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The Litton Family – Colonial Life

The Early Years

     The information in this article has been gleaned from newspaper clippings that were part of the Meadow Hall time capsule that was recovered in May, 2000.  The newspapers are the November 5th, 1961 Washington Star and the October, 1963 issue of the Twinbrook Citizen’s Association newspaper, Twinbrook Life .   The photographs were generously donated to us by Mrs. Billy Gonano, one of the original teachers here at Meadow Hall ES.

   In 1954, there was an unprecedented number of new students in Rockville as a result of the baby boom and the post-war growth of the Washington DC area.  Rockville’s existing school facilities were being quickly outgrown.  Twinbrook Elementary had become too crowded and the county decided that another school should be built to handle the growing number of students.  It would be built in the undeveloped Meadow Hills section of Twinbrook Forest.

     In September of 1955, those students who would be attending the new schools began the year in Glenview Manor.   Yes, the Glenview Manor of the Rockville Civic Center.  We were not a separate school yet, and were considered an annex of Twinbrook Elementary under the supervision of Mrs. Elsie Pohle.

Glenview Manor in 1955

    In September of 1956 our school was officially named Meadow Hall ES, with Mrs. Pohle as our Principal.  “Meadow Hall” was the name of the house and lands on the corner of Meadow Hall Drive and Twinbrook Parkway. Over the years this area had been owned by various families including the Viers, the Woodwards (of Woodward and Lothrop) and the Bullis family.  Since the new building had not yet been finished we continued to hold classes in Glenview Mansion. 

     In January of 1957 we were finally able to move into our new school.  Since the Meadow Hills section was not fully developed, there was no road leading to the school so a pathway was cleared giving students and staff a way in.   That pathway would become Twinbrook Parkway.

The front of Meadow Hall ES around 1960

     We started out with ten classrooms, nine classroom teachers, and Mrs. Pohle as Principal.  In the summer of 1959 twelve more classrooms were added, and by opening day of 1960 the staff had grown from ten to twenty two.  Shortly after that, the student population grew so much that Carl Sandburg ES had to be built to handle the overflow. While we were given the name Meadow Hall, the new school was built on the site of the Meadow Hall estate.

A side view from the same time

    During the 1959 – 1960 school year Meadow Hall became a pilot school in the Non-Grading method of education.  This experiment was based on grouping students into classes not by age or “grade level”, but by skill.  Seventeen classrooms held five hundred and thirty two students.   While computers were not to be in the picture for a while, Meadow Hall did have an up- to- date science lab.

The Litton Family – Life on a Colonial Farm

This is a (poor quality) picture of Caleb Litton. The original was painted in 1746 by his son John.

What we know of the Litton Family 

   Caleb Litton the elder (at that time, the terms senior and junior were not used, instead “the elder” and “the younger” were applied to fathers and sons bearing the same name) seems to have been an adventurous man. He was born in Devon, England, in the village called Autre-Saint Mary (on the Ottery River). From 1700 to 1720 he was a member of the Royal Dragoons (the King’s heavy cavalry, armed with muskets). He was stationed in Saint Mary’s city, the first capital of Maryland and served in a police role there.For his service he was given two grants of land in the new world.

   The first, in 1722, he called Autra, Autry, or Oatry. It was 405 acres that included the area bordered by Rock Creek to the east and south, Baltimore Road to the north and Rockville Pike to the west. The Litton’s two-story frame and plank home, was built on the land between Meadow Hall ES and the former Broome Jr. High school. In 1727 he was given another 67 acre grant of land in, what is now, downtown Rockville. This he called Saint Mary’s and includes the site of the church of the same name.

In 1716 he married Dorthy Teller (1683 – 1718) who was born (and is buried) in Caleb’s home town in England. Unfortuanately she died before they could have any children. In 1723 he married Grace Burton (1703 – 1791), a young woman who had grown up here in the Potomack Hundred (an early name for the Rockville area). They had nine children:

Caleb the younger (1724 – 1784) married Mary Wilcoxen in 1749 and they seem to have moved out of the area. The Wilcoxen family was from Fincastle Virginia.

John Richard (1726 – 1824) married Sarah Ann Wilcoxen in 1745. From birth records she appears to be the younger sister of Mary Wilcoxen .

Sarah (1728 – ??) We can be pretty sure she died after 1763 since she was included in Caleb’s will.

Eliabeth (1730 – ??) married William Richards.

Johanna (1732 – 1830) Johanna married Leonard Hall (from Cumberland MD) when she was sixteen and he was eighteen. They became part of the western expansion by moving, first to southwest Virginia, and, when the way became open, to Kentucky. Given the timing, their trip into Kentucky most likely followed the route opened by Daniel Boone and company in the late 1760s.

Samuel (1735 – 1797) married Ann Crawford

James (1736 – 1798) married Asrah Soborn in 1756

Michael (1740 – 1819) While most of his brothers and sisters moved away, Michael was unusual in the fact that he stayed in the Rockville area as an adult. Michael’s land, “The Coup de Main” (9.25 acres, 1799) was along what is now Veirs Mill Road. During the Revolutionary War, Michael served as a private in the 5th division of the Maryland Militia. Michael married Mary Willett in 1762 and they had a son they named Caleb (b. 1768) who later married and moved his family to Kentucky.

Grace (1742 – 1783) Grace married Benjamin Summers in 1759 and it is their son, John Litton Summers, whose stone is only original left in the cemetery (this was confirmed by a David O’Connor who lived near the cemetery when the stones were still legible).

   The Littons were farmers raising corn, cotton, and tobacco (before the invention of the Cotton Seeding Engine or Cotton ‘Gin, tobacco was the south’s major cash crop). Maryland was a colony that became one of the “Slave States” and it’s know from Caleb’s will that he owned six slaves at the time of his death. Old Oatry (male) and his wife, whose name we don’t know, Young Oatry (m), and a woman named Diana were willed to Caleb’s wife Grace. Two other’s, Nale (m) and Sukey (f), Caleb willed to his daughter Johanna. Other than their names and genders, we know nothing about them as individuals. The slave’s houses were located behind the main house, downhill, next to the creek.  The foundations of these houses could still be seen in the early 1960s.

   The family was also responsible for the raising of three (or more) orphans. In 1724 the family took in Esther Falby, age 2. In 1735 they took in two more children, Harding Evans (age 14) and William Kitchin (age 9). The court order that gave Caleb responsibility for them stated that he would provide them with food, clothing, shelter, and that he would “learn them to read”. Upon their sixteenth birthday they were to be given a suitable set of clothes and their period of bondage to him would end.

   Taking orphans into the home was a form of “Indentured Servitude”. To pay off a debt, an adult would work for another, for an amount of time that both would agree upon. On paper, the indentured servant would receive what was needed to keep him alive and healthy enough to work for the agreed period. The contract would also state whether he or she would receive anything upon leaving. In real life, the practice was little more than temporary slavery. A fair number of the early colonists entered into indentured servitude as a way to pay for their passage to the new world.

   Committing a crime could also result in indentured servitude. In those cases the term of service was often permanent. The practice was so common that it was not until shortly after1800 that black slaves outnumbered white and Indian slaves in the new United States.

   The combination of slavery and the Litton family had one more notable event in store. Bryce Litton, grandson of Caleb, who had a reputation as a bully, became the overseer of a group of slaves (an overseer was a man who organized a group and made sure they did the work that was set out for them). In the early 1800s Bryce got into a fight with Isaac Riley, another slave owner, whose plantation was in the area now called Bethesda. Bryce had the upper hand in the fight and and Isaac called to his most trusted slave, Josiah Henson, for help. Litton used a fence post to finish the fight, hurting Josiah badly. Later, when Josiah and his family escaped to Canada, he wrote an account of his years as a slave. This book became very popular in the northern part of the U.S. In 1852 Harriett Beecher Stowe wrote a fictional book based on Josiah’s memoirs. The book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, used Bryce Litton as the model for the villainous Simon Legree. But the full story of Josiah Henson is another story…

Click here for more pictures 

More information on the Litton family

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If you have coronavirus (COVID-19) symptoms you need to take a symptomatic test (also known as a PCR test). You must self-isolate and only leave your home to get tested.

Symptoms include:

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You can get tested at a testing site or order a home test kit. Book online or call 119.

Home tests can be returned by using a Royal Mail priority post box. Use the Royal Mail’s Services near you to find the nearest one. If you are not able to post the test yourself and cannot ask someone to post it for you, you can call 119 to arrange a courier to collect the test within 24 hours.

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If you test positive, you and anyone you live with will need to self-isolate to help stop the virus spreading.

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If you do tests at home, you’ll need to report your results online or on the phone. The instructions to do this will be in your test kit.

Get a rapid test at the Community Covid Bus

The Community Covid Bus will be travelling all over Sheffield offering testing and advice. It will visit parks, schools, workplaces, community events. Please don’t go to the bus if you have symptoms.

  • staff will help you take your rapid LFD test and results are ready in 30 minutes
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  • staff speak a variety of languages and can provide information in different languages or accessible formats
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Delivery of sushi, rolls and Japanese cuisine in Irkutsk, ordering sushi at home inexpensively

If you consider yourself an admirer of Japanese cuisine, if you want to have a quick and tasty meal, if there is no time to organize a quiet, cozy evening with friends, then sushi delivery in Irkutsk works just for you. The Sushi Holl delivery restaurant offers a wide selection of the most popular dishes invented by virtuoso Asian chefs.

We are ready to delight all residents of the city with delights, as well as the Sverdlovsk region, the suburb of Rabocheye, Zelenyi Bereg, the Ershovsky suburb, the Marata suburb, the Topkinsky suburb, the Radishchev suburb, p.Berezovy (Akademgorodok), Sinyushina Gora, Lugovoye, Dzerzhinsk, Milovidy, Molodezhny settlement, Baikalsky tract and Pivovarikha.


In our restaurant you can buy sushi and rolls prepared according to the best traditional technologies. Favorable offers and various sets allow you to inexpensively purchase your favorite dish for a large company. Buy “Unagi maki”, “Ebi maki”, as well as “California”, “Canada”, “Fujiyama”, assorted “Philadelphia” and many other sushi and rolls with delivery to any address.


The official site of the delivery service for sushi and rolls “Sushi Hall” contains full up-to-date information about current promotions and discounts. The detailed menu offers assorted dishes, large and small sets, which will certainly satisfy the gastronomic preferences of any gourmet.

For a set meal, order an inexpensive hot dish, salad or dessert. We also provide free ginger, wasabi and soy sauce with each set, without which no connoisseur of Japanese cuisine will eat sushi or rolls.Wishing to please its visitor, our restaurant adheres to certain rules:

  • We prepare only healthy and incredibly tasty food;
  • We select the freshest and highest quality products for your dishes;
  • We deliver orders as quickly as possible;
  • We offer a favorable pricing policy.


The already cheap sushi and rolls can be ordered with a 10% discount if you use the pick-up service. Visit our website, choose your favorite sets or portions of dishes for one person, add an order to the basket and fill out a convenient application form.Our menu for the delivery of sushi and rolls in Irkutsk pleases with its variety and a large number of promotional products.


You can also order sushi sets. These are original sets of rolls or sushi for every taste. We highly recommend placing an order and delivery for sushi sets.

You will be delighted with our delivery of Japanese cuisine!

Your favorite dishes can be ordered from us regardless of the day of the week: delivery of sushi and rolls in Irkutsk is carried out within a couple of hours.Call the delivery restaurant Sushi Holl and clarify the details of the action of these promotions by phone: +7 (3952) 66-92-21.

Pediatric Dentistry “President” in Maryino on Lugovy proezd

302 treatment under general anesthesia

565 treatments under sedation

2103 patients on recommendation

22454 presented with sincere smiles

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8 reasons to choose a dental clinic PRESIDENT

1.Professionalism. Qualified dentists with valid certificates work, including in the specialty “Pediatric Dentistry”.

2. Modern equipment of the latest generation. High level of diagnostics.

3. Extensive experience in the psychological adaptation of adults and children. Pediatric dentists are constantly improving the skills of psychological work with babies.

4. Treatment without fear and tears – Treatment in a dream! Sedation or medication sleep.

5.Unique medical technologies:

  • Dental restoration in one visit
  • Correction of bite without braces.
  • Application of tooth-preserving techniques.
  • Non-contact caries treatment

6. Lessons on hygiene and prevention of oral diseases. Educational cartoons.

7. High service maintenance:

  • Convenient work schedule.
  • Make an appointment in various ways.
  • Comfortable, separate waiting area for adults and children.
  • The administrator offers the patient drinks (water, juice, coffee, tea).
  • Playroom for children – a modern and safe play complex, educational games, watching movies and cartoons.

8. Treatment with payment by installments. Payment in convenient ways: cash, credit card.

Tel: 8 (495) 012-53-15
8 (495) 012-53-11
Email: lugovoy @

90,000 A mixture of grass allergens: hedgehog, meadow fescue, perennial rye, timothy grass, meadow bluegrass, IgE (GP1; Orchard Grass, Meadow Fescue, Perennial Rye Grass, Timothy Grass, June Grass (Kentucky Blue), IgE

Method of determination

Study material
Blood serum

Home visit available

Online check-in

Determination of total specific IgE to grass allergens (hedgehog, meadow fescue, perennial rye, timothy grass, meadow bluegrass).The hedgehog team is a perennial medicinal (improving bowel function and antitoxic agent) and a valuable fodder plant. Meadow fescue is an important forage crop. Timothy grass is a perennial herb. Sow in a mixture with clover, alfalfa or legumes. They are also often used for covering lawns. Meadow bluegrass is a perennial forage grain. Its extract is used as a natural exfoliator and for the cleansing and healing of wounds. Perennial rye is a valuable forage plant. It grows back quickly in spring after wintering and after wearing out in summer. In the wild, it is found in the mountainous regions of the Ciscaucasia and Western Transcaucasia. The most allergenic of herbaceous plants. They are united by plant origin, seasonality (summer period – from early June to late July) and the most frequent manifestation of allergy to these plants – pollinosis (pollen allergy) from lat. Pollen is pollen. The disease is manifested by itching and burning in the corners of the eyes, lacrimation, edema of the eyelids, photophobia.There are also burning, itching and nasal congestion, repeated sneezing; then comes paroxysmal cough, sore throat, shortness of breath. Pollinosis (from pollen – pollen) can manifest itself in the form of dermatitis, Quincke’s edema, urticaria. Some patients, during an exacerbation of the disease, note weakness, headache, drowsiness, and rapid fatigue. With pollinosis, the temperature does not rise, the duration of the exacerbation depends on the flowering of the culprit allergens. Deterioration more often occurs in nature, especially in hot, dry windy weather due to an increase in the concentration of pollen in the air.It gets better in cloudy and rainy weather. The recurrence of the manifestation of symptoms in each subsequent season and at the same time is characteristic.

Information about the medical organization

Our address: Krasnoyarsk Territory, village Khatanga, st. Norilsk 12

To travel to the KGBUZ “Taimyr District Hospital No. 1” during the study period, you can use the bus, the bus schedule can be found in the lobby of the hospital.

Transport accessibility

Object name Address Distance from s.Khatanga, km Transport links
Katyryk village Krasnoyarsk Territory, Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets municipal district, Katyryk village, st. Taimyr 175 In summer by motor ship once a month, in winter by helicopter 2 times a month
Kheta village Krasnoyarsk Territory, Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal district, Kheta village, P. Chuprina, 7 130 In summer by motor ship once a month, in winter by helicopter 2 times a month
p.New Krasnoyarsk Territory, Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets District, Novaya, st. G. Aksenova, d. 19 60 In summer, by motor ship once a month, in winter by helicopter, 2 times a month
p. Kresty Krasnoyarsk Territory, Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets municipal district, p. Lugovaya, 12 18 In summer by motor ship once a month, in winter by helicopter 2 times a monthZhdanikha st. 50 years of Taimyr, 5 25 In summer by motor ship once a month, in winter by helicopter 2 times a month Sovetskaya, 12 165 In summer by motor ship once a month, in winter by helicopter 2 times a month Sovetskaya, 17 270 In summer by motor ship once a month, in winter by helicopter 2 times a month
p.Popigay Krasnoyarsk Territory, Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets District, Popigay st. Embankment, 1 quarter 4 400 In the summer by a motor ship once a month, in the winter by helicopter twice a month

Andrei Lugovoi entered the second number in the federal troika of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia. Sakhalin.Info

16:04 18 September 2007

Party meeting, Politics

Andrei Lugovoi, accused of poisoning former FSB officer Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210, was ranked number two in the LDPR’s federal troika.After the congress, Lugovoi told reporters that he would not mind being president.

On Monday, the 19th pre-election congress of the LDPR was held, at which federal and regional lists of the LDPR were nominated for the elections of parliamentary deputies. At the congress, the names of 395 candidates for deputies from 87 regions of Russia were approved, including the federal troika, which was headed by Zhirinovsky, and his son Igor Lebedev closed as head of the LDPR faction in the State Duma. The inclusion of Andrei Lugovoi in the federal troika of the LDPR was a surprise for the delegates of the congress.”Until the last day I did not know that Lugovoi would be the second in the top three. I read about this in media reports. It is the party leader’s prerogative to choose candidates for the top three. But I approve of this choice, it is in the party’s favor,” “Member of the LDPR faction in the State Duma Sergei Sirotkin.

Andrei Lugovoi was clearly a guest of honor and sat on the podium to the right of Zhirinovsky.

The Liberal Democratic leader devoted his hour-long speech at the congress to an excursion into the history of Russia.The main thread of his speech was the idea that Great Britain is Russia’s historical enemy. In this regard, he decided to invite Lugovoy to the federal troika.

“Lugovoi is a novel, this is a good addition. He found himself at the forefront of the conflict that is happening with our historical enemy Britain. They have become insolent. They tell us: change the Constitution. We will respond to such impudence. We do not interfere in their affairs, and they do not must interfere in the affairs of Russia, “Zhirinovsky insisted.At the same time, during a conversation with journalists, Zhirinovsky denied rumors that he had discussed the inclusion of Lugovoy in the LDPR lists at a meeting with Vladimir Putin at the end of last week in Belgorod.

The party members did not hide their enthusiasm for Lugovoi. During a break in the lobby around Lugovoy, a real excitement began, the liberal democrats could not miss the opportunity to take a picture with one of the main defendants in the polonium scandal as a souvenir. Party members agreed that Lugovoi would bring additional percentages to the party in the elections.”At least Lugovoi will add 5% to us 15%, which will be given for Zhirinovsky”, – the delegate from Tyumen Andrey Koldobanov is sure.

Lugovoi aroused an unnatural interest in the LDPR congress in the Western media, which was attended by nine foreign TV companies. The hopes of the world press were justified. After a while, a message appeared on the tapes of Western agencies that Lugovoi could become Putin’s successor.

Asked if he had a desire to be president, the alleged poisoner Litvinenko said: “Like any citizen of the Russian Federation, I would like to be president.”

According to experts, the inclusion of Lugovoy in the lists is aimed at creating excitement around the Liberal Democratic Party during the election campaign. “For the LDPR, it is important to create a noise around the party, an atmosphere of scandal. The LDPR is on the verge of a seven percent barrier to getting into parliament. Therefore, it was important to create an election campaign agenda that would favorably distinguish the LDPR from all other parties in order to mobilize the electorate. And Lugovoi in this sense very convenient to create information backgrounds, opportunities for news occasions “, – commented” Gazeta.Ru “political scientist Dmitry Badovsky.

Zhirinovsky does not hide that he expects additional percentages from Lugovoi in the elections, although less than his colleagues: “In general, we hope for 23%, round up to 20%, each candidate will bring interest. But I think Andrei Konstantinovich will bring an additional 2- 3% of votes in the elections. ” In turn, Lugovoy admitted at a press conference that his decision to join the party was ripe long before the congress, he, on his own initiative, asked to be a Liberal Democratic party and found support among them.“Life made me decide to go into politics for the only reason, you see what has been going on for the last ten months, this is a heinous provocation and disgusting lie that flowed to Russia, to me in particular, and, in fact, given that scandal, which took place a year ago, it was already politicized as much as possible by the representatives of the West, and in particular by the British side, so in this situation from the first day I had nothing to do but to be at the forefront of the political struggle that was taking place in the world.Through myself personally, through my family members, I felt what could be done with a citizen of Russia, if he were not normally protected. And I must say that my appearance in the party arose long before the congress, because from the point of view of protecting a citizen, the position of the leader of the party, Vladimir Zhirinovsky, and the Liberal Democratic Party in general, is clearer to me, “Gazeta said. Ru “Lugovoi. According to Lugovoi, as an officer in the third generation, he purposefully joined the party, since the LDPR traditionally supports the military and is popular among the military.

The entrepreneur Lugovoi is accused by the British prosecutor’s office of the murder of former FSB officer Alexander Litvinenko. London is seeking the extradition of Lugovoi, but Moscow refuses this, citing the Constitution, which prohibits the extradition of Russian citizens.

Lugovoi today categorically began to deny that he is going to the State Duma to receive immunity from prosecution. “No criminal case has been initiated against me in Russia, I am going through the Litvinenko case as a witness.And I will tell you that the British side has no evidence against me, only some statements against me by Zakayev and Berezovsky appear in the case. Why do I need more protection than the one that the Russian Constitution gives me? “Said the rising star of Russian populism.

Elina Bilevskaya.

90,000 “This is how the FSB worked, and Sasha was no exception” – Vlast – Kommersant

No sooner had Andrei Lugovoi admitted that Alexander Litvinenko and Boris Berezovsky had connections with British intelligence, than another repentant English spy, Vyacheslav Zharko, came to the FSB reception room to confess.On June 29, he was shown to the world on the air of NTV on the “Emergency. Investigation” program, and on July 2, Izvestia and Moskovsky Komsomolets published large interviews with a reformed MI6 agent. Vlast asked to comment on the revelations of Lugovoy and Zharko, Akhmed Zakayev, living in London . He met with Vlast’s correspondent Musa Muradov in a London hotel and fearlessly ordered a cup of tea.

Seemingly an ordinary person, a former tax policeman from St. Petersburg Vyacheslav Zharko told TV viewers and readers that he was recruited by MI6 with the help of Alexander Litvinenko five years ago.According to Zharko, after Andrei Lugovoy’s press conference on May 31, 2007, MI6 officers and Boris Berezovsky began to call him “on a secret phone” and “persistently invite” him abroad. Zharko got scared for his life and went to surrender to the FSB. According to Zharko, he supplied the British with information from the Internet, passing it off as confidential. For this MI6 paid him € 2,000 a month. The most sensational detail is Zharko’s story about a trip with Litvinenko to Istanbul in August 2005. There he saw how Litvinenko met people of indeterminate appearance (on NTV, Zharko speaks of Caucasians, in MK, about people of “Arab appearance”, and in Izvestia, people “similar to our Caucasians” by the end of the story suddenly turn again in the “Arabs”), received from them a certain “jar” (NTV, “MK”) or “a metal object that looked like a container” (Izvestia) and remarked with satisfaction: “Putin will soon be over.”Zharko made it clear that it was from this jar that Litvinenko accepted his death.

I flew to London at noon. Leaving the airport, without delay, I called one of Akhmed Zakayev’s assistants and told him that he had come for the promised interview. The answer upset me: “Unfortunately, Ahmed’s plans have changed – he is going on the road today on an urgent matter. We did not know how to contact you to warn you. Sorry. Leave your address and phone number. If possible, we will contact you.” …

After settling in a hotel located in the quiet London district of Highgate, not far from the cemetery where Alexander Litvinenko is buried, I began to wait.Toward midnight, Akhmed Zakayev himself called me and, making sure that I was in the room, said that he was waiting for me downstairs in the hall. After a short greeting, Ahmed indicated the entrance to the hotel cafe.

“Not here,” the Chechen accompanying Akhmed intervened and offered to go out into the street.

After walking a little away from the hotel, we went into the first cafe we ​​came across.

– We are here for the first time, I hope no one is going to treat us with polonium, – said Ahmed and ordered tea for himself.

I preferred a glass of wine.Zakayev’s companion did not drink anything. When I took out a laptop with questions prepared for the interview, he asked me who owned the computer, the editorial office, or me.

– What’s the difference? – I was surprised.

– Maybe this laptop is stuffed with something.

And only after I assured that no one except me and my children used this computer, we began the interview.

“Only Russians can act so rudely”

– Ahmed, do you know Vyacheslav Zharko?

– No.But I saw a recording of the program with Zharko’s performance. I do not exclude that he could have known Litvinenko. Sasha had a lot of agents in Russia. Two of these – Lugovoi and Kovtun – were sent by the FSB. I do not believe in Zharko’s assertion that he collaborated with MI6. These statements are made in order to make plausible the version of the Russian authorities about the involvement of MI6 in the death of Litvinenko. I don’t want to comment on Zharko’s story about Litvinenko’s trips to Istanbul and other stories sucked from the finger.

– Lugovoi also claimed that Litvinenko, on your instructions, had been to Istanbul, where he met with some Chechens.

– Andrei Lugovoi is suspected of the murder of Alexander Litvinenko, and these suspicions are not based on speculation, but on a thorough investigation of Scotland Yard. Of course, this is not a judicial decision yet, and so far, of course, we are talking about the suspect. However, being familiar with the British legal system, I can argue that Scotland Yard, without an evidence base, would never, under any circumstances, have brought such charges.

– But Scotland Yard’s accusations do not refute what Andrei Lugovoi said about Alexander Litvinenko’s cooperation with you.

– My attitude to Mr. Lugovoi and to what he says follows from what kind of person he is. He is suspected of the murder of his friend, Alexander Litvinenko, it is now advantageous for him to bring any charges against his victim in order to try to divert suspicions from himself. Lugovoi was very trusted in the Litvinenko family, he was considered the closest friend, and now this most irreplaceable friend is suspected of murder.And, as I said, it is not unreasonable. Therefore, Mr. Lugovoi is trying to expose Sasha in some vicious relationships, which supposedly could lead him to death. As for my instructions, which Sasha allegedly carried out, I can say the following: all this is a lie. Sasha never went on my instructions either to Istanbul or to the Pankisi Gorge.

– Could Alexander Litvinenko and Boris Berezovsky be recruited by MI6?

– An agent of some special service, it seems to me, is carrying out some kind of secret mission.Accordingly, he should be able to carry out secret assignments without attracting attention to himself. And with such public people as Alexander Litvinenko was and Boris Berezovsky is, is it possible to carry out any secret operations? I doubt that one of the best intelligence services in the world, MI6, could risk its reputation in this way. It is the FSB that acts with little concern for its reputation. Remember how Zelimkhan Yandarbiev was blown up in Qatar: only Russians can act so rudely. Or the same story with the poisoning of Sasha – they disgraced the whole world.

“Litvinenko made a toast to Dudayev and drank a glass”

– You say that you did not send Litvinenko to Istanbul. But did Litvinenko collaborate with you and your assistants?

– Yes, I did.

– How was this expressed?

– I am the chairman of the government commission (I mean the commission created by Aslan Maskhadov. – “Vlast”) to investigate war crimes committed on the territory of Chechnya.At one time, at my suggestion, Aslan Maskhadov appointed Alexander Litvinenko to this commission. And thanks to Sasha, we have accumulated a lot of materials against the military. He knew the generals who fought in Chechnya personally.

– And what was his job?

– Sasha wrote in his inquiries that such and such a general at such and such a time in such and such a place gave such and such an order, performed such and such actions. He named the number of civilian casualties. We checked this information with our data about what was happening at that time in that settlement.And everything was confirmed. And this is how we documented the crimes of the military.

– Can you name a specific crime that was established with the help of Litvinenko?

– For example, the punitive operation carried out in April 1995 in Samashki – then dozens of old people, women and children were killed. Litvinenko named the officers and generals who gave orders to kill civilians, indicated how and by whom this operation was planned.

– How did he know this?

– He was then in Nalchik and was engaged in Chechnya through the FSB.Sasha served in the headquarters where all operational information from Chechnya was collected.

– It turns out that Litvinenko himself participated in the crimes you are talking about?

– Yes, I also had such a question. But here’s what I think: if the FSB had facts about Sasha’s involvement in specific crimes against the civilian population of Chechnya, it would have been published long ago.

– An employee of the FSB, served in Chechnya and did not get dirty in anything. How did he manage it?

– I’m not saying that Sasha was so clean.For example, he himself told how in the first war he disrupted a trip to Strasbourg of human rights activist Grigoryants, when he was going there with a “Chechen folder.” Sasha threw several cartridges into the bag of the human rights activist, and he was detained. Or, for example, the story of the detention in 1996 while trying to fly abroad the widow of Dzhokhar Dudayev Alla. The very young FSB officer who introduced himself to her as Alexander Volkov was Alexander Litvinenko. His task then was to find out whether Dzhokhar Dudayev really died and, if so, what Alla knows about her husband’s burial place.Sasha managed to gain Alla’s trust using different techniques. Before the interrogation began, Litvinenko made a toast to Dzhokhar Dudayev and drank a glass, although he was not a drinker. When Alla, bribed by such a gesture, began to speak, Sasha pointed to some kind of apparatus in the room and put his finger to his lips: they say, everything is recorded here, you can’t be frank, it’s better, they say, we’ll talk on the street. On the street, the conversation continued, which Litvinenko himself recorded. Alla Dudaeva then shared with me her impressions of the meeting with Litvinenko.She was amazed that “in this terrible organization, which is called the KGB, there are such intelligent, pleasant people who are able to understand someone else’s grief.” Alla was convinced that Litvinenko was a stranger in this organization.

This is how the FSB worked, and Sasha was no exception. But he did not participate in mass repressions, extrajudicial executions and other crimes that are qualified as crimes against humanity. And most importantly, over time, Sasha reconsidered his attitude towards serving in the FSB, he came to the conclusion that the war in Chechnya is unfair, that it is being waged against the Chechen people because of their desire for independence.He didn’t want to participate in such a war.

– Samashki is from the first war. And how did Litvinenko help you on the events of the second war?

– Sasha found out in detail through his agents who attacked the Grozny market in October 1999, when hundreds of civilians were killed. He also told us who personally led the assault on the village of Komsomolskoye in March 2000, where many civilians were also killed. Or, for example, the punitive operation carried out by the Russian military in 2000 in Aldy.Then several dozen innocent people were killed. Sasha named the officers of our commission responsible for this reprisal.

– Did the representatives of Scotland Yard ask you about Litvinenko’s cooperation with Chechen structures?

– No.

– And what about the investigators of the Russian prosecutor’s office?

– Yes. I told them that Sasha took part in the work of the government commission for the investigation of war crimes.

“It is possible that Sasha remained a Chekist.”

– Sasha was absolutely sincere and I trusted him.Shortly before his death, Sasha said to his younger brother Maxim in Italy: “You can consider me a traitor, you can consider me an enemy of our fatherland, but I don’t want your and my children to be ashamed of Chechnya in 10-15 years, when the Russians have to be ashamed and apologize for what they have done to this republic, to its people. ” This was his position. It should be noted that the Chechen issue did not bring Sasha any dividends. On the contrary, in his confrontation with the FSB and the Russian authorities, the Chechen issue only interfered.After all, the West has practically forgiven the Kremlin for Chechnya in exchange for its political interests, and nobody here was particularly interested in revelations about Chechnya, except for us, the Chechens.

– They say that there are no former security officers.

– It is possible that Sasha remained a Chekist, but only in order to fight his colleagues from the Russian special services. He had agents in the FSB, in the Ministry of Internal Affairs. And any person who wanted to cross from Russia to the West went to Sasha. Former colleagues trusted him and sought contact with him.

– Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs of Russia Arkady Yedelev stated that Litvinenko had secretly come to Chechnya to remove witnesses of Boris Berezovsky’s communication with Chechen field commanders. This is true?

– If this is so, then it’s not worth the price of the Russian special services, which missed the journey of the sworn enemy to the republic, which is crammed with power structures. In fact, this is not true. Sasha, with all his desire, did not have the opportunity to make such a trip.

– Could Litvinenko have anything to do with the attack in 2005 by militants on Nalchik? According to the same Andrei Lugovoi, Litvinenko himself allegedly told him about this.

– All these conversations are conducted with one goal – to get Sasha dirty as much as possible. Litvinenko had no contact with resistance fighters in the North Caucasus. I know that for sure. This is all a bluff. Litvinenko’s participation in Chechen affairs was limited to the fact that he got us operational information. With Sasha’s help, we found out which of our people the FSB was looking for, who and what danger threatened. Sasha got reliable information about the deployment of the military in Chechnya, about the movement of units.

– How did he manage it?

– I told you that Sasha had agents among the current employees of the Russian special services.

– Did Litvinenko receive money for this or did he do it for ideological reasons?

– Absolutely for ideological reasons. After all, he really fought against the regime. Sasha said: “The only thing that can break the Kremlin regime is Chechnya.”

– And his informants from the FSB are also people of the idea?

– There were different motives.Several people, as Sasha told me, were preparing to run across and counted on support in this.

– And what did Litvinenko live on if he was so disinterested?

– He worked for Boris Berezovsky, and he did not hide it. He received a salary for his work. In addition, he wrote books that were published in different countries, and they brought, I think, a good income.

“I would be next, and then – Boris Berezovsky”

– How did you find such a valuable informant?

– I met Sasha for the first time in 2002, but I knew him in absentia even earlier.Since then, when he gave an exposing press conference in Moscow. When Sasha wrote a book about exploding houses, Aslan Maskhadov instructed me to find the author and meet with him. It was very important for Aslan to prove that the houses in Moscow and Russian cities were not blown up by the Chechens. It was very important to find out what Litvinenko’s allegations that the special services were behind the bombings were based on.

– Who introduced you to Litvinenko?

– Boris Berezovsky.

– What did you and Litvinenko talk about at the first meeting?

– He told me: “Ahmed, you and I ended our war with peace.”He was referring to the peace treaty signed on May 12, 1997 in Moscow by Maskhadov and Yeltsin. After all, after those events, Sasha no longer served in Chechnya. Sasha often recalled the first war. Once he had to interrogate a Chechen boy who, in the detachment of Salman Raduev, participated in the attack on the Dagestan village of Pervomayskoye. Sasha asked the detainee: “You are just a boy, what are you doing among these terrorists? You have to go to school, study, your whole life is ahead.” The boy replied, “I am not alone.Our whole class went to war. “Then, Sasha recalled, he decided for himself: this war, which is spent in whole classes, cannot be won, it must be ended. So Sasha’s critical attitude to the second Chechen war was completely sincere, I absolutely trusted to him. And he to me. We were very friendly.

– Did you also advise him to convert to Islam?

– No. He came to this decision himself. On the contrary, when he shared his thoughts on this matter with me, I warned him against a hasty decision.It is possible that communication with me and my fellow countrymen confirmed him in this opinion. For example, he saw how I communicated with fellow countrymen: we will sit, eat, and when the time comes, we perform namaz together. Sasha was sincerely surprised: “How is this: people gathered and sat quietly without any drink and dispersed.” I think that such observations also somehow prompted him to make this decision. And then he was born and raised in Kabardino-Balkaria, among Muslims. Probably, this circumstance also mattered. After all, his sister is married to a Kabardian – also a Muslim.

– And why do you think Litvinenko was killed?

– My opinion is that he helped the Chechens. He even saved me by his death. If this poisoning had not been discovered, then I would have been next, and then Boris Berezovsky. Andrei Lugovoi, if not for this polonium trail, could have come to Sasha’s funeral, meet me there, and communicate. Without suspecting anything, I would invite him as a friend of Sasha to visit. Andrei Lugovoi, shortly after the death of Litvinenko, once even said that in fact they wanted to poison Zakayev, because he had many bloodlines.

– Do you have bloodlines?

– Everyone knows that I do not have a single bloodline. When Zelimkhan Yandarbiev was blown up, they also talked about some of his bloodlines. But, as the investigation showed, the employees of the Russian special services turned out to be blood-fighters. So it would be in my case.

– At the funeral of Litvinenko, you said that he bequeathed to reburial him in Chechnya. This is true?

– Yes, it is. He was in love with Chechnya, with our people. And I think that the time will come when it will be possible to fulfill this will.Sasha wrote letters to Aslan Maskhadov, in which he asked him to grant him the citizenship of Chechnya. I even have a copy of this letter.

– And how did Maskhadov react to this request?

– The President simply did not have time to sign the decree.

Farm Lukino | Rest for the whole family on a farm 140 km from Moscow

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