. Long skirts, cream tones, fragile slippers and dresses with a slightly lowered waist came into fashion. These accents made it possible to visually transform the bride’s gait, making it light and airy. Dior became the trendsetter, and he began to sew fitted dresses with a voluminous skirt that reached about the knees.

    An enchanting breakthrough in the world of wedding fashion of the 50s was the outfit of Grace Kelly.Her dress can hardly be called another word other than “masterpiece”. It took more than a thousand meters of transparent silk taffeta, as well as light Brussels lace made of roses (which at that time were more than 120 years old) to create the outfit of the famous American actress for her wedding with the Prince of Monaco.

    back to content ↑

    60’s Style

    In the next decade, minimalism gained popularity. The length of the wedding dress has decreased, it looked austere and laconic. The amount of decorative detail was minimal.The most popular were simple dresses of short length without any embellishments – even without beads. Geometric lines had to be clearly visible in the style.

    The skirts had an original shape – a bud, a bell or a flower. Many brides of that time walked down the aisle and in a trapeze dress (with a tight-fitting top and an extended lower part of the robe). True, the mini outfit was not to the liking of all girls. But most of all celebrities and representatives of royal families did not want to follow the new fashion trend.

    back to content ↑

    80s style

    Finally, in the 80s of the last century, wedding dresses became very elegant. Designers widely used loose fit, exquisite lace and romantic ruffles. The latest fashion trend was considered to be decorative embroidery on wedding dresses. And instead of a veil, hats were often used. Towards the end of the 80s, a new trend appeared in wedding fashion – brides more and more often wore not dresses, but trouser suits.

    back to content ↑

    A selection of beautiful vintage bridesmaid dresses

    Modern wedding dresses can look very different, because the choice of materials is extremely large, and the imagination of brides has no boundaries.Often, girls prefer to return to the origins of fashion, ordering outfits that resemble vintage wedding dresses. If you also dream of such a wedding dress, check out the photo gallery below, which features beautiful wedding dresses made in retro style.

    90,000 Medieval Wedding – Wedding Tips

    Medieval Wedding: Photo

    The Middle Ages is the time of knightly tournaments, minstrels, the time when they knew what honor, valor and true romance were.At least, modern man presents him that way.

    The romantic charm of this era is perfect for organizing a themed wedding. Many people think that a medieval style wedding is very expensive. In fact, a party can be arranged for any budget.

    The main thing is to correctly create the atmosphere of that old era.

    The castle is perfect for a wedding

    What you need to know about wedding preparation

    Make Your Ceremony Away

    Any celebration requires preparation, and an unusual wedding in a real medieval style even more so.In advance, you need to determine the main accents that you should pay attention to so that the celebration is a success:

    It is advisable to register a marriage not in a regular registry office, but at an exit ceremony. You can even disguise the person conducting the ceremony in the robe of a priest or in the costume of a medieval solicitor.

    The best solution for a wedding cortege is, of course, a carriage. If this is not possible, you can arrange a regular car for a carriage.

    Perhaps the newlyweds are good with horses? Then the bride and groom can come to the wedding place on two beautiful horses in apples.

    Wedding invitations and venue selection

    The invitation can be made in the form of a scroll

    First of all, you need to choose a place for a medieval style wedding. If possible, it is worth renting a medieval castle.

    Instead of a real castle, a country hotel of the corresponding style will do, now these are quite fashionable, they are not so difficult to find. The simpler option is an ordinary restaurant in the style of the Middle Ages.

    In the summer, it’s a good idea to arrange a wedding just on the lawn, with beautiful multi-colored tents for the guests.You can come up with the idea that the wedding is taking place during a military campaign.

    The stylistics of the text should also correspond to the era, it is advisable to choose a little pretentious words. If desired, the invited guest can be assigned a “title”. The invitation is sealed with sealing wax and tied with a leather ribbon. If there is no sealing wax, then you can make a seal from plastic by painting it brown and varnishing it.

    If you have not come up with titles yourself, you can suggest that the invitees do it themselves.For example, shortly before the wedding, each of the guests sends the newlyweds a card with their title, and confirms their presence at the celebration. Guests can submit title cards to the host directly during the theme wedding.

    Wedding suits for guests and newlyweds

    Dresses of this time are usually dark shades

    First of all, they choose the bride’s costume, because she is the main heroine of the wedding celebration.

    Some designers advise to choose dresses in dark colors for a wedding in medieval style: blue, green, purple will do.

    Not everyone likes this solution, so light colors are also acceptable (except for white): you can choose a dress that is beige, delicate lilac or blue. The sleeves of the dress should be long, shoulders and chest covered.

    The top of the dress should be tight, the corset will look perfect. The bottom should be fluffy, but without rings, the fabric should fall off freely. One of the main attributes of medieval dress is rich tapestry embroidery.

    The fabric should be taken heavy, velvet or satin; silk is suitable for a summer wedding.A combination of several types of fabrics of different colors is acceptable.

    On the head of the bride, it is better to put on a simple piece of translucent fabric, secured with a hoop or crown.

    A FABULOUS WEDDING IN A MEDIEVAL STYLER A knightly wedding in the medieval style

    tel 8-982-610-74-80

    The groom’s suit should consist of a shirt, camisole and tight trousers.It is desirable to choose saturated colors. If the bride’s dress is dark, a suit in the same colors will look beautiful. For the bride’s light dress, you need to choose a brighter groom’s suit. Both outfits should be combined with each other.

    If the bride chooses a romantic and simple outfit, then the groom’s suit must match it.

    Guests can be offered to rent costumes in wardrobe shops, suggesting several addresses and sending photos with samples.Particular attention should be paid to the clothes of the bridesmaids and friends of the groom. She should not be more magnificent and more refined than that of the newlyweds. Accordingly, you need to dress your parents, they will fit the decorations of real aristocrats.

    If you are not sure that all guests will find suits, you can stock up on camisoles for men and beautiful capes for women. In addition to camisoles, the arsenal of a medieval wedding may include stylized chain mail, knightly armor, swords, crossbows and other interesting attributes of that era.

    Decoration of the hall and menu

    There should be a lot of meat on the table

    For a wedding to be in a medieval style, you need to properly decorate the hall. If a couple rents a restaurant with suitable attributes, they don’t have to go too far. The interior of the room can only be supplemented by panels or tapestries with coats of arms.

    If the premises are designed from scratch, you will have to try a little. Tables and chairs should be taken from rough wood, seats can be with high Gothic backs.Tablecloths on tables should be made of natural fabric (silk, linen), they can cover the table completely or only its central part. The dishes can be made of clay; instead of glasses, you should take large goblets and ceramic glasses.

    It is desirable to hang colored panels with coats of arms and monograms. Antlers and medieval weapons will look beautiful on the walls.

    If a wedding in a medieval style takes place in a tent, wooden tables and chairs are also brought there. The walls of the tent are decorated with fabrics with coats of arms and other attributes.

    A stylized traveling altar can be used for the marriage act. Place haystacks and slides with “weapons” on the lawn.

    When choosing a menu, focus on meat dishes. A medieval wedding will not be complete without a whole pig, stuffed with geese, ducks, and even better – pheasants. Be sure to include in the menu different sausages, fried cuts of meat, simple sauces.

    As a side dish, you can serve porridge with apples or with pieces of meat. Salads with mayonnaise and exotic fruits are excluded.For dessert, fruit pie is best. From drinks on the table, it is best to put wines of different varieties, liqueurs, cognac.

    Music and entertainment

    One of the entertainments can be a knightly tournament

    It will be good if musicians who can play medieval melodies are invited to a medieval-style wedding. Young people should also learn their first dance on purpose. If there is such an opportunity, then the guests can be taught some movements.

    Men in a fair fight can fight for the hearts of beautiful ladies.You can come up with a small play in which to play out the story of how the groom sought the bride’s favor, and what difficulties he had to go through in order to beg her hand from his parents.

    A fire show will be a great entertainment, for which you can invite a professional artist. Also, magicians, fakirs, who can involve all the guests in their performance, will not interfere. Scenarios and wedding entertainment can be different, as long as everyone has fun.

    Source: http: // / otnosheniya / svadba-i-brak / v-srednevekovom-stile.html

    Wedding in the medieval style of Maxim and Natalia | Bride House

    Not all brides and grooms love the idea of ​​a casual wedding with ransom, limousine, and drunken pageants. Natalia and Maxim were just one of them, so they chose a costume themed wedding in the medieval style for themselves.

    The love story of the newlyweds is full of accidents and signs of fate. They met at a party, thanks to the fact that Maxim’s sister came with him, and not with her husband.

    And a day after they met and exchanged phone numbers, the future bride and groom met by chance in the elevator of a huge shopping center. As if their meeting was predetermined by fate. Less than a month later, Natalia and Maxim began to live together, and two years later they went on a trip to Dahab.

    There, on the mountain of Moses, meeting the dawn at the very top, Maxim made an offer to his beloved and she answered with consent.

    The bride and groom initially did not want to arrange a traditional wedding, they were just going to run into the registry office in jeans and sign.And so it happened, though not in jeans, but in beautiful outfits, but this was only the first part of the main celebration.

    The future newlyweds really liked the castle in Geneva and they wanted to celebrate their wedding in it, but then they weighed everything and realized that it would be difficult to transport the guests there, and it would be quite expensive.

    Quite by chance, they learned about the Nesvizh castle, which is located in the Minsk region, and even having never visited there they stopped their choice.

    And after the future newlyweds watched “Game of Thrones”, they became even more convinced that a wedding in the castle was their dream.

    After watching several videos about the castle, Natalia and Maxim decided that all guests should be dressed in medieval style costumes. The bride and groom themselves found an atelier that sews costumes for the Bolshoi Theater and rents them out, and ordered outfits there for all those invited.

    At first, the guests were not happy with this idea, but after the wedding, everyone said thank you to the newlyweds for this fairy tale.

    Indeed, when will you still be able to walk in such a suit? And even at the banquet, when it was already possible to change into their usual outfits, many were not happy about this.

    Since the bride and groom lived in Moscow, and the wedding was to take place in Belarus, they could not solve organizational issues on their own and decided to hire a wedding manager. It was Lyubov Shibarshina from Minsk, who made all the fabulous dreams of Natalia and Maxim come true.

    In order for the guests not to get bored from the very morning, a theatrical performance was organized for them: Black Lady Nesvizha decided to disrupt the holiday and kidnap the bride, and to prevent this from happening, the guests had to perform special tasks.

    They fired from a bow, learned medieval dance, posed for a portrait painter. For the little guests, there was an animator dressed as a pirate, with whom the children “went in search of” a treasure chest. It was possible to take part in the competitions only in medieval costumes.

    By the way, all the contractors were also in suits: organizers and coordinators, host, restaurant workers, photographers and cameramen.

    The solemn registration of marriage was carried out by employees of the castle complex.It was a theatrical performance in the Old Belarusian language, with a romance, to the accompaniment of a chamber orchestra.

    The wedding decor was also created in the style of a celebration. Specialist Victoria German decorated the restaurant with floral arrangements, so that all guests felt the atmosphere of a medieval feast. Also at the wedding there was an original photo zone with the family coat of arms, which was created by the illustrator Irra Sukova.

    Natalia and Maxim’s wedding cake was decorated in the colors of the wedding.It was made by the confectioner Raisa Savkova, focusing on the photographs sent by the bride. Instead of the classic cutting of the cake, the newlyweds decided to cut it with a sword, this idea came to the groom suddenly, that’s how he got used to the role.

    The wedding in the medieval style of Natalia and Maxim was really very beautiful and unusual. Wedding specialists were able to create a luxurious holiday that will be remembered not only by the bride and groom, but also by all guests. And the newlyweds themselves made their dream come true – they became the protagonists of a real medieval fairy tale!

    Photos from the archive of Natalia and Maxim.Provided specifically for the site Photographers: Dmitry Rukovichnikov, Tasha Kotkovets.


    Medieval wedding in the style of a jousting tournament

    Everyone associates the Middle Ages with beautiful ladies, courageous knights in magnificent armor, night serenades, nobility, solemn tournaments, courage.

    The era of the Middle Ages left a large and significant mark in history, many people are still interested in the Middle Ages today.

    If the newlyweds want to celebrate their holiday with taste, in an unusual way, then the atmosphere of romance of knightly times is ideal for them.

    How to organize a medieval wedding

    Start Wedding Preparation Medieval wedding is a very original solution. The organization of a wedding celebration in this style should be started by choosing a venue.

    It is best to appoint a wedding for the warm season – summer, spring, very early, because the main part of the event will be held on a large area, and even better on an open-air area.The best option is to rent a cottage or house, which has a medieval style.

    If it is not possible to do so, then you can choose a restaurant stylized as a Renaissance. In such a place, it will be possible to take wonderful photos of guests and newlyweds. You can invite newlyweds to try any suitable museum.

    If you nevertheless decide to hold a wedding in the medieval style, then it is not advisable to use the services of a registry office, in order to preserve the medieval atmosphere, you need to use the services of an exit ceremony and hold the wedding at the venue of the banquet itself.

    The main part of the banquet menu must necessarily be occupied by meat dishes. It can be baked game, meat. All other dishes should be delicious, European and rich.

    The clothes of the newlyweds themselves and guests should create a special atmosphere at a wedding of this style.

    In order for the guests to be able to prepare and choose the appropriate outfits for themselves, you must first warn them that the wedding will be held in this style.

    And if, nevertheless, some of the guests cannot come up with a suitable outfit, then the newlyweds themselves must prepare some piece of medieval clothing and hand it over to the guest.

    In order to come up with an outfit suitable for a wedding in the style of the Middle Ages, you can re-read the relevant literature, watch old paintings or films about the Middle Ages.

    Today you can find many sources and choose exactly what you like the most. You can prepare the chosen outfit yourself, for example, sew it, or rent it at the theater. The bride can wear a dress with lace, and boots can become an attribute of the groom’s attire.

    A wide variety of colorful colors can be used instead of a veil. Flowers can be placed in the hair or woven into a wreath and worn over the head. The bride can choose a bouquet of wine roses, white roses, heather and thistle.

    Also a very suitable bouquet – from white carnations, from white roses, white sweet peas, while the flowers should be tied together with green and white ribbons.

    In ancient times, traditionally two coats of arms were prepared for the wedding, one coat of arms represents the groom’s family, and the second one represents the bride’s family.

    This custom can be used in a modern wedding, made in the style of the Middle Ages. You can make such coats of arms yourself.

    Before the wedding ceremony begins, the relatives of the bride and relatives of the groom must hold these coats of arms in their hands. Then they give them to the young, and this means that the birth is connected.

    To entertain guests for the holiday, you can invite illusionists, fakirs, clowns dressed as medieval jesters. A knightly tournament will be an excellent entertainment for the male half of the guests.

    There, men dressed in armor will fight each other with shields and fake swords. In addition, men can compete with each other in archery.

    Young ladies at this time can talk with each other, watch their beloved and support them with ovations.

    At the end of the celebration, you can arrange a costume competition among the guests. Guests with the best costumes can be presented with souvenirs.

    The newlyweds should put their imagination and efforts into preparing a wedding in the medieval style.A properly organized celebration can bring great pleasure to the newlyweds themselves and to all invited guests.


    Medieval Wedding

    Organization of a wedding is always a rather time-consuming process, during which many factors should be taken into account.

    A completely original solution can be a wedding in the medieval style, which allows you to turn a standard and quite banal action with a familiar set of traditions into something more.

    You will give the evening a unique ambiance, as well as make an excellent gift for the newlyweds! Preparation should begin long before the desired date.

    It is preliminarily recommended to draw up a complete list of persons who will take part in this evening. The style of clothes, gifts, a menu of a festive dinner, alcoholic drinks, an entertainment program are being thought over.

    We will consider all these points further in great detail. Mysterious times in the Middle Ages attract us to a lot.

    Until now, this topic is very popular with viewers, the result of which is the shooting of a large number of historical novels.

    If the spouses are romantics at heart, then such a solution will suit them perfectly. And not only newlyweds! Every girl this evening will be able to feel like a fairy-tale princess, descended from the pages of Shakespeare’s sonnet. And the young men will become handsome princes and valiant knights, hurrying to win the lady’s heart.A unique environment is guaranteed to you!

    Preparatory phase

    After an indicative list of guests has already been drawn up, it remains to decide on the venue. For this, an approximate budget is necessarily calculated. Always charge three times the amount you originally planned. This will allow you to achieve a very interesting and unusual effect.

    The most pleasant wedding will take place in some old or abandoned castle. There are many similar places in Europe, even in the CIS.But the rent of the castle costs a lot, and the very type of celebration turns out to be very expensive. You can really save money. Cardboard wall models installed in various rooms of the house are also suitable as decorations.

    All details are selected gradually, creating an overall picture and a unique atmosphere of the Middle Ages. Many even invite a professional designer so that the overall entourage really looks spectacular, bright, and unique.

    Lots of little things will allow you to create a real car that allows you to travel back in time.And if you plan to rent a restaurant, then in a restaurant.

    There are many interesting medieval-style establishments with relatively modest prices.

    Another great alternative is not to rent the castle itself, but to use the area around and around it.

    Near all ancient buildings of this type, there are always lawns, or small areas. It is important to get high-quality photographs against the background of such a building.

    A professional photographer will make a real fairy tale out of a photo session, and we will return to the choice of such a specialist in the future.

    Interior, costumes, decoration

    On the walls you can hang trophies in the form of the heads of animals supposedly killed in the hunt. Any stuffed animal will do.

    Old tapestries are also used, wax candles with beautiful decoration and ornaments are installed on the tables, and the models of weapons are ideal.

    In order not to buy all this, you can contact the knight’s club, which may be somewhere in your area. In large cities, there are always several such clubs, since there are always a lot of fans of historical reenactments.

    Guests must dress in the same style. For ladies, luxurious dresses with head covers are suitable. It is important to use non-standard colors, add patterns and antiquity to the paneling.

    Watch old British films like Robin Hood, then you will immediately understand this style.

    There are enough candles on the tables from light sources, but if there is an artificial fireplace in the room – great!

    General gloomy tones in the shades of the room are characteristic of all rooms of that distant time.When evening comes, ordinary lamps can also be lit. It is important not to spoil the whole atmosphere too much. By the way, it is not necessary to have a feast indoors. If the weather permits, it will be much more effective to go to nature.

    Features of the wedding ceremony in the style of the Middle Ages

    The entertainment program can be quite interesting. For example, knightly tournaments are held! Here the groom can try his luck and win the bride’s hand. It is important to do everything as safely as possible, and there will be more than enough entertainment for the guests! Again, knight clubs to help.

    Another interesting entertainment is horseback riding. Horses in those days were the main mode of transport, and only very wealthy peasants from noble families could afford good horses. If you have already got out into nature, then try to arrange everything accordingly. Rough wood tables, like rented chairs, are great.

    A few words about the menu. In the Middle Ages, meat dishes were actively used on knightly tables, since hunting was the most important craft.You can cook wild boar, some kind of game, and even fish. The animals were often served on huge trays, and they were cut up while they were being consumed. The classic homemade cheese made in a large circle is also perfect.

    To make this exciting ceremony even more lasting effect, it is recommended to use old scrolls as wedding invitations.

    The handwritten text looks amazing, every guest will want to keep such a scroll as a souvenir.Be sure to invite not only a photographer, but also a video specialist.

    This will allow you to capture every moment of a unique and unique wedding celebration!


    Wedding in the Middle Ages

    “Times are not chosen …” The Middle Ages seem to us now as a “dark era”, distant and incomprehensible. But let’s move our imagination back seven centuries and learn from the book of K.A.

    Ivanova “The Many Faces of the Middle Ages” what were the “city” weddings at that time, how it all happened, when and who got married. Very interesting and informative!

    In the Middle Ages, there were fewer old bachelors than in our time.

    Weddings took place more often and at an earlier age than now. An unmarried person in some cities could not count on being promoted.

    So, for example, in the last quarter of the 15th century, a law was issued in Augsburg, according to which a bachelor could not become a ratman.In workshops {see. about them the following sketch) gradually established a custom, by virtue of which an unmarried person could not receive the title of master.

    Widowers and widows also for the most part married and were married. Widowers remarried some 6-8 months after the death of their wife, although widows were supposed to remain so for a whole year, which was called “the year of mourning and sorrow,” but they got married earlier than that.

    Girls aged 14 or 14 and a half have already been married .They betrothed eight-year-olds. The betrothal was considered at that time the main act, while the church marriage only held it together.

    Matchmaking and betrothal consisted of three major points. First of all, they were persuading about the gift that would be given to the bride by the groom, and about the dowry that would be given for the bride. After that, the father gave his consent to marry his daughter, and the groom – to marry. Finally, the bride’s father and groom shook hands, and the betrothal was considered complete.

    Over time, commitments that were previously oral began to be written down. Such a contract was drawn up in the presence of witnesses. During the betrothal, usually a feast took place in the bride’s house, in the town hall, or even, which is especially strange in our opinion, in the monastery. In Nuremberg in 1485, all festivities in the monasteries were prohibited.

    The revels that followed the engagement were accompanied by dancing and drinking.

    But now it was the time for the wedding to take place , the “high time” was approaching, as the day of the wedding was called then.This usually took place in late autumn, “when the granaries and cellars are full, when the time of rest comes for both the villager and the sailor.” In other cases, the bride herself invited guests to the wedding, in others it was the persons who were deliberately elected by the bride and groom for this business. They rode on horseback, accompanied by several horsemen, They deliberately took with them such a person who was known for a joker, knew how to speak jokes and rhymes, which should have given the whole embassy a particularly cheerful character.It happened that those participating in the embassy dressed up, and thus arranged something like a masquerade. They liked to invite more guests. To limit the size of the festival and the expenses it absorbed, city councils discouraged large gatherings and established a normal number of guests, more than which it was forbidden to invite.

    A few days before the wedding, or even on the eve of it, a solemn procession of the bride took place to the bathhouse, where they danced and feasted. This custom is similar to our bachelorette party .

    At last the sun of a joyful, welcome day rose. In some places it was Thursday, in others it was Friday. Marriage was usually performed in the afternoon and even in the morning, shortly after mass. The wedding celebration opened with processions that accompanied the bride and groom to church. They did not go to church together.

    The bride rode with her friends, and sometimes also with the best men, in a carriage drawn by a four. The bride is wearing a red satin dress, a muslin collar, a belt richly trimmed with silver.On her head she has a light crown, showered with pearls. Pearls and gorgeous gold embroidery cover her shoes.

    The groom and his companions rode on horseback. Musicians with flutes, violins, trumpets and drums moved in front of both the bride and the groom. It goes without saying that these processions were also performed on foot in those cases when the church was close. Just imagine such a procession.

    Music, colorful and new clothes, cheerful faces, talk, laughter, the panorama of the medieval city, already familiar to you, and above the blue sky, silvery clouds and the bright sun, illuminating the whole picture with its golden rays! When the procession approached the cathedral, the latter, as it were, greeted her with a bell ringing.

    So that the sexton would not be lazy and not stingy, he was treated to wine.

    The procession approached the cathedral. Its main entrance opened hospitably. The stone images of the saints, surrounded by stone laces and flowers, seemed to have revived in the brilliance of the sun, in the presence of such a lively gathering, and looked graciously at the people passing under them.

    The interior of the Gothic cathedral is a marvelous sight.

    Space, height, groups of high columns connected to each other, supporting pointed arches, intertwining pointed arches of a high ceiling – all this amazes you, elevates your feelings, your thoughts, as it were, lifts you higher and higher.Only after a few time do you begin to look around, get used to the individual parts of the grandiose whole.

    Only here you stop your gaze both at the high altar in the deepening of the apse *, and at the luxurious preaching pulpit, decorated with sculptures and a high canopy, only here you notice the statues under the huge upper windows, bordering the entire middle nave with marvelous lace, only here you you begin to look at the multi-colored images on the glass.

    The colossal rose *** above the entrance, all made up of multi-colored glasses, attracts your attention for a long time.You involuntarily think, you involuntarily delve into yourself.
    “When you,” says one foreign researcher, “enter these bold vaults, it seems to you that a new homeland is taking over you, taking possession of you.

    She spreads an atmosphere of melancholic reverie around you. You feel liberated from the miserable bondage created by worldly attachments, but at the same time you feel stronger, broader connections.

    It seems that God, Whom our limited nature is trying to imagine, actually dwells under these arches and descends here to direct communion with humble Christians who worship Him.Nothing here resembles a human dwelling, here everything that surrounds our miserable existence is forgotten.

    The one to whom this house was erected – Silenus, Great, Divin; as a merciful Father, He takes us, the weak, the small, the poor into His dwelling … Medieval Christianity found in the Gothic style a flexible and expressive, naive and thoughtful language that spoke to a soul filled with holy rapture, poured into it its ineffable poetry. ”

    The wedding procession entered the interior of the temple.The bride and groom head to the main altar. The sounds of the organ thunder over them, filling the entire cathedral.

    The rite of worship began , and soon the words of the priest swept over those present; “I unite you in marriage in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit” {“Ego conjimgo vos in mat-rimoiiium in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spirit! Sancti “). And the organ began to sing again.

    Young came out of the cathedral. The groom walked in front and, reaching house of his father-in-law, did not enter the house, but waited for the young one.When the latter approached the house, he met her. A servant brought a tray with a flask of wine and a glass. A glass filled with wine walked around all the guests present, after which the young man drank, followed by the newlywed.

    After drinking the wine, she tossed the goblet over her head. After that, one of the best men took off his hat and covered the head of his young wife with it. This ceremony, as it were, clothed her with power. Now she was the first to enter the house, followed by all the others. Of course, first of all, the young received congratulations from .Ladies and girls approached the bride, men – to the groom.

    At the same time, wedding gifts were presented.

    At one wedding celebrated in the middle of the 15th century, thirty silver cups and cups, a necklace, a gold belt and more than thirty gold rings were presented to the newlyweds. During congratulations and offerings, music was played, songs were sung, and so the time passed until dinner . The beginning of the latter was announced with a drumbeat. After dinner, dancing began until midnight.During the rest, sweets, wine, beer and other treats were distributed.
    A new procession was assembled at midnight. The bride was taken to a designated room. For the most part, her family and best man accompanied her, but it happened that all those present were the escorts. Candles were carried ahead, music was playing, in a word, the impression of a great celebration was obtained. The young one was led by one of the best men. When the procession arrived at , the bedchamber , the best man seated the young woman and removed her slipper from her left foot.This slipper was then passed on to one or more bachelors who were at the wedding. It must be assumed that this gift expressed a wish that the recipient would sooner leave a single life.

    The day after the wedding began with the young couple exchanging gifts.

    Gifts generally constituted an integral part of the wedding: the newlyweds gave each other, the guests who had come to the wedding brought gifts to the last, the bride’s parents, in turn, gave various things to guests and servants, sent money and food to the poor, itinerant students, the guard of the main city tower , to the servants at the town hall, the servant of the cellar visited by the groom, his teacher, the bath attendant; the executioner and the gravediggers were not forgotten. City councils have been constantly striving to reduce the costs associated with weddings and, by the way, have limited the wedding celebration to one day only. This was the case, for example, in Nuremberg. The city council of this city, having determined the exact number of persons invited to the wedding, allowed to invite persons who had not been at the wedding, mainly the bride’s girlfriends and her acquaintances, the day after the wedding. For this, a breakfast was arranged, the main dish of which was scrambled eggs; here were served various cookies, vegetables, cheese, wine, but scrambled eggs took precedence and was decorated with artificial flowers.The evening of the second day ended with a very original “kitchen dance”. The guests who were invited, contrary to the decisions of the city authorities, became spectators. The servants danced, and each of the servants had with him some object of his specialty, such as a cook – a spoon, a wine manager – a mug, etc. a fun walk in the garden laid out outside the city walls.

    All wedding celebrations ended with with the newlyweds being taken to their own home.But there were times when a young woman lived with her husband for a long time in her parents’ house. Often such accommodation was provided for by a contract. Before us is documentary news. A burgher from Frankfurt betrothed his daughter (to Adolf Knoblauch) and promised to support the young people in his house, dependent on him, for four years after the wedding, or, if not, pay them 50 guilders a year during the same period of time … (c)

    Source: https: // / wedding-trouble / curious / 128-svadba-v-srednevekove.html

    Medieval Wedding Dresses: Cuts, Colors & Patterns | Bride Island

    Today, most brides no longer want to dress | classic white wedding dress | for his wedding, preferring instead other, sometimes very extravagant styles. Some of the most popular at the moment are wedding dresses in the medieval style, which add romance and antiquity to the image.

    Dress details

    All the hallmarks of medieval-style dress are as romantic as the era itself. To design such an outfit, designers use delicate laces that adorn the dress, both on the shoulders and along the hem, fancy straps, satin ribbons and stones.

    The fabric for such a dress must be of high quality and expensive. Velvet, brocade, silk or satin are perfect. Designers love to combine several types of fabric in one piece.

    The color does not have to be white, it can be blue, maroon. It should be noted that the blue color was the symbol of innocence in that era.

    However, dresses in pastel shades – light beige, ivory, etc. are also in great demand.

    At the request of the bride, stones or silk ribbons can be sewn onto an already magnificent dress, so the outfit will seem even more luxurious and expensive. It should be noted that in the Middle Ages, the bride’s wedding dress weighed about 20 kg.However, girls should not go to extremes, because you will have to spend the whole day in this dress, it is better to choose one whose weight will not exceed 15 kg.

    The main elements of the dress include a plunging neckline and a fluffy skirt, and sleeves. A corset with low lacing can be tightened at the waist.

    To create a full-fledged look, as well as when holding a wedding in the cold season, the dress can be supplemented with a raincoat decorated with a collar made of natural fur. For slender girls, dresses with a narrow waist, raising the chest and expanding to the bottom, are very suitable.A long train will beautifully complement the look.

    Medieval style wedding dresses can be purchased online or made to order. It should be remembered that tailoring such a dress can be expensive precisely because of the need to use expensive fabrics.

    Having decided to spend the whole wedding in the style of the Middle Ages, it is worth starting with the dress. All its details (sleeves, bodice, corset) must be precisely fitted to the figure and fit perfectly on it. Tapestry inserts can be added to the main fabric of the dress (for example, on the sides) – this way the outfit will look even richer.

    Instead of a veil, you can wear a light veil to match the dress or a small hat. Hair and makeup should also match. In view of the already existing dress that attracts everyone’s attention, the hairstyle should not be lush. It is best to style your hair smoothly, curling slightly in front of the curls. Makeup should not be bright – shadows and lipstick of natural shades, radiant skin of the face will complement the image.

    Bridal bouquet

    We must not forget about such an important detail as the bridal bouquet.It should also be stylized as the Middle Ages. It is best to pick wildflowers (heather or thistle), but shrub roses decorated with satin ribbons will also look very appropriate.

    Organization of a holiday

    Of course, the stylized attire of the bride presupposes setting up the entire wedding in the same way. The groom’s clothing must also match.

    It is clear that it will be difficult to choose a knight costume, but you can add medieval details to a usual, classic costume.

    It should be noted that the suit should also be deep, rich colors, and the presence of a white cotton shirt in this case is mandatory. Instead of a jacket, the groom can wear an elongated cape decorated with embroidery.

    Witnesses of the bride and groom can be disguised as maids of honor and squires.

    It is best to hold such a wedding in the castle, but not everyone has the financial resources for this. In this case, a country cottage, an open-air meadow or just a large restaurant hall is perfect.

    The wedding venue can be decorated with stylized lanterns, earthenware can be placed on the tables.

    A small orchestra consisting of violinists, flutists, guitarists and drummers can be invited as musical accompaniment.

    You can surprise invited guests by sending them handwritten invitations on parchment paper.

    It should be noted that for a complete immersion in the atmosphere of the Middle Ages, it is better not to visit the registry office.An alternative idea would be to make an outdoor wedding in the fresh air.

    As you can see, not only a dress in the medieval style, but also the wedding itself requires a careful approach and good financial capabilities. However, such a celebration will not be forgotten by either the newlyweds or the guests.

    Related videos



    Medieval Wedding: Fairy Tale Ideas

    Every girl dreams of being a princess … How about feeling like this at your own wedding? Nothing is impossible, because you can organize a fairytale wedding – a medieval one!

    Photo: Anna Korotkova

    Make My Wedd Happy Wedding Studio

    wedding agency WeddingColors

    Elena Pavlova Photography

    You can easily find a company of organizers who are ready to take on the preparation of all aspects, from the site to the snacks at the banquet.

    Imagine … You walk with a retinue of (of course, actors) and you are greeted at the entrance by guests, dressed in the same way, corresponding to the era. After a ceremony (non-religious) carried out according to all the rules of the chosen era, typical drinks and snacks can be enjoyed in a characteristic interior.

    But, of course, the highlight of the program is the banquet, or better to say the most real feast ! Focus on simple, sophisticated dishes, and consider setting up an open kitchen where the chef cooks meat over an open fire.

    Wedding Agency BMWedding

    Elena Pavlova Photography

    Wedding Agency BMWedding

    Elena Pavlova Photography

    Do you like this picture? You and the groom , surrounded by guests – ladies and knights – in an appropriate setting, enjoy fine food and drinks, as well as music. If yes, then fulfill your dream!

    Wedding organizer Wedding colors

    Rely on simple materials like wood, the most laconic decor : barrels and sturdy benches, thick cotton fabrics, candles or spotlights that can simulate candlelight can be your helpers in creating the right atmosphere.Also remember that medieval outfits were based on a combination of monochrome fabrics, the main decoration was embroidery.

    Wedding organizer Wedding colors

    Elena Pavlova Photography

    Wedding Agency BMWedding

    If you need a visual example, the series “Game of Thrones” can be considered a very interesting embodiment of the Middle Ages. Although this is not a literal recreation, the style of the world of this saga is based precisely on the era of the European Middle Ages.Want to see what a wedding looks like in a similar style? Look in our article !

    Katya Schigol

    Wedding organizer Wedding colors

    I would also like to note that in Russia the Middle Ages were different, but no less interesting, so you can make a holiday in this style as well. Films and cartoons with red girls and good fellows can become inspiration for you. Tales of Pushkin and paintings by Viktor Vasnetsov can be great visual images for inspiration.

    A wedding can be theatrical, no one forbids it, so why not do something completely incredible? For example, in chalet-hotel “Taezhny Dachi” themed games, shows, master classes and everything are arranged so that guests can feel themselves in a distant era of kings and princesses.

    Chalet-hotel Taezh dachi

    Chalet-hotel Taiga cottages

    We hope we have added to you the determination to make your dream come true and turn your wedding into a medieval feast.Remember that there are no boundaries, it all depends on your desires and, of course, on the specifics of the era!


    Wedding Traditions in England: An Entertaining Wedding Story from William the Conqueror to Queen Victoria

    Who doesn’t love to have fun at a good wedding party! Have you ever wondered where the modern wedding traditions of the West came from, which are rapidly penetrating the post-Soviet space? We decided to delve into the historical chronicles and offer you a fascinating insight into the history of the English wedding.

    Licensed wedding and bigamy without divorce

    Although marriage in various forms has existed since ancient times, the blessing of marriage by a Christian priest was legalized in medieval England only in 1076, during the era of the Norman king William the Conqueror.

    However, until the 16th century, the presence of a priest at the wedding was optional – the blessing was requested separately. At the same time, for the first time, they began to draw up the notorious marriage contracts, where the bride and groom declared their dowry, property and rights.

    In 1521, the first permits, or wedding licenses, are mentioned – until that time, the British could marry quite freely, without asking permission. But in fact, until 1753, “legal” marriages, that is, under license, were concluded exclusively by representatives of the English aristocracy. For ordinary people, things went on as usual.

    An example of severe pressure on citizens was the decree of 1690 on the introduction of the wedding tax. This exposed many illegal marriages and made it possible to streamline the collection of money for the wedding ceremony, charging fines for “unofficially consecrated” weddings.Of course, the decree caused a storm of indignation among the freedom-loving English.

    There were no marriage certificates at that time, and until the 18th century, many married couples were not sure if they were in a legal union. However, for thousands of ordinary people there was no difference if the question of inheritance did not arise.

    It is interesting that bigamy was widespread in medieval England, but no one dreamed of divorce.

    Preparing the bride for the wedding

    Brides in the Middle Ages actively used cosmetics to emphasize their lips and cheeks, while hiding the hairline (a high forehead was in fashion for a long time).They lightened the hair with lemons and the sun. In the old days, loose hairstyles decorated with floral accessories and sachets of fragrant herbs were popular among English brides.

    Preparation of the bride for the wedding was already a long and troublesome process. Rich brides had the opportunity to take a hot bath before the wedding (an unheard of luxury!), And ordinary girls stifled themselves with cheap perfume (on a dirty body). It is not recommended to present the scent of a medieval wedding party on a full stomach.

    When it comes to wedding dress and jewelry, English wedding traditions have been constantly changing. The rich bride wore a light dress and the best jewelry for the ceremony, wrapped herself in furs in the cold season. It is curious that until the century before last, a wedding dress in England was blue, not white (blue symbolized purity and innocence).

    Such a spicy wedding accessory, like a garter, appeared precisely from the British. The fact is that it was customary here after the wedding party to see off the bride and groom to the wedding box with the whole crowd.Grabbing a piece of clothing from the bride was considered a good omen, and a garter was ideal for the role of a happy item. This tradition is still found today.

    Wedding entertainment in medieval England

    In the Middle Ages, newlyweds of noble birth organized a wedding party (more precisely, a wedding breakfast) in their own estate or estate – this is fully consistent with the current traditions. The British did not skimp on wedding entertainment, so there was always an abundance of food and wine at the banquets, and the guests were entertained by numerous jesters and minstrels.

    By the way, a modern English wedding often revives the entertainment of antiquity – jesters, magicians, sword swallowers, stilt walkers and medieval live music are very popular in foggy Albion.

    Nowadays, throwing a medieval-style wedding party is a very expensive and sophisticated pleasure.

    The cost of ordering one musical group in authentic costumes with old instruments can reach several thousand pounds per evening!

    Noble marriages of those times were the fruit of intricate intrigues and calculations.Needless to say that noble newlyweds basically had to endure each other without love, but only for the sake of the ambitions of their kind? Wedding parties of the English aristocracy have always been distinguished by excessively strict observance of the ritual and monotony, although they shone with luxury.

    Peasant marriages very often took place after an unplanned pregnancy. The modern tradition of throwing confetti at a wedding originated among the common people, where the newlyweds were sprinkled with grains and seeds, wishing many children.

    From the 14th century, ordinary Englishmen had an unusual tradition of collecting money for the holiday – the bride sold homemade ale to the guests. The invitees willingly bought ale, helping the newlyweds to recoup their expenses. The meaning is the same as when collecting wedding envelopes, only money was given for a symbolic mug of good homemade beer.

    Wedding bouquets, cakes and wedding rings

    Your wedding cake with delicate cream roses or assorted fruits reminds a little of a medieval dessert.

    In those days, a hearty, fatty meat or minced meat pie was considered the best wedding cake. By the way, multilayer cakes are an echo of the old English tradition of bringing pyramid-shaped meat pies to a wedding. When this nutritionist’s nightmare was being completed, the bride and groom had to kiss over the pyramid without touching it with their chin.

    The popular wedding tradition of catching a bridal bouquet has recently appeared. In the old days, there were other ways to determine who would go down the aisle next.In the 18th century, a glass ring was baked into a wedding cake – whoever finds the ring will have an early wedding. The main thing is not to swallow your own happiness! By the way, cakes were available only to wealthy couples.

    Diamond engagement rings gained popularity at the end of the 19th century, after an incredible advertising campaign by the diamond corporation De Beers (yes, marketing existed even then!) At the same time, from time immemorial, wealthy English newlyweds exchanged wedding rings made of precious metals, and the poor gave each other halves of a cut coin.

    In the 19th century, bouquets for bridesmaids made of rosemary and luxurious wreaths of roses for the bride became fashionable.

    Queen Victoria’s White Wedding

    During the era of the Regency, English wedding traditions underwent significant changes, and weddings became more secular. Brides dress up in snow-white wedding dresses, and white begins to dominate the holiday.

    Queen Victoria actually approved the transition to a white wedding by marrying Prince Albert in a snow-white dress (1840).At the same time, flowers and bouquets began to be widely used in the design of the chapel and the banquet hall. We used to think that a white dress symbolizes purity, but in reality this color reflected the wealth and high status of a girl walking down the aisle.

    An English wedding in the 19th century was unthinkable without a church choir, harpists and pianists. Today, foreign event organizers recommend ordering a classic string quartet if a couple wants to feel the spirit of the Victorian era.

    O times! About morals! Now more and more young people are opting for a compact, intimate event over the luxurious wedding receptions of the past. But if you want to play a royal wedding that will be remembered for a long time, talented musicians and artists (magicians, clowns, stilt-walkers, jugglers) presented in the Joyday catalog will certainly help you.


    Medieval Wedding

    Let the skeptics, pragmatists and nerds repeat that no knights and beautiful ladies now exist at all and that all of them – if they were – are in the past, but we all know that there are, there are! – just look different than in the Middle Ages.

    However, we propose not to delve into history and philosophical reasoning, but to organize a wedding in the medieval style. All the more so if you like stories about knights and their beloved ladies, and their outfits and the corresponding entourage evoke awe.

    How to organize a medieval wedding

    When organizing your “medieval” wedding, pay attention to the following points:
    1) Invitations. In order for the guests to know what awaits them at your wedding and to be able to prepare at least a little, arrange the invitations accordingly, for example, in the form of old scrolls.

    2) Place of the celebration and its decoration. To begin with, you should choose the most suitable place for the knightly era for the wedding.

    The best option would be a real castle, and if for some reason such pleasure is not available to you, then do not despair, but rent a nice country mansion, or even just a banquet hall.

    A photo session can be held not only in the castle, but also in a suitable museum – the main thing is to agree in advance.

    Remember that any style of wedding can be realized in almost any territory – there would be a desire and a little imagination.For the transformation of a room, drapery with fabrics is great.

    Candlesticks, candelabra, bowls with patterns, armor, swords, flags, tapestries, images of dragons, harps, etc. are suitable as paraphernalia for decorating a knightly wedding. Arches decorated with flowers and leaves will fit well into the knightly style.

    Do not forget about the paraphernalia for guests – prepare some accessories for men and women: stylized capes, fans, hats, etc.

    3) Personal coat of arms.A very original detail will be an invented personal coat of arms, the image of which can be reproduced both on invitations, and on elements of attire, and on flags that would be appropriate to decorate the ceremonial hall, etc.

    4) Auto. But it is better to refuse cars – after all, in the times of knighthood they simply did not exist, and therefore choose carriages drawn by horses, or even go to your own wedding on horseback (but this, of course, is optional).

    5) Menu. A knightly style wedding table should be ordinary, without exotic delights.Suitable: meat, game, vegetables, cheeses, salads, fruits, beer and wine.

    6) Music – live music is best. It will be great if you invite musicians playing harps, mandolins, flutes, organ, or at least a piano to a medieval-style wedding. However, it is possible to organize the corresponding musical accompaniment from suitable recordings.

    Bride and Groom Wedding Dresses in Medieval Style

    Medieval style is one of those styles of wedding decoration, to recreate which you will have to try especially carefully with the outfits of the bride and groom.

    The groom plays the role of a knight, but wearing heavy knightly armor throughout the entire celebration can be very original, but extremely tiring, and therefore it would be wiser to wear a beautiful white shirt with a camisole or a knight’s cape.

    A white dress with long sleeves and a skirt flaring from the waist with a noticeable train is recommended for the bride. The hairstyle can be decorated with a veil.

    Suitable images with details can be spied on in your favorite films or in paintings.

    Source: http: // / svadba-v-srednevekovom-stile /

    All shades of white: the history of the wedding dress


    January 24, 2021

    text: Daria Smirnova

    There are many interesting pages in the history of fashion, and one of them rightfully belongs to the wedding dress. While lavish celebrations are replaced by the trend of chamber celebrations, and classic decor gives way to bohemian chic, one thing remains unchanged. And this is the snow-white outfit of the bride.

    White and its shades have been the main favorite when choosing a wedding dress for many decades.It is all the more surprising that this was not always the case. Over time, mores, beliefs and tastes have changed, and with them – the style, cut and color of the wedding dress. We invite you to recall the key images of brides that have gone down in the history of wedding fashion forever.

    How it all began

    Ancient Greece is rightfully considered the ancestor of the European wedding dress. White color among the Greeks symbolized youth, humility and purity, and therefore both the bride and the groom wore clothes of this color.The choice of style was also limited. All the girls traditionally wore peplos – a light long dress fastened with fasteners on the shoulders. Of the decorations they had only a laurel wreath, a symbol of chastity.

    The wedding dress of the ancient Romans was a little more strict, similar to the clothes of Juno, the goddess of family and motherhood. The girl’s head was covered with a scarlet cloth. Against her background, the skin looked pale, like marble – so the resemblance to the statue of the goddess became even more noticeable.

    Manes Songbook (c.1305)

    Medieval bride dress

    Wedding fashion of the Middle Ages took a completely different path. Until the era of romanticism and itinerant knights came, the wedding was not at all regarded as a union of two lovers. Rather, as a business venture. Consequently, the bride’s attire should have emphasized not her beauty, but the social status and financial condition of her family.

    Purple and red shades were used – symbols of wealth. But the color of the dress was not as important as the material and decoration: noble brides wore furs, brocade and velvet.The most fashionable style was considered to be the high-waisted cotardie with long sleeves.

    But what catches the eye most of all in the images of medieval brides is not the dress itself or even the high headdress in the form of a Gothic tower, the so-called enin. And the figure of a girl with a noticeably rounded belly. Does this mean that weddings in those days were arranged, already being “in an interesting position”? Not at all. It was just that pregnancy was in vogue. Therefore, in the wardrobe of any self-respecting medieval fashionista there was a false tummy.

    Wedding portrait of Jacqueline Kennedy (1963)

    Centuries-old traditions

    But the medieval tradition of wearing not just the best, but always a new outfit specially tailored for the event has survived to this day. The bride’s dress was part of her dowry, without which marriage in those days was unthinkable. So girls from poor families created it for several years, decorating it with embroidery with their own hands.

    It is interesting that in those days it was not considered shameful to wear a wedding dress after the wedding, to other special events.That is why the white color was not in use – it is very easily soiled.

    It is worth mentioning another important element of the wedding dress, which has not gone out of fashion for 2000 years. Have you already guessed what it is? Of course, the veil, which, with the spread of the Christian faith, has become an invariable accessory for the bride. Its shape and length varied depending on the country, era and tastes of society, but the sacred meaning remained unchanged throughout the centuries.

    In Europe, a veil personified innocence and purity, and in Ancient Russia it was also considered a powerful talisman against evil spirits.By the way, the translucent veil familiar to us appeared only in the 18th century, and until then in Russia the role of the veil was played by a bright headscarf.

    George Hayter, The Wedding of Queen Victoria, detail (1840-1842)

    White Renaissance

    The interest in ancient culture, which marked the beginning of the Renaissance, was reflected not only in the art of that time. The fashion for snow-white wedding dresses has returned. Antique marble statues found during excavations dictated both color and style (A-silhouette, no corset), and even fabrics – flowing and translucent.One of the first brides who dared to go down the aisle in a white dress was Mary Stuart in 1559.

    It was a satin dress embroidered with pearls. The queen threw a robe decorated with precious stones over her shoulders. And instead of a veil, as befits a rank, she wore a golden crown inlaid with diamonds, emeralds and rubies. A little later, in 1572, nineteen-year-old Marguerite de Valois, Queen Margot, wore a light dress. In her “Memoirs” she devoted several lines to the description of this outfit.“I was dressed like a king, wearing a crown and an ermine cape covering my shoulders, all sparkling with jewels of the crown.”

    But Queen Victoria is still considered the trendsetter for the white wedding dress. Only after February 10, 1840, in the chapel of St. James’s Palace, the queen appeared before the groom in a lush cream dress made of Spitalfield satin, this color became the standard for a long time. The queen’s outfit was decorated with lace flounces on the neck and sleeves, as well as a five-meter train.This style is considered the gold standard for weddings to this day.

    Such popularity of a snow-white dress in European fashion is explained not only by Christian traditions, where white personifies chastity. The tastes of 19th-20th century brides were also influenced by more everyday factors. For example, the appearance of white soap (until the 20th century it was usually brown), which added the symbolism of health and cleanliness to the associative array. The invention of photography also played a role. A light dress looked more advantageous in black and white than other shades.

    Wedding dress in the 20th century

    The 20th century for wedding fashion is a time of experimentation. The choice of wedding dress is more and more subject to everyday trends. Brides give up corsets, long trains and heavy decorations. Coco Chanel, who has shortened the traditional dress to the knees, also pronounces a new word in wedding fashion.

    Fashionistas complement such an outfit not with a traditional veil, but with a veil or a flirty hat. Audrey Hepburn’s pale pink mini dress, Bianca Jagger’s wedding tuxedo, and Marilyn Monroe’s dark button-down dress are just a few of the iconic examples that have remained in experimental bridal fashion history.

    On the other side of the scale, there are still traditional “princess dresses” with a puffy crinoline, inlay and a fitted bodice. Here, royal celebrations set the bar high. First of all, the wedding of Grace Kelly and Prince Rainier III of Monaco, as well as the wedding ceremony of Diana Spencer and Prince Charles of Wales.

    The elegant Grace dress, designed by Metro Golden Mayers dresser Helen Rose, required 23 meters of silk, 90 meters of tulle and 275 meters of lace.And Lady Diana impressed everyone with an eight-meter train and charmed with a collar with flounces. Long after this ceremony, the main wishes of the brides in the atelier were romantic dresses with sleeves-lanterns, frills and bows.

    Modern Bridal Trends

    Designers continue to reinvent the classic wedding dress by reshaping the skirt, adding layering, intricate drapery or feather trim. In the 2021 bridal collections, elegance and femininity are harmoniously combined with light negligence and irony.

    What about color? Boiled white is gradually losing ground, allowing you to choose exactly the shade that best suits the color type of the bride and the general style of the wedding.

Related Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *