Meaning of ampoule: definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary

definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary

When moving in the channel 1 the ampoule reaches the membrane 6 and cuts it.

According to this scheme, the ampoule 4 is initially placed on the membrane 5 in the channel 3.

Beginning from this instant of time, the ampoule is moving by the force of inertia with g, = 0.

The ampoules, with pistons being mounted at the top of them, were set in motion by means of gas accelerators.

The ampoule velocity at the impact is; m0s, therefore, for solids the shock wave that has arisen is weak.

The moving ampoule blow against metal plates created the impulse acceleration.

At both installations negative acceleration was created due to the plastic deformation of the metal plates by the lower edge of the ampoule.

At the instant of timet 5 t *, the ampoule bottom is in contact with the block of braking~16!

The light sheet comes into the ampoule~5!

At the same time, the instability along the ampoule walls evolves earlier.

By passing the inertial device 8, the ampoule finds itself in the damper 9 where deceleration and catching of the ampoule take place.

Specific mass of the equipped ampoule wasm 23.9 g0cm2.

Experiments were performed with a system consisting of three layers of different density liquids placed inside a hermetically sealed ampoule.

Simultaneously, the mechanism for separating the ampoule from the piston comes into action.

The liquids studied were placed inside the ampoule that had internal working sizes~ 643120!

These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors.

ampoule in English ampoule meaning

ampoule in English

  

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Difference Between Ampoule and Vial

What are Ampoule and Vial?

Both Ampoules and Vials require reconstitution. Ampules and vials can be seen on the shelves of pharmaceutical laboratories or chemistry-based laboratories. Both categories of vessels play a significant role in storing and preserving liquids, medicinal fluids, medicinal capsules and other similar contents, typically for pharmaceutical purposes. These are used to mix medicines in order to be delivered to a patient. Although both the storage containers refer to glass or sometimes plastic containers, they benefit from several different designs and serve different purposes.

 

What is Ampoule?

An ampule, or ampoule, is a tiny single dosage vial with a sealed neck. Ampoules could be of glass or plastic. Mostly, they are of glass. The neck of an ampoule is sealed using an open flame in order to prevent contamination. This leads to an airtight obstruction for prevention of air, moisture and water from contaminating the liquid inside the ampoule.

The seal is unfastened by cracking the top off the neck, that causes a tidy and hassle-free break without any additional glass shards or slivers. Ampoules cannot be reused and once the sealed neck is snapped off to have access to the pharmacy drug or any other stored liquid or solid, it is thrown away. However, once opened, the content can be stored into a sealed sterile vial or into slim pins.

What is Vial?

Vial is a broader term as compared to an ampoule. Vial is a small multi-dose container that can hold serums, liquid drugs and other compounds used mostly in the medical industry. It is typically made of glass and may or may not be sealed. Vial, in the form of container possesses a screw on cap or a rubber plug. In some cases, the top of the vial possesses dropper to estimate the liquid to retrieve. Vial has a flat base so that it can be rested on a flat surface or on the counter.

Closure systems are of different types. For glass vials, screw cap is used. For lip vials, cork or plastic stopper and for crimp vials, a rubber stopper and a metal cap are usually used. In case of a Plastic vial, hinge caps (flip-flops or snap caps), are used.

 

Difference between Ampoule and Vial

  1. Definition of Ampoule and Vial

Ampoule

An ampoule is also known as ampul, ampule, or ampulla. It is a sealed vial that contains or stores a sample, usually liquid or solid.

Vial

A vial is also called as a phial or flacon. It is a small cylindrical container made of glass typically for holding liquid medications.

  1. Applications of Ampoule vs Vial

Ampoule

  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Retail industry
  • Diagnostics
  • Veterinary
  • Spa items
  • First Aid
  • Cosmetics
  • Dental
  • Health and Beauty Aids
  • Toiletries

Vial

  • Pharmaceutical applications (liquids, powders or capsules)
  • Autosampler devices in analytical chromatography.
  • Scientific sample vessels
  • Research applications
  • Industrial applications
  1. Potency protection of Ampoule and Vial

Ampoule

Unstable chemical compounds that, in the presence of oxygen or any other element keep themselves intact, remain potent when stored in an ampoule. Typically, medical drug manufacturers suck out the air from the ampoule before sealing it in order to prevent any contamination or degradation of the content within the container.

Vial

A vial is not typical hermetic types and is known to best store the stable elements.

  1. Reuse of Ampoule and Vial

Ampoule

Ampoules are not reusable once their glass neck is broken. At times, the breaking off the ampoule is challenging and times the peril of injury also exists in case the broken glass debris comes in contact with the contents inside the ampoule.

Vial

In contrast, a vial can be reused for storing purposes. It can be cleaned and reused several times and possesses less risks of injury as compared to an ampoule.

  1. Volume measurement in Ampoule and Vial

Ampoule

The holder of an ampule undergoes tiny disparities in its internal volume. It is due to the sealed technology which causes melting of the glass. In most cases, a syringe with capacity indicators sucks some liquid from the ampoule to sort the required quantity of the medicinal drug.

Vial

In contrast, a vial offers a, correct, explicit, and faultless quantity mark signs that become visual indicators of the left-over quantity of the medicinal drug or any other product.

  1. Mixing of Ampoule and Vial

Ampoule

The snapped off glass edge of unlatched ampules carries the peril of entry or establishment of small glass debris into a mixture of chemicals and thus do not offer themselves to mixing items.

Vial

Vials are plastic or glass vessels that can be conveniently used for mixing multiple compounds of chemical nature. By means of their glass membranes, the resulting mixture of chemical compounds exhibit their consistent attribute and the colours. Most of the intravenous injections that are available in the pharmacy stores are in the form of sealed containers or vials and the stored liquid drugs are pulled out through a syringe.

 

Summary of Ampoule verses Vial

The points of difference between an Ampoule and a Vial have been summarized below:

 

Research Consultant: PhD in Environmental Sciences at History of working in Elite Research Institutes like United Nations Development Program

Dr Amita Fotedar is an experienced Research Consultant with a demonstrated history of working in elite Research Institutes like United Nations Development Programme, Istanbul, Turkey, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India and International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Srilanka.
Skilled in Biological Sciences, Environmental Health, Natural Resources, Water Resource Management, and Renewable Energy, she has a PhD in Environmental Sciences from the University of Jammu, India. Apart from her PhD, she has a Post Graduate Diploma in International Studies from International Pacific University, New Zealand Campus, and has also been rewarded a certification in Climate Studies from Harvard University (EdX). She is a recipient of Academic Excellence Award from International Pacific University, New Zealand campus. At present she is pursuing MicroMasters in Sustainable Energy from The University of Queensland, Australia.
She is a Co- founder and Research Advisor for a New Zealand based Sustainability and Environmental Services Entity and is also a member of the Environmental Peacebuilding Association at SDG Academy, offering mentorship (a collaborative network of academic and research institutions under the auspices of UN Secretary-General). She has around 35 national and international publications to her credit.

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How to pronounce ampoule in French

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Phonetic spelling of ampoule

am-poule

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Translations of ampoule

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I filled up the jagged hole with another iodine ampoule.

“At Suvla Bay” by John Hargrave

Who has the syringe and the sleep-drug ampoules?

“Temple Trouble” by Henry Beam Piper

He rode always on a white horse, being covered by a magnificent canopy, upheld by the knights of the Sainte Ampoule.

“Historical Tales, Vol. 6 (of 15)” by Charles Morris

Place the ampoules when filled with serum and sealed, in a water-bath at 56 deg.

“The Elements of Bacteriological Technique” by John William Henry Eyre

There are only three ampoules of this and they also say, maximum dose one ampoule.

“The Lost Kafoozalum” by Pauline Ashwell

He broke open a tiny ampoule, and as the drops of liquid touched it the stout fabric began to disappear.

“Triplanetary” by Edward Elmer Smith

C. , without intermediate ampoules, were calibrated by Chappuis in five sections of 20 deg.

“Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 1” by Various

It was our ampoule, or holy oil.

“A Philosophical Dictionary, Volume 6 (of 10)” by François-Marie Arouet (AKA Voltaire)

Go about it carefully, Ampoule.

“The Abbess Of Vlaye” by Stanley J. Weyman

Ampoule verre Glass bulb.

“English-French and French-English dictionary of the motor car, cycle, and boat” by Frederick Lucas

***

The sample with nominal composition of SmFeAs0.5P0.5O0.85 was synthesized in a quartz ampoule in the same way as the previous samples. To avoid/minimize possible oxygen contamination from the ampoule, the pellet was completely covered by NaCl powder.

Interplay of composition, structure, magnetism, and superconductivity in SmFeAs1-xPxO1-y

Usually 226Ra sources are in hermetic ampoules which are not passing α partiсles. In this case registered effect is connected to a β and γ radiation completely.

Researches of alpha and beta radioactivity at long-term observations

***

Fluke ITSh-90 Fixed-Point Cell

Best indicators of ampoule error

  • The best ampoule error rates
  • All ITS-90 reference points from mercury to copper
  • Flat sections of temperature curves at reference points (“plateau”) can be maintained for several days (in the case of gallium – weeks, and for TPW – months)
  • Manufactured and tested by Fluke Calibration scientists using primary standards

Fluke Calibration scientists have been developing and testing ITS-90 reference point ampoules for many years.We not only manufacture all major reference points; our metrologists have written extensive works on the theory and practice of ampoules and created new designs covering a range of systems that no other company can replicate. We have no equal in testing the ampoules of reference points. The scope of our accreditation includes testing of ITS-90 reference point ampoules. Each ampoule can be purchased with an intercomparison, which includes comparing the equilibrium value of your ampoule to a reference.

Conventional crystallization point ampoules

To obtain true primary temperature standards, you will need metal crystallization point ampoules that are very close to theoretical crystallization values ​​and provide stable and long-term flat temperature curves at these points.

Fluke Calibration’s metal crystallization point vials represent the culmination of over 20 years of experience with primary standards.No other company has such experience in the development of metal crystallization point ampoules. This is why Fluke ampoules are used in many National Metrology Institutes around the world.

Each Fluke Calibration ampule is meticulously engineered in an ultra-clean, state-of-the-art laboratory using high-density, high-purity graphite crucibles containing metal samples of at least 99. 9999% (six nines) and in many cases 99.99999% (seven nines.The crucible is enclosed in a sealed quartz glass flask through which high-purity argon gas is pumped. A special technology is used to seal the ampoule at the crystallization point. We measure and record accurate argon pressure, which allows for more accurate pressure adjustments in the future.

After manufacture, Fluke ampoules are tested and tested for purity of metal samples. Then, all conventional sizes of ITSh-90 ampoules undergo more rigorous testing in our primary standards laboratory, where we study the melting-cooling curves and perform a detailed analysis of the coefficients to confirm the purity of the sensor.If you need additional data, we will perform an additional intercomparison for you with our own reference ampoules.

Gallium ampoules

Gallium ampoules serve as excellent reference standards for testing drift-prone instruments (such as platinum resistance thermometers) and are essential for calibrating sensors used at room temperature or body temperature, in environmental monitoring, and in the biological sciences.

The Fluke Calibration 5943 gallium ampoule is sealed in a stainless steel flask.High purity gallium (99.99999%) is contained in a plastic and metal body. The stainless steel container is then filled with pure argon gas at one standard atmosphere and melting point.

As a result of crystallization, gallium expands by 3.1%; therefore, the walls of the ampoules must be elastic. Unlike other manufacturers’ PTFE ampoules, Hart ampoules do not need to be pumped because their walls are impermeable to gases. We guarantee that the error of our ampoules will not exceed 0.1 mK for at least five years.The ampoules are operated and serviced automatically by the 9230 support apparatus (see page 31). The apparatus maintains a plateau of the temperature curve at the melting point for up to eight days and requires no more than five minutes of maintenance per week to establish new melting plateaus. Maintenance of a world-class gallium ampoule has never been easier.

Water ampoules

Although ice baths are often used as the calibration point at 0 ° C, they have many limitations due to concentration and purity issues, reproducibility issues, and differences in design and measurement procedures. In ampoules of the triple point of water, these problems are solved, in addition, these ampoules represent the most frequently used temperature point of ITS-90 and do not require large maintenance and application costs.

Fluke Calibration manufactures three traditional sized TPW ampoules that have been proven in national laboratories to even outperform their stated accuracy specifications (± 0.0001 ° C) in national laboratories. The ice mantle can be formed using dry ice, liquid nitrogen, or immersion freeze devices and maintained for up to two months in 7012 or 7312 baths.

Open metal ampoules

“Open” metal ampoules, made from the same materials and using the same technologies as their hermetic counterparts from the new series, are equipped with a high-quality valve for connection to the laboratory pressure control system. With the help of such a system, it is possible to carry out repeated evacuation, purging and injection of pure inert gas, and then adjust the pressure in the ampoule during the measurement.

Unlike other manufacturers who offer open ampoules as spare parts without test data, after assembly and testing, we subject each Fluke Calibration ITS-90 open ampoule to even more rigorous laboratory testing.

Since the open ampoules have the ability to measure pressure by users, this makes it possible to minimize errors by correcting the pressure. Currently, when CCT offers to use open ampoules, they have found a worthy application in complex tasks of measuring temperature dependences on pressure, as well as in carrying out calibrations of precision platinum thermometers SPRT.

The height of these ampoules is increased to facilitate access to the gas valves when using ampoules.Pure quartz fiber insulation and four high-purity graphite discs prevent heat loss from the metal sample to the pressure control system and optimize the vertical temperature drops in the ampoule. Each ampoule has an outer diameter of 50 mm and a length of 600 mm; the length of the silver and copper ampoules is 700 mm.

When it comes to primary temperature standards, Fluke Calibration offers more equipment than all of its competitors combined. If you need to reduce uncertainty, start by buying from a company that supports their products better than any other metrology company in the world.Why trust another company’s primary benchmarks?

Dexalgin instructions for use: indications, contraindications, side effects – description of Dexalgin solution for intravenous and intramuscular administration of 25 mg / 1 ml: amp. 2 ml 1, 5 or 10 pcs. (13873)

The following drug interactions are typical for all NSAIDs, including dexketoprofen trometamol.

Undesirable combinations

The simultaneous administration of several NSAIDs, including salicylates in high doses (more than 3 g / day), increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers due to synergistic action.

When used simultaneously with oral anticoagulants, heparin in doses exceeding prophylactic ones, and ticlopidine, the risk of bleeding increases due to inhibition of platelet aggregation and damage to the gastrointestinal mucosa.

NSAIDs increase the concentration of lithium in the blood plasma, up to toxic, and therefore this indicator must be monitored when prescribing, changing the dose and after discontinuing NSAIDs.

When used with high doses of methotrexate (15 mg / week.and more) there is an increase in the hematological toxicity of methotrexate due to a decrease in its renal clearance during NSAID therapy.

When used simultaneously with hydantoins and sulfa drugs, there is a risk of increasing the toxic effect of these drugs.

Combinations requiring caution

If it is necessary to use it simultaneously with diuretics, ACE inhibitors, it should be borne in mind that NSAID therapy is associated with the risk of developing acute renal failure in patients with dehydration (decreased glomerular filtration due to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis).NSAIDs can reduce the antihypertensive effect of some drugs. When administered simultaneously with diuretics, it is necessary to make sure that the patient’s water balance is adequate, and to monitor renal function before prescribing NSAIDs.

When used simultaneously with methotrexate in low doses (less than 15 mg / week), an increase in the hematological toxicity of methotrexate is possible due to a decrease in its renal clearance during NSAID therapy. It is necessary to monitor the number of blood cells weekly in the first weeks of simultaneous therapy.In the presence of impaired renal function, even in a mild degree, as well as in the elderly, careful medical supervision is necessary.

When used simultaneously with pentoxifylline, the risk of bleeding increases. Intensive clinical monitoring and frequent monitoring of bleeding time (blood clotting time) is required.

With simultaneous use with zidovudine, there is a risk of increased toxic effect on erythrocytes due to exposure to reticulocytes, with the development of severe anemia a week after the appointment of NSAIDs.It is necessary to control all blood cells and reticulocytes after 1-2 weeks. after starting NSAID therapy.

An increase in the hypoglycemic effect of sulfonylurea derivatives is possible due to its displacement from the sites of binding to plasma proteins under the influence of NSAIDs.

With simultaneous use with low molecular weight heparin preparations, the risk of bleeding increases.

Combinations to be taken into account

NSAIDs can reduce the hypotensive effect of beta-blockers, which is due to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis.

When used simultaneously with cyclosporine and tacrolimus, NSAIDs can increase nephrotoxicity, which is mediated by the action of renal prostaglandins. During combination therapy, it is necessary to monitor renal function.

Concomitant administration with thrombolytics increases the risk of bleeding.

With simultaneous use with probenecid, an increase in plasma concentrations of NSAIDs is possible, which may be due to inhibition of renal secretion and / or conjugation with glucuronic acid.This requires dose adjustment of NSAIDs.

NSAIDs can cause an increase in the concentration of cardiac glycosides in the blood plasma.

Due to the theoretical risk of changes in the effectiveness of mifepristone under the influence of inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis, NSAIDs should not be prescribed earlier than 8-12 days after discontinuation of mifepristone.

Data obtained in experimental studies on animals indicate a high risk of seizures when prescribing NSAIDs during therapy with high doses of ciprofloxacin.

Pharmaceutical interactions

Dexketoprofen trometamol must not be mixed in the same syringe with a solution of dopamine, promethazine, pentazocine, pethidine or hydroxyzine (a precipitate is formed).

Dexketoprofen trometamol can be mixed in one syringe with a solution of heparin, lidocaine, morphine and theophylline.

Diluted dexketoprofen trometamol infusion solution must not be mixed with promethazine or pentazocine.

Diluted Dexketoprofen Trometamol Infusion is compatible with the following injection solutions: dopamine, heparin, hydroxyzine, lidocaine, morphine, pethidine and theophylline.

When storing diluted solutions of dexketoprofen trometamol for infusion in plastic containers or when using infusion systems made of ethyl vinyl acetate, cellulose propionate, low density polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride, the absorption of the active substance by the listed materials does not occur.

Gliaton (solution) – to improve memory and cognitive functions. Instructions for use

Instructions for use

Trade name

Gliaton

International Non-Proprietary Name

Choline alfoscerate

Dosage form

Solution for injection 250 mg / ml

Composition

1 ml of solution contains

active substance – choline alfoscerate in terms of 100% substance 250 mg,

excipient : water for injection.

Description

Transparent colorless solution

Pharmacotherapeutic group

Other drugs for the treatment of diseases of the nervous system. Parasympathomimetics. Other parasympathomimetics. Choline alfoscerate. ATX code N07A X02.

Pharmacological properties

Pharmacokinetics

When choline alfoscerate is administered, on average, almost 85% of the dose is absorbed.The drug accumulates mainly in the brain (45% of the drug concentration in the blood), lungs and liver. Elimination of the drug occurs mainly through the lungs in the form of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Only 15% of the drug is excreted in the urine and bile.

Pharmacodynamics

Choline alfoscerate is a drug that belongs to the group of central cholinomimetics with a predominant effect on the central nervous system. Choline alfoscerate as a carrier of choline and a precursor agent of phosphatidylcholine is potentially capable of preventing and correcting biochemical damage, which is of particular importance among the pathogenic factors of psychoorganic involutional syndrome, i. e.That is, it can affect the reduced cholinergic tone and altered phospholipid composition of the membranes of nerve cells. The preparation contains 40.5% of metabolically protected choline. Metabolic protection mediates the release of choline in the brain. Choline alfoscerate has a positive effect on memory functions and cognitive abilities, as well as on indicators of emotional state and behavior, the deterioration of which was caused by the development of involutional brain pathology.

The mechanism of action is based on the fact that when choline enters the body, alfoscerate is cleaved by enzymes into choline and glycerophosphate: choline takes part in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, one of the main mediators of nervous excitement; glycerophosphate is a precursor of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine) of the neuronal membrane.Thus, choline alfoscerate improves the transmission of nerve impulses in cholinergic neurons; positively affects the plasticity of neuronal membranes and receptor function. Choline alfoscerate improves cerebral circulation, enhances metabolic processes in the brain, activates the structures of the reticular formation of the brain and restores consciousness in case of traumatic brain damage.

Indications for use

– degenerative and involutional psychoorganic syndromes and consequences of cerebrovascular insufficiency, such as primary and secondary disorders of mnestic functions, characterized by impaired memory, confusion, disorientation, decreased motivation, initiative, decreased ability to concentrate

– changes in the emotional and behavioral sphere in the elderly: emotional lability, increased irritability, decreased interest in the environment, senile pseudo-depression

Method of administration and dosage

In acute conditions, Gliaton is administered intramuscularly or intravenously slowly, 1 g (1 ampoule) per day.

After stabilization of the patient’s condition, switch to oral forms of choline alfoscerate.

Side effects

As a rule, the drug is well tolerated even with prolonged use. Reactions at the injection site are possible. During the first days or weeks of treatment, such manifestations of adverse reactions may occur: anxiety, agitation, insomnia. These symptoms are temporary and do not require discontinuation of treatment, however, a temporary dose reduction is possible.

Possible nausea (which is mainly a consequence of secondary dopaminergic activation), decreased blood pressure, headache, very rarely, abdominal pain and short-term confusion are possible. In this case, it is necessary to reduce the applied dose of the drug.

Possible hypersensitivity reactions, including rash, pruritus, urticaria, angioedema, redness of the skin.

The incidence of adverse reactions is unknown.

Contraindications

  • known hypersensitivity to the drug or to its components;
  • patients with psychotic syndrome, with severe psychomotor agitation;
  • period of pregnancy and lactation;
  • children under 18 years old

Drug interactions

Clinically significant interaction of the drug with other drugs has not been established.

Special instructions

Should not be used in the same container with other medicines.

Pediatric use

There is no experience of using Gliaton in children.

Use during pregnancy and lactation

The drug is contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation.

Peculiarities of the drug’s effect on the ability to drive vehicles and potentially dangerous mechanisms

The drug does not affect the driving and operation of other mechanisms.

Overdose

In case of an overdose with Gliaton, which may manifest itself as nausea, anxiety, agitation, insomnia, the dose of the drug should be reduced. Therapy is symptomatic.

Form of issue and packaging

4 ml in glass ampoules with a break ring or break point.

Self-adhesive labels are glued to ampoules.

5 or 10 ampoules, together with instructions for medical use in the state and Russian languages, are put into a carton box with a corrugated insert.

Or 5 ampoules are put into a blister strip packaging made of polymer film. 1 or 2 blister packs with ampoules, together with instructions for medical use in the state and Russian languages, are put into a pack of cardboard.

Storage conditions

Store in a dark place at a temperature not exceeding 25 ° C.

Keep out of the reach of children!

Shelf life

2 years

Do not use the drug after the expiry date stated on the package.

Conditions of dispensing from pharmacies

Prescription

Manufacturer

PJSC “Farmak”, Ukraine, 04080, Kiev, st. Frunze, 74.

Marketing Authorization Holder

PJSC “Farmak”, Ukraine

Name, address and contact th data of the organization on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan that accepts claims (proposals) on the quality of medicines from consumers and is responsible for post-registration monitoring of the safety of the medicinal product

Representative Office of PJSC “Farmak” in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Republic of Kazakhstan, g. Almaty, index 050012, st. Amangeldy, 59 “A” Business center “Shartas”, 9th floor.

Tel .: +7 (727) 267 64 63, fax: +7 (727) 267 63 73, e-mail: [email protected]

Shatsky’s ring as a symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease | Levin

1.. Johnson A.C., Lester P.D., Johnson S., Sudarsanam D., Dunn D. Esophasogastric ring: why and when we see it? And what it implies: radiologicpathologic correlation.South Med. J. 1992; 85 (10): 946-52.

2. Towbin A.J., Diniz L.O. Schatzki ring in pediatric and young adult patients. Pediatr. Radiol. 2012; 42 (12): 1437-40.

3. Müller M., Gockel I., Hedwig P., et al. Is the Schatzki ring a unique esophageal entity? World J. Gastroenterol. 2011; 17 (23): 2838–43.

4. Pezzullo J.C., Lewicki A.M. Schatzki ring, statistically reexamined. Radiology. 2003; 228 (3): 609-13.

5. Levin M.D., Korshun Z., Mendel’sson G. Pathological physiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Hypothesis. Eksperimental’naya klinicheskaya gastroenterologiya. 2013; 5: 72–88 (in Russian).

6. Marshall J.B., Kretschmar J.M., Diaz-Arias A.A. Gastroesophageal reflux as a pathogenic factor in the development of symptomatic lower esophageal ring. Arch. Intern. Med. 1990; 150 (8): 1669–72.

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