Mason sheets review: Logan & Mason 1200TC Cotton Rich Queen Bed Sheet Set – White

Logan & Mason

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Mason, Ohio | engineering, building & planning

The Engineering and Building Department also houses the Planning division. The Engineering and Planning divisions administer the city’s growth, implement major capital improvement projects authorized by City Council, and oversee contracts for the city’s yearly maintenance responsibilities.

Administration of the city’s growth implies a variety of duties, including:

  • managing growth issues
  • future planning
  • zoning
  • maintaining GIS maps and databases
  • overseeing contractor workmanship
  • records research
  • regulating traffic congestion and vehicle speed
  • managing public safety concerns
  • improving pedestrian safety
  • overseeing sign placement and landscaping
  • managing the storm drainage system
  • ensuring sewer availability
on this page:

Comprehensive Plan
Annual Traffic Count Program
Bicycle and Pedestrian Path Plan
Flood Insurance Rate Map
Landscape Ordinance
Local Building Codes and Applications
Parks Master Plan
Sewer Master Plan
Sign Regulations
Subdivision Regulations
Zoning Ordinances


comprehensive plan

The Mason Comprehensive Plan is a strategic guide for residential, industrial, and mixed use land use development; transportation improvement; and open space.

It was first created in 1963 and is updated periodically.

annual traffic count program

This annual program began in 1999 and takes annual counts of traffic flow through 18 major intersections in and around the city, for use in making traffic and road improvement decisions. Additional intersections are added to the program as needed.  View the Traffic Count map.

2001 bicycle and pedestrian path plan

A network of bicycle and pedestrian paths is planned for the City of Mason. Implementation will be in phases, with the ultimate goal of connecting neighborhoods with public areas such as schools, parks, and downtown. The city also takes part in the regional efforts to plan and implement a Miami-2-Miami Connection. View the map of Mason bike paths here.

flood insurance rate map

The Flood Insurance Rate Map created by the federal government identifies land in federally-designated floodplains for administration of National Flood Insurance Program.

landscape ordinance

Landscaping enhances the look of developments and provides screening between different land uses. The Landscape Ordinance governs the landscaping of new residential properties and new and existing commercial, office, and industrial properties. It was first created in 1994 and was reviewed and revised in 2002. Minor changes were made in 2008.

local building codes and applications

Building codes and building inspections are in place to assure the safety of you and the public. For residential construction, the Mason Building Department has several information sheets to help you plan your project.
Building Documents

parks master plan

The Parks Master Plan was created by the Parks & Recreation Department as a guide for developing about 260 acres of potential parkland in the City of Mason. If completely developed, this would double the size of the city’s park system, now at 242 acres.

sewer master plan

The Sewer Master Plan contains improvement strategies for the wastewater collection system and treatment plant.

It’s goal is to insure reliable and adequate facilities throughout the city, both now and in the future. It was authored by the Public Utilities Department in 1992 and was revised in 1999.

sign regulations

These standards for signs are Chapter 1187 of the Mason Zoning Ordinance (see Zoning Ordinance below).

subdivision regulations

These regulations are a set of standards and procedures for subdivision development, including water runoff and sediment control, to help promote public safety and welfare. The Subdivision Regulations are Title One of the Mason Zoning Ordinance (see below).

zoning ordinances

The Mason Zoning Ordinance is a set of development standards for all land uses, zoning classifications, and standards of performance and design, created to promote public safety and welfare. It was first created in 1959 and is reviewed and updated regularly.

Floral Mason Jar Baby Shower 5-Pack Game Card Set (30 sheets each)

Features and Facts:
  • Sold in sets of 5 games.
  • Each game contains 30 game cards each.
  • 150 cards total included.
  • White cardstock mason jar shaped card with floral print and faux gold foil. Dark gray printed text outlines game section for guests to fill out. Games included: Word Scramble, Bingo, Who Knows Mommy, What Begins With, and Wishes for Baby. Comes in pack of 5 games with 30 cards each.
  • Measures: 4.3″ w x 6.9″ d x 0.01″ h
  • Packaged: 4.33″ w x 6.89″ d x 2.56″ h
  • Shrink wrap with sticker packaging.

This Floral Mason Jar Baby Shower 5-Pack Game Card Set with 30 sheets each from Kate Aspen is a special baby shower game and also makes a great activity for a bridal shower. Advice for mommy cards and baby predictions can be filled out by guests and collected to read and remember the fond memories of the day. White mason jar shaped cards are designed with gold foil and a floral print. The games include Wishes for the Baby, Who Knows Mommy, Word Scramble, and Bingo. You can pass along different games to your table or set a schedule to play all together with your entire party. These games can be suitable for all ages and bring tons of fun to your celebration. The sentimental cards can be gathered at the end of the day and collected to read during or after the party and see what your guests have to say. Save these memory cards for a boost of confidence when you need a pick me up and words of advice for years after the celebration ends. This charming set from Kate Aspen is a necessity for a fun occasion and makes a thoughtful gift for a new family or a couple setting off in life.

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Best Bamboo Sheets For a Cool Sleep (2021 Reviews)

Bamboo has become a go-to material for bedding because of it’s durability, cleanliness, and ability to help maintain a comfortable body temperature throughout the night. Bamboo is also soft, luxurious, and helps keep body odors from lingering in bed.

It’s hypoallergenic, perfect for people with allergies or skin sensitivities like eczema, and eco-friendly, unlike other bedding that uses chemicals in manufacturing.

There are so many benefits to using bamboo sheets.

Bamboo Fiber Bed Sheets

True 100% bamboo sheets can be expensive, but they’re worth the investment. Cheaper, artificial bamboo sheets usually only contain about 40% bamboo, won’t last as long, and aren’t as environmentally friendly as real bamboo sheets.

If you’re looking for an affordable alternative, cotton and bamboo sheets are a close second. These sheets have many of the benefits of bamboo sheets, but they may not be as good when it comes to things like regulating body temperature or match pure bamboo’s antimicrobial properties.

Best Bamboo Bed Sheets Reviews for 2021

After learning about all the great benefits and uses of bamboo sheets, if you’re determined to get a set make sure you do your research. Take a good look at specific product information and reviews to see if previous customers were satisfied with their bamboo sheets. Remember that if they aren’t 100% bamboo sheets, they might not be as cooling or durable.

1. Best Overall Sheets: Cariloha

If you are after the softest bamboo bed sheets, Cariloha Classic Bamboo sheets are particularly impressive and lightweight made of 100% viscose from bamboo. Each set comes with 1 flat sheet, 1 fitted sheet and 2 pillowcases. These real bamboo bed sheets are best for mattresses up to 18” deep and you have a choice of five different colors to select from.

The brand is popular for re-creating that resort- like-feel and are noticeably lightweight from the first touch giving your bed a luxury feel and softness unmatched by many others. The Classic range comes in variety of sizes including California King and Split King and are machine-washable.

Like other bamboo sheets, these do wrinkle easily and may require ironing. However, on the plus side, these bamboo sheets are cooling, a welcoming relief for many hot sleepers. Another great feature many sleepers have observed is that there isn’t fabric pilling either with the Classic range. These 230-thread-count bamboo sheets exceed the softness and durability of 1,000-thread-count Egyptian cotton.

Cariloha’s Classic Range is priced a little higher, but one can agree that the price will be well worth when you wake up feeling refreshed in a bed of luxury and softness That’s what makes it one of the best, if not the best bamboo sheets on the market. But don’t just take our word for it, go here to check all customer reviews on Amazon.

View on Amazon

2. Best Budget Sheets: Zen Bamboo

Ζen Luxury’s bamboo bed sheets come in five sizes ranging from Twin to California King. These sheets are offered in many assorted colors, so if you’re looking for bamboo sheets that will match your décor you have 12 great options to choose from. These sheets are made from 40% rayon derived bamboo and 60% microfiber, an affordable alternative to 100% bamboo sheets.

Like other bamboo sheets, Ζen Luxury’s sheets are hypoallergenic which is great for sleepers whose allergies keep them up at night. Another benefit to these sheets compared other bamboo sheets is that they’re wrinkle resistant. These sheets are also more plush and durable than regular cotton sheets, and they’re stain resistant!

These bamboo sheets are machine washable and easy to care for. If you’re hesitating, remember that the company does offer a 30-day satisfaction guarantee. Some customers notice that these sheets can start to ‘pill up’ and don’t wash as well as 100% bamboo sheets. For the most part, customers enjoy the comfort and breathability of these sheets and the fact that they don’t wrinkle.

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3. Best Cooling Sheets: Pure Bamboo

Pure Bamboo Sheets crafted from 100% organic pure bamboo come in a variety of varied sizes and ten assorted color options. These sheets are amazing because they’re soft, silky, hypoallergenic, naturally odor resistant, and great for people with sensitive skin (eczema or psoriasis). If you want your sleep to feel more luxurious and you’re tired of sheets that are scratchy and uncomfortable, Pure Bamboo might be the solution.

These sheets are well-fitted on mattresses ranging from up to 16 inches deep. The rayon from bamboo fabric is breathable and moisture-wicking to ensure that you stay cool and dry throughout the night. This means that you get a more relaxing and deep sleep, and you won’t find yourself waking up in a sweat or suddenly feeling too warm. It has 300 thread count sateen weave which is more durable than 800TC cotton sheets.

Customers love the Pure bamboo sheets for their softness and temperature control. This feature is especially great if you sleep on a hot memory foam mattress. Who knew that such a slight change could make your sleep so much better? Bamboo tends to have a smell at first and these sheets can get wrinkly if you aren’t careful, but overall, they provide an exceptionally clean and comfortable sleep.

View on Amazon

4. Best Luxury Bamboo Bed Sheets: Linenwalas

LINENWALAS’s 300 THREAD COUNT 100% Bamboo sateen sheets derived from bamboo are available in sizes from Twin to Split King. These bamboo fitted bed sheets are ideal because they’re ultra-soft, breathable, hypoallergenic and super soft. If you have allergies, sensitive skin, or you’re just looking for a more luxurious sleeping experience, these 100% organic sheets are an excellent choice.

This sheet set comes in four simple colors that match any bedroom décor: white, ivory, sand, and stone. LINENWALAS sheets are perfect for use all year round because the fabric is moisture-wicking and temperature-regulating. Potential buyers should keep in mind that the fitted sheet works on mattresses up to 16 inches, so if your bed is thicker this sheet may not be the best fit. They also come wrapped beautifully in a Rayon fabric bag.

If you’ve never had bamboo sheets, you really should give them a try. Satisfied customers say that these sheets are even softer than they expected and that they’re as moisture-wicking as the company claims. One of the main issues with these sheets is that they wrinkle easily, but overall customers love the feel and temperature control that LINENWALAS bamboo sheets provide.

View on Amazon

So, What Are the Best Cooling Bamboo Sheets?

If you tend to sleep very hot or are bothered by dust mites and other allergens when you sleep, you might have heard about how great bamboo sheets are. If you do your research you’ll learn that 100% bamboo sheets are temperature regulating, soft, hypoallergenic, and eco-friendly. However, you can find that cheaper bamboo blended fabrics that work in some ways but might fall short in others.

One of the biggest issues that people report with bamboo sheets just like with linen sheets is that they tend to wrinkle easily, especially at the ends. If this is something you know would drive you nuts, be sure to look for a set that is wrinkle-resistant. Aside from that, bamboo sheets are a great choice for environmentally conscious sleepers who want clean, comfortable, breathable sheets.

Mr-Label – Printable Natural Kraft Brown Label Sticker – US Letter Sheets – for Mason Jars | Crafts | Candles | Candy | Party Favor


For amateur customers, Mr-Label provides templates in the formats of Microsoft Word and OpenOffice Writer; For professional designer, Mr-Label provides templates in the formats of Adobe PDF. For customers who need to handle massive print contents which are stored in Microsoft Excel or other database software (such as ACCESS or MySQL), Mr-label provides instructions on how to use Microsoft Word’s “Mail Merge” Function. In addition, Mr-Label provides an online print method using a third party’s free web-based image editing tool, a browser that supports Flash is all you need, especially helpful for a brand-new computer with no software pre-installed, compatible with both Mac OS and MS Windows.

[1] Actual product color may vary slightly due to differences in monitor settings.
[2] Mr-Label provides free templates, tips and guidance about label printing, and we promise all templates have been tested before releasing, but it may still works abnormally on your machine and printer (In particular, if you plan to use Microsoft Word). We have to admit that to print sheet labels properly is not easy for amateur, this point can be confirmed by many Amazon bad reviews, even there labels are manufactured by top brands. Like many skills, patience is needed especially at the beginning, but once you got it, you can handle it easily in the rest of your life.
[3] These labels are permanent adhesive, and the advantage is that they stick well and sticks to almost any surface including: plastic, glass, metal, fabric paper, cardboard, and more. The disadvantage is that some residue will remained when removed. Although there are many methods and products available for sticky stuff removing, it may still cost your time to get a clean surface. If you plan to replace these labels applied, we highly recommend you trying our removable labels.

90,000 Steel sheet instead of brickwork In November 2013, the Metal Profile Group of Companies, a leading manufacturer of roofing and facade systems in Russia, began supplying steel products with a semi-matte ECOSTEEL coating, imitating brickwork made of light or dark ceramic bricks.New solutions have expanded the palette of matte and glossy designs “Pine”, “Maple”, “Bog oak” and “White stone”.

ECOSTEEL is offered in the form of profiled and flat sheet, siding of various shapes (“ship board”, Woodstock and L-beams). The material is intended for cladding houses and outbuildings, as well as for use in arranging fences.

“An imitation brickwork steel fence is a good alternative to natural brick with comparable durability. Not every homeowner can afford the latter, especially when it comes to a fence, – comments the designer Tatyana Levko (Krasnodar). “The solutions from ECOSTEEL do not require special maintenance and will save not only money, but also (in the case of a fence) space on the site.”

ECOSTEEL Brick on the Facade. Photo courtesy of GC Metal Profile

ECOSTEEL Brick and Stone.Photo courtesy of GK Metal Profile

The warranty for new products is 10 years, and the actual service life is up to 50 years. The novelty is a premium material. The thickness of the steel is 0.5 mm. It has an anti-corrosion aluminum-zinc coating, as well as a polymer coating that reproduces the patterns of natural materials.

“Thanks to the different types of profiling, the new colors“ Brick ”and“ Brick with white rustic ”can be combined with similar products from the ECOSTEEL range. The imitation of beige and white grouting of the new “brick solutions” will go well with the “Bog oak” and “White stone”. Also, by alternating wood, stone and brick colors, you can create a unique facade for a house and related buildings, ”comments Andrey Maltsev, head of the Roofing Systems Department at Metal Profile Group of Companies.

ECOSTEEL “Brick”. Photo courtesy of GC Metal Profile

Information about the Group of Companies Metal Profile:

Metal Profile is the leader in the production of roofing and facade systems in Russia and the number 1 company in Russia in terms of processing coated steel.The company is included in the annual rating of the 200 largest non-public companies by Forbes magazine (66th place in 2012). The Group of Companies includes 14 plants in Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Tyumen, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Kazan, Rostov-on-Don, Krasnodar, Mineralnye Vody, Karaganda and Minsk. Metal Profile products are available from 1,600 dealers and 50 sales offices in Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan.

The range of products Metal Profile includes metal tiles, elements of roofing systems, sandwich panels (three-layer and element-wise assemblies), drainage systems, profiled sheets, ventilated facades, as well as other related products for the construction of private houses and large industrial facilities.Metal Profile is the exclusive supplier of Colorcoat Prisma (UK) coated steel in Russia.

Phone: (495) 225-61-51

10 errors when erecting walls from aerated concrete

Today we will tell you about the mistakes that are most often made when building aerated concrete private houses. It would seem, where do the errors come from? After all, the technology for constructing buildings made of aerated concrete is thought out in detail, there is a national standard for them *, leading block manufacturers, in particular Ytong, provide detailed instructions, the blocks are easy to stack and process. Nevertheless, the culture of construction in our country is still “lame on both legs”, and wrong decisions when working with aerated concrete, alas, are not uncommon.

The negative consequences of these errors are the same as in the case of any incorrectly executed masonry (from solid bricks, porous ceramics, foam concrete, etc.). The main problem is cracks that spread through the masonry. In principle, the appearance of cracks, even through cracks with a width of up to 2 mm in stone external walls, is not considered a sign of the emergency state of a building **.However, this can lead to other troubles:

  • Crack propagation in interior and exterior finishes. Costly repairs may be required.
  • Freezing of walls and, as a result, an increase in heating costs
  • Deterioration of the microclimate in residential premises.
  • In the most unfortunate outcome – violation of the integrity of the building structure.

Cracking can be caused by a variety of builders’ violations.

1. Errors in the construction of the foundation

Reinforced concrete slab foundation

Aerated concrete masonry is not the most resistant to bending. And if the foundation on which it rests is not rigid and stable enough, has significant deviations in geometry, does not correspond to the type of soil and terrain on the site, then the masonry can bend and crack in some places. To prevent this from happening, you need to correctly design and perform the foundation with high quality.When constructing it, take into account:

  • Features of the soil at the site: the degree of its heaving, the level of occurrence of groundwater. This information can be obtained only on the basis of engineering and geological surveys. The neighbor polling method is highly inaccurate and cannot be relied upon.
  • The specificity of the terrain: the presence of a slope, differences in height.
  • All loads on the base. They can only be determined using a calculation performed by a professional designer.

Experts recommend to arrange a reinforced concrete foundation under the aerated concrete house. Shallow tapes or slabs work well, including the insulated Swedish slab (USHP) and the insulated Finnish foundation (UFF, tape in combination with insulated floors on the ground), which are very popular today. Among others, foundations made of FBS blocks with a mandatory strapping belt along the upper row, for example, monolithic, are acceptable.

2. Errors when laying the first row of blocks

First row block alignment

The first row of blocks defines the geometry of the entire masonry.If you lay it out not evenly enough, with deviations from the desired elevation marks, with offset diagonals, then you will not be able to correct errors in subsequent rows. On the contrary, mistakes will only grow.

Blocks of the first row are laid on an ordinary cement-sand mortar with a thickness of not more than 20 mm. But this does not mean that strong differences in height on the plane of the foundation can be leveled with mortar. Permissible deviation from the horizon line is 30 mm. If it is larger, you will have to level the foundation (at the expense of a contractor who did his job poorly) and only then start laying.

Small differences in height between adjacent blocks in a row are eliminated with a sanding board or plane. The evenness of the masonry is controlled using a laser or optical level.

The first row of blocks must be secured against moisture capillary rise through the foundation. For this, waterproofing is provided between the wall and the foundation – bituminous roll and coating materials, polymer-cement compositions, etc.

More information about working with aerated concrete can be found in the construction courses from Ytong

3.Errors when choosing an adhesive

Application of thin-seam adhesive

It is a big mistake to erect aerated concrete walls using ordinary cement-sand mortar, while obtaining the same joint thickness as in traditional stone walls – up to 12 mm. Such a thick seam leads to significant heat loss from the house, negating the energy efficiency advantage of aerated concrete over other stone materials. And vice versa, if you use a special glue for aerated concrete, the thickness of the seam will be only 1-3 mm, heat loss is minimal.

Plain mortar instead of glue is chosen by people who want to save money, but incorrectly estimate the possible costs. The mortar joint is 4 times thicker than the glue joint, and therefore the consumption for it is 4 times higher. Moreover, the cost of an ordinary cement-sand mixture is 2 times cheaper than that of glue. As a result, there is a double overpayment for a regular solution. Plus higher transportation costs.

Glue for thin-seam masonry Ytong

Another mistake is to use cheap glue instead of the more expensive one recommended by the block manufacturer.Why is the cheap one dangerous? It may contain a high content of three-ring aluminate, due to which the composition is not sulfate-resistant. Such glue can chip out over time and cause the masonry to crack along the seam. Therefore, Ytong recommends using only its own brand glue. Because this composition has been tested in leading German laboratories, and its quality is beyond doubt. More information about Ytong glue can be found at reference

4. Errors when tying blocks

The masonry must withstand bending and shearing forces.To do this, you need to properly tie the adjacent rows of blocks. According to Russian standards ***, the amount of ligation of blocks with a height of 250 mm should be at least 40% of the block height. That is, at least 100 mm. The German standards, which Ytong is guided by, are even stricter – at least 125 mm. Moreover, it is forbidden to use trimmed elements shorter than 50 mm in masonry. A larger cut can be placed at a distance of 125 mm from the seam between the blocks of the lower row. Incorrectly performed dressing is fraught with the formation of cracks.

5. Errors when connecting load-bearing walls and partitions

Wall joining using flexible ties

It is unacceptable to rigidly connect the load-bearing walls with partitions, that is, to tie them up in blocks or, for example, to connect them with scraps of reinforcement hammered into the walls. Cracks may appear in the place of such conjugation. The fact is that load-bearing and non-load-bearing walls are loaded in different ways and give unequal draft. To compensate for it, their mating is performed using flexible ties (anchors) that allow small deformations.

Ligation in blocks

But bearing walls (external and internal) and partitions, on the contrary, must be rigidly connected to each other – by bandaging.

6. Lack of reinforcement in the window sill areas

Reinforcement of the window sill

Contrary to popular belief, it is not necessary to reinforce high-quality aerated concrete masonry. However, it is always necessary to reinforce the sub-window areas, since serious stresses are concentrated in the corners of the openings, and they must be “removed”.To do this, reinforcement is installed in the window-sill row of the sides: it should protrude beyond the boundaries of the opening on each side by a distance of at least 50 cm. Usually, two bars of steel (less often composite) reinforcement with a diameter of 8-10 mm are used. The rods are placed in pre-made grooves, and then poured with cement mortar or glue for aerated concrete. When installing the reinforcement in a mortar, the section of the groove must be at least 40×40 mm, and when installing in an adhesive composition, a section of 20×20 mm is sufficient. Each groove is made at a distance of 50-60 mm from the edge of the masonry.It is also permissible to reinforce with basalt or fiberglass mesh.

Window opening structure

If the builders forgot about the reinforcement of the window sill zones, then, most likely, the appearance of cracks in the corners of the openings cannot be avoided.

7. Breaks in the armored belt

Lack of an armored belt under the roof leads to cracks

Often, builders forget about the reinforced concrete armored belt, in particular, under the ceiling on wooden beams.Or they make serious mistakes in its construction. For example, in the roof area, an armored belt is provided only under the Mauerlat – a bar that serves as a support for the rafters. But they do not make it along the gables, that is, they do not close it into an unbreakable contour along the perimeter of the building. In this case, the rafters expand the walls, and cracks appear in the masonry.

Armopoyas for Mauerlat

Conclusion: it is necessary to continue the armopoyas along the gables, closing it.

Work to strengthen the structure of the house after its construction

As a last resort – to remove the spacer by means of additional racks under the roof.

Armo-belt device during the construction of a building

Armopoyas is needed to distribute a uniform load on the walls and foundation of the building. Armopoyas are arranged in load-bearing walls under ceilings and a roof. Usually it is a reinforced concrete beam with a cross section of at least 100×100 mm. This beam is erected, for example, inside U-shaped aerated concrete blocks or between standard blocks of small thickness (partition). To prevent the house from freezing, the armopoyas is closed from the outside with heat-insulating plates (30-50 mm thick), as a rule, made of expanded polystyrene.

8. Reinforced concrete frame in a low-rise building

Some customers consider aerated concrete to be insufficiently strong material and therefore, during the construction of a two- or three-story house, they provide a supporting frame made of monolithic reinforced concrete, which is filled with aerated concrete. This is an unjustified and irrational complication. Aerated concrete block masonry is a load-bearing wall, and therefore there is no benefit from such a frame. But the harm is tangible. The reinforced concrete structure turns out to be a large-scale cold bridge, it needs to be insulated.Excessive concrete work (formwork, reinforcement, mortar) in combination with additional insulation – all this is a significant waste of money and time that is completely unnecessary.

9. Vapor tight exterior finish

Destruction of finishes due to the use of vapor-tight plaster

Aerated concrete comes to the construction site with high humidity. In addition, it allows water vapor to pass from residential premises to the street (the lower the density of the blocks, the higher their vapor permeability).It is a big mistake to “seal” aerated concrete walls with a vapor-tight finish, for example, cement plaster with a density of more than 1300 kg / m 3 , especially immediately after the completion of the masonry work. The walls will not dry out from construction and industrial humidity, which will result in a decrease in the service life of both the aerated concrete itself and the finish.

Destruction of finishes due to the use of vapor-tight plaster

Consequences of using high-density cement plaster

In addition, you should not erect facing ceramic bricks close to the aerated concrete wall: brick is less vapor permeable than aerated concrete.When constructing such a cladding, a ventilation gap of at least 40 mm is left between it and the wall. And flexible connections of stainless steel or fiberglass are required between brick and aerated concrete masonry.

Fastening of brick cladding to aerated concrete wall

Other popular facing materials are decorative concrete stone and clinker tiles. They also have low vapor permeability, and if they cover more than 25% of the facade area, then a ventilation facade with a subsystem must be provided for them.

Ventilation facade over aerated concrete wall

10. Vapor tight insulation

If you need to insulate aerated concrete walls, then it is safest to use vapor-permeable thermal insulation – made of stone or glass fiber. But with polymeric thermal insulation materials (EPS, PPS, PPU, PIR), which have a very low vapor permeability, everything is more difficult. In principle, they can be used, but with a number of caveats:

Do not attach them to fresh, not completely dry masonry.

The thickness of the polymer insulation must provide at least half of the thermal resistance of the enclosing structures. For example, a wall made of D500 blocks with a thickness of 300 mm must be insulated with plates of extruded polystyrene foam with a thickness of 100 mm or more.

It is advisable to thermally insulate houses with polymer materials, where supply and exhaust ventilation works in a constant mode, removing excess water vapor from the premises.

More information about working with aerated concrete can be found in the construction courses from Ytong

* STO NOSTROY 2.9.136-2013

** According to SP 15.13330.2012

*** STO NOSTROY 2.9.136-2013

Errors in the construction of aerated concrete building

Carrying out works on masonry

In the second half of the twentieth century. the massive wall of fired brick, in the course of the stronger functional direction of architecture in relation to wall structures and building materials, as well as due to new technical possibilities, was transformed into an outer wall structure of two brick shells.The outer brick wall consisted of more uniform bricks, partly associated with decorative masonry, while the inner shell served mainly as the load-bearing shell of the wall. The airspace between the outer and inner shells performed tasks such as ventilation and drainage of masonry. It carried the function of an air buffer. Both shells of the wall were fastened to each other with bricks laid across. In the 1960s, this two-shell wall structure was supplemented with internal thermal insulation.Wire, first simple metal, later high-grade steel, replaced the cross bricks. The inner shell of the outer walls could also be made of other building materials.

In parallel with this development, an infinite variety of colors and surface structures of masonry materials have been created for the visible part of the outer wall. Work was also carried out on the cost-effectiveness and ease of maintenance of the exterior brickwork. Due to the constant demands for economical construction, many new developments have emerged that were supposed to reduce the cost of materials and make the work of artisans easier.New developments such as, for example, large-scale building structures assembled in a brick factory, have, in conjunction with already proven structures, opened an innovative spectrum of creative solutions for all types of walls and house concepts.

Based on the centuries-old tradition of fired clay brickwork, even today the most common terms are “ fired brick ” or “ fired brick masonry ”. From a constructive point of view, building structures of one or two shells today differ.In the latest edition of DIN 1053 (Germany), when it comes to the laying of external walls, it refers to single-layer masonry with cladding or external walls of two shells with non-bearing outer shells in the form of a veneered or plastered shell. The two-clad brickwork with cladding thus encompasses almost all wall constructions with cladding and clinker cladding.

When planning buildings, the outer walls of which must meet all the requirements for protective functions: heat and sound insulation, protection against moisture and load-bearing capacity, the following environmental factors must be observed when choosing the required wall structure:

  • construction site position;
  • topographic position of the building;
  • climatic conditions;
  • degree of loading of external walls.

Brickwork with cladding or clinker masonry meets all the requirements. Very often, the structure of the outer wall was calculated only by cost parameters, neglecting the subsequent additional cost, and not from the point of view of savings. At the same time, no attention was paid to the loads on the outer walls from the outside and from the inside. The resulting construction deficiencies were subsequently eliminated with great difficulty and, most often, at great expense.The load on exterior walls from side rain was often underestimated. This could lead to the wall getting wet due to its incorrect structure, design errors, shortcomings in the work, or the wrong choice of material. Clad masonry can be adapted to all weather conditions and can perfectly resist the slanting rain that hits the walls. At the same time, unlike many multilayer types of walls, such an important exchange of moist vapors is limited.

Selection of facing bricks

Facing bricks and clinker are bricks, frost resistance of which has been proven by tests. Surfaces can be structured. While the proportion of water absorbed by clinker can reach about 7%, with facing bricks it is not limited. The bricks must comply with the quality requirements of DIN 105 (Germany). Regarding their appearance and colors, the regulations do not have any definitions in this regard. For properties of this nature, the following are decisive:

  • trade requirements;
  • terms of payment and delivery;
  • directives of assortment of individual manufacturers;
  • Purchase after inspection or on-site inspection;
  • special arrangements.

Facing bricks and clinker must be so structured that they do not have cracks, edge damage or deformations on one spoon or head side, which would reduce the possibility of their use with this visible side or without plaster. Small short cracks or hairs do not have a negative effect on the water management of the wall and its resistance to weather conditions. Cladding with large cracks, as well as those that extend into hollow bricks to voids, or cladding with large damage to the visible surface, cannot be used during masonry so that defects are visible on the facade.

When manufacturing, packaging, transporting and working with rough ceramic products, you can ignore the necessarily minimal damage, since they do not disrupt the functions of the material in the brickwork (its applicability), and do not reduce the aesthetic effect of the facade. It is recommended to reach unambiguous and clear agreements on the surface structure, properties, color, format and grade of the facing material when inspecting it.

When it comes to clinker and facing bricks, because of their different capillarity (water absorption), they are not talking about the best or the worst, but simply about different properties. Both of these materials work well for cladding. Decisive for the success of these materials is that the type of work with them must be tailored to the different behavior of these materials, that is, to match the material.

The absorbency of the visible surfaces of facing bricks is often lower than the areas of their support. The visible surfaces, along with the fired shell, which they have together with the (cut) areas of their support, have a thick pressed shell that limits their capillarity compared to the areas of the support.Facing bricks and clinker, due to their porosity and capillary structure, absorb water, accumulate it and release it again. A material with a higher absorbency is suitable for cladding exterior wall structures that remain free to diffuse. Clinker bricks with a denser structure and limited water absorption have a low absorbency. Therefore, it is suitable primarily for cladding objects in which rainwater is already provided on the outer surface of the outer wall.For this, the brickwork should not have any drawbacks.

Compensation of moisture through the cross-section of the wall is carried out in the outer walls of their clinker mainly through a system of grout joints. In practice, there is often a misconception that wetting brickwork is best dealt with in such a way that instead of absorbent facing bricks, it is better to use dense clinker with low water absorption. This opinion is based on the wrong premise, since it does not take into account the fact that the reason lies in unsatisfactory quality of work, improper wall construction or unsuitable mortar.Cladding bricks and clinker are also available as hollow bricks. The voids in the brick do not cause a decrease in the resistance of the brick to the action of slanting rain.

To obtain good adhesion between brick or clinker and mortar, it is preferable to use binder-rich mortars of groups or ΙΙ a. Compositions of solutions:

Lime-cement mortar, group ΙΙ

Trail mortar, group ΙΙ

1 part Portland cement;
2 parts calcium hydroxide;
8 parts of sand, fraction 0-4 mm

1 part of LP track hardening in water;
2.5 parts of sand of fraction 0-4 mm

Brickwork with trass mortar must be carefully processed afterwards (long hardening time, danger from frost), increased need for liquid.

Lime-cement mortar of group ΙΙ a

Trace mortar group ΙΙ a

1 part Portland cement;
1 part calcium hydroxide;
6 parts of sand of fractions 0-4 mm

1 part Portland cement;
2 parts of LP track hardening in water;
8 parts of sand of fractions 0-4 mm

Replacement of a solution from a dry mix with trass cement in the form of a binder is limited to use in special conditions, for example, hydraulic structures, a special agreement is reached about this.For brickwork, factory-made dry mix mortars are also used. They are usually distinguished by a particularly good grain structure of the sand and a good processing time (pot life). Particularly suitable for walls with fully filled joints and grouting. In addition, they differ in the correct dosage.

Grout groups ΙΙΙ and ΙΙΙ a are not allowed when laying outer shells of walls when laying from two shells, except, with rare exceptions and if necessary, group for those sections of outer shells that are made with reinforcement (DIN1053 / 3).

When masonry claddings, light mortars must not be used. The use of factory-blended retarder mortars requires special agreement, since the associated longer “open” time requires the protection of fresh brickwork.

Grouting (flush) – masonry and grouting in one process – is performed, as a rule, with mortars of group ΙΙ or ΙΙ a, mainly mixed from a dry mixture.With the subsequent additional filling of the joints, you can also use solutions of groups ΙΙ and ΙΙ a, and, if necessary, cement mortar of group ΙΙΙ: 1 part of Portland cement and 4 parts of sand, fraction 0-2 mm.

To increase plasticity and water resistance, calcium hydroxide powder can be added to the joint mortar up to 20 weight percent. In this case, the cement content must not be reduced.

Colorants can be added in small quantities.You can use pigments that are suitable for cement, lime and do not fade. The colored ready-to-use grout components usually have a suitable composition of materials, resulting in a uniform color. A prerequisite for a uniform and uniform joint color is the same mortar consistency during work.

The fractional composition of the sand for the mortar should be well selected and should allow its dense storage. Sand of fractions 0-4 mm is required for masonry mortar and 0-2 mm for filling joints.Sands, the smallest fractions of which are 0-0.2 mm and correspondingly 10-20 weight percent, are best suited. If these portions are not available, then they should be supplemented by adding stone flour, such as trass flour, quartz flour or lime. These funds cannot be added with a binder.

Additives are small additives, compiled according to individual recipes or instructions for use, which do not have an unacceptable effect on the setting, strength and consistency of the mortar, as well as on the anticorrosive protection of anchors and other steel parts in concrete.As additives, you can use standardized building lime, stone flour of various types and routes, as well as tested concrete additives or suitable pigments.

Since additives have a positive effect on some properties of the solution at the same time, in some circumstances, negatively on other properties, it is better not to use them. If necessary, use should be tested for their suitability.

Measurement of the constituent parts of the solution at the construction site is carried out on a scale or using measuring vessels in order to obtain a uniform composition.Mixing should only be done by machine. The solution should be put into operation before it begins to set, that is, within an hour. Mixing instructions must be affixed to the mixer. The plasticity of the mortar, and especially its composition, must be consistent with the absorbency of the masonry bricks. Additional mixing of the solution is not allowed.

Carrying out works on brickwork

The brickwork is ligated.For this, all types of dressings, both regular and decorative, are suitable, corresponding to the usual masonry rules: the size of the dressing should be from ≥ 0. 4 h or ≥ 4.5 cm, where h is the height of the brick. The thickness of the joints is chosen in such a way that the size of the stone and the joint corresponds to the approximate construction dimension or the coordination dimension. As a rule, the nominal size of the butt welds is 10 mm, and the longitudinal (spoon) welds are 12 mm.

Mostly delivered on pallets, bricks are carefully unloaded, stored without touching the ground and protected from dirt and weather before use.

The facing bricks supplied in packages are mixed to achieve the desired color play, that is, brickwork is made from several packages at the same time. Since we are talking about products from natural raw materials, slight color differences are always possible, which can be avoided by mixing small quantities. For the same reason, it is recommended to order bricks of the same batch for individual sections of the area.

The bricks for the visible parts are not broken, but are sawn and then cleaned with clean water. Cutting points when placed in masonry must be vertical in relation to the wall area.

Facing bricks are placed from free-standing scaffolding. During long breaks in work and rain, the masonry is closed from top to bottom along the visible sides. It is recommended to protect large areas of fresh masonry in adverse weather conditions such as sun, rain or wind. Scaffolding boards are taken from the facade and installed vertically.

Fresh brickwork must also be protected from frost, in a timely manner by covering it.In case of frost, brickwork is carried out after taking special protective measures. The use of thawing salts and antifreezes is not allowed. Frozen materials must not be used. Frost-damaged masonry must be dismantled.

All mortars must have a composition and consistency that corresponds to the suction capacity of the bricks. No substances or agents must be added to or mixed with factory mortars at the construction site. It is allowed to work with several solutions of different types or groups only if they cannot be confused. All butt and spoon seams, and especially internal longitudinal seams with a thickness of 20 mm when laying from one shell, must be completely filled with a solution without voids.

In brickwork with filling in one working process, the solution protruding from the seams is removed and after cleaning, but still in a plastic state, it is again brought into the seams using wooden shovels, a trowel or a piece of hose. The color of the joint is mainly determined by the consistency of the mortar with this additional joint filling.A seam treated too early is light; if the seam has been filled with a little set mortar, it will be dark.

Professional carrying out of additional filling of joints presupposes correct observance of all work processes following the laying. For subsequent filling, it is required before each work break to evenly free the joints from the mortar to a depth of 15 to 20 mm – but not to the voids in the brick – and clean the sides of the bricks. Before adding the grout prepared in the mixer, the façade must be sufficiently wet. You can clean it if necessary. The weakly plastic joint mortar is pressed into the joint in two working steps and seals well:

  • 1st working step: spoon seam first, then butt seam;
  • 2nd working step: first butt seam, then spoon seam.

If possible, the joints are filled up to the surface of the bricks or a maximum of 1 to 3 mm below the surface of the facing bricks. The filled solution should be protected from premature drying.In unfavorable weather, additional processing may be required. In the case of a tracing solution, it is always provided.

All coarse dirt should be removed with dry rags if possible. The sides of the seams must also be cleaned of all non-adherent mortar residues. After that, the facade is well wetted from the bottom up. Cleaning is done from top to bottom with water and a brush, if necessary with the addition of detergents and softeners.

The use of acids should be very limited.In case of severe contamination, the previously cleaned and moistened surface of the facade can be treated with a suitable acid solution or, better, with a special cleaning agent. After that, the facade is rinsed with a large amount of cold running water. Attention when using hydrochloric acid! Do not use hydrochloric acid on the following bricks, as discoloration or discoloration may occur:

  • Glazed or engobered bricks;
  • “muted” bricks – bright yellow to white bricks;
  • brown bricks with manganese content.

Sometimes white crystalline impurities remain on the bricks. They appear in most cases as a result of the action of soluble salts, which, having dissolved in water, are absorbed by the brick and, when dried, fall through the capillaries into the surface, or similar substances are washed out of the solution and fall on the surface of the brick. In accordance with the cause, there is a difference between the efflorescence of readily soluble salts and calcium deposits, that is, the deposits of the washed astringents from the solution.Both types of contamination are attributed to strong soaking of the facing masonry, which was due to poor structural details or insufficient protective measures during construction, or they were washed out of a binder that did not fit the mortar.

Most façade contamination, when it comes to crystalline deposits, disappears on its own under the influence of weather conditions in a relatively short time. Dry fading is, where possible, the most effective treatment for fading.

In the case of unprofessional use of water during cleaning, for example, from top to bottom, salts dissolved in water from bricks and joints are partially absorbed by them, which can lead to the appearance of new contaminants. Apparatus for cleaning with jets of steam have proven themselves very well, and more recently, the method of supplying water under pressure with vortexes, in which specially selected stone powder is mixed with water and sprayed under pressure.

The choice of cleaning agent is determined by the type of contamination.In doubtful cases, it is necessary to ask the manufacturer for advice and carry out an experiment on hardly visible parts of the wall surface. This is especially true of the graffiti façade contamination that has spread recently. The sprays used for graffiti are based on different substances, such as varnishes, artificial resins, acrylics, etc., so it is necessary to try in an inconspicuous place if the intended solvent works in this case. For preliminary protection of the masonry from such contamination, it is recommended to use a special impregnation, which is offered by many manufacturers.When working, the manufacturer’s instructions must be strictly followed, for example dilution rates and protective measures for use. When cleaning manually, it is also important to pre-wet the facade or its corresponding areas, and then rinse the cleaned area with cold water.

Single-skin cladding masonry

Masonry cladding from one shell is done when the joints are completely filled

When masonry walls are made of one cladding, the entire transverse wall is used in the load transfer calculations.The decisive factor for the transfer of loads is the lowest brick strength class used in a given cross-section. The bricks on the outside must be frost-resistant. The wall thickness for external walls should be ≥ 37.5 cm. Normal size (NF) and thin size (DF) bricks are preferred. The type of construction of external walls with a thickness of 37.5 to 50 cm is used more and more often, since it is considered economical, and has also proven itself in terms of layout and is not technically difficult.

Brickwork with a single shell facing is made with full filling of the joints. Each row of masonry must have at least two bricks of the same thickness, between which there must be a continuous longitudinal layer, shifted in rows and filled over the entire 20 mm thickness with mortar. With this requirement, we obtain, for example, a wall thickness of ≥37.5 cm without plaster. Due to the fast drying of the brickwork as a result of the capillary conductivity of the bricks, and in order to avoid various moments of deformation, the bricks of the interior of the masonry connected together with the facing bricks must also meet the requirements of bricks according to DIN 105.

For brickwork with single-layer facing, facing bricks (void fraction less than 15%) with water absorption of more than 7% by weight and, accordingly, good capillary conductivity and drying ability are well recommended, especially for the outer side.

The seams of the visible surfaces are completely filled with mortar. This prevents moisture loads on the wall surface as well as wall getting wet. If the joints are not completely filled, then they need to be cleaned to a depth of 15 mm with cleaning the sides of the bricks and finally completely filled.For architectural reasons, the joint surface may be approximately 3 mm below the visible surface of the facing bricks.

Double-skinned brickwork

Double-skinned masonry with air layer

Masonry cladding with two shells with an air layer. In the calculations, only the thickness of the inner load-bearing shell is taken as the wall thickness. Overlappings can only rely on them. The minimum thickness of the inner shell may, under certain assumptions, be 11. 5 cm (for example, a maximum of two full floors), but should generally be taken as ≥ 17.5 cm (load-bearing capacity, construction-physical reasons).

The thickness of the air layer behind ventilated claddings must be at least 60 mm. The empty space must be protected from the ingress of solution. The thickness of the air layer can be reduced to 40 mm if the mortar is scraped off at least one side of the masonry in front of the void. Outer sheaths should generally be 115 mm, but at least 90 mm thick. Thinner outer shells are cladding, the rules for which are regulated in DIN 18515 (Germany).The outer shells must be supported along their entire length. With an interrupted support, for example on consoles, all bricks must be supported on both sides at the fulcrum.

Outer shells with a thickness of 115 mm must be fastened in height at a distance of no more than 12 m. Therefore, they can rise up to 2.5 stories above their point of support. For fastenings made of steel, a highly corrosion-resistant material must be used. If the outer shell is not higher than two storeys or if it is fastened at these distances, then it can go one third of its point of support.

Outer shells from 90 to 115 mm cannot be higher than 20 m above the ground and must be fastened in height at a distance of no more than 6 m.In houses with up to two full floors, a triangular pediment up to 4 m high is permissible.Outer shell 90 mm thick can protrude a maximum of 15 mm per support and placed with full joint filling.

The wall shells are connected to each other with stainless steel wire anchors according to DIN 17440 (Germany), material no. 14401 or no. 14571.The vertical distance between the anchors must not exceed 500 mm, the horizontal distance maximum 750 mm. The first row of anchors should be located as low as possible. At all free edges – in front of openings, at the corners of buildings, along expansion joints and at the upper ends of the outer shells – additional anchors must be placed every linear meter of the edge length. With curved wall shells, the type, location and number of anchors are determined taking into account deformations.

In any case, wire anchors must conform to the shape and dimensions of DIN 1053.If wire anchors are not laid in a trap seam or another type of anchoring is chosen, for example flat steel anchors or dowels in the inner sheath, it must be shown that this type of anchoring can take a force of at least 1 KN per 1 mm of slip per anchor, or, that there is a permit from the building supervision. Otherwise, the number of anchors must be increased accordingly. For other types of fastening of the cladding, for example, linear fastening or only at the height of the slabs, it is necessary to prove the stability.

Claddings must be secured with stainless steel wire anchors, and the same requirements must be imposed on the anchoring structures. The currently known tolerances describe anchoring structures made of anti-corrosive material, i.e. alloy steel. The Institute for Building Technology in Berlin justifies this by the fact that these are construction parts that are not available after installation and which, as a result, can no longer be checked.

Inner shells and floor slabs must be protected from moisture at the support points of intermediate volumes. Sealing in the area of ​​the air layer and also above the window and door lintels and under the outer window sills goes with a slope outward, in the area of ​​the facing shell it is laid horizontally. Joints and abutments are connected with waterproof glue. The sealing must be such that the outer sheath cannot slip over it. The seal is applied to the mortar backing up to the front edge of the outer sheath.The sealing sheet for the lower insulating layer must comply with DIN 18195 (Germany). The shells of the wall at the points of their contact, for example, the supports of the lintels of windows and doors, are separated from each other by waterproof waterproofing layers. In structures with a thermal insulation core, especially if the thermal insulation reaches the window or door frames, the wall shells do not touch, therefore this requirement (according to DIN) does not apply to them.

Outer shells, including their parapets, should have ventilation openings at the top and bottom, such as open butt joints.Their cross-section per 20 m2 of wall surface (including windows and doors) should be about 75 cm2. The ventilation holes must remain open. Directly above the waterproofing of the supporting surface of the cladding, the joint joints left open in the first row of bricks allow the water collected in the air layer to drain off (drainage holes). Wire anchors should, taking into account their static efficiency, be made so that moisture is not transferred through them from the outer to the inner sheath.For example, by pushing a plastic disc.

The outer casing must have vertical expansion joints. The distances between them depend on climatic loads (temperature, humidity, position of the building object, etc.), the type of building materials and the color of the outer surface. In addition, the free movement of the outer shell must also be ensured in the vertical direction. When designing windows and doors, it is necessary to pay attention to the different deformations of the outer and inner shells, especially in buildings in which the outer shell passes through several floors.When the lintel supports are rigidly attached to the supporting structure, it is necessary to separate the parapet masonry from the rest of the facing masonry rising up with expansion joints. Expansion joints are hermetically and tightly sealed with appropriate material.

Vertical expansion joints in claddings can be made without filling the joints if the back of the masonry and possible thermal insulation layers are well protected against moisture transfer, for example, by an air layer, protective foil, etc.e. Sufficient shell thickness (≥ 90 mm) and small joint widths (≤ 15 mm) are prerequisites.

Double-skinned masonry with an air layer and additional thermal insulation

When placing an additional heat-insulating layer in the form of mats or slabs, it is necessary to pay attention to their complete adhesion over the entire outer surface of the inner shell. The distance between the masonry sheaths when using conventional wire anchors should not exceed 150 mm.For larger distances, all other types of fastening must obtain proof of suitability. The thickness of the air layer of at least 40 mm must not be narrowed due to the unevenness of the thermal insulation layer.

All multilayer types of construction are considered as systems with a thermal insulation core, in which between the inner and outer shells:

  • empty spaces (<4 cm) are filled and thermal insulation systems standardized for these types of work are used;
  • the space is filled with so-called thermal insulation boards for airspace or boards made of mineral fiber or solid foam;
  • is filling the empty space with hydrophobized filling material or subsequent foaming of polymer resins.

Brickwork with two-shell cladding and an air layer and additional thermal insulation. Mineral fiber insulation boards must be waterproofed. Plates made of rigid foam must be flame retardant and have a rebate around the perimeter, for example, a so-called step rebate. Both slabs are available in different thicknesses, which can also be installed in air bed structures. For larger thicknesses, a two-layer installation is recommended.

Air Fill Plates are two-layer thermal insulation elements in the form of slabs with a thermal insulation layer of mineral fibers or foam and ventilation zones applied on top or included in the surface.

Thermal insulation boards must adhere tightly to the outside of the inner wall cladding so that a uniform layer thickness is ensured, and the outwardly directed air channels must, as far as possible, run vertically.The manufacturer’s installation instructions must be followed.

During installation, the thermal insulation boards tightly pressed against each other are pushed onto the wire anchors and secured with the plastic washers provided for this purpose.

The outer sheath can be erected in front of the thermal insulation layer as close as allowed by the masonry (by the thickness of a finger, deviations from the level). It is necessary to pay special attention to the complete filling of the joints of the facing masonry, which must be done professionally (with subsequent filling of the joints).

The thickness of the outer sheaths must be at least 90 mm. The distance between the wall cladding when using wire anchors should not exceed 150 mm. For long distances, the mount must be replaced and proven to be suitable. It is necessary to comply accordingly with all requirements for laying walls of two shells with cladding and an air layer. Splash water area approx. 30 cm.

Double-skin cladding brickwork with thermal insulation core

Drainage holes in the cladding must have a cross-section of at least 50 cm2 in the area of ​​the bottom support over an area of ​​20 m2 (including windows and doors).To quickly and reliably remove moisture that has entered through the cladding shell or defective places, it is recommended to provide open butt joints directly above the sealing of the rising surfaces of the cladding shells. At the points of contact between the cladding shell and the masonry of the rear shell, for example, door and window openings, it is necessary to provide waterproofing layers. In contrast to masonry with cladding and with an air layer, this does not require the creation of upper ventilation holes in the thermal insulation core.The seams of the cladding are completely filled.

Thermal insulation systems embedded between the wall cladding prevent direct ventilation of the cladding cladding. Therefore, cladding shells with a heat-insulating core are exposed to increased frost loads, as well as higher temperature loads. These influences must be taken into account by the selection of appropriate materials and design measures, for example by placing expansion joints.

Masonry with cladding of two shells with a heat-insulating core Sections of claddings that have a rigid connection with the supporting wall masonry (for example, at parapets, above window lintels, support on balconies, loggias) must be separated by vertical seams from continuous, freely movable sections of the facade. Using the location of additional expansion joints, it is recommended to break the cladding shell into sections of 6-8 m. In this case, expansion joints should mainly be located near the outer and inner corners, as well as at the transitions between closed wall areas and parapets.It is also necessary to provide for horizontal expansion joints under the rising consoles and protruding building structures. The possibilities of movement of the cladding must not be limited.

The proof of the thermal protection capability is carried out in accordance with the Thermal Protection Ordinance and DIN 4108 (Germany). The calculated values ​​of thermal conductivity can be obtained from DIN 4108 “Thermal protection of high buildings” or the Approvals or publications in the Federal Gazette.

The diffusion and condensation behavior of multilayer wall structures is highly dependent on the type and sequence of layers, as well as the thermal insulation and diffusion density of the different layers of building materials.This is primarily the case if the thermal insulation material adjoins the cladding without a gap and one should fear the loss of the qualities of the thermal insulation layer due to getting wet, for example, with a large load on the facade from oblique torrential rains. In this case, using constructive measures, it is necessary to limit the ingress of moisture or give moisture a free outlet using an air gap 1 – 2 cm thick.

Regardless of the behavior of the thermal insulation materials in the event of a fire, the Fire Safety Regulations for external walls made of two shells with a thermal insulation core require that the load-bearing inner shells comply with fire resistance class F90 according to DIN 4102 (Germany).This requirement is already fulfilled by the 115 mm thick inner brick cladding. The requirements for the behavior of thermal insulation materials in case of fire and their marking are defined in the Decisions on the admission and the relevant standards.

It was found by calculations that the sound insulation value of walls made of two shells with additional insulation varies, depending on the system, from 60 to 68 dB. This already satisfies all the requirements for sound insulation of external walls.

During construction, the cross-section of the wall must be adequately protected from moisture.The soaked layers of thermal insulation cannot fulfill the tasks facing them. The inevitable moisture during construction is best removed by the bricks of both shells. The capillarity and diffusion capacity of the bricks ensures the actual achievement of the calculated high values ​​of thermal insulation of thermal insulation core systems. In the case of thermal insulation cores, the directives for the work of thermal insulation manufacturers or specialist companies, as well as the approvals, must be observed during installation.

Double-skinned brickwork with a layer of plaster

In this type of construction, a continuous layer of plaster is applied on the outside of the inner shell. Before this, it is necessary, as far as the conditions of brickwork (a gap in the finger) allow, to fold the facing shell and completely seal the seams.

For fixing the cladding, 5 wire anchors with a diameter of 3 mm per square meter are sufficient.

For technical reasons, the small empty space between the cladding and the plastered inner cladding is prone to bridging from the mortar when the cladding is laid. The action of the discs or washers that are put on the wire anchors is also removed because these discs that serve against drops cannot be left without touching. Thus, the wire anchors help moisture penetration into the inner sheath.

From practice, the thickness of the plaster should be on average 10 mm.In addition, it is recommended to make the plaster water-repellent. Recommendation: to ensure reliable protection against moisture, constructions should be made of two shells with an air layer of 4 mm between them. As a result, the thickness of the entire cross-section of the wall is increased by a maximum of 1 cm, but the result is an economical wall with good properties.

Brickwork complete with cladding

Horizontal and slightly inclined cladding planes directly exposed to rain, such as masonry ends, retaining and garden walls, parapets, all free-standing walls and pipe tops are heavily stressed by moisture.Therefore, they must be properly waterproofed so that water cannot penetrate. In this case, coatings made of metal or ready-made structures are very good measures, under the butt seams of which cardboard impregnated with bitumen is placed, and the seams are sealed.

For other types of ceramic material, bricks or clinker or window sills, other ceramic tiles or roof tiles, a water-repellent surface must be provided.This can be achieved with a slope suitable for tight seams and a water-repellent ceramic surface such as a tile roof.

For bricks standing at the end without a lateral slope, the joints should be made as a roof profile with> 2% slope on both sides to facilitate drainage of rainwater. Special mention should be made of the necessary conscientiousness in the manufacture of a water-repellent mortar and the appropriate treatment of the seams of brick coatings with this solution.All coatings on exposed surfaces must have a drainage edge.

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90,000 Cost per m2 of brickwork in Moscow

Brickwork, the price per m2 of which is affordable from experienced Yudu craftsmen in Moscow, will be carried out professionally and in the shortest possible time. You can always find out from a specialist who offers services in Yuda how much it costs to complete the work. Wall masonry will be carried out taking into account the peculiarities of the layout of your premises.

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decorative masonry and provide additional services.The price list, which will be provided by the master Yuda, contains a complete list of works and current prices.

Brickwork (the price per m2 work from the Yudu master is minimal) is carried out in accordance with all the rules and in compliance with the technology. Professionals offering their services in Yuda carry out the following work:

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  • laying for joining

If necessary, a master Yuda will plaster brick walls and apply reinforcement mesh at a minimal price.

Determination of the cost of services

Request the current price list from the contractor Yuda from Moscow and place an order right now. The following factors affect the cost of work of private specialists and company representatives:

  • Construction time
  • Type of brick: solid or hollow
  • Complexity of masonry, design features
  • Number of workers at the facility

If you need professional and inexpensive brickwork, the price for the work of m2 at the Yudu performers is quite acceptable.


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