Manila envelope 9 x 12: : Quality Park 9 x 12 Clasp Envelopes with Deeply Gummed Flaps, Great for Filing, Storing or Mailing Documents, 28 lb Brown Kraft, 100 per Box (37890) : Office Products


Manila Envelopes – Clasp & Open End

Envelopes – By Style > Clasp & Open End Envelopes
Manila Envelopes – Clasp & Open End

Manila_Envelopes_-_Clasp__Open_End is rated
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Very pleased with quality, price, and shipping time.

Date published: 2016-03-31

I don’t see prices listed anywhere. What are they?

Asked by: Lawnguy


To view the price for a specific product, you must first select a size from either our drop-down or swatch menu, and then select a color from either our drop-down or swatch menu.

Thank you for your question!

Answered by: CustomerService

Date published: 2020-04-22

I am wanting to order a total of 2900 envelopes, which will be 12 cartons. Am I able to place an order that size?

Asked by: adjohnson


Yes, you may place an order that size or larger. Our Manila Envelopes are sold in different quantities/pack sizes depending on the individual product, so some products will not be sold in an exact quantity of 2900.

You can adjust your desired quantity by first selecting a size from either the size drop-down menu or size swatch menu, then selecting a color from either the color drop-down menu or color swatch menu, and finally choosing a quantity from the quantity drop-down menu.

Thank you for your question!

Answered by: CustomerService

Date published: 2020-03-25

I need 6 1/8 x 11 1/2 manila envelopes. Do you have this size? (To meet Postal max size for first class Letters: 6-1/8 inch max. 11-1/2 inch max. rates). Gummed or un-gummed, clasp or no clasp

Asked by: WCShopper


Unfortunately we do not carry that exact size!

Our closest equivalent would be our #14 Envelope!

Answered by: CustomerService

Date published: 2021-07-23

How much per 100.

Asked by: art


You can view each product’s quantity options and respective prices by selecting a size (from size drop-down menu or size swatch menu) and then a color (from color drop-down menu or color swatch menu).

Thank you for the question!

Answered by: CustomerService

Date published: 2020-05-04

I am trying to find out if I can get some of these made without any gum or clasp the qtys I am looking for would be 2500, 5000, 7500, or 10,000

Asked by: Gene B

Unfortunately we do not customize our envelopes, and this one does have a gum closure but it does not mean it has to be sealed in any way. Hope this helps!

Answered by: CustomerService

Date published: 2016-05-09

Looking for 11×14 envelopes that will fit photos of the same size; will these fit comfortably?

Asked by: PE22

If your photos are 11×14″, then these envelopes are perfect for them; the extra half inch in the length and width is meant to accommodate 11×14″ photos. Thanks for your interest!

Answered by: CustomerService

Date published: 2015-11-04

can I get fewer than 100? I only need 30

Asked by: To3m


Unfortunately, our 11. 5 x 14.5 Manila Envelopes are sold only by the 100s.

Thank you for the question!

Answered by: CustomerService

Date published: 2019-12-09

Is this gummed

Asked by: maudy

This particular envelope is not gummed.

Answered by: CustomerService

Date published: 2017-06-30


Manila Envelopes and Brown Kraft Envelopes are appropriate for any office setting. Their smooth, neutral colors make them great candidates for any report, presentation, or other important documents. From Brown Kraft to Light Manila, you’ll find one that suits your occasion. It’s as easy as clicking around to find it! 

If you need BIG manila envelopes, you’ve come to the right place! We are one of the only retailers that sells big manila envelopes that goes from 14 x 18 and up! Need one for your big art project you worked on all year? Try our biggest 22 x 27 Brown Kraft Envelope. Need something to store your holiday cards until they’re ready to use? Try our 6 x 9 Manila Envelopes.  

Smaller envelopes are available with clasp only. Larger manila envelopes are available with or without clasp. To see exactly which envelopes have clasps or no clasps, refer to the product image.

Please note: For standard size letter paper (8.5 x 11), choose a 9 x 12 envelope.


  • Manila Envelopes and Brown Kraft Envelopes are appropriate for any office setting. Their smooth, neutral colors make them great candidates for any report, presentation, or other important documents. From Brown Kraft to Light Manila, you’ll find one that suits your occasion. It’s as easy as clicking around to find it! 

    If you need BIG manila envelopes, you’ve come to the right place! We are one of the only retailers that sells big manila envelopes that goes from 14 x 18 and up! Need one for your big art project you worked on all year? Try our biggest 22 x 27 Brown Kraft Envelope. Need something to store your holiday cards until they’re ready to use? Try our 6 x 9 Manila Envelopes.  

    Smaller envelopes are available with clasp only. Larger manila envelopes are available with or without clasp. To see exactly which envelopes have clasps or no clasps, refer to the product image.

    Please note: For standard size letter paper (8.5 x 11), choose a 9 x 12 envelope.

9×12 Envelopes |



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9×12 Envelopes

9×12 envelopes are a great size for business and school use. In this collection, we offer an assortment of different styles and options, including window envelopes, presentation folders, plastic mailers, window envelopes, and more. If you’re looking to stock your office or school with new envelopes and filing options, our 9×12 inventory is what you need.

9×12 Open End Window Envelopes: With a transparent viewing window, these envelopes are useful for invoices, statements, and other important materials. Offered in 25 unique colors, our envelopes include First Class and security tint options.

9×12 Booklet Envelopes: For flat, bulky items like catalogs or quarterly reports, these 9×12 envelopes allow items to easily slide into the side. Security tinted, metallic, and other great envelope options are included here to suit your needs.

9×12 Full Face Window Envelopes: To display your enclosed material prior to opening, the Full Face Window envelopes have a large transparent window ideal for sales and notices. In eight colors, these envelopes seal with moistenable glue.

9×12 Open End Envelopes: For mailing important documents, Open End envelopes offer the room you need to comfortably fit your materials. DuPont Tyvek options are available, as well as IRS envelopes. These seal with moistenable glue or Peel & Press™.

9×12 Booklet Window Envelopes: Booklet Window envelopes are great to have on hand for business and personal use. Simply position the addressees’ info in the window to save time when mailing. These bright white options include a laser safe option as well.

9×12 Clasp Envelopes: For an option that can be both filed and mailed, our Clasp envelopes are an office essential. In a variety of colors, these can also be used for personal needs. The envelopes close with a metal clasp and moistenable glue.

9×12 Poly Mailers: These mailers are durable, moisture resistant, and cost-friendly. They’re perfect for mailing soft goods, documents, and other non-fragile items. The Poly Mailer comes in a clean, crisp white and closes with Peel & Seel®.

9×12 Presentation Folders: Outfit your office with our Presentation Folders, made with two interior pockets and card slits. In over 50 options, you’ll find options that perfectly match your business. These can also be distributed in school systems.

9×12 Document Envelopes: Store or mail your important materials in these 9×12 envelopes, made to be durable and dependable. The self-adhesive Zip Stick® flap keeps your items safe during transit. We offer this option in brown kraft.

9×12 Presentation Folders—Standard Two Pocket w/ Front Card Slit: These folders feature a pre-printed Tax Return design on the front with a card slit display, making them perfect for accountants. Inside, two pockets hold all necessary documents with another card slit on the right.

9×12 Presentation Folders—Standard Two Pocket: These Presentation Folders feature a pre-printed Tax Return design on the front and two interior pockets that measure 4”. The right pocket has a card slit for standard sized business cards.

9×12 Spot Seal Envelopes: For filing within departments and offices, the Spot Seal envelopes are an excellent choice to better your filing system. These seal at the top and can easily be reopened again. Choose from three professional options.

9×12 Presentation Folders—Standard Two Pocket w/ Front Cover Lower Right Card Slits: With a front card slit, these durable folders are fantastic for professional use. On the inside, two interior pockets hold your important materials, and another card slit is included on the right pocket.

9×12 Presentation Folders–Standard Two Pocket w/ Gold Foil Tax Return: The front of these options reads ‘Tax Return’ in gold foil, giving them a distinguished look. Two interior pockets can hold client information, and a card slit can hold your business card.

9×12 Presentation Folders—Standard Two Pocket w/ Front Cover Center Card Slits: These 9×12 folders feature a card slit at the center of the top of the cover and another inside. Two interior pockets can hold documents and files, making them endlessly useful. Choose from three unique colors.

9×12 Heavy Duty Plastic Mailers: Made to withstand almost anything, these plastic mailers can hold soft goods and non-fragile items like documents, metals, and plastics. This option is offered in a crisp grey color. A Peel & Seel® flap ensures a secure seal.

9×12 Presentation Folders—Standard Two Pocket w/ Front Cover Window: These folders feature a die cut front window, allowing for images or names on interior documents to be seen without opening. These also have two pockets and a card slit on the right.

9×12 Presentation Folders w/ Brads: For folders with Brads, these options feature a two pocket design with a card slot and a built-in 3 hole fastener on the spine. These can hold 135 sheets. Keep your materials secure and organized in over ten color options.

9×12 Presentation Poly Folders w/ Brads: For clear plastic folders, these are made from acid-free recyclable polypropylene and PVC free. With a 3 double prong fastener and two pockets, they can be used for business, school, and more. The folders hold up to 50 pages.

9×12 Tyvek Bubble Mailer: For fragile materials like CDs or glass, the durable and puncture-resistant Tyvek Bubble Mailers are ideal! Keep items safe during transit with these bubble cushion lined mailers. A self-adhesive flap ensures a tight fit.

If you have any questions or concerns about our 9×12 envelopes or custom printing, please feel free to contact us.

How Many Stamps Should I Put On A 9×12 Envelope

Most times, you need just ONE stamp to send a letter with the right value using the 9×12 envelope. But the cost of the postage widely depends on your location and the destination of the letter.

In any case, you’ll get the exact information from your nearest post office. For business purposes, using stamps on an envelope is just an emergency effort. While going through metered postage, reduces the delays of delivering the letter and protects you from underpay or overpay of stamps.

Thus, it offers the business the way the professionals do. That means the size and weight determine the correct value of the postage when you send mail using stamps. Well, let’s know a bit more in reply to the question; “how many stamps should I put on a 9×12 envelope?”

How Much Does It Cost To Send A 9×12 Envelope?

Apart from the number of stamps you need to use on a 9×12 envelope, it’s also crucial to know the costs that are associated with it. With the starting price of $1, the cost depends on your envelope’s weight and every additional ounce costs $0.21.

If you want to send this type of big envelope, you don’t have to visit any post office if you have enough stamps. Also, you can avoid going to a post office if you have the right to enter print, online postage stamps, or a postage meter from any company.

For the type of “Priority Mail Flat Rate” the rates of postage are going to increase from 2022 and will cost $7.75, which is currently 7. 55. That means it’ll increase by about $0.20 from next year.

Besides, the type of “Priority Mail Medium Flat Rate Box” will increase by $0.40 that will be $13.20, which is $12.80 currently.

We have an in-depth article about the cost to mail a 9×12 envelope, please read it for a better knowledge of mail sending cost

How To Buy Postage Stamps for Large Type of Envelope?

Large types of envelopes include a 9×12 envelope along with manila envelopes and oversized cards. Also, other large types of envelopes are large but light in weight mailers. These include brochures and flats that are First-Class mail in the category.

This type of letter costs $1 for a single-ounce mailing from January 2022. The maximum is 13 ounces costing $3.40, which is the highest weight for this mail (First-Class). Frequent use of the First-Class stamp will cost you $0.55.

So, if you want to ship a mail per one ounce of weight, it’ll take 7 standard stamps for a package that weighs 13 ounces. In this case, for every single ounce of additional weight, it’ll cost another $0.20

How Many Stamps Do I Need Per Ounce?

When you need to ship a bulkier mail, you can avoid using two Forever Stamps on it. Because of the more massive letter, you’ll enjoy a cheap cost. The cost is just $0.15 for every single ounce of extra weight. You can do it as a replacement for $0.55 for a letter of one ounce.

You can pay $0.70 for a product when you include two ounces of the letter with two Forever Stamps. While sending a single-ounce letter in the US, you can ideally use the Forever Stamps for posting normal-sized envelopes.

You should weigh your letter before you affix a stamp if you suspect it may have a higher weight. It’s because letters with heavier envelopes will get back as a result of postage lack. So, you should add the required postage with enough stamps to confirm the delivery of the mail.

How Much Postage do I Need for a 9×12 Envelope?

The cost of postage for a 9×12 envelope, which is a large envelope is $1. 00 for the first ounce & $.20 for every additional ounce provided that the item is less than a quarter-inch thick and is not rigid.

The number of stamps needed for a 9×12 envelope depends on the weight per ounce. So, you need two stamps for one ounce of the 9×12 envelope. And the cost of two stamps costs $1.10 which is $0.55 per ounce.

The United States Postal Service classifies a 9×12 envelope as a flat. The postage required for mailing a 1-ounce flat is $1 for the first ounce and $0.20 for each additional ounce. So, the total postage required to mail a 4-ounce envelope will be around $1.60.

The answer to the question; how many stamps do I need for a 4 oz 9×12 envelope is 3. And that of how many stamps do I need for a 5-ounce 9×12 envelope is 4.

How Many Stamps Do I Need for a Manila Envelope 9×12?

The manila envelope is a large envelope and you would need two stamps for it. The cost required for the first ounce is $1.00 and $0.20 for each additional ounce. The cost of stamps is $0.55 each.

How Many Stamps Do I Need for a Large Yellow Envelope?

You might be wondering how many stamps does a yellow envelope need. The answer to that question is two. A large yellow envelope needs two standard stamps.

Does the Size of an Envelope Affect Postage Cost?

The shape and size of an envelope affect the cost of postage.  Postage prices vary from postcards, letters, large envelopes (flats) to parcels. Generally, the bigger your mailpiece, the higher it will cost to mail. In First-Class Mail, postcards are less expensive than letters.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. How Long Does it Take a Mail To Be Delivered?

    Generally, a standard mail takes about 3 to 4 days for it to be delivered, while a priority mail takes 1 to 3 days, and priority express mail takes 1 to 2 days.

  2. Can I Mail a Black Envelope?

    The answer is yes. Post offices accept and mail black envelopes provided the print is legible and there’s enough contrast between the dark background and print.

  3. Can I add Stickers To My Envelope?

    Yes, you can. Just ensure that the stickers are not too close to areas where the address will be stated. Also,  don’t put a sticker where the stamp goes.

  4. Can I Mail a Letter Without a Stamp?

    No, you can’t. Any item mailed without a stamp will be returned to the sender if a valid return address was written on the envelope.

  5. Can I Mail a Letter For Free?

    No, you can’t. In most countries, regular-sized letters or postcards cost a minimal fee to mail. This fee is represented by a postage stamp, which can be purchased from your local post office.


When sending a mail, ensure that the envelope is properly packaged, stamped, and addressed. The stamp should be placed at the top right-hand corner of your envelope. The destination address, which is who are you sending the letter to should also be written legibly.

The envelope should be well sealed before proceeding to mail it. Mailing your stamped envelope or postcard is quite easy. All you need to do is leave it for your mail carrier to pick up or drop it off in several locations like dropping it off in a blue collection box or taking it to a post office.

Home Office Press-It Seal-It Envelopes, 9 x 12, Brown Kraft – 5 ct

Home Office Press-It Seal-It Envelopes, 9 x 12, Brown Kraft – 5 ct | Rite Aid

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From the Manufacturer


Item No. 8023026

Rite Aid Home heavyweight Kraft envelopes are sturdy and multipurpose. They can be used for your home and office needs, school mailing, and for any kind of secure document sharing purpose. Ideal for mailing catalogs, booklets, brochures, and multi-page documents. Tear strip closure provides convenience of usage, just remove strip and press closure to seal envelope.

  • 9 x 12 size Brown Kraft material
  • 5 count. Heavyweight brown Kraft envelopes with self-adhesive seal
  • Ideal for mailing catalogs, booklets, brochures, and multi-page documents
  • Used for general home, office, school mailing needs, letters, pages, catalogs, legal documents, pamphlet, coupons, etc.


More Information
Product Name Home Office Press-It Seal-It Envelopes, 9 x 12, Brown Kraft – 5 ct
Sub Brand Rite Aid Home
Package Count 5
Container Type box
Color Specs Tab Kraft
Country of Manufacture United States
Prop 65 No




Just a moment while we apply your discounts.


Custom Manila 9×12 Self Seal Envelopes

Product Description

Order Custom Manila 9×12 Self Seal Envelopes and get free shipping! Use these custom manila mailing envelopes to send thick documents, catalogs or booklets. Print your logo and return address.

These Custom Manila 9×12 Self Seal Envelopes measure 9-inches by 12-inches. They’re catalog in style, which means they open on the 9 inch (short) end. These envelopes are perfect for fitting standard size letters and documents, or other business mailings. Use to send out marketing materials like brochures and calendars in the mail.

The flap on these envelopes features a convenient self-seal strip. To use, just insert your items into the opening, peal back the self seal sticker to reveal the adhesive strip, and press down to close. No need to apply moisture to seal! These large self seal envelopes save you time and hassle when mailing.

Personalize your 9×12 envelopes right on this page. First, upload your logo or custom artwork onto our website, then type a custom return address into the text box. We can also print a form on these envelopes for document storage. Choose from black ink, two colors, or full color printing.

Once we receive your order, our design team will create a digital PDF proof of your envelopes for you to review and approve. As soon as we have your approval the envelopes will be sent into production.

Need your items sooner than expected? Not to worry! We offer Rush Printing and Rush Shipping options. Get your envelopes right when you need them!

Looking for a similar item? Check out all of our catalog envelopes,  self seal envelopes or our Custom Manila Envelopes.

Have questions for us? Contact our team via phone, email or live chat for assistance.

RE P#: E1223 1223

Custom Field

DESCRIPTION Order Custom Manila 9×12 Self Seal Envelopes and get free shipping! Print your logo and return address.

IDEAL USE Use these custom manila mailing envelopes to send thick documents, catalogs or booklets. Print a form and use for document archiving or filing.

PRINTING OPTIONS Personalize with your logo, return address or other artwork. Print in black ink, two colors, or full color printing.

SIZE 9 x 12

COLOR Manila

STYLE Catalog

SEAL Self Seal

How many stamps should I put on a 9×12 envelope? – SidmartinBio

How many stamps should I put on a 9×12 envelope?

Two First Class stamps will cover the cost of a 9×12 envelope that weighs an ounce or less. A First Class stamp has a value of $0.55, but the price to mail a large envelope is only $1.00, so you’ll technically be paying an extra $0.10 for the convenience of using stamps.

How much does a 9×12 envelope cost?

The cost to mail a 9×12 envelope is a minimum of $1. 00 and increases by $0.21 for every additional ounce. The USPS considers this envelope as a large envelope.

How many stamps should I put on a manila envelope?

If you are to use Forever stamps for manila envelopes, then you will require two Forever stamps for envelopes weighing less than one ounce. For international mail: A postage stamp known as the Global Forever stamp is used to mail postcards. The same is used for 1-ounce letters to be mailed anywhere in the world.

How much does it cost to send letter to Philippines?

Country Conditions for Mailing – Philippines

Weight not over (ozs.) Letter- post Rate
1 $0.84
2 1.65
3 2.40
4 3.20

How much does it cost to send an oversized envelope?

Features & Pricing Standard-sized, rectangular envelope stamps start at $0.55. Square, oversized, or unusually shaped envelope stamps start at $0. 75.

Can I put two stamps on a large envelope?

Yes, if you want to send a large letter you can use two stamps for that letter as you’ll be paying more than the actual postage cost.

How many stamps do I need for a 6 oz manila envelope?

Buying Postage for Small Envelope Smaller manila envelopes, such as those that are 6 inches by 9 inches, meet the size requirements of standard letter mail and can be shipped with one stamp if the weight does not exceed 1 ounce.

Do you have to mail a 9×12 envelope?

The USPS considers the 9×12 envelope as a large envelope. You don’t have to visit the Post Office to mail such kind of envelope as long as you have access to a postage meter or can print postage online from a website such as You can also stick postage stamps if you already know how many stamps are required.

How much does a standard size postage stamp cost?

Standard-sized, rectangular envelope stamps start at $0.55. Square, oversized, or unusually shaped envelope stamps start at $0. 70. Standard-sized, rectangular envelope stamps start at $0.35. Oversized postcards need letter stamps, which start at $0.55.

How much does it cost to ship a large envelope?

Ordinarily, your flat large envelope will cost you $1.00 to ship. But if you choose express mail service, you will be paying USPS $26. But this is still a good alternative considering that the USPS is handling almost 500 million pieces of letters, envelopes, and parcels each day.

How big is an envelope for first class mail?

Large Envelopes/Small Packages: Large envelopes (flats) start at $1.00; Small packages start at $4.00; Weight & Shape Requirements. Maximum weight for First-Class Mail letters is 3.5 oz; for large First-Class Mail envelopes and parcels, the maximum weight is 13 oz.

Why are they called ‘Manila’ envelopes?

For a few years now, I’ve wondered why some envelopes are called Manila (or manilla) ones. Initially I thought it might have been that, like Champagne and Melton Mowbray pork pies, manilla envelopes had to be made in Manila to be ‘official’. But, after a bit of digging, I’ve found out that’s not the case. Apparently it’s because Manila envelopes were originally made out of Manila hemp. (Though they’re not necessarily made from it now.)

Before certain types of readers start getting excited, I should point out that ‘hemp’ is a misnomer.   Instead, Manilla envelopes were made from a fibre that came from the ‘abaca’, a relative of the banana, of which the Philippines is the world’s largest producer. (And, just in case, Manila is the capital of the country.)

While all this is news to me, the United Nations has known about it for a while. In 1989 the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization released a report called – and excuse me while I take a deep breath – ‘Impact of changing technological and economic factors on markets for natural industrial fibres’. Phew!

The report says that ‘For many years abaca has been used in paper-making mixed with wood pulps in order to increase the strength of certain final products and at the same time to reduce their weight, e. g. manila envelopes.’ It goes on to say that ‘Special papers with high tear and tensile strength [their emphasis] such as currency paper, light weight onion skin paper, dust filter papers, packaging tape and some cigarette papers are also made with abaca pulps.’

Safe to say that, when I go to bed tonight, I won’t be kept awake wondering where Manila envelopes get their name. Now, in case you need some envelopes of your own, we’ve got a  special offer on our 5 Star peel and seal boardbacked manilla envelopes – buy two and get one free! Instead of me telling you all about them, you can find out more by watching our little video.

P.S. Here’s a BBC article on the Melton Mowbray pork pies.

PPS. Here’s the UN report.

90,000 Can I put a large manila envelope in a mailbox? (2021)

Similar questions

  1. In which envelope should I send my passport?
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  3. Can I drop a manila envelope in a mailbox?
  4. Can I send a large envelope from home?
  5. Can I send a large envelope by post without arriving at the post office?
  6. Can I put 3 stamps on a UK envelope?
  7. Can I put a 6×9 envelope in a mailbox?
  8. Can I put a 9×12 envelope in the mailbox?
  9. Can I put a 9×12 envelope in a mailbox?
  10. Can I put a large envelope in the mailbox?

In which envelope should I send my passport?

Davide Casiraghi
Date of creation: Oct 26, 2021

Be sure to use a large envelope to send your passport renewal package. The US Department of State recommends using larger envelopes rather than letter-size envelopes so that you do not have to fold any forms or documents you send.

Date of creation: Oct 26, 2021

How to cover the wall?

Date of creation: Oct 26, 2021

Cut a large panel out of your favorite fabric (100% cotton works best) – just enough to cover the wall you want to hide, sprinkle it generously with starch and press it against the wall.The fabric cover will stay in place until you are ready to remove it and will not damage your walls in any way.

André Pena
Date of creation: Oct 26, 2021

Can I drop a manila envelope in a mailbox?

Peter Lawrey
Date of Creation: Nov 12, 2021

Yes, you are allowed to drop packages in blue mailboxes if you have already paid for the postage (i. e.E. Bought postage through Amazon, PayPal,, etc.).

Date of Creation: Nov 14, 2021

Can I send a large envelope from home?

Date Created: Nov 06, 2021

Small and large packages, thick envelopes and tubes containing gifts and merchandise can be shipped domestically using the USPS Retail Ground.Small and large packages and thick envelopes can be sent domestically using Media Mail.

Danny ‘365CSI’ Engelman
Date of Creation: Nov 09, 2021

Can I send a large envelope by mail without arriving at the post office?

Date of Creation: Nov 03, 2021

Packages can be shipped using First Class Package Service – Retail. This service is usually used for personal delivery. Small and large packages, thick envelopes and tubes of gifts and merchandise can be shipped domestically using the USPS Retail Ground.

Date of Creation: Nov 04, 2021

Can I put 3 stamps on a UK envelope?

Trevor Hickey
Date Created: Nov 06, 2021

You can supply as many stamps as you like, provided the postage is covered.

Amit Dash
Date of Creation: Nov 08, 2021

Can I put a 6×9 envelope in a mailbox?

Ran Lupovich
Date of Creation: Oct 30, 2021

Priority Mail Flat Rate A 6 “x 9” envelope will fit into a 9-1 / 2 x 12-1 / 2 “Priority Mail USPS envelope and can be mailed at a flat rate of $ 6. 70.

Date of Creation: Nov 01, 2021

Can I put a 9×12 envelope in the mailbox?

Date of Creation: Nov 10, 2021

Postage on a 9×12 envelope If you mail some papers or delicate items using a 9×12 envelope, you can place two first class stamps on it and put it in your mailbox.Your postal carrier will pick it up and ship it along the way.

Limon Monte
Date of Creation: Nov 10, 2021

Can I put a 9×12 envelope in a mailbox?

Geoffrey De Smet
Date of Creation: Nov 05, 2021

Envelopes used for flat mail cannot be more than ¾ “thick, 12” high, 15 “long, or weigh more than 13 ounces.

USPS will treat any envelope over this size as a parcel and will be subject to parcel prices.

Andrey Gordeev
Date Created: Nov 06, 2021

Can I put a large envelope in a mailbox?

Aziz Alto
Date of Creation: Oct 27, 2021

Envelopes used for flat mail cannot be more than ¾ ″ thick, 12 ″ high, 15 ″ long, or weigh more than 13 ounces.Simply address your envelope, attach the correct postage amount in the upper right corner and drop it in the collection box or hand it over to the postal carrier.

Date of Creation: Oct 30, 2021

90,000 Can I drop a manila envelope in a mailbox? (2021)

Answer author: Thierry Templier
Created Date: Nov 13, 2021

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  8. Can I put a 6×9 envelope in a mailbox?
  9. Can I put a 9×12 envelope in the mailbox?
  10. Can I put a 9×12 envelope in a mailbox?

In which envelope should I mail my tax return?

Date of Creation: Nov 10, 2021

You can send it in a standard white pre-printed envelope, however it is recommended that you send it by registered mail so you know when it will be received.

Date of Creation: Nov 12, 2021

Do I have to cover my above ground pool every night?

Date of Creation: Oct 27, 2021

Covering the heated pool at night will reduce heat loss. For a pool that receives heat from the sun, covering it at night can keep it warm for swimming the next day, instead of losing all the heat overnight when the temperature drops.

Date of Creation: Oct 30, 2021

When should the plants be protected from the cold?

Thomas Levesque
Date of Creation: Nov 10, 2021

How to protect plants from frost. In spring or autumn, it can be frosty in most regions. Cover the plants: Generally, covering plants to create a temporary pocket for warmer air is the best way to protect them. Sheets, napkins, blankets, and plastic sheets are suitable shelters for vulnerable plants.

Date of Creation: Nov 12, 2021

How can I temporarily close windows?
Date of Creation: Nov 03, 2021

Take canvas rags and clip rings and hang them over windows for temporary privacy and light control.You can also purchase fabric, slip it over removable screens and fit into windows for a quick and functional solution.

Date Created: Nov 06, 2021

What can be used to cover the ceiling?

Date of Creation: Nov 04, 2021

Read product instructions for recommended acclimatization times. Suspended or false ceiling. The false ceiling panels are supported by a lattice system suspended from the ceiling beams. ceiling panels or squares. Metal ceiling tiles. Glued and hardware ceilings. plank ceilings. 6 Oct 2020

Date of Creation: Nov 04, 2021

Cover the cut or let it breathe?

Date of creation: Oct 28, 2021

Air on wounds will help them heal.You may have heard that letting a wound breathe will help it heal faster. When the wound is covered with a bandage, blood vessels heal faster and the cells that cause inflammation shrink at a faster rate.

Date of Creation: Oct 30, 2021

Can I use my own USPS flat rate envelope?

Date of Creation: Nov 09, 2021

Flat rate can ONLY be used in a matching envelope or box issued by usps. never on its own packaging. Receive a flat rate medium box in usps and ship it there. It will cost more than three envelopes.

Date of Creation: Nov 09, 2021

Can I put a 6×9 envelope in a mailbox?

Date of Creation: Nov 10, 2021

Priority Mail Flat Rate A 6 “x 9” envelope will fit into a 9-1 / 2 x 12-1 / 2 “Priority Mail USPS envelope and can be mailed at a flat rate of $ 6.70.

Ranjith Kumar
Date of Creation: Nov 13, 2021

Can I put a 9×12 envelope in the mailbox?

Patrick Hofman
Date of Creation: Nov 02, 2021

Postage on a 9×12 envelope If you mail some papers or delicate items using a 9×12 envelope, you can place two first class stamps on it and put it in your mailbox. Your postal carrier will pick it up and ship it along the way.

Pranav Hosangadi
Date of Creation: Nov 05, 2021

Can I put a 9×12 envelope in a mailbox?

Frank Nocke
Date of Creation: Nov 01, 2021

Envelopes used for flat mail cannot be more than ¾ “thick, 12” high, 15 “long, or weigh more than 13 ounces.

USPS will treat any envelope over this size as a parcel and will be subject to parcel prices.

Date of Creation: Nov 04, 2021

MANILA ENVELOPE – definition and synonyms of manila envelope in the English dictionary

MANILA ENVELOPE – definition and synonyms of manila envelope in the English dictionary

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Definition Word



Click to see the original definition of of “manila envelope” in the English dictionary.Click here to view the automatic translation of definitions in Russian.

Manila folder

Manila folder

The manila folder is a file folder for storing documents. It is usually folded by folding a large sheet of stiff card in half. Although traditionally a buff, sometimes other colors are used to differentiate file categories.Manila envelope is an envelope designed for transporting documents. It is made of thick, sturdy paper and is sized so that full sheets of paper can be pushed in without being folded. Like the manila folder, it is traditionally a buff, and often has a closure mechanism that allows it to be opened without damaging the envelope so that the envelope can be reused. There are two main methods for this: the first involves a two-prong metal clasp that is threaded through a reinforced eyelet in the flap and then bent away from each other to hold it.The other has a cardboard “button” tied tightly to the patch, and a piece of string is wrapped around it, secured to the envelope body to form a closure. More generally, envelopes made of brown, unbleached paper used for cheapness are described as manila envelopes. The manila component of the name comes from the manila hemp or abaca, from which the manila sticks were originally made. The manila folder is a file folder designed to contain documents.It is generally formed by folding a large sheet of stiff card in half. Though traditionally buff, sometimes other colors are used to differentiate categories of files. The manila envelope is an envelope designed for transporting documents. It is made of thick, durable paper and sized so that full sheets of paper can fit inside without being folded. As with the manila folder, it is traditionally buff, and often has a mechanism on the closing flap that allows it to be opened without damaging the envelope so that the envelope can be re-used.There are two main methods to achieve this — the first incorporates a metal clasp of two prongs, which are put through a reinforced eyelet in the flap and then bent apart to hold. The other has a cardboard “button” secured tightly on the flap and a piece of string fastened on the envelope body is wound around it to form a closure. In a more general sense, envelopes made of brown, unbleached paper, used for cheapness, are described as manila envelopes. The manila component of the name comes from manila hemp or abacá, from which manila folders were originally made.

Definition of manila envelope in the English dictionary

The definition of a Mannil envelope in the dictionary is a large, usually yellow, envelope designed to carry documents without having to fold them.

The definition of manila envelope in the dictionary is a large, usually yellow, envelope, designed to carry documents without them having to be folded.

Click to see the original definition of of “manila envelope” in the English dictionary.

Click here to view the automatic translation of definitions in Russian.


Synonyms and antonyms of manila envelope in the English dictionary

Translation of “manila envelope” into 25 languages ​​


Find out the translation of manila envelope to 25 languages ​​ with our English multilingual translator. The translations of manila envelope from English into other languages ​​presented in this section were carried out using automatic translation, in which the main element of the translation is the word “manila envelope” in English.

Translator from English to


牛皮纸 信封

1,325 million speakers

Translator from English to


sobre de manila

570 million speakers


manila envelope

510 million speakers

Translator from english to

hindi language

मनीला लिफाफा

380 million speakers

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مظروف مانيلا

280 million speakers

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278 million speakers

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Manila envelope

270 million speakers

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ম্যানিলা খাম

260 million speakers

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enveloppe en papier kraft

220 million speakers

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Sampul manila

190 million speakers

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braunen Umschlag

180 million speakers

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マ ニ ラ 封 筒

130 million speakers

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마닐라 봉투

85 million speakers

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Manila envelope

85 million speakers

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manila phong bì

80 million speakers

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மணிலா உறை

75 million speakers

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Marathi language

मनिला लिफाफा

75 million speakers

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Manila zarf

70 million speakers

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65 million speakers

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50 million speakers

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40 million speakers

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30 million speakers

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φάκελο Μανίλα

15 million speakers

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Afrikaans Language

Manila koevert

14 million speakers

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manila kuvert

10 million speakers

Translator from English to


Manila konvolutt

5 million speakers

Trends of use of manila envelope



Word used regularly

The map above shows the frequency of use of the term “manila envelope” in different countries. Main search trends and examples of use of manila envelope

A list of the main searches that users have entered to access our online English dictionary and the most commonly used expressions with the word “manila envelope”.


The graph shows the annual change in the frequency of use of the word “manila envelope” over the past 500 years.The plotting is based on an analysis of how often the term “manila envelope” appears in digitized print sources in English from 1500 to the present.

Examples of uses in the English literature, quotes and news stories about manila envelope


Famous quotes and sentences with the word manila envelope .

For most men life is a search for the proper manila envelope in which to get themselves filed.



Discover the use of manila envelope in the following bibliographical selection. Books related to the word manila envelope and short excerpts from these books to provide an understanding of the context of the word’s use in English literature.

The officer pat-searched the outside of the case, and after detecting no weapon
allowed Torin to reach inside to retrieve his identification. When Torin pulled his
billfold from the case, a small brown manila envelope fell out onto the hood of his

Richard Glen Boire, Boire, 1996


A man without a country

And I know their stock very well, and so I get an envelope, a manila envelope . It is
as though whoever made that envelope knew what size of paper I’m using. I get
in line because there are people buying lottery tickets, candy, and that sort of …

Kurt Vonnegut, Daniel Simon, 2011


Moving On: Embracing the Future

He or she should “use” an action against the other volunteer by selecting an
envelope and placing it in the large manila envelope by the other person, so that
the scale tips toward the person.(E.g., one person might pick up the gossip …

Van Edmonds handed the large manila envelope containing the suicide letter to
Sarah Barnett, who accepted the envelope and spoke in a quiet, determined
voice. “Would you help me for a moment, Mr. Edmonds? ” “Yes, ma’am. What
would …


The Relationship Between Father’s Parenting Style and Sexual. ..

The participating daughters placed their completed consent form and survey
envelopes into the manila envelope provided, sealed this envelope, and returned
the completed documents to the school nurse in the sealed manila envelope .

Mary Ellen T. Miller, 2008


Sand Dollar: A Story of Undying Love

With the manila envelope addressed to Robin tucked safely under his arm, Noah
stood in line at the main post office.As he reached the front of the line, he opened
the manila envelope and took out the clear, heelless shoe. As he stared at it …


The College Grad’s Guide to Purgatory

A large manila envelope will pass into your cubicle any time someone has a
birthday, gets married, has a baby, has surgery, leaves the company, or dies. It
contains a card that everyone in the office needs to sign as well as stray dollar

Then it would be slipped into a miniature manila envelope which was placed on
a brick, before a green parakeet. The bird would grip the sachet in its bill, ripping
the corner. Next, the boy would throw the marked envelope into a box containing


Constructing the Robert Kingsley Papers

Manila folder labeled Australia Landmark Competition with letters, brochures,
negatives, receipts, and design program for the Yarra River site in Melbourne,
Australia Manila Envelope labeled Mattox BTW Prints of Models, containing color


Teacher Confidence in Skills: A Comparison of Traditionally …

Once interest was expressed, consent forms were delivered to the participants’
workplace (school district) mailbox in a large manila envelope . An unsealed
envelope labeled “consent form” was affixed to the consent form with a paperclip.


This shows how the national and international press uses the term manila envelope in the context of the news articles below.

Old dogs and old boats

One of my best friends invited me to lunch a few months ago and pulled out a manila envelope . I wasn’t sure what he was about to show me, … “The Times and Democrat, Jul 15”

Agony of defeat can leave long-lasting scars

Dubbed the Mighty Mouse, she is the kind of athlete so well-known the Star keeps a manila envelope bursting with clippings about her short… “Toronto Star, Jul 15”

7 surprising things we’ve already learned about Pluto and its moons

“I think the whole system is amazing, and my prediction written 20 years ago on a little slip of paper held in a manila envelope since 1993 was . ..” Mashable, Jul 15 “

Freelancer teams up with NASA: “It’s one small step for Freelancer …

The first two challenges available to Freelancer members are to design a 3D model of an eva handrail and a manila envelope , each at a cost of… “StartupSmart, Jul 15”

Death of a medical leader: the last unbridled interview with Dr …

… day when they get that manila envelope . So then we have members who complain we are entertaining a silly complaint from Mrs. So and So, … “Vancouver Sun, Jul 15”

PHOTO EXCLUSIVE: Nick Gordon gets served with $ 10 million …

… clutching a large whip cream-topped Frappuccino, on Sunday when a process server appeared and shoved a manila envelope in his hands. New York Daily News Jul 15

Nick Gordon Officially Served With $ 10 Million Lawsuit on Behalf of . ..

In a video obtained by The New York Daily News, a process server can be seen him a manila envelope , to which he simply replies,… “Entertainment Tonight, Jul 15”

Nick Gordon Served With $ 10 Million Suit At Florida Starbucks …

The incident unfolded when a cagey process server placed a manila envelope containing the legal docs into Gordon’s hands, the NY Daily … “RadarOnline, Jul 15”

‘Heroes Reborn’ Trailer Released; 4 Moments Fans Of The Original …

… is trying to bring him back in. It looks like the Haitian (Jimmy Jean-Louis) even gives him his horn-rimmed glasses in a manila envelope . International Business Times, Jul 15

Local man’s family was devastated by drunk driver

Jason Hills looks down in silence at a brown manila envelope sitting at his left in a south-side restaurant one recent mid-morning. Because… “Edmonton Sun, Jul 15”


“EDUCALINGO. Manila envelope [online]. Available . Nov 2021 “.

Why are folders yellow / Habr

Why are folders yellow

A folder is one of the most famous metaphors of screen interfaces. This is a very powerful and powerful symbol.In a fairly short period of time, he managed to overshadow the term that was intended to denote. The concept of “directory” or “directory” has sunk into oblivion. Although the “folder” was once only a metaphor for their designation in graphic shells.

In the process of work, I collected various facts about this icon, dropped it into one file. I decided that it would not be superfluous to bring it into a more or less readable form and share.

Directory (from Latin directorium – route of movement) in the general sense means a certain structure containing a set of certain information. This could be a list of people or a directory of addresses.

It owes its appearance to the idea of ​​equipping the graphical interface of the legendary workstation Xerox Star (Xerox 8010) with metaphors that are understandable to an ordinary office clerk. Ideas were drawn from the standard office equipment of the then offices. The first commercial implementation on the mass market was the Apple Lisa interface.

Basic folder appearance A folder is drawn as a white rectangle (filled in by the application) with a thin (one pixel) black border.Every folder has a tab, which looks like a tab on a standard manilla folder . The tab is always above the upper left corner of the folder. It is called the title tab. The rectangular portion of the folder that holds the folder’s contents is called the body of the folder

“Lisa user interface standards” (1980)

Paper folder
The prototype for the metaphor was the so-called manila folder. As far as I know, there is no such term in Russian (although sometimes it appears in fiction, which, however, can only be a blunder). It will be correct to say simply “paper folder” or “folder”.
Structurally, it is a folded sheet of paper, inside which you can attach or file documents ..

Folder = fold (fold, collect) + er (suffix to form a noun)

This type of folder was not known in the territory of the former USSR , so the folder icon was partly a simulacrum, i.e.That is, it did not have a subject part, but only a property. In Win 9x systems, the object appeared to be just a yellow rectangular with a protrusion, i.e. an abstract thing.

Paper. Why are the folders yellow.

The American type of folders are made from a durable paper called “manila”. It contains “Manila hemp”, fibers extracted from the leaves of a textile banana or abaca (a plant native to the Philippines). The fibers are very tough and have a uniform thickness and are easy to color. Although, as a rule, manila paper is not treated with dyes. It retains the natural color of the fibers: yellowish beige. This is why the icons for folders in Windows and some other systems are yellow or beige.

In addition to paper, Manila hemp is used for the production of marine ropes. For this reason, the second name of the Manila paper is “rope”.

Tea bags are made from Manila fiber. The technology was developed by the American engineer Fay Osborne.During World War II, in the midst of Osborne’s exploration, Manila hemp became a strategic raw material for the fleet. The engineer had to come up with a way to get manila fibers for tea bags from … old ropes.

The material for making folders is smooth enough, there are no coarse particles in the paper so as not to scratch documents. There are also no active chemical components that can react with photographic paper and damage pictures stored in folders. There is a standard that requires folders to be immersed in water and not stain the contents with any extraneous shade.
“Leopard” folder icon from MacOs, the uneven paper texture is clearly visible.

In Microsoft Windows Vista / 7 the folders are rotated 90 degrees. This is to give some freshness to the icons. And also symbolizes a broader interpretation of the concept of “folder” in this system. In particular, it is no longer associated only with a physical directory on disk.The expanded folder has its advantage: it is easier to organize the image of documents in it.

To be continued …

Read “Unchain the Night (LP)” – Kenyon Sherrilyn – Page 62

3 6 feet – 183 cm (approx. Per.).

4 Wordplay. Nick Gaultier’s surname is Goudeau and in French maner gauche (from French awkward, awkward, awkward) (approx. Transl.).

5 Prada is an Italian fashion house.

6 Howlers) – mourners, screamers (approx. Per.).

7 World-renowned beer produced by the monks of the Saint Sixtus of Westvleteren Abbey in western Belgium and sold by reservation directly at the monastery.

8 Mascot (talisman, symbol) – originally the name of a person, animal or object bringing good luck.

9 6 ft – 183 cm (approx. Per.).

10 189-193 cm (approx. Per.).

11 Loyola University of New Orleans was founded by the Jesuits in 1804.and still remains one of the largest Catholic universities in the southern United States (approx. per.).

12 Tigard (English – tigard). Since Ren is a hybrid of a white tiger (English – snow tiger) and a snow leopard (English – snow leopard), he can take three forms: the first two are the aforementioned animals, and the third is a mixture of them, it is called “tigard “(approx. per.).

13 Zydeco is a popular Negro musical style in South Louisiana that combines Cajun dance tunes, blues rhythms and Caribbean music (approx. per.).

14 Nextel phones can be used as walkie-talkies.

15 800 lb = 362.87 kg (approx. Per.).

16 213.36 cm (approx. Per.).

17 Stanley is a trademark company that manufactures tools and materials for home production.

18 Louisiana State University (approx. Trans.).

19 Sound of a Jamaican accent: “If you start chewing a dozen toffee and chewing them, you will speak English” (approx.per.).

20 Manila envelope – a large envelope made of yellow rope (“Manila”) paper. Typically used to send large (multi-page) correspondence.

21 Salvatore Ferragamo is an Italian fashion house. One of the most famous and significant Italian and world luxury brands representing shoes, leather goods, accessories, clothing and fragrances (approx. Lane).

22 Godiva is a chocolate brand whose unique taste has become a favorite among gourmets all over the world (approx.per.).

23 Trelosa – madness.

24 Mon ange – from fr. “My angel” (approx. Per.).

25 Hijda – translated from Hindi as “eunuch”, “castrat”. – Ed.

26 Hindi is the official and one of the main languages ​​in India, belongs to the Indian group of the Indo-European family of languages ​​(approx. Per.).

27 Birkenstocks – Birkenstocks Orthopedie GmbH Co. KG, a company that develops and manufactures high-quality footwear (sandals, flip flops, clogs, boots, low shoes) and orthopedic insoles, whose traditions and technologies go back centuries – since 1774.Birkenstocks are synonymous with quality all over the world.

28 Litarian is a clan of werewolf lions.

29 Strati – warriors, guards of the Katagharians (approx.trans.).

30 Anne Rice is an American writer, actress, screenwriter and producer. Author of the novel “Interview with the Vampire” (approx. Per.).

31 Jim Butcher is an American writer, author of several novels in the genre of detective, fantasy thriller-noir.

32 Silver Bullet – 1985 American mystical horror filmDir. D. Ettaes, screen version of the novel by S. King “The Cycle of the Wolf” (approx. Trans.).

33 Cecil B. DeMille is a great American filmmaker.

34 Fury – eng. Fury – fury, fury. – Ed.

35 “Weekly World News” is a well-known tabloid press.

36 High-tech is a high-tech style that promotes the aesthetics of the material. Ascetic design, maximum rationality and maximum laconic form (approx. Per.).

37 Izod is an expensive American jersey shirt, usually with short sleeves and a small alligator badge on the chest (approx.per.).

38 A groomer is a specialist in the hygienic care of animals (trimming, washing, drying, cleaning, etc.) (approx. Per.).

39 (from French) And I love you too, my baby (approx. Per.).

40 The Ramones are an American rock band, one of the earliest performers of punk rock, who influenced the genre as a whole and many other trends in alternative rock.

41 Fortune 500 is a list of the 500 largest American corporations by sales. Published annually by Fortune magazine since 1955.

42 Artist Robert John.

43 Ted Raimi (English Ted Raimi, Theodore R. Raimi) is an American actor. He has starred in films such as Evil Dead, Man of Darkness and Spider-Man.

44 Taser is a police electric pistol that shoots metal arrows (bullets), which are electrodes that carry a charge.

45 Evander Holyfield – famous boxer (approx.per.).

46 Brigadoon is a musical based on the Broadway hit by Elan Jay Lerner and Frederick Lowy. About a village called Brigadoon, which emerges from the mists on the same day every hundred years.

47 This refers to the biblical phrase “And may you see the truth, and the truth will make you free” (John 8:32). These words are chiseled in the marble of the main lobby of the US CIA. – Ed.

48 Eng. House Garden is a glossy magazine for home and garden design.It features a rich illustrative part, offering the most luxurious, fashionable and ambitious design projects, many of which have been chosen by famous Hollywood stars, politicians and stars of popular art. All designs are selected taking into account the high individual requirements of customers and claim to be exclusive.

49 Shuriken is a star-shaped throwing weapon.

50 Parka – an extended insulated jacket with a hood (approx.per.).

51 Twin Cities – as they call Saint Paul and Minneapolis – cities that form an imposing metropolis in southwestern Minnesota, USA.

52 Crane surname adapted into Russian – from eng. crane. – Ed.

53 (from French) my angel (approx.trans.).

54 The X-Files is a cult American science fiction television series.

55 ten square miles ~ 2589.9 ha (approx.per.).

56 Mustang is a car brand.

57 UPS is one of the oldest courier companies in the global logistics market. 90,004 90,000 BTK is America’s most elusive serial killer. Part two. | by @murderss

BTK is America’s most elusive serial killer. Part two.

11. The BTK is returning.

After 25 years of silence, BTK began terrorizing Wichita again. The killer made his name on March 19, 2004 by sending a letter to the Wichita Eagle newspaper. According to reporters, in it he confessed to the murder committed on September 16, 1986. Vicky Wegerle, 2404 W. 13th Street, was killed. Attached to the letter were photocopies of Wegerle’s driver’s license and three photographs of her body.

House where Vicky Wegerle lived

The investigation did not disclose the contents of the letter, but the media leaked information that the sender of the letter was “Bill Thomas Killman” (BTK), residing at 1684 South Oldmanor.
True, it quickly became clear that the name was fictitious, and the address was just an empty piece of land. Why BTK chose such an address and a pseudonym is unknown, but many suggestions have been made on this topic that they contain some hidden meaning.

A police officer inspects Wegerle’s car

On March 24, 2004, Lieutenant Kenneth Landwehr, who has been investigating the BTK case for more than 20 years, confirmed that the letter definitely belongs to the BTK pen. A single fingerprint was taken from the letter, but later it turned out that it did not belong to the killer, but to a newspaper employee.
In an interview with local radio station Kake-10, Landwehr stated that they are currently checking more than 290 calls on the occasion made to a special anonymous hotline on BTK.
On March 25, 2004, Gregg McCrary, a former FBI profiler, told Wichita Eagle that he felt BTK was bragging about his crimes and craving public attention for himself. He kind of tells us: “Look what I have done!” “He just can’t stop doing it,” McCrary said.“Keeping the audience on their toes and scaring them is like playing God. It’s an intoxicating, intoxicating sensation, so they (serial killers) are not afraid to contact you (the media) or the police – it’s all part of the game for these people. For many years he has been leading the forces of law and order and everyone else. ”

Gregg McCrary

Psychology Doctor Harold Brodsky, speaking on local KAKE-TV on March 28, said that giving BTK some attention is a good idea. “Are we playing by his rules, paying so much attention to him? Of course.But if we don’t, he might start doing something devilish. ” Regardless of where he was or why he had returned so unexpectedly, one thing was for sure – he had once again panicked Wichita. The investigation continued to suspect that BTK lived in Wichita or in the immediate vicinity. Therefore, no one could feel safe, and almost everyone took some kind of self-defense measures. Sales of security systems, locks, weapons, alarms and other similar devices skyrocketed.BTK’s story caught the attention of the national media and CNN, MSNBC and Good Morning America (the famous morning news show) viewed it from every angle.
At that time, everyone had one question on their lips: “Will he get in touch again?” Or even more important: “Will he kill again”? Unfortunately, no one had answers to any of the questions, and only time could tell if the BTK would hit again.

12. Will (is) something else?

On May 5, 2004, another letter, allegedly “penned” by BTK, arrived on the Kansas television channel KAKE-TV. It consisted of three pages. The first page was called “History of BTK” (that’s the name of the original essay on the Crime Library website, that’s where I translate it. This essay appeared on the site even before BTK was not caught. And it is obvious that BTK itself carefully studied it) and under it was the table of contents of this essay. Intriguingly, some of the chapters were renamed from the original. For example, chapter 7, in the original “Next Step”, was called “P.J’s” (initials). Chapter 4, “Worlds Clash,” was renamed Fantasy World, and the chapter “Dead Deeds Team” was titled “Will (is) something else?”

Wichita Eagle Newspaper Logo

The second page of the letter was titled “Chapter 8” and contained a letter puzzle with letters arranged in vertical rows. On the last page were photocopies of two business cards, one of which belonged to a former employee of the Southwestern Bell telephone company and the other to a former public educator from Wichita. The former employee of the telephone company was contacted, but he said he had no idea how a photocopy of his business card could have gotten into this letter.After further investigation, it became clear that the other person, whose photocopy of the business card was attached to the letter, never existed in reality, and the school logo on the letter was outdated and not used. Interestingly, this three-page letter differed from the March one sent to Wichita Eagle in that the person who allegedly sent the letter this time was Thomas B. King (TBK), not Bill Thomas Killman (BTK).

Letter puzzle from BTK letter

The FBI experts quickly determined that this letter was indeed from BTK, thus it became known that this was the third letter in a three-month period.The first was sent on March 19 to the Wichita Eagle newspaper. The second letter, attributed to BTK, was anonymous and arrived in April 2004 on the local channel KSN-TV – it contained a photo of an unknown child.
There was no doubt that the killer had returned to his old habit of bullying the police. However, there was a possibility that in this way he provides the police with some leads to determine his identity and the details of some of the murders. For example, it was assumed that he could use the business cards from the third letter to gain access to the homes of his victims.Moreover, the police suspected that the head named “P.J’s” could directly link the killer with a professor at the University of Wichita.
Many wondered why the killer now decided to resurface to the surface. Some thought the killer lacked the press attention he had always craved. There was also some possibility that the last letters were some kind of warning before the next BTK strike, which may follow in the very near future. By and large, BTK’s letters prompted the police to reopen the investigation with renewed vigor, on the one hand, and on the other, the Wichita public was in awe of the horrific killings.Many hoped that BTK would be caught before he could kill anyone again.

13. New evidence.

On June 17, 2004, another letter was found. It was put into a mechanical engineering textbook, and it was placed in a return box at the Wichita Public Library. The letter was immediately handed over to the police, who quickly determined that it was another genuine letter from BTK. This time, among other things, the letter contained details related to the murder of the Otero family back in 1974.
The original text of the letter was not made available to the public at that time. However, it was suggested that the letter contained new evidence linking the killer to the University of Wichita. To begin with, it was absolutely clear that the BTK hunt is constantly bringing the police to the university campus. In addition, in August 2004, the police themselves already recognized the importance of the university in the investigation of this case.
Professor P.J. Wyatt, who taught English literature at the university from 1964 to 1986, became interested in the police because her course included an analysis of the folk song “Oh, death.”This song was of great importance for BTK and prompted him to create a poem, which he called “Oh! Death to Nancy. ” It was sent to them in a 1978 letter. It was clear that this reworking of the song had a lot to do with the murder of Nancy Fox in December 1977. The detectives tried to find a hidden meaning in this poem that could help them get closer to the killer, but apparently they failed. Unfortunately, the professor herself could no longer help the police – she died in 1991 from cancer.
Even more interesting is that, in the same style, BTK wrote a poem addressed to Anna, a failed BTK victim.He waited in the house for her arrival, but then his patience ran out, and he chose to leave. This poem, part of which is reproduced below, is dedicated to this event:

Oh, Anna Why Didn’t You Appear

T ‘was perfect plan of deviant pleasure so bold on that Spring nite
My inner felling hot with propension of the new awakening season

Warn, wet with inner fear and rapture, my pleasure of entanglement,
like new vines at night

it has several levels of meaning through the words that he used in it.Mimicking the epic book Finnegans Wake by James Joyce (this book is recognized as one of the most difficult books ever written in English), BTK used words that have multiple meanings at the same time. Starting from the very first line of the poem: T with an apostrophe 1 is used in scientific research to describe the initial stage of the process. It is followed by phases T2, T3, etc. At another, simpler level, 1 can be interpreted as a simple apostrophe to replace a missing preposition or particle.It seems that BTK was preparing something new for Anna.
“Felling,” for example, involves the deliberate felling of a flowering tree, and apparently refers to the taking of Anna’s life. It also describes his feelings of arousal in anticipation of meeting her. Just like Joyce, he creates new words by combining parts of different words. “Propension” is not some kind of mistake, so it creates a new word to describe the anticipation of this new chance encounter with the victim. Propension can be a combination of words such as propensity or property or possessions.
So what is the point of such intellectual gymnastics? It is clear that BTK presents itself as an artist and enjoys creating such poems and poems with several semantic layers. However, there is at least one more motive here. BTK thus demonstrates its high intelligence. He is sure that he is incredibly smart and he likes to leave the police with a nose all the time. He seems to show that he is much smarter than all of them – local experts, FBI profilers, home-grown hobbyists, physicists and lyricists.At this point, it looks a lot like he was right.
The search for BTK attracted the attention of not only the US population, but also millions of people around the world. The BTK case led to the production in England of a documentary about the story, which described the killings and the investigation. The filmmaking team not only wanted to tell the story of BTK, they also offered the police a fresh perspective on the problem.
This new look was British psychiatrist Dennis McKenzie, who came to Wichita with a film crew.McKenzie has previously successfully assisted the British police in creating personal profiles of known criminals on several occasions. He also offered to compose a portrait of a possible murderer with the help of a police artist, plus promised to give any information that could help in this matter. All hoped that these new lines of investigation would raise concerns among BTK. Until that time, Wichita lived in a state of permanent terror, constantly expecting new victims.

14. Name games.

In October 2004, another letter with the possible authorship of BTK was found in a UPS mailbox next to the OmniCenter building at 250 N.Kansas Street in Wichita. The police immediately assumed that it was from BTK, and three days after being discovered, they sent it to the FBI. Curiously, the letter was discovered exactly on the 30th anniversary of the beginning of BTK’s contacts with the police. There is no doubt that this is not a coincidence. The content of the letter and the person who discovered it have not yet been disclosed.
BTK homicide detective Kelly Otis interviewed anyone on the street or office building who might have seen the alleged drop of a letter into a mailbox.There were some hopes that some of the witnesses would be able to remember and identify the person who did this. One of the respondents testified that he saw a suspicious man at that time. According to him, “you could see the nervousness in his eyes…. I was very close to him, around the corner of the building, and he looked at me intently and then walked away. ” The witness was convinced that the suspicious man he saw might be the famous BTK killer. According to him, he looks 50-60 years old, he is of medium build and has gray hair.
At the same time, the authorities continue to work with the evidence left by the BTK. It is clear that the killer is making an effort to confuse and confuse the police by giving them false information mixed with a tiny bit of possible truth. There is little doubt that he is well educated, or at least very well read, as can be inferred from his use of jargon used by statisticians and his imitation of James Joyce. Moreover, his use of the name Thomas King in one of the letters may indicate another of his favorite authors.This name belongs to a Canadian writer, author of articles, poems and stories mostly dedicated to the Indians of North America.
James Joyce and Thomas King are two of the many famous writers studied by students at the University of Wichita. Could BTK have once also studied them there? It was already clear how much BTK connects with the university. There was a great chance that BTK studied or worked there at one time. On the other hand, this could be another false trail that he threw to the police.

Envelope of one of the BTK letters.

If the names used in his letters have anything to do with his personality, then many have assumed that the most significant of these may be the name of Bill Thomas Killman. Some people think that this name is a puzzle in itself and if you place the letters correctly, you can read some hidden message. However, the name may also be another sophistic ploy that BTK used to taunt the police.

Return address from the envelope.

Kenneth Thomas and Ralph Kilmann (the latter’s last name is spelled with one L and two Ns) have developed a method known as the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument that helps people deal with conflict situations. This method is sometimes used by police units to help police officers communicate with people who are unnecessarily aggressive or fearful, with whom the police have to work quite often. Perhaps, using this name, the killer indirectly refers to this method and uses it as a way to make fun of the police? This is a question that we may never get an answer to.Unfortunately, until the moment when BTK is caught we can only speculate about his personality and the motives for his horrific crimes.
On November 30, the Wichita Police Department issued an extensive press release that contained a lot of information about BTK and his life. Moreover, the information was provided to the police by the criminal himself. This is truly a unique case in the history of serial killers. From time to time, the concept that all serial killers “dream of being caught” hits the pages of newspapers and news broadcasts.However, it is pure fiction. Serial killers are psychopaths by nature. They are completely focused exclusively on themselves. They will never intentionally harm themselves. All psychopaths are pathologically deceitful and BTK is no exception.
So, now BTK has provided a number of possibly true facts about itself. What can we do with them? Are we going to believe this serial killer? Now can we catch him and get his confession?
It would be foolish to believe that. If BTK really wanted to reveal his identity, he could go to the nearest police station and do it.But he doesn’t, as he is a psychopath who enjoys taunting and playing with the police, all with increased public scrutiny. Now that he has “revealed” the details of his biography, he can be sure that an endless number of amateur detectives, along with the FBI and Wichita police, will plunge into the study of these facts. What could be more pleasant for such a narcissistic person?
Perhaps some of the information voluntarily provided by BTK about his life may be true, but you also need to understand that all this truthful information will not lead to his capture.He’s too smart for that. We must always remember that he is smart and while he was smarter than his pursuers. It looks more like this information is false or misleading. He plays with us, his audience. Let’s see where this leads.

15. Police power.

During the fall of 2004, the police continued to search for the BTK based on some known facts. It is possible that BTK has some internal sources that allow it to learn about the progress of the investigation.Many serial killers for practical purposes tried to get close to the investigation of their own crimes. For example, the famous South Carolinian murderer and rapist Gaskins and Cleveland doctor Frank Swiney had a habit of wiping around the places where the police spent time after duty – in bars and restaurants, starting up conversations with them about the investigation and trying to find out more information.
Serial killers are generally attracted to the forces of law and order, since they personify strength, that is, exactly what they lack in their ordinary life.Kenneth Bianchi, one of the Hillside Stranglers, took a police science class and, posing as a psychologist, circled around the investigators working on his case. More than just a desire to deflect suspicion, it is an intriguing game to defeat the police.
Dr. Frank Sweeney did just that when he beheaded 13 or more victims in the 1930s. The famous Eliot Ness was the head of Cleveland’s law enforcement during this time. When Eliot Ness focused his attention on Swiney, he paid him back by sending mocking postcards, and once even sent him a torso made of papier-mâché.Swiney got the deepest pleasure outplaying the very clever Eliot Ness.
The same thing is happening now with BTK. Instead of feeling his power over the victims, torturing and killing them as he did decades ago, he now asserts his power over the police. His games, his letters, his packages create incredible pressure on them, they simply have to arrest him, but they cannot. But this is not the only thing that interests him. BTK found its way to thousands of amateur detectives who hang out for hours in chats and forums, theorizing and analyzing every word that comes from him.He became a real celebrity.
Has BTK ever served with the Wichita Police Force? Probably not, but he may have had experience with the military police. To be on the safe side, Wichita police asked their retired employees to undergo a DNA test so that they could be removed from the list of possible suspects. However, the police can get into serious trouble if at least one of them refuses to go through this procedure.

16. Too much evidence.

In November 2004, police revealed some of the information BTK had provided about itself in letters.This information was provided to the public in the hope that someone would be able to recognize the killer in this description, or at least give some leads on him. Although there was a huge possibility that all this could be just misinformation on the part of the BTK in order to knock the police off the trail. These are the details that were presented on November 30, 2004 on the local channel KAKE-TV:
– BTK claims that he was born in 1939, which means that now he must be 64 or 65 years old;
– His father was killed during the Second World War.He was raised by his mother and grandparents;
– He is fascinated by railways and between 1950 and 1965 his mother met a railroad detective;
– In the early 50s, he constructed an amateur radio and was an active amateur radio operator. He is also well versed in photography and knows how to print;
– He also enjoys hunting, fishing and hiking;
– In 1960, BTK claims that he graduated from technical school and soon after that went to serve in the military, from where he quit in 1966, after which he returned to his mother;
– He works for a copier and office equipment repair company;
– He admits that he likes prostitutes.
BTK is now playing its part in front of a vastly grown and loyal audience and needs to continually whet interest in itself. Therefore, even more correspondence can be expected from him, as interest wanes.
At the same time, there are also old theories that link BTK to US Air Force service. BTK’s first victim, Joseph Otero, also served in the Air Force, and at the time of his death was working at Rose Hill Airport. Some believed that the BTK could stand for “Born to Kill” (born to kill) – under this name in the US Air Force at different times appeared several squadrons.
In mid-December 2004, an unidentified man found a suspicious white plastic bag tied with rubber bands in Murdoch Park. The man took the package to his home and opened it there, and to his surprise, he found in it a number of things that could belong to the victims of BTK. Then he called the police.
The detectives examined the contents of the package and found, among other things, Nancy Fox’s driver’s license and another letter. The letter duplicated the same letter found earlier in March 2004, which listed chapter titles from the Crime Library website.True, some of the chapters were revised again. In particular, the title of the most recent at that time, chapter 13, was slightly changed. From which it was possible to conclude that he is a devoted fan of various pulp fiction.
Also, unlike the May letter, chapters 1, 2, and 8 have been left blank. It was suggested that in this way BTK hinted at the date of the murder of Nancy Fox – December 8 or December 8 (according to the American system, the date is written starting from the month – that is, 12–8).
The plastic bag was handed over to the FBI, and the rest of its contents were hidden from the public so as not to interfere with the investigation.

17. The suspect in the BTK case has been arrested.

On February 26, 2005, a suspect in the BTK case was arrested. On February 28, Wichita law enforcement organized a press conference at which they said the currently imprisoned suspect, 59-year-old Dennis Rader, is 99.9% a notorious killer nicknamed BTK. Many details of the investigation, however, remained undisclosed.

Dennis Rader, suspect

The police also reported that 2 more victims are attributed to Rader.They are Marine Hedge, 53, and Delores “Dee” Davis, 62. Thus, the number of known victims of BTK has increased from eight to ten. Wichita Eagle reported that Marine Hedge was abducted from her home in Park City, Wichita, on April 27, 1985. She was strangled with pantyhose and her body was found 8 days later on a country road near the intersection of 143 East and 37 North Streets. The article stated that the incident was very similar to the other BTK murders, as “the telephone line at Hedge’s house was cut” and her car was driven from the scene of the crime to another location.Raider lived in Park City on the same street as Hedge, the Associated Press reported.

Marine Hedge

Delores Davis was abducted from her home on January 19, 1991. Her body was found 13 days later under a bridge at 117 Street North near Meridian, Kansas. She was also strangled with pantyhose, and her arms and legs were tied. According to Wichita Eagle, the killer cut the telephone wires and then “threw a brick through the glass door that was used as an entrance to the house from the backyard and thus entered it.”After the killer hid Davis’s body, he drove her car a decent distance, where he left. Davis’s murder was considered unsolved for over 10 years.

Delores Davis

Back to the Wichita law enforcement press conference. The 46-minute self-praise in the “capture” of the BTK looked somewhat out of place. Considering, for example, that after 30 years of so-called investigation, the police have not even been able to link the three victims (Wegerle, Hedge and Davis) to BTK. It is difficult to understand how, with such investigative efforts on the part of the Wichita police and the FBI, they were able to ignore such clear correspondences in Rader’s past and the BTK profile they themselves compiled:
– He graduated from the University of Wichita, in which one of the BTK letters was copied, and in which Professor PJ Wyatt taught the poem “Oh, Death” in her course.On the basis of it, BTK subsequently created some of his poems;
– He served in the Air Force. It has long been debated that the BTK could have taken its abbreviation from the popular US Air Force squadron name “Born To Kill”. He might have met his first victim, Joseph Otero, at this time;
– He worked for Coleman, which also employed two of his other victims;
– He was a strange guy who reveled in power and control, as evidenced by his last job – he worked as a municipal official at City Hall in Park City.Some of his neighbors called him a bureaucratic “bully.” This type of behavior is inherent in serial killers with sadistic inclinations and should have attracted close attention during the investigation;
– He lived near some of his victims, and even on the same street with one of them.
It would be interesting to know if Dennis Rader was included in any of the many lists of suspects that the police have spawned over these 30 years, and if so, why did they not take his DNA test? By the way, residents of Wichita suspect BTK of several more mysterious deaths, about which they have repeatedly posted on various local forums.(Subsequently, this information was not confirmed, although at least 3 more murders were attributed to BTK)
District Attorney Nola Foulston said there was no statute of limitations for the murders. However, until 1994, the death penalty was not applied in Kansas. Also, the death penalty cannot be applied in cases of murders committed before 1994. In short, BTK can avoid the death penalty if it cannot be linked in some way to the killings that occurred in 1994 or later.

18. Who is Dennis Rader?

So, as we already know on February 26, 2005, 59-year-old Dennis Rader, who lives in the Wichita suburb of Park City, was arrested after his car stopped at a red traffic light near his home on East Kechi Road. before noon.

Dennis Rader arrested

Although formal charges have not yet been filed, officials said: “Rader will be charged with ten first-degree murders, including two murders in Park City that have not previously been associated with BTK “.

A map of the location of the houses of the BTK victims, as well as the chronology of letters from the Wichita Eagle newspaper – the houses of the last two known victims have not yet been applied to it

And at that time there was only one question on everyone’s lips: “Who is this Dennis Raider?”. Relatively little was known about him, including because the prosecutors did not want to share information, as this could affect the upcoming trial. What can be said for sure – Rader lived most of his life in Park City.
Raider was born in 1945 and grew up in Wichita with three brothers. They all graduated from Heights High School in Wichita.
Raider served with the Air Force in Vietnam from 1965 to 1969. Joseph Otero, one of BTK’s victims, was also serving in the Air Force during this time.
Rader worked in the meat department in one of the grocery stores in Park City, and then from 1971 to 1973 worked as a picker at the Coleman camping company, where he met two of his victims.
He also worked for the ADT Security Services alarm installation company from 1974 to 1989.In 1989, he was still working for the United States Census Bureau as an information collector. Working in the latter two jobs, he had access to many homes in the area. It is assumed that he met some of his victims in this way.
Sometime in the early 70’s, he got married and has two children, a boy and a girl from his wife, Paula. Around the same time, he entered the University of Wichita, graduating in 1979 with a degree in Administration of Justice.
In his spare time, Rader ran a scouting group and was very active in his church community.None of those who knew him could imagine that he was capable of causing anyone any harm. Many say that he was very inconspicuous, someone who was never really different from the rest. It can be stated that he had excellent mimicry abilities, which allowed him to be undetected for many years.

19. Representing power and control.

In most cases, the main motivation for serial killers is the need to feel power and power.Raider was no exception, and often stuck out his superiority at work and in his day-to-day affairs. At the time of his arrest, he was working for the municipality of Park City as a compliance supervisor and his areas of activity included “monitoring animals, abandoned cars, monitoring general compliance with the rules of residence in the city and various troubles”. However, if there were any troubles in the city, then Raider’s neighbors declare that he himself was one of them.

Photos from Rader’s last job

Fox News reported that Rader was often called a bureaucratic bully who only went out to annoy people by reading various city laws.He walked around town filming his neighbors, hoping to catch them doing some minor offense. He even measured the height of the grass near the house of one of the women, whom he particularly disliked, threatening to catch her violating city regulations. Two Park City residents told Wichita Eagle that they had a conflict with Raider in the summer of 2004 when they organized a garage sale (garage sale is a very popular action in the United States – people sell things they don’t need on the cheap, usually placing them near roads near his house).The raider clung to them that they did not have a license to do this. Raider told the women: “Don’t argue with me. Nobody argues with me. ” However, he was not joking.
Donna Barry, Rader’s neighbor who had known him and his family since childhood, said about him in an interview with ABC News: “Sometimes you could see his dark side. Once we were sitting with the children on the front lawn. And the neighbor across the street just took the dog for a walk without a muzzle. The raider, who was responsible for work, including for the dogs, rushed at the dog and tried to hit it.Then he ran home for a pistol with a tranquilizer and shot it at the dog. ” But beyond that incident – “he was a really nice person,” Donna said, “I’ve known him since he was four or five years old. You know, he was a very nice neighbor who could stop to chat with you and was very gallant and accommodating. ”
According to Wichita Eagle, “Several Park City residents and former work colleagues characterize Rader as a selfish and arrogant person – a bookworm who constantly digs into various details.”This description very much coincides with the descriptions of the profilers who worked on the BTK case.
Charlie Otero, whose parents and brother and sister were the first victims of BTK, stated that if Dennis Rader is BTK, then he should be executed.

20. New details.

There were many rumors and speculations that his daughter, Kerry Rader, who allegedly supplied the police with her DNA samples in mid-February 2005, played a key role in BTK’s arrest. This fact was replicated by the media and was widely discussed.However, it was later revealed that DNA samples were obtained from Kerry after her father was arrested. And she did this in order to clear him of unfounded suspicions.
The police stated that it was not the daughter’s DNA that led to the arrest, but the computer diskette that was attached to the package to the local KSAS TV channel. CNN reported that the floppy disk was carefully researched and information from it led to the Lutheran church in Park City, where Dennis Rader was the head of the church community. Subsequently, it turned out that FBI experts were able to restore the erased information on a diskette, and the name of Denis Raider was found there.
On March 1, 2005, the KAKE-TV channel published information that had previously been closed at a police request. It referred to a package left by BTK in Murdoch Park in December 2004. This bag included, among other things, a Barbie doll called “PJ”, a plastic bag was tied to the doll’s head, hands were tied behind the back, and legs were tied with pantyhose. The way the doll was tied mirrored the way BTK tied up its victims before strangling them. In addition, the package contained Nancy Fox’s driver’s license and a list of chapters from the “History of BTK” website from the Crime Library website.
KAKE-TV also unveiled a letter puzzle sent by BTK to them. What is most interesting, in this puzzle, in addition to many other words, the name of the killer himself “D Rader” and the number of his house “6220” were also encrypted (you can try to find them in it yourself – they really are there, as well as about 30 more encrypted words – if you know English)

Also, several more messages from BTK became known, which were for the time being hidden from the general public. So on January 25th, 2005, a phone call on KAKE-TV led to the discovery of a “suspicious package” on a country road between 69 and 77 North Streets.The package contained a Post Toasties cereal box with some embellishments, which had been handed over to the FBI. The FBI later confirmed that it was definitely a package from BTK.
A few weeks later in February, KSAS received a soft manila envelope, again sent by BTK, which contained a letter, a necklace and some other item. It is believed that the necklace belonged to one of the BTK victims, but it is unclear which one. This message, which was the seventh in a row, was also transmitted to the police.
On March 1, 2005, BTK suspect Dennis Raider was formally charged with ten first-degree murders. The court appointed him lawyers who will take up his defense.

Dennis Rader is listening to the charges against him

21. Digital traces.

As long as computers have existed, the science of finding evidence in these very computers has existed for the same amount of time. And in this case, it was she who played a decisive role.
Many people think that when they erase information from their hard drive or floppy disk, all traces of this information are lost forever. In fact, this is not the case. David Stenhouse, a computer researcher at the University of Seattle, argues that “an inquisitive researcher with the right set of tools can quite easily recover information that the user thinks it has been erased.” Traces of information that has been erased can be found (and the information is read) until “any new information is overwritten in this place, or if some specialized programs were not used to erase” (there are special programs – shredders are guaranteed destroying information on any rewritable discs).
But, fortunately, this did not happen in the case of the usual 3.5-inch floppy disk, which Rader recorded on the church computer. The experts managed to partially recover the erased information from this floppy disk, on which he recorded a message on the KSAS TV channel on February 16, 2005. After the recovered data led the police to the church, whose name was on the disk, Raider’s name immediately surfaced, which in turn led to his arrest as the main suspect in the BTK case. These suspicions are believed to have been seriously corroborated by a DNA test done shortly before or after Raider’s arrest.

Envelope with necklace, letter and diskette. And on a larger scale, the same floppy disk that ultimately led to the capture of one of America’s most elusive criminals.

The exact evidence gathered against Raider that led to his arrest at the time was unknown, and the various speculations circulating on the subject were unfounded. Everything will remain in this state until the case comes to court hearings. District Judge Gregory Woller, who moderated the BTK case, issued several orders that prohibited the release of documents from which this information could be gleaned.

District Judge Gregory Woller

Since this information was closed, there was a stream of unverified and blatantly false information about this case in the media. Wichita Eagle even approached Voller with an open letter urging to stop this flow and make the information public, but nothing was achieved.

22. BTK signature.

Undoubtedly, BTK could not stand even the thought that someone might “cling to” the murders he had committed.He was truly proud of his horrific deeds. And like nothing else, this was indicated by the fact that he presumptuously signed with his signature messages sent to the local media.
Only a select few people investigating this case knew exactly what the BTK signature looked like. He signed his initials in an “obscene configuration” in which the letters B, T and K went from top to bottom, while the B (English B) looked like a stylized female breast. This signature was hidden from the public in order to be able to distinguish the real BTK letters from the hundreds of counterfeits that the police received during the 31-year investigation.

Signature BTK

Let’s continue in the next part.

Age brain. Healthy Aging Secrets

Age brain. Healthy Aging Secrets

Rahul Jandial MD, PhD is a renowned neurosurgeon and scientist.

His professional interests are medical and surgical methods of treatment of oncological diseases of the brain, spine and spinal cord.

Fragments from the book.

Age brain

– Dr. Bernstein, did you fall a few weeks ago?
– Please don’t call me “doctor”. Just call me William, I’m no longer a doctor. What does a CT scan of my brain show?

He was 91 years old, only one of the six survives to such a solid milestone. But even if they survive, then a third by this age already has dementia. And William was one of the rare lucky centenarians: he not only communicated well and served himself, but also retained his sharpness and clarity of mind, curiosity and professional knowledge; moreover, he was aware of the latest advances in medicine, although he had retired ten years ago.His consciousness was so clear and complete that I left out the usual mini-check of mental and physical condition that we do when making a patient record. William was bald, fit, and wore a dandy gray-haired goatee; it was immediately evident that he was carefully watching himself, and it would have been unthinkable to imagine that lush thickets of hair crawled out of his ears.

– Well, sir, the CT scan showed a subdural hematoma. Large enough and dangerous.
– Again you are with your ceremonies. Don’t call me sir. Here you are my doctor, I need you to perform an operation on me, and I ask you to treat me like a patient, nothing more.
– But, William, you are twice my age, and I am only showing basic respect.
– More likely three times, I am almost three times older than you.

As follows from the map of William, he went to the hospital at about eight in the morning with complaints that his left hand is not moving well. CT scan of the brain revealed extensive hemorrhage in the right hemisphere between the brain and the dura mater (dural), so the diagnosis was subdural hematoma.

– What time is it for her? William asked.
“All right,” I replied.

The fact is that on the scan the hematoma appeared in the form of a dark spot, and this meant that she was several weeks old. A fresh hematoma appears as a bright white spot when scanned.

– Dimensions? – continued questioning William.
“The hematoma is extensive,” I said. – Just over five centimeters deep and almost 18 centimeters wide, covers the entire right hemisphere.
“All the damn aspirin,” William complained.- It can be seen from him and bleeding.

In fact, aspirin does not cause bleeding, but rather interferes with the body’s attempts to seal ruptured vessels on its own. Taken daily, baby aspirin helps to thin the blood, which significantly reduces the risk of heart attacks and strokes due to blood clots. But at the same time, the thrombolytic effect increases the risk of intestinal or cerebral bleeding. Overall, children’s aspirin has saved many more lives from heart attacks and strokes, as the risk of blood clots is much higher than the risk of bleeding.But for William, this was little consolation.

– And we will give you vitamin K to counteract the effects of aspirin. And I will leave you with us until tomorrow. We’ll have a second CT scan of the brain in the morning and see how you are doing.

In the morning, when I entered the room, William greeted me with the words:
– She is growing.
“First, let’s see what today’s tomography shows,” I objected.
– I already know what’s there. The left hand began to move even worse.

He was right: CT of the brain showed that the hematoma had increased.
“Please don’t be offended, William,” I said. “But a significant amount of your brain has been lost, and this, apparently, just saves your life.
“Still a little offensive,” William replied with a smile.

But he knew that I was not joking. After 40 years, the human brain shrinks on average by 5% for each subsequent decade of life, even if the dura mater surrounding it (and, of course, the skull itself) remains the same size.And William in his 91 years, the brain became already five centimeters lower than the dural membrane, instead of snuggling to it, like in young people. It was these five centimeters that allowed the blood to accumulate, as in a temporary reservoir, which prevented its harmful effects on the brain – until yesterday morning, when William felt movement difficulty in his left hand.

– When is the operation scheduled? – he asked.
– Look, William, you are 91 and I’m not sure if the operation is indicated for you.We have the means to lower the blood pressure and …
“Damn it,” William exclaimed. “It’s not about a bruise on my knee. And the weakness in the left hand is also nonsense, I could have done it with my right hand alone. I’m worried about my brains. Just give this hematoma free, and it will immediately devour my memory. So tell me, Dr. Jandial, about my prospects for the operation.

The next morning, in a draped operating field, the covering tissues of William’s head looked especially deceiving, for I knew there was a brilliant mind underneath.The skin on the skull has thinned and became like parchment – this is usually the eyelids of old people. And so I cut it more carefully than usual. The subcutaneous fat, which makes our scalp fleshy to the touch, has lost its bright yellow tint in William, as if it had faded in the sun. And the skull no longer delighted with the pure sheen of ivory, but turned yellow and brown, like an old Manila envelope. But from time to time, the cranial bone, naturally soft from the inside, thickened and hardened, it was longer and more difficult to drill it.The dura mater also matched the skull – with age it calcified, lost its former pliability and slipperiness.

When I made two holes in the skull, all that remained was to open the dura mater. I took a long, thin scalpel with a pointed tip in my right hand and touched its rear end with an electric coagulator. A current pulse passed along the handle of the scalpel and in one motion cut the dural membrane, simultaneously coagulating it along the edges of the incision.Latex gloves saved me from the electric shock, and William’s brain was saved by his hematoma. But the positive side of the matter was revealed: old blood, consistency like motor oil, spilled out briskly, the fountain shot up above my wrist. It was true that William’s brain was under tremendous pressure.

Now that a significant portion of the thickened blood had left, I examined the incision in the dural membrane with the help of surgical loupes. And I saw that the space between its inner surface and the brain was not empty: blood vessels stretched from the brain to the inner side of the skull, like the strings of a puppet.And on one was a drop of fresh blood that oozed where my scalpel had damaged it. I quickly “welded” the vessel with an electrocoagulator.

The next step was to remove all the accumulated blood that still remained. I have applied the latest advancement in adapting an everyday item to surgical needs – a kitchen syringe. He took distilled water into it and as soon as he injected it into one of the holes in the skull, a dark, thick, as if oily, liquid spurted out of the second.Then he did the same with the second hole. And he repeated the manipulation until the splashed liquid changed color from dark brown to red, from red to pink, and then from pink it became pure, colorless. So I washed the inner surface of the brain.

I shone the bright light of the headlamp into the skull through one of the cut holes to view the painting. And I saw the surface of a shrunken brain, curved like the side of a planet turning away from me: a hemisphere with lobes running downward.The ridges of the convolutions have lost the opal-milky tint characteristic of a young brain. Time left traces of aging in the form of gliosis (neuroglia grows at the site of damaged or dead neurons – like a scar at the site of a wound – to isolate lesions and protect intact brain tissue). The surface of the brain has acquired a yellowish-brown tint with dark spots from numerous micro-hemorrhages. The arachnoid (arachnoid) membrane (next after the dural and preceding the pia mater) has lost its transparency and became cloudy, like a cataract on the eye.Yes, this brain resembled the surface of a desert planet. But the view is often deceiving. That afternoon, when William recovered from anesthesia, I visited him in the neurosurgical intensive care unit.

– How was the operation? – Seeing me, he immediately asked.
“As expected,” I assured.
“I know it myself,” and William raised his left hand, demonstrating that it had regained the ability to move normally.

Although William’s brain had clearly lost its youthful luster, his mind remained razor-sharp, and his example teaches us that brain atrophy is not the same as mental atrophy.

Typical picture of brain aging

Shrinkage is just one of many processes occurring in the aging brain, and some of them, as we will see below, offer hefty benefits. The most obvious changes, and far from for the better, occur with memory, and it is known to be of four types.

Semantic memory is general knowledge about the world, starting with who Isaac Newton is, and ending with the taste of a donut and where your place of work is located – in other words, all kinds of basic facts and semantic characteristics of concepts, incomprehensible for computers and robots.Fortunately, when the brain naturally ages, this vast body of knowledge is not only preserved intact, but also continues to replenish if a person acquires new knowledge in his declining years.

Procedural memory is our knowledge of how certain actions are performed. How to dress in the morning when you get out of bed? How to ride a bike? How to swim? Once acquired, procedural memory is held firmly in the brain, unbreakable like a rock. Performance is diminished with age due to the natural slowing of reflexes – although at the time of this writing, 76-year-old race car driver Morgan Shepherd is still racing in NASCAR.

Event, or autobiographical, memory is memories of events in our life. Where was your kindergarten located? When did you first meet your half? What did you eat for breakfast yesterday? And where, in the name of all that is holy, did they put the keys? This type of memory tends to weaken naturally with age. In fact, event memory reaches its peak of strength and acuteness in the middle of the third decade of life, after which it gradually and gradually decreases.And that’s why we can perfectly remember the words of the songs we loved in adolescence, but we can hardly remember the plot of the film we watched last year. Fortunately, now smartphones come to our aid, which allow us to record and restore events that fall out of event memory in many ways.

Operative (working) memory is a kind of laboratory, the working space of the brain. This type of memory allows you to keep in mind a number of facts and figures and operate with them.However, it has its limits – that is why it is so difficult to multiply 36 by 42 in the mind. Moreover, the older we get, the more the limits of our working memory are narrowed. And this is also the reason why the most important works of many outstanding mathematicians, musicians and physicists most often occur in their young years … and why problems that once seemed simple are given more and more difficult over the years. It is this kind of memory, thanks to which we are able to simultaneously do several things (multitasking) and, torn between various obligations, still fulfill them, and most healthy people would like to optimize.Working memory plus creativity is key to being productive. Brain training companies and programs pay a lot of attention to keeping working memory at its peak.

What physical changes underlie the changes that occur with age in memory and other brain functions? There are at least four of them.

1. Loss of sensory functions , in particular due to impaired vision and hearing. Research has shown that age-related hearing loss (senile hearing loss) is directly related to cognitive decline, in part because the brain region thought to be used for higher forms of cognitive activity is instead forced to work hard to pick up fainter sounds.

2. Reduction of interhemispheric asymmetry (and whether the H A-ROLD hypothesis of aging, short for Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction at Old Age, explaining brain aging by a predominant decrease in the functional activity of the left hemisphere) in elderly people. If in young people there is a normal unevenness of the electrical activity of the left and right prefrontal areas of the cerebral cortex, then with age both halves of the brain are activated, and the further, the more and more the same, especially when solving problems related to memory or visual perception.In a sense, the brain seems to give the command to “whistle everyone up!” – as if he felt that in order to solve problems with which he previously easily coped with one hemisphere, now he needs help from the other.

3. Decrease in the level of neurotransmitters . Starting in older adolescence, dopamine levels, which are responsible for both locomotor activity and reward-seeking behavior (along with a host of other things), decline by about 10% every ten years.As a result, some, and especially people with individually low dopamine levels, develop Parkinson’s disease. It is characterized by muscle tremor, their increasing stiffness and sluggishness. In others, the decrease in dopamine levels is manifested in the fact that the heat of youthful ambition gradually subsides. Likewise, levels of serotonin and other neurotransmitters gradually decrease with age.

4. The fall in hormonal levels with age in both men and women. In the early stages of life, the growth hormone estrogen, as well as male steroids, play an important role in the formation of the structure and functions of the brain, and a gradual decrease in their level is also associated with some changes.

However, not all age-related changes in the brain are considered unfavorable. Studies show that older people are more satisfied with life, more prosperous, and much more emotionally stable than adolescents and young people.

Dilip Jeste, MD, who is the director of the Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging at the University of California, San Diego, has published a series of articles in leading scientific journals in psychiatry and neuroscience on a topic that he tentatively calls the neuroscience of wisdom.

“As we move forward,” writes Dr. Jeste, “neuroscience extends to matters that were previously considered untenable because of their vagueness, such as consciousness, and turns them into legitimate areas of scientific research. Wisdom appears here as the highest object of study, to which scientists were still too afraid to touch. ” One of the most startling and promising discoveries, according to Dr. Jeste, is that as people age, “physical health declines, as does cognitive ability, but happiness increases over the years, as does life satisfaction.This is partly due to acquired wisdom, which allows you to more correctly assess what is important in life. ”

Heart and Mind

Improved therapies for heart disease have played an important role in the plummeting incidence of dementia since the 1970s. And what is good for the heart is actually a great benefit for the brain. The measures that we are taking today to prevent the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the heart arteries also support healthy patency of the cerebral vessels.Cholesterol-lowering drugs have dramatically reduced the prevalence of coronary heart disease; Moreover, they are effective even for people who lead a sedentary lifestyle and eat foods that are harmful to heart health. More recently, statins, a class of lipid-lowering drugs designed to lower cholesterol, have been shown to reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease in most people. A large study of 400,000 people covered by the national Medicare program (mostly 65 and older) recently found that men who take statins have an average 12% lower risk of developing the disease3, and women who take statins the figure is 15%.High blood pressure has long been known to be a source of risk for cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. As found in one large study, with an increase in systolic blood pressure for every next 10 mm Hg. Art. the risk of worsening brain health increases by 9%. It is known that one in three Americans suffers from hypertension, and therefore I urge you to get tested on this, and the sooner the better: high blood pressure already in middle age is strongly associated with the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease in later years.

The prevention of blood clots with blood thinners is also beneficial to the brain, although taking them also carries some risks. For example, the fact that William took baby aspirin on a daily basis could contribute to cerebral hemorrhage, the elimination of the consequences of which required surgery. This drug is only recommended for those diagnosed with heart disease. Even so, new studies suggest that people over 75 who started taking baby aspirin after having a heart attack or stroke have a higher risk of potentially fatal gastric bleeding than previously thought.And therefore, even though aspirin is sold over the counter, it should be remembered that this medicine is far from harmless. Talk to your doctor before taking it.

Finally, there is another condition that has long been known to seriously increase the risk of heart disease, and which has recently been discovered that can mess things up in the aging brain, is diabetes. It significantly increases the risk of developing dementia. Especially persistently elevated blood sugar in those who do not receive proper treatment.According to a recent survey of nearly 13,000 older adults, the higher their peak blood sugar levels, the greater their risk of developing dementia.

Secrets of Healthy Aging

There is great news about brain aging: More than ever, more people are crossing the 80-year mark with excellent cognitive health than ever, thanks to a sharp drop in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. And while the overall number of people with dementia is increasing as life expectancy has increased, the risk of senile dementia is actually lower now than it used to be.Since the 1970s, the chance of all-cause dementia has decreased by 20% every ten years. And this proves that lifestyle plays a critical role in how our brains age, and dementia does not at all hang over us with a formidable inevitability.

There are three ways to improve your chances of keeping your brain youthful in old age.

1. Education .
Since the 1970s, the prevalence of dementia in people with at least complete secondary education has almost halved, as shown by numerous studies, this factor plays an important role in reducing the risk of developing dementia towards old age.Moreover, on average, people with higher education of the first stage (bachelor’s degree) and those who have continued higher education look even better in this indicator. But even those who started college but did not graduate, on average, retain their cognitive health longer than those who limited themselves to a high school diploma. Accordingly, high school graduates are more likely to maintain cognitive health than high school dropouts.

Education has a beneficial effect and pays off in terms of brain health, as it contributes to the acquisition of the so-called cognitive people with higher intelligence (due in part to the fact that they have studied for longer), the brain can afford to lose more neurons before signs of declining intelligence begin to show. That is why two people with outwardly identical brains, that is, with the same degree of its age-related shrinkage, can drastically differ in the duration of the preservation of cognitive health. In a word, everyone who finds the best use of their brain, constantly asking its “gears” to work, are able to painlessly survive the loss of more brain matter than those whose brain vegetates in inaction.

2. Social relations .
Neurologist Emily Rogalski is conducting a Super Agers5 study at Northwestern University in Chicago, observing a group of two dozen “super-olds” over 80 who retain cognitive ability at the same level as people in their sixties. She selected volunteers for her program as follows: she read out 15 randomly selected words to the applicants, and after half an hour asked to reproduce. The average 80-year-old can only remember five out of 15 words.The average 50-year-old is nine. Emily’s program included those 80-year-olds who managed to remember at least nine words – and some came up with 15!

One of the factors that make these wonderful old people Emily stand out from their peers is that they are more pronounced extroverts and have more social contacts, which is not so surprising: numerous studies indicate that the higher the degree of socialization, the stronger the interpersonal relationships with friends or family. , The lower the risk of developing dementia.Studies have shown that people with a wide social circle reduce the risk of developing senile dementia by 25-50% compared with those whose contacts are limited to just a few friends or relatives.

I am not at all urging you at 75 to suddenly become avid party-goers. I just emphasize that it is very useful to get out of the house and maintain live communication – this is how you bring real physical benefits to your brain, since it needs stimulation as a guarantee of long-term health.

And then, one should not confuse loneliness and social isolation. Some researchers have found that loneliness – the feeling of being cut off from others – increases the risk of cognitive decline6. And may those who feel quite comfortable alone with a book and a cup of tea be healthy. But if you suffer from a lack of communication, then leave the house, get out of the shell and communicate.

What about Ronald Reagan? his social circle was such that we never dreamed of, and yet at the age of 83 he was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease.I would argue: we are using averages. And don’t let them scare you. Not every lover of loneliness is doomed to dementia, just as the over-communicative are not immune from its arrival.

Social networks

In the course of one curious study, it was found that in superagers – these are people over 80 years old, whose thinking abilities remain at the same level as young people – social connections are on average stronger than those elderly whose mental abilities naturally grow with age. are decreasing.While older people are the fastest growing demographic on a number of social networks, scientists are just beginning to explore whether social media activity and online interactions are legitimate in terms of brain aging. The first results are encouraging.

For example, a recent study found that older people who join social networks and become more networked have fewer chronic diseases and symptoms of depression.And a study published in Proceedings from the Royal Society even showed that older social media patrons have a higher density of neurons in the frontal lobes, which are responsible for speech and memory.

For children and young people, spending too much time on social media can be depressing or anxious. I never tire of repeating that everything is good in moderation. However, it is much more dangerous when the elderly are left alone, cut off from other people, isolated from communication.And therefore, for their sake, at all costs, it is necessary and must encourage them to make virtual contacts.

I am sure that scientists will still prove that social networks are beneficial for middle-aged people.

3. Physical activity .
This is one of the absolute, best ways to maintain and even improve cognitive health. Numerous studies have shown that exercise programs directly enhance brain function. And oddly enough, it turned out that cardiovascular exercises (to strengthen the cardiovascular system) lag behind in this sense – they bring the least benefit to the brain of the elderly.But research by Theresa Lu-Ambrose at the University of British Columbia has shown that, in contrast to cardiovascular exercises, resistance training improves cognitive function. But even more curious, at least to me, is that similar cognitive health benefits of exercise were found in two clinical trials – reported in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Diseases and in the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry – among randomly selected older adults who offered to practice traditional Chinese Tai Chi.

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