Malaysian culture clothing: Traditional Costume – Culture Of Malaysia

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Traditional Costume – Culture Of Malaysia

Malay

Traditional Malay attire for men is the baju melayu, a loose tunic which is worn over trousers and usually accompanied with a sarong called a sampin which is wrapped around the hips. It is also often accompanied with a songkok or cap.

Malay women wear the baju kurung, a knee-length blouse worn over a long skirt. The blouse is long-sleeved and collarless, while the skirt, called a kain, has pleats on one side.A headscarf is sometimes worn with this. Another popular traditional costume is the kebaya, a more tight-fitting two-piece dress. This is often considered less formal. It is worn by the female flight attendants of Malaysia Airlines.

Prior to the wide embrace of Islam, Malay women wore “kemban”, which were sarongs which were tied just above the chest.


Chinese

The classical everyday clothing for men in Malaysia is a short sleeved shirt worn outside the trousers, light-weight trousers and informally, sandals for comfort.

The Chinese women wear the cheongsam, a one-piece dress with a high collar, diagonally closed with small clips or toggles (fabric clasps). It sometimes can have slits at the side, as is made with a soft fabric such as silk.The cheongsam is especially popular around the time of the Chinese New Year and other formal gatherings. Older well-respected women wear a samfoo, which looks like pajamas with a separate loose fitting top fastened by toggles and ankle length, or above the ankle, pants.


Indian

Indians in Malaysia as with elsewhere in the world wear sarees, a cloth of 5-6 yards which is usually worn with a petticoat of a similar shade. It is wrapped around the body so that the embroidered end hangs over the shoulder, while the petticoat is worn above the bellybutton to support the saree, which can be made from a wide variety of materials. The Punjabi Salwar kameez is popular with women from northern India, and is a long tunic worn over trousers with a matching shawl. The fabric imported from India, made of the best quality silk is used in making saris. There are two layers to a sari: a long bright coloured “dress” decorated with colourful beads sewn on it to make it look more attractive, and a wrap, a piece of straight fabric draped around one shoulder which ties across the body around the waist area. Women with a high standing will have their clothing made from gold and silver thread with elaborate beading.

In formal occasions Indian men wear the “kurta”, a knee-length shirt usually made from cotton or linen. The Indian men wear Sherwani, Lungi, Dhoti and Kurta-Pajama.The Sherwani: a coat like garment fitted close to the body, of knee-length or longer and opening in front with button-fastenings. Below the men wear a garment for the lower part of the body, baggy and wide at the top tied with a string at the waist, and tight around the legs and ankles.

The Lungi: The traditional lungi originated in the south and today it is worn by men and women alike. It is simply a short length of material worn around the thighs rather like a sarong.

The Dhoti: The most ancient recorded Indian drape is a dhoti. They require a piece of cloth which seems longer and larger than what was worn in the past, but their pleating is often simpler, and they are not adorned with belts any more. All dhotis begin with the same basic closing. It is the only drape that doesn’t start from one pallav but from the centre of the upper border. The middle of the cloth is tied around the hips. Each end of the cloth is then draped around the leg on its side.

The Kurta-Pyjama: The Kurta or the top is a knee length colarless shirt which is adorned inmostly white or pastel colours. But today you will find Kurtas made out of the most wonderful and colourful of fabrics. Pyjama-are like loose trousers with a string tie at the waist. Traditionally white in colour.


“Sinuangga” and “tapi” is known as the traditional garments for Kadazandusun women. They wear short shirts which is sinuangga, wrap-skirt tapi and batik scarf fitted with belt himpogot (silver dollar coins) and some gold jewellery such as necklace (hamai), bangles (gohong), earrings (simbong), ring (sinsing) and brooch (pawn). The basic material for making sinuangga is black commercial fabric, silk or velvet for ceremonial occasions. It is made from cotton for daily wear. Sinuangga is a blouse with short sleeves and U-neck worn by younger women. It is having sober embroidery along the opening for head and arms, and along the seams at the sides and along the middle of the back which is red, yellow and cream cotton yarn.The gold-plated silver betawi buttons are looped through a string on the inside. Betawi buttons used to be fixed all the way up to the neck for ceremonial occasions and half way up from the lower end of the blouse for daily wear. Now days, the buttons are tied together from the top down to the bottom of the blouse with a cotton thread. There are thirty or more gold buttons sewn in a double row on sinuangga.

“Tapi” is a long cylindrical wrap-skirt and formerly of plain black cotton. Now days, it is often enlivened with siring which is gold trimming, running over the hips, in front of the skirt, crossed by another band of trimming from the waist down. A Kadazandusun lady wearing the traditional costume normally emphasize the slimness of their waist is considered as beautiful.

Gaung and souva is the traditional garments of the ethnic Kadazandusun men. Gaung is a long-sleeved shirt without embroidery. It is decorated with gold trimming and gold buttons on now days. Souva ia a black trousers worn with waistband that is “toogot” and there are gold trimming on the seams along the hips for modern trousers. Besides, the headcover of handwomen kain kasar which is called “siga” is also worn to complete a look. Siga can be either folded or twisted. They wear it for ceremonial purposes such as Harvest Festival. The material for making siga is cotton. It is come from a “fruit” called Kapok. The dyes also comes from plants.  


Iban

The Iban traditional costume for women is “marik empang” and kain kebat. Marik empang is a combination of beads and hand-stitched cotton decorative outer garment. It is usually red in colour. Iban women require to wear marik empang at any occasion or festival. The “ngajat” or the traditional Iban dance performed by an Iban women must wear the “marik empang” as part of the outer garment adorning her shoulder. Kain kebat, which is a cloth patterned by the ikat (tie) technique. Normally, the kain kebat is decorated with colorful stripes pattern design. It is made of cotton as well. This kain kebat is narrow and its length is only about until knee. The Iban women wear the dress consisting of kain kebat, “marik empang” which is a chest adornment, the sugu tinggi headdress and other silver ornaments such as coin belt and bangles.

The traditional garment of Iban men is called kelambi and “sirat”. There are two types of kelambi which is sleeved and sleeveless. Kelambi worn by men Iban during certain ceremonies. Cutting of kelambi is very simple which consists of a rectangular piece of cloth folded double.

The loincloth is a garment of great antiquity, is now distinctively ignored among modern Ibans. Barkcloth is the original material for loincloths. The way to tying a “sirat” is take a strip of material about 10 inches wide and 10 to 12 feet long, the end of the cloth is decorated with beautiful embroidery or weaving. Men’s traditional Iban costumes wear “sirat” with a very long loincloth around the waist and between the two stocks, one end through the legs hanging in front which is dress like a apron and the other end around the waist. There should be a little “tail” (iko sirat in Iban) in the back. The loincloth worn in this way is quite secure and will not fall off. Furthermore, they also wear accessories such as a belt, armlet and anklet made from silver and a headgear decorated with hornbill feathers.


Bidayuh

The traditional Bidayuh costume set for women comprises the short-sleeved or sleeveless blouse, ‘jomuh’ (skirt), and matching accessories such as the ‘selapai’ (sash), ‘pangiah’ (bead necklace), ‘porik’ (copper/ metal belt) and ‘sipiah’ (headgear).

The men wear a ‘tawuop’ or ‘tahup’ (long loin- cloth wrapped around the body with one end hanging down in front and the other at the back), the ” burang sumba” (headgear) and occasionally the “kima” (armlets).

The Bidayuh vest is a sleeveless garment covering the upper body. The sleeveless, waist or hip-length garment, with a front opening and worn over a shirt, blouse, dress, or other cloth for style. Very practical to wear during any function and celebration like Gawai, official meeting or dinner. It is a Bidayuh identity and a must have for a Bidayuh men. Like any fashion, the vest can also be worn by other community for its practicality. The Bidayuh vest comes in black colour cloth with white and red stripe, the colours for Bidayuh community. With yellow added to the stripe, it makes the vest looks more vibrant to anyone who wears it.

The “pangiah” (bead necklace) is made of high quality ceramic beads and pendants that is worn around the neck. Its pendants are either from the tooth of wild animals or artificial tooth that add a modern touch to the necklace. The “pangiah” is a very colourful rows of beads stitched/tied together with strings of nylon or small wires stripe. It is an ideal accessory for Bidayuh women which can be worn during official functions, cultural dinners and also for everyday use. The “pangiah” is one of the Bidayuh’s identities and a must have for Bidayuh ladies.

Traditional Clothes of Malaysia | Tsem Rinpoche

Malaysia is a beautiful country with diverse cultures and a rich history. People from different ethnic backgrounds have distinct sets of traditional attire that reflect their cultures. I wanted to share with you just how varied and beautiful clothes in Malaysia can be. Here are some of the more common ethnic costumes worn by Malaysians that show their vibrant cultural heritage.

Tsem Rinpoche

 


 

Malay Clothes

The baju kurung comprises two parts: a blouse and a long skirt

Before the 20th century and the advent of Islam, Malay women used to wear the kemban, which was a sarong, or long piece of cloth, that was wrapped around the body and left the shoulders bare. The universal adoption of Islam as the main religion amongst Malays saw the demise of the kemban and the rise of the more modest and yet elegant baju kurung. The baju kurung comprises two parts: a blouse and a long skirt. The blouse is loose-fitting and varies in length between the hip and the knee. Traditionally, it also features long sleeves, but modern designs have shown off a three-quarter length with bell sleeves and flares. The skirt goes down to the ankle and has pleats on one side to facilitate walking and sitting. The outfit can be made with traditional songket or batik fabric, or with simple floral or batik designs on cotton or any modern fabric blend. To complete the outfit, the women would usually wear a shawl, also known as a selendang, or a headscarf like the tudung or hijab.

Women in baju kurung

Men in baju melayu

The traditional attire for Malay men is the baju melayu. It consists of a loose long-sleeved top worn over trousers and a sampin, or short sarong wrapped around the hips. To complete the look, the Malay men wear a cap known as a songkok.

 

Significance of the Tudung

A woman wearing tudung

Tudung is a Malay term for the headscarf, veil, or shawl that covers the hair, neck, and chest area, and leaves only the woman’s face exposed. The tudung is sometimes referred to by the Arabic word hijab, which means ‘barrier’, and satisfies the part of the Islamic dress code that calls for Muslim women to dress modestly.

Although the tudung is not mandatory before puberty, some parents start training their daughters to wear the tudung from a much younger age. The decision to adopt the tudung as a part of one’s daily wear is usually a personal one, and it is a commitment that is kept for life.

Children wearing tudung

 

How to Wear

Kemban

A woman in kemban and a man in sarong

There are two different kinds of sarongs – a long piece of cloth, and a piece of cloth sewn along the width to form a tubular shape. With the tubular sarong, you step or slip into the centre and pull it up right under your arms. Wrap the sides of the sarong in front of you and fold a few inches of cloth down so that it holds the sarong tightly around your body. Then, roll that fold down a couple of times to ensure that the sarong does not fall down.

The flat sarong requires draping it across your back while holding a corner in each hand. Wrap the fabric around your body. To make things easier, you can keep the fabric underneath your arms so that your hands are free to twist the corners of the sarong before making a knot at chest level.
Tudung

How to wear tudung

There are many ways to fashion a scarf or shawl into a tudung. The basic triangle style works well with any type of square-shaped fabric.

  1. Fold one of the corners of the scarf down diagonally to the opposite corner to form a triangular shape.
  2. Place the long folded side of the scarf on top of your forehead. The two ends of the scarf will be draping over your shoulders, and the apex of the triangle will be hanging over the back of your head.
  3. Open your mouth as you pinch the edges of the scarf under your chin, and then pin them down. Your mouth is opened so that you will have ample space to move your jaw once the tudung is in place.
  4. Next, cross the ends of the scarf over your neck so that the left goes to the right, and vice versa. The tails of the scarf should be draping across your neck and down the back of your shoulders.
  5. Pull the two ends to the back of your head and pin them together underneath the back corner of the scarf.
  6. Adjust the tudung, and you will be good to go.

There are ready-made alternatives that are available off-the-shelf from retail stores that allow you to slide your head in through the opening of the scarf. Once the scarf is in place and you have made a little adjustment, you will be ready to show off your new style.

Please keep in mind that Muslim women wear the tudung as a form of commitment to themselves and their religion. Please do not take the wearing of a tudung as a joke in any way, and be respectful of these beautiful people.
Sampin

Malay men wearing sampin

The sampin is worn similar to the kemban, except that it is worn at either the waist or the hips. After slipping into the centre of the circular sarong and pulling it up to waist level, fold the two ends inwards so that the sarong is wrapped snugly around you. Fold the first few inches of the sarong down, and continue folding it until the sampin falls just below the knee. Complete your outfit with a songkok.

 

Where to Buy

Traditional Malay attire can be found in many major shopping malls in Malaysia. One such place is Wisma Yakin which has a wide selection of the traditional Malay attire.

Wisma Yakin
Jalan Masjid India,
City Centre, 50100
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

How to Get to Wisma Yakin
If you are taking the LRT, the nearest stations are the Bandaraya LRT Station and the Masjid Jamek LRT Station, which are both within walking distance of Wisma Yakin. Jalan Masjid India is a triangular enclave bordered by the streets of Jalan Ampang, Jalan Dang Wangi, and Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman. You can also use a taxi or an Uber to get there.

 

Chinese Clothes

A woman wearing a traditional cheongsam

The Chinese have adopted a comfortable yet elegant piece of traditional wear called the cheongsam, which is also known as a ‘long dress’. This is also a popular fashion choice for the modern-day woman. The cheongsam is often made of shimmering silk with embroidered satin or other sensual fabrics. It is a one-piece dress that has a high collar with frog closure buttons that run down from the neck to the upper side of the chest. It is a full-length and form-fitting dress with thigh-high slits either on one or both sides of the dress. The cheongsam has moved with the times, and now offers shorter variations which are popular with the younger set.

The samfoo is another traditional Chinese attire, but it is usually worn by older and more mature women. Similar to pyjamas, it is a two-piece garment with a loose-fitting top worn over three-quarter length or ankle-length pants.

A variety of samfoo

While there is no particular traditional wear for the men, one may find button-up shirts that are made from similar materials as the cheongsam. These shirts can be either long-sleeved or short-sleeved with frog closure buttons running down the centre.

 

Where to Buy

Chinese traditional wear can be found in major shopping malls around Kuala Lumpur and Malaysia. If you happen to be shopping outside of the Chinese New Year period, however, Central Market in Kuala Lumpur is your best option for cultural dresses and items.

Central Market
Jalan Hang Kasturi,
City Centre, 50050
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
http://www.centralmarket.com.my/

Central Market in Kuala Lumpur

How to Get to Central Market
If you are travelling by train, you can take the Kelana Jaya Line and stop at the Pasar Seni Station, which is located right across from Central Market in Kuala Lumpur. You can also take the Ampang Line, but you will have to alight at the Masjid Jamek Station which is a 15-minute walk from Central Market. If you take the KTM Commuter, the Kuala Lumpur Station is only a 5-minute walk away.

If you plan on taking a bus, use the following Rapid KL Bus services:
821, 822, 851, 180, 640, 650, 651, 652, 772, 780, 781, 782, 750, 751, 752, 770, 771, BET1, BET3, BET4.

You can also use The KL Hop-On Hop-Off buses. These are City Tour Buses that stops at the station right across from Central Market Kuala Lumpur. Another option is GOKL, a free city bus service that stops right across from Central Market. You can also use a taxi or an Uber to get there.

 

Indian

Indian women wearing sari

The sari is the most recognizable of traditional Indian wear. The sari itself is 4-8 metres in length and about 0.6-1.2 meters wide. A petticoat is worn underneath the sari with a matching or contrasting choli, which is a tight-fitting midriff blouse with or without sleeves. The whole sari is wrapped around the body, reaching just under or above the navel, with the extensively embroidered or printed end draping over the left shoulder. The breadth of the garment reaches from the waist down to the floor and is tied tightly at the waist with a drawstring. The colour of the petticoat should match the base colour of the sari as closely as possible. It functions as a support garment to help hold the sari in place.

The women from Northern India, however, wear the salwar kameez, also known as a Punjabi suit. It is a long dress-like, sleeveless top that is worn over trousers, and matched with a shawl to complete the look.

Indian men wearing kurta

Indian men traditionally wear a kurta and trousers during formal occasions. The kurta is a long knee-length shirt typically made of cotton or linen.

 

How to Wear

How to wear an Indian sari

Sari

  1. First, choose a petticoat that matches the base colour of the sari. The petticoat will not be visible once the sari has been put on.
  2. A fitting choli will be worn as well. The choli will end below the bust area, leaving the waist and navel area exposed.
  3. Next, you will start by tucking the plain end of the sari into the petticoat at a start position just a bit to the right side of the navel. The other end will be flowing down to the ground so you will have to make sure that it is not dragging on the floor.
  4. Once the length is fixed, you can bring the remaining length of the sari to the left side from the back, wrapping once around yourself, so that the sari is right back in front of you on the right side.
  5. You will continue tucking the sari into the petticoat while making sure that the sari draping on you does not touch the floor.
  6. Next, make around five to seven folds of equal width, about 5 inches per fold, starting from the end of the tucked-in sari.
  7. Gather the folds together neatly, making sure that the lower edges of the pleats are straight, even, and not touching the ground.
  8. Pin them down with a safety pin to prevent the pleats from unfolding.
  9. Tuck the folds neatly into the petticoat at the waist, where the folds are slightly to the left of the navel, so that the pleats open to your left side.
  10. Drape the remaining fabric around your hips one more time from the left, going behind you, and back to the right again, while you hold on to the top edge of the sari.
  11. When the sari comes back to the front, you will drape it over your left shoulder so that end of the sari is hanging down your back. You can also use a safety pin to fix the sari to the choli at the shoulder so that it does not fall off.

Salwar Kameez

Indian women in salwar kameez

The salwar pants usually have an elastic waist or a drawstring at the front. You can also determine which is the front and back of the trousers by looking at where the pockets are located. Once you put on the pants, adjust the legs so that the fabric flows down nicely. The blouse may have beads, hooks, or special designs on them, so be careful not to catch them in your hair while you are slipping into the top. To complete the whole look, wear the shawl over your shoulders, around your neck, or just drape it over one of your shoulders.

 

Where to Buy

Little India in Brickfields, Kuala Lumpur

You can find traditional Indian wear at the Little India here in Kuala Lumpur. Just head down to Brickfields, and you will have a wide range of styles to choose from.

Brickfields
Jalan Travers to Jalan Tun Sambanthan,
Brickfields, Kuala Lumpur

How to Get to Brickfields
By train, you can take either the Putra LRT Line, or the KL Monorail, stop at the KL Sentral station, and walk over to Brickfields. You can also take a taxi or an Uber to Brickfields.

 

Peranakan Clothes

Ladies in kebaya pendek

The Peranakans are a unique culture that began when Chinese immigrants began marrying into the local Malay community many centuries ago. They are also known as the Baba-Nyonyas. “Baba” refers to the men, and “Nyonya” refers to the women.

The Nyonya’s traditional attire is the nyonya kebaya, which is worn with a batik sarong as a skirt, and three kerosang, or brooches, holding the jacket closed and in place. The women also wear a pair of hand-made beaded slippers, called the kasot manek-manek, to complete the look. The traditional kasot manek-manek is a pair of hand-sewn slippers where glass beads are strung up and sewn onto a canvas. It often features European floral designs with strong, Peranakan-influenced colours.

The Nyonya clothing consists of three layers, which are the inner wear, the outer jacket, and the sarong. The outer jacket is usually made of sheer materials, like gauze cotton, voile, or georgette. The inner wear is usually a traditional camisole called choli. The jackets are extensively embroidered with emphasis at the collar, sleeves, and hems. The embroidery is usually done by hand as machine-sewn embroidery do not look as intricate as the hand-sewn pieces. The nyonya kebaya usually uses a sarong with a Batik Java design.

Peranakan women in baju panjang

The nyonya kebaya comes in two basic styles. The first is the baju panjang, which features a longer, straight-cut jacket that comes down to the knee. It is usually worn by the more mature ladies, and is made out of a sheer material. A set of three kerosang is used to secure the front of the baju panjang. An embroidered cotton handkerchief is tucked in at the collar area to complete the look. The second style is called the kebaya pendek. It is preferred by the younger nyonyas as the hip-length jacket accentuates the figure.

A peranakan groom wearing baju lokchuan

The Babas wear a baju lokchuan, which is similar to what the Chinese men would wear. Others may prefer to wear a long-sleeved shirt with a Chinese collar, or just a batik shirt.

 

How to Wear

Sarong for the Nyonya Kebaya
It is very easy to wear the sarong. Just slip into the circular sarong and position yourself on the left side of the sarong while holding the right end of the sarong with your left hand. Using your right hand, hold down the front part of the sarong so that it fits nicely across your abdomen. With your left hand, fold the remaining material towards your left hip while still holding on to the front and back edges where it meets on the right side of your hip. Secure everything tightly and then fold the top of the sarong at your waist level in an outward manner. Make sure that the sarong does not drag on the floor, then turn it so that the end of the sarong folds in front of your left thigh. Usually, a belt is required to secure the sarong.

 

Where to Buy

Jonker street in Melaka, Malaysia

The best place to get Peranakan items is Malacca, which has a rich history of Peranakan culture, at either Jonker Street or the Hatten Square Melaka Mall. If you are in Kuala Lumpur, there are a few stores in Central Market that sell traditional Peranakan attire.

Jonker Street
Jalan Hang Jebat,
75200 Melaka, Malaysia

Hatten Square
Jalan Merdeka,
Bandar Hilir,
75000 Melaka, Malaysia
http://www.hattensquare.com.my/

Central Market
Jalan Hang Kasturi,
50050 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
http://www.centralmarket.com.my/

Hatten Square, Melaka, Malaysia

How to Get to Central Market
If you are travelling by train, you can take the Kelana Jaya Line and stop at the Pasar Seni Station, which is located right across from Central Market in Kuala Lumpur. You can also take the Ampang line, but you will have to alight at the Masjid Jamek Station and walk 15 minutes to Central Market. If you take the KTM Commuter, the Kuala Lumpur Station is only a 5-minute walk away.

If you are taking a Rapid KL Bus service, take the following buses:
821, 822, 851, 180, 640, 650, 651, 652, 772, 780, 781, 782, 750, 751, 752, 770, 771, BET1, BET3, BET4.

You can also take the KL Hop-On Hop-Off buses. This is a city tour bus that stops at the station right across from Central Market. Alternatively, use the free GOKL city bus service that travels selected routes in the city and stops right across from Central Market. You can also use a taxi or an Uber to get there.

 

Portuguese-Eurasian

Women of Portuguese-Eurasian descent in Melaka wearing their traditional attires

The Portuguese-Eurasians are descendants of 16th century Portuguese settlers who made their home in Malacca. Their traditional attire strongly reflects their heritage. The colours black and red dominate their traditional costumes. The men wear jackets and trousers with waist sashes, while the women wear broad front-layered skirts.

 

Sarawak

There are many different cultures in Sarawak. However, there are three main ethnic groups in Sarawak whose traditional wear are more frequently seen.

 

Iban

An Iban couple in traditional attire

The women wear the Ngepan Iban which is made up of 11 components. The entire costume can weigh up to 5kg (approximately 11lbs), and is worn during special occasions, ceremonies, rituals, and dances.

The full Ngepan Iban consists of the following:

  1. The sugu tinggi, or silver headdress.
  2. The marek empang or tangu, which is worn around the neck and rests on the shoulders of the person wearing it.
  3. The kain karap or the kebat, which is a traditional woven skirt that is worn around the waist.
  4. The lampit, or silver belt.
  5. The rawai, or silver corset.
  6. The tumpa pirak or bentuk, which are the silver bangles encircling the wrists.
  7. The gelang kaki or gerunchung, which are also known as anklets.
  8. The silver purse, or buah pauh.
  9. The selampai, or sash.
  10. The tali ujan or mulung, which is a fine silver chain.
  11. The sementing buchai or sengkiling, which is a coin corset with dangling coins.

The traditional attire for the men is known the baju burung, which is worn together with the sirat. The baju burung is a vest-like top, and the sirat is a long scarf-like cloth, about 25cm (10 inches) wide and 3-4m (10-12 feet) long, that is tied around the waist. The two ends of the scarf are used to cover the front and the back, so as not to expose themselves.

 

How to Wear

Sirat
Pull one end of the scarf from the back, between the buttocks, and to the front, to cover the private areas. Using the longer end of the scarf, circle the scarf around your hips under the other end that you first used. After securing the longer end of the scarf around your hips to the desired length, tie a knot above the area of your natal cleft.

 

Orang Ulu

Ulu women in their traditional attire

The Orang Ulu is made up of a few tribes, namely the Kenyah, Kayan, Kelabit, Klemantan, Lun Bawang, and Penan tribes. They wear their traditional attire only during important ritual ceremonies and the welcoming of guests.

The women wear a headdress called the lavong and a dress called the ketip, which are all handmade. The headdress is made of beads while the ketip is adorned with colourful beads and sequins.

 

Bidayuh

Bidayuh women in their traditional attire

The Bidayuh attire for women consists of a short-sleeved or sleeveless top, a skirt called the jomuh, and matching accessories, which includes the selapi (sash), pangiah (beaded necklace), porik (metal belt), and a sipiah (headdress).

The Bidayuh men wear a tawuop or tahup, which is a long piece of cloth that is wrapped around the body in such a way that the two ends hang down the front and back of the body. The male headdress is known as the burang sumba, and the armlets are called kima.

The pangiah is a beaded necklace made out of high-quality ceramic beads and pendants. The pendants on the pangiah are made from either the teeth of wild animals or from artificial teeth. The pangiah features very colourful rows of beads that are tied together with nylon strings or small stripes. It is the perfect accessory for Bidayuh women for official functions, cultural dinners, or everyday use. The pangiah shows the Bidayuh’s cultural identity and is one of the must-haves for a Bidayuh lady.

 

Sabah

Models in Sabah traditional clothes

There are around 32 groups of indigenous people in Sabah and just as many variations of tribal dress in different styles. Many of these groups have their own style and colour, although most of them use black as a base. Colour is added by sewing on beads of red, orange, white, and green. These traditional costumes will usually include antique bead necklaces and belts, hand-engraved silver jewellery, and belts of old silver dollar coins. Most of these accessories are treasured items. They are regarded as precious family heirlooms that are passed down from one generation to the next.

 

Kadazandusun

Kadazandusun women and man in their traditional attire

The Kadazandusun is the largest ethnic tribe in Sabah. The women of this culture wear short shirts known as the sinuangga, and a wrap skirt called the tapi. They have a batik scarf that is fitted with a himpogot belt made out of silver dollar coins. They accessorise with gold jewellery like the hamai (necklace), gohong (bangles), simbong (earrings), sinsing (ring), and pawn (brooch).

The base material for the sinuangga is black commercial fabric, with silk or velvet used for ceremonial occasions. For daily-wear purposes, it is made with cotton. Sinuangga is the short-sleeved blouse with a U-neckline that is worn by younger women. It has embroidery along the openings for the head and arms, the side seams, and along the middle of the back. The embroidery is made from red, yellow and cream cotton yarn. Gold buttons are fixed all the way from the neck to the waist on costumes meant for ceremonial or formal occasions. The tapi is a long wrap dress that is similar to the sarong.

The traditional wear for men is the gaung and souva. The gaung is a long-sleeved shirt with gold trimmings and buttons. The souva is a pair of long trousers that is worn with a waistband called the toogot. There are gold trimmings that run down the seams of the souva. The men also wear a siga, a type of headdress, on their heads to complete the full look. The siga is made of cotton and can be either folded or twisted. They are usually worn for ceremonial purposes.

 

Bajau

Bajau men in their traditional attire

They are considered the cowboys of the East. During special occasions, the Bajau men wear black, or sometimes a white long-sleeved shirt called a badu sampit. They have gold buttons running down the front of the shirt like a button down shirt, which is also decorated with silver flowers called intiras. They match the badu sampit with a pair of tight-fitting trousers. Both the shirt and trousers have gold trimmings sewn on. They would also usually wear a headpiece known as a podong. The Bajau man also carries a silver-hilted dagger called a karis by his side. The sheath is made from wood and silver. He will also carry a spear, or a bujak.

 

Rungus

Rungus men and women in their traditional attire

The traditional attire for the Rungus women is made with cloth processed from hand-grown and hand-spun cotton. A black cloth with little hand-stitched patterns is worn from the chest down to the waist. This forms the banat tondu, or the blouse, that is paired with the tapi rinugading, which is a knee-length skirt of the same material. There is also another scarf-like black cloth that is about 30cm (11.8 inches) long. It is slipped over the head and rests on the shoulders to drape over the arms like sleeves. The women wear this with what is called an orot, which is a belt made of stripped bark with little brass rings and beads weaved into it. The orot is worn around the hips with a string of beads, known as the lobokon, hung loosely from the orot. The orot is hand-made by the Rungus men using a technique that is known only to them. Long beaded necklaces, called sandang, are also worn diagonally over the shoulders. They often include ivory-white discs obtained from the shells of kima or animal bones.

The women’s hair are usually combed into a bun and adorned with a multi-coloured floral headdress called the titimbok. There is a thin band of beads, called the sisingal, which is tied around the forehead. A braid, made out of pieces of cloth sewn together in rows, is tied at the back of the neck.

 
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In Malaysia, heritage wear goes minimalist and modern

A standard baju kurung is sold as a set with a matching top and bottom in the same size, but that’s problematic for many women. “When I was younger, that was hard to wear because my upper and lower body were different so now, our brand sells separate pieces to cater to all body sizes,” Abu says. Her deconstructed take on the baju kurung is rooted in Japanese techniques — the ‘Alur Kimono Kurung’, for example, adds a kimono outline to the top that doubles up as an outer layer.

Sarungs are usually secured to the waist by a double knot but “as an active mother, you can’t move freely wearing it,” Abu says. To resolve that, she added a hidden zipper and hook to some versions while converting others into a pant and skirt combination.

“Modernity means inventing new methods for old things to fit into current culture. We always like something that can be mixed with various outfits,” she says.

Tangsi Tujuh, meanwhile, is making batik [ancient Javanese prints] more accessible. “Traditionally, batik isn’t sewn and isn’t really wearable for most women today,” Jaapar says. Tangsi’s batik sarungs come in stretchable cotton with rubber waistbands to complement all female bodies. “We make it easy to wear so women can squat or walk fast while still maintaining historical batik motifs.” Women’s kebaya blouses are typically tight-fitted, but Tangsi also offers a longer, looser unisex version that can be worn like a cardigan.

Asian roots for global audiences

Inspired by the multiple cultures of nusantara, a term given to the maritime regions of Southeast Asia, Tangsi celebrates what it calls “the art of nusantara living” or as Jaapar put it, “how the people of nusantara lived, how they preserved customs and spirituality”.

The idea of nusantara, which promotes pan-Asian connections, is evident across Tangsi’s work. Its debut 2018 collection paired the baju bugis [a variant of the baju kurung from the Bugis people of Indonesia’s Sulawesi island] with embroidery native to the Minangkabau community of West Sumatra in Indonesia. Elsewhere, a unisex shirt with a Nehru collar made from hemp cotton is a nod to the bygone Javanese dynasty of Mataram. “We look to educate others about the richness of our roots,” Jaapar says.

Malays are the largest racial group in Muslim-majority Malaysia, followed by the Chinese, Indians and indigenous factions. But just because these labels focus on Malay elements and launch collections for Eid, the biggest holiday in the Islamic calendar, that doesn’t mean they focus on Malay or Muslim customers. Designers say their work is open to anyone regardless of race or religion, with Southeast Asia being their prime market.

Clothes Of Malaysia: Easy Malay Vocab 101

This is another chapter of enriching your knowledge of culture and language! This time we will be looking into FASHION. Well, not exactly runway models, but Malay vocabulary on clothes and anything related to it. Before learning what these names are called in Malay, it is crucial to know some of the clothes of Malaysia. To be specific, the traditional clothes of Malaysia.

Let me refresh some of your memories of Malaysia. Malaysia is a beautiful multiracial and multicultural country. Some of the ethnic groups we have are Malays, Indian, Chinese, and non-Malay indigenous groups like the Dayak Tribe, the Iban Tribe, The Kadazan Tribe, and many more. Naturally, each of them has its own traditional clothes. This post would be extremely long if I have the chance to showcase every single traditional clothes, hence why I have to pick some important ones to share with all of you.

Clothes Of Malaysia:

First and foremost, let’s learn the basic words. ‘Clothes’ in Malay is called pakaian; while ‘traditional clothes’ can be translated into pakaian tradisional. You will see baju being repeated many times in this article; baju simply means ‘shirt’. Now, moving on to the clothes of Malaysia.

Malay

The Malay folk in Malaysia have several traditional clothes that are worth taking note of. When talking about Malay, it is important to know that Malays were not always Muslim. Islam is not always popular in this land of Malayans. So Malays have traditional clothes that they used to wear before and after their conversion to Islam.

Baju Kurung

Baju Kurung can be considered the most popular traditional clothing in Malaysia. The traditional Baju Kurung is a long-sleeved, knee-length (or sometimes shorter) blouse, paired with a long skirt that is called kain. This garment started to gain popularity after the Malay women needed to wear something more modest and elegant as they convert to Islam.

Some of the Baju Kurung variations include Baju Kurung Kedah, Baju Kurung Pahang, Baju Kurung Pesak, Baju Kurung Riau, and Baju Kurung Moden. The Baju Kurung is now the girls’ uniform for schools in Malaysia as well as formal wear for the government sector.

Before Islam, Malay women simply dorn a sarong that was wrapped around the body and tied above the chest. This act is called ‘kemban; Malaysians still use the word kemban as the act of covering one’s body by tieing a cloth or towel above the chest.

Baju Kebaya

Malay women also wear Baju Kebaya, a long-sleeved tight-fitting two-piece dress. The house is “button down” and made of light fabric mostly bright and full of floral patterns, sometimes the edges and sleeves are decorated with floral embroidery. It is usually paired with a sarong. This attire is very famous during the 70s and 80s and it is also the traditional wear of the Chinese Peranakan, known as Baba & Nyonya. Peranakan refers to the Chinese immigrants or early settlers who were likely to take local wives. The easiest way to understand the Baba & Nyonya community is to regard them as Malaysian Chinese who practices the Malay culture.

Tudung

Tudung in today’s context is simply a hijab or a headscarf. A hijab is something Muslim women cover their head, neck, and chest with, and it is called tudung in Malay. Of course, the one traditional to Malay women is called Tudung Bawal, a square scarf, folded into a triangle and placed above the head, to be pinned or tied under the chin. Of course, there are others, like the selendang, a piece of the shawl to sling around the head and neck, but those or mostly evolution of fashion and influenced by other country’s trends and fashion.

Baju Melayu

The traditional attire for Malay men is called the Baju Melayu. They do not wear this traditional attire daily, but usually, you would see men wear it during special occasions like Hari Raya, weddings, award ceremonies, and other formal occasions. Usually, due to comfort men wear only the long-sleeved top and its trousers only, but the complete look includes a piece of cloth or sarong being wrapped around the hips as well as a traditional Malay black cap called songkok.

Chinese

Cheongsam

Malaysian Chinese are descendants of Chinese from China, and they could not help but to retain some of their cultures from the mainland and mash it with Malaysian features and culture. We have discussed the Chinese women of the Baba & Nyonya community wearing Kebaya, but Chinese women in Malaysia particularly adorn the one-piece dress called Cheongsam during festivals and important events. Cheongsam is a long silk dress and has a high collar and a diagonal clasp.

Cheongsam itself is said to mean long dress, hence its length is usually long with slits on both sides. However, it is also common to see women wear Cheongsams of a shorter length.

Tang Suit

It is rare for Malaysian Chinese to put on any type of traditional attire. During the Chinese New Year in Malaysia, usually Chinese men wear collared shirts or button-downs in red. Nevertheless, they do have the traditional costume, Tang Suit, a jacket-type suit with a high collar. If you are a fan of Chinese history drama then you would probably recognize this attire.

Indians

Indians in Malaysia were mostly descendants from India. They have passed down and retain most of their traditions from India. The majority of the Indian immigrants were from West India but many North Indian cultures can be found in Malaysia too.

Sari

Malaysian Indian women wear the Sari (or Saree), a six-yard piece of cloth, draped and wrapped around the body and it is styled with a piece of a simple short-sleeved blouse under the Sari.

Although the younger generation would only wear Sari during festivities, some of the older generations actually prefer to be dressed in Sari all the time.

Among the youngsters, the Salwar Kameez and Lengha, an article of traditional clothing from north India is more popular. Salwar Kameez is a long tunic, paired with a pair of trousers and a shawl. The Lengha is an ankle-length skirt that is usually worn with a matching short blouse. All of these traditional clothes come in simple everyday designs or are full of decorations made of silver and gold thread and beads.

Kurta

For the festivities, Indian men wear Kurta, a knee-length, long-sleeved shirt paired with a pair of pants. The Indian traditional clothes that are found in Malaysia also include Sherwani, Lungi, and Dhoti.

Lungi / Kain Pelekat

The Lungi in Malaysia is very famous. It is worn by almost every Malay and Indian father every time they come back from work. It is almost like a sarong, but with wide lines as patterns. The Malays call it by a different name, Kain Pelekat.

Kadazan

Kadazandusun is the name of two indigenous tribes – Kadazan and Dusun- of Sabah, a state in Malaysia. They are considered indigenous to the land and have their own special rights.

The women’s traditional costume of the tribes is known as Sinuangga. It is a one-piece black dress (made out of velvet or silk), styled with gold embroidery and a chain tied around the waist made out of silver coins. They also wear a headpiece called Siung made from bamboo strips.

The men of Kadazan wear the male version of Sinuangga called Gaung and it is accompanied by Siga on the head.

These are some of the traditional clothing found in Malaysia, but the ones mentioned here are just a small portion, I was not joking when I say it is multicultural. The native people of Malaysia all have their own traditional clothes; not to mention other minor ethnicities that have been around in Malaysia for some time. Now that you have been educated about the culture, let’s learn a new Malay vocabulary!

 

Clothing Related Vocabulary: Malay

Malay English
Baju Shirt
Pakaian Clothes, clothing
Seluar Pants/trousers
Seluar pendek Shorts
Kain Skirt / cloth
Gaun Gown
Lengan Panjang Long-sleeved
Lengan pendek Short-sleeved
Jeans Jeans
Tudung Shawl/ headpiece/ Hijab
Baju Mandi Swimwear
Baju Sukan Sportswear
Bedak Powder
Gincu Lipstick
Poket Pocket
Butang Button
Jaket Jacket
Jubah Abaya / Thobe
Jam Watch
Cermin Mata Glasses
Rantai Necklace/chains
Gelang Bracelet / Bangles
Cincin Ring
Selendang Shawl/scarf
Tali pinggang Belt
Tali leher Necktie
Getah rambut Scrunchie
Klip rambut Hair clip
Subang / anting-anting Earings
Stokin Socks
Kasut Shoes
Selipar Slippers
Kasut Tumit Tinggi High heels
Tali Kasut Shoelace

Learn More Malay Words

There is a Malay proverb that goes as follows:

Tak kenal maka tak cinta.

This proverb can be translated as: “you can’t love what you don’t know”. It is hard to learn a new language but to make your learning experience colorful, it is important to know more about the language you are learning about. That is why Ling App has your back! You can learn Malay through the app itself and immerse yourself in Malaysian culture throughout posts.

But why stop there? This is your chance to utilize Ling App to the fullest and be the next polyglot! The app offers more than 60+ languages that can help you with your journey, even non-mainstream languages.

CULTURE OF MALAYSIA : Clothes

The richness and diversity of Malaysian traditional costumes can  be seen throughout the length and breadth of Malaysia. There is a great variety of beautiful costumes which differ in style and design from state to state.

 

The birth of modern Malaysia in 1963 continues to add more of the amazing collection of traditional costumes. Malaysian costumes include Sabah and Sarawak, also rich in tradition and culture from its many ethnic and indigenous people, further contributed to the fashion heritage of Malaysia.

 

Today we are most fortunate to witness the rich legacy of traditional costumes of various ethnic groups and communities in Malaysia as our very own cultural identity that we can be proud of.

 The Malaysian traditional costumes become a kaleidoscope of colours. It is a visual delight to one and all.

MALAY

Traditional Malay attire is the “baju melayu”, a loose tunic which is worn over trousers and usually accompanied with a “sampin”, which is a sarong which is wrapped around a man’s hips. It is also often accompanied with a songkok or cap, on their head. Traditional clothing for men in Malaysia consists of a silk or cotton skirt and shirt with a scarf like piece of cloth tied around his waist. This scarf is sewn together at the ends and is traditionally called a sarong or a kain. Most of the clothing is made up of bright and bold colors. The man also wears a religious hat.

Malay women wear the baju kurung, a knee-length blouse worn over a long skirt. Usually a scarf or shawl is worn with this. Prior to the wide embrace of Islam, Malay women wore “kemban”, which were sarongs which were tied just above the chest.

CHINESE

The classical everyday clothing for men in Malaysia is a short sleeved shirt worn outside the trousers, light-weight trousers and informally, sandals for comfort.

The Chinese women wear the cheongsam, a one-piece dress with a high collar, diagonally closed with small clips or toggles (fabric clasps). It sometimes can have slits at the side, as is made with a soft fabric such as silk. The cheongsam is especially popular around the time of the Chinese New Year and other formal gatherings (the fourth and fifth women from the right in the picture above). Older well-respected women wear a samfoo, which looks like pajamas with a separate loose fitting top fastened by toggles and ankle length, or above the ankle, pants.

INDIAN

Indians in Malaysia as with elsewhere in the world wear sarees, a cloth of 5-6 yards which is usually worn with a petticoat of a similar shade. It is wrapped around the body so that the embroidered end hangs over the shoulder, while the petticoat is worn above the bellybutton to support the saree, which can be made from a wide variety of materials. The Punjabi Salwar kameez is popular with women from northern India, and is a long tunic worn over trousers with a matching shawl. The fabric imported from India, made of the best quality silk is used in making saris. There are two layers to a sari: a long bright colored “dress” decorated with colorful beads sewn on it to make it look more attractive, and a wrap, a piece of straight fabric draped around one shoulder which ties across the body around the waist area. Women with a high standing will have their clothing made from gold and silver thread with elaborate beading.

IBAN

The male Iban is dressed in Baju Burung or vest and sirat woven loin-cloth which is a warrior’s outfit. They also wear accessories such as a belt, armlet and anklet made from silver and a headgear decorated with hornbill feathers. The Iban maiden wears the ceremonial dress consisting of the bidang cloth, marek empang which is a chest adornment, the sugu tinggi headdress and other silver ornaments such as the coin belt and bangles.

KADAZAN

The male Kadazan is wearing a ceremonial costume usually worn during the Sumazau dance. It comprises of a jacket and trousers with gold trimmings and a woven destar cloth headgear known as siga. The female is wearing a ceremonial Kadazan Papar costume made of embroidered colour and gold thread. It is worn with a headgear made of bamboo strips known as siung and silver coin belt. These clothes are usually made from black velvet or silk.

PERANAKAN (BABA NYONYA)

The Peranakan retained most of their ethnic and religious origins (such as ancestor worship), but assimilated the language and culture of the Malays. The Nyonya’s clothing, Baju Panjang (Long Dress) was adapted from the native Malay’s Baju Kurung. It is worn with a batik sarong (batik wrap-around skirt) and 3 kerosang (brooches). Beaded slippers called Kasot Manek were a hand-made made with much skill and patience: strung, beaded and sewn onto canvas with tiny faceted glass beads from Bohemia (present-day Czech Republic).

In modern times, glass beads from Japan are preferred. Traditional kasot manek design often have European floral subjects, with colors influenced by Peranakan porcelain and batik sarongs. They were made onto flats or bedroom slippers. But from the 1930s, modern shapes became popular and heels were added.

In Indonesia, the Peranakans develop their own Kebaya, most notably ‘kebaya encim’, and developed their own batik patterns, which incorporate symbols from China.for the Baba they will wear baju lokchuan(which is the Chinese men full costume)but the younger generation they will wear just the top of it which is the long sleeved silk jacket with Chinese collar or the batik shirt.

Malaysian cultural outfits

src: thumbs.dreamstime.com

Clothing is a term for clothing in Malay. Since Malaysia consists of three main cultures: Malay, Chinese and Indian, each culture has its own traditional and religious goods that are gender specific and can be adapted to local influences and conditions.

Video Malaysian cultural outfits

Malay

Traditional Malay clothes for men are Malay shirts, loose tunics are worn over trousers and are usually accompanied by sarongs called sampin that wrap their hips. It is also often accompanied by songkok or kopiah

Malay ladies wear baju kurung , knee blouses worn over long skirts. The blouse is long-sleeved and without collar, while the skirt, called the fabric, has pleated on one side. Jilbab is sometimes worn with this. Another popular traditional costume is kebaya , a tighter two-piece dress. This is often considered less formal. It was worn by the flight stewardess of Malaysia Airlines.

Before the embrace of Islam, the Malay woman wore a “kemban”, which was a cuffband tied just above the chest.

Maps Malaysian cultural outfits

Mandarin

The classic everyday clothes for men in Malaysia are short sleeved shirts worn outside trousers, light and informal trousers, slippers for comfort.

Chinese women wear cheongsam, a one-piece dress with high collar, a closed diagonal with a small clip or toggle (cloth clips). Sometimes it can have a slit on the side, as it is made with a soft cloth like silk. Cheongsam is very popular around the time of Chinese New Year and other formal meetings (fourth and fifth women from the right in the picture above). Honored older ladies wear samfoo, which looks like pajamas with loose loose loose tops tightened by dead and long ankles, or over ankles, pants.

src: 1.bp.blogspot.com

Indian

Indians in Malaysia like elsewhere in the world wear sari, a 5-6 meter fabric that is usually worn with the same color skirt. It is wrapped around the body so the embroidered tip hangs over the shoulders, while the skirt is worn over the navel to support the essence, which can be made from a wide variety of materials. The Punjabi Salwar kameez is very popular among women from northern India, and is a long tunic worn over trousers with matching scarves. Fabrics imported from India, made of the finest quality silk used in the manufacture of essence. There are two layers of sari: a brightly colored “dress” adorned with colorful beads sewn on it to make it look more attractive, and a wrap, a piece of straight cloth draped around a shoulder that binds the whole body around the waist. area. Women of high standing will have their garments made of gold and silver threads with elaborate beads.

In formal events Indian men wear “kurta”, a knee shirt usually made of cotton or linen. Indian men wear Sherwani, Lungi, Dhoti, and Kurta-Pajama. Sherwani: a coat such as clothes that are placed near the body, knee-deep or longer and open in front with buttons. Under the men wearing clothes for the lower part of the body, loose and wide at the top are tied with straps around the waist, and tight around the legs and ankles.

The Lungi: The traditional lungi originated in the south and today is worn by men and women alike. This is just a short material worn around the thigh and not like a sheath.

The Dhoti: The earliest recorded Indian record is dhoti. They need a piece of cloth that looks longer and bigger than worn in the past, but the folds are often simpler, and they are no longer adorned with a belt. All dhoti starts with the same basic closure. This is the only cover that does not start from a pallav but from the center of the upper boundary. The center of the fabric is fastened around the hips. Each end of the cloth is then draped around the legs on its side.

The Kurta-Pajama: The Kurta or the top is a long shirt with no knee line decorated in white or pastel colors. But today you will find Kurtas made of the most beautiful and colorful fabrics. Pajama-like loose pants with a tie strap around the waist. Traditionally white.

src: thumbs.dreamstime.com

Native

Prior to the creation of the ancient kingdom, most Aboriginal people wore leather costumes adorned with beads. In the days of the early empires, handmade textiles were used, and trade from other regions carrying other clothing such as silk, pulley and sarong, and jubbah. Orang Asli still wear clothes from natural materials, often out of trees and skirts. Leaf leaves are sometimes made into headbands or other ornaments.

In East Malaysia similar clothing is worn. Ulu people wore hand woven fabrics and bark cloth. Beads and feathers are used for decoration. The Iban are known for their woven “pua kumbu”. Another famous clothing item is “songket” from Malay Sarawak. In Sabah clothing different tribes differ from different numbers, with tribes having similar clothing. The most famous is Kadazan-Dusun straw hat for women, “dastar” from Bajau. The men of Lotud tribe wear headdresses that have a number of fold points equal to the number of wives.

src: i.ytimg.com

More

Old Chinese immigrants who married Malays and adopted some of their cultures were known as Baba Madame or Peranakan Chinese. They wear “kebaya”, made of lace-like trimmed clothing, often with intricate embroidery.

Those from Portuguese often wore Portuguese style clothing. Men often wear jackets and trousers with waist belts, while women wear wide-lined front skirts. Dominant colors are black and red.

src: thumbs.dreamstime.com

Glossary

Kurung Kedah Cloth – worn only by Malay women as everyday clothes for married women. it is a shorter dress with a three-quarter arm, so the wearer can move easily.

Batik Cloth – worn by men and women on official occasions. Usually colorful cotton printed with batik dyeing method or wax resistant.

Malay Baju – worn by Malay men, have no buttons but have a special button called a button. The cloth used to make Malay clothes is made of nylon, satin, or silk. Along with this is songkok or kopiah , which is worn on the head. Songkok is generally dark in nature, and kopiah is white and represents purity.

Baju Kurung – baju kurung is worn by women for events such as school (as a uniform) or to a wedding. It is also brightly colored and can come in different print designs. This is a knee-length dress with full sleeves.

Kebarung clothes are a combination of kebaya clothes and baju kurung. It’s loose and almost reaches the ankle; it is not one of the traditional Malay dress, but an adaptation.

src: adworks.pk

References

“Bea & amp; Tradisi.” Fabric Online. 6 April 2007 & lt; http://library.thinkquest.org/C004179/customs.htm&gt ;.

“MALAYSIA.” Seameo RSIP07. April 6, 2007 & lt; http://www.relc.org.sg/RSIP/rsip04/Malaysia/malaysia.htm&gt ;.

Source of the article : Wikipedia

Clothes, Shopping, and Travel Tips

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Malaysia is a wonderful mix of traditional SE Asian, Indian, and Chinese cultures; the national motto is “Unity From Diversity,” and people seem to live this every day.  In addition to warm and friendly locals Malaysia has interesting sights and temples; islands for scuba diving and swimming; and vibrant cosmopolitan cities.

Follow these tips to learn more about what to wear in Malaysia!

 


Written by: Phebe Schwartz


 

Travel

 

The island of Langkawi is a laid-back tropical paradise. In the island of Penang, Georgetown street art is Insta-worthy mural heaven and it’s also an architectural treasure, too. Melakka is the same. Kuala Lumpur is a thriving metropolis full of museums, shopping malls and open air markets, a philharmonic orchestra, and uber modern futuristic architecture.

The national flower, the hibiscus, is seen everywhere, from the money to the lampposts.  Monkeys can be found just outside the city, there are firefly colonies along the river, there are elephant sanctuaries and traditional orang asli (literally “original people”) villages where people live without electricity and grow or hunt their food.  The whole country is beautiful and complex.

 

Style and Culture

 

Walking around the capital, Kuala Lumpur (KL), we see women in skirts and tops, jeans, shorts, robes that cover from neck to toe with colorful headscarves, saris, kurtas, anarkali and fitted slacks.  There’s a little bit of everything here, in a wonderful fusion of style and culture.

When planning what to wear in Malaysia, think about adding lightweight airy fabrics in vibrant prints and colors to your travel capsule wardrobe. Color is a major element in fashion.

 

Tip: Want to pack light, use packing cubes to compress your clothing as shown in this video!

 

Shopping

 

And the shopping!  I especially like the Central Market, with the building dating back to 1888, full of places to buy souvenirs, food, and clothing.

Although you’ll carefully plan what to wear in Malaysia, you could easily arrive in KL and go straight to the market and buy absolutely everything you need for a wardrobe:  slacks, skirts, dresses, tops, sweaters, jackets, all in gorgeous batiks or cottons perfect for the climate.  Even shoes, handbags, and luggage are available!  (Okay, so bring your underthings.)

But you won’t find strapless dresses, or short shorts, or even spaghetti straps.  This a predominantly Muslim country, and while tourists often flout the cultural norms, this also opens them up to being perceived as something other than they may wish.

Outside of Kuala Lumpur, shoulders and knees should be mostly covered, but sleeveless seems to be acceptable. When in doubt, do as the locals do!

 

Climate

 

Malaysia is also tropical, running between 2 to 7 degrees north of the equator.  Think breathable and flowing fabrics.

 

Your capsule wardrobe for Malaysia should include:

 

 

 

Tops

 

Several lightweight tops – these are all either cotton or rayon.

 

 

 

Shorts or a skirt

 

– should be about knee-length.

A midi-skirt that can also be worn as a strapless dress is a good idea, though I’d save that for evenings at clubs, or beach resorts.

 

 

 

Dress

 

– A print dress that can work under any of the tops, especially if you belt the top for a more fitted look.

 

 

 

Slacks

 

– Include a cotton pair, and other breathable trousers.

 

 

 

Include a sweater,

 

– especially if you’re going to the central highlands, where it can get chilly.

 

 

 

And remember a scarf or shawl

 

– for evenings as well as temple or mosque visits.

 

 

 

Stick with flats or wedge sandals

 

– The roads and sidewalks seem to rarely stay flat, so don’t plan on high heels.

 

 

 

Consider including a pair of rubber or plastic shoes,

 

-the tropical rains come and go whether it’s monsoon season or not.

 

And go crazy with the color

– really, you’ll rarely see someone in solid black and no color here!

Well, except the occasional woman covered in head-to-toe black robes.  Feel free to mix orange and pink, or red and turquoise, it all seems to work!

 


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Add Malaysia to your travel list, it really is a great country – don’t miss it!

 What are your tips on what to wear in Malaysia? Please comment below!


 

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Author Bio: Phebe Schwartz started traveling and living overseas at age 19, and haven’t stopped. Her career has included two years in Africa with the Peace Corps, and a three month trip home from there. As a result of living in Liberia, West Africa, she found a job teaching art in the US Virgin Islands, where she spent 25 wonderful years. Now retired, she and her husband are just traveling the world and having the time of their lives; the plan is to have no plan, the philosophy is that where they end up is where they are meant to be. Follow their adventure at their travel blog: Rolling Luggagers.


90,000 20+ facts about Malaysia – a tropical country with a rich culture, where tourists are offended by neighbors

Unlike its closest neighbors – Thailand, Singapore and Indonesia – Malaysia is not so popular with tourists. Consequently, there is much less information about it on the net. But we can say with confidence that this distinctive multicultural country is also worthy of attention, because there is something in it that you will not find anywhere else in the world.

We are in AdMe.ru with all hands for exciting travel and exploring new places, so today we have collected all the most interesting that we could find about Malaysia and its inhabitants.

At Kuala Lumpur Airport there is a section of a real tropical rainforest

Malaysia starts to amaze as soon as you find yourself in it: at Kuala Lumpur Airport you can walk through a real rainforest. During construction, it was decided to preserve a piece of nature in its original form, and now passengers, while waiting for their flights, can take a walk in the jungle and even get caught in the rain without leaving the airport.

Motorcyclists wear jackets backwards

The weather in Malaysia is unpredictable, and Kuala Lumpur is recognized as one of the capitals where the most lightning strikes in a year. There are up to 220 rainy days here a year. The sun can be replaced by bad weather in a matter of minutes. In addition, there is a fairly high level of pollution in cities, and clothes get dirty quickly on the roads.

This partly explains the love of Malaysian bikers for wearing jackets backwards: even in clear and hot weather, they take windbreakers with them in case of rain.But they put them on in such a way as to protect themselves from the wind and dust in the front, while the back was not hot. Many tourists point out that bikers in jackets backwards are a unique Malaysian feature.

Malaysia has the world’s largest roundabout

It is located in the administrative capital, Putrajaya. The diameter of the circle is 3.5 km.

About 450,000 people cross the border between Malaysia and Singapore every day

Many people travel to the neighboring country to work, so the border between Singapore and Malaysia is considered one of the most crowded in the world.To get abroad, that is, to cross the bridge, almost half a million people use a small 4-lane road every day.

The penultimate king of Malaysia, Muhammad V, married a Russian woman and abdicated the throne

Oksana Voevodina won the title “Miss Moscow” in 2015, and a couple of years later in Europe she met Muhammad, who was then the sultan of the state of Kelantan. Soon he was elected king. In 2018, Oksana converted to Islam and became the king’s wife, but in 2019 the couple divorced with a scandal.Now the girl is raising their common son Leon.

Malaysians love horror films

The highest grossing films in the history of Malaysian cinema are 2 horror films about zombies and ghosts. A record number of horror films are being shot in the country.

The lights in cinemas are not turned off until the end of the screening

But not at all because the audience is afraid to watch horror films in the dark. The fact is that Malaysia is a Muslim country, and it has rather strict moral standards.The light is left to prevent young couples from hugging during sessions.

In addition, recently, in some cinemas, heterosexual Muslim viewers cannot sit next to each other unless they are married.

It is forbidden to show armpits on TV

It is forbidden to show intimate parts of a woman’s body in any media. In Malaysia, this also includes the armpits. The question arises: what about the manufacturers of women’s deodorants and epilators? It turns out that there is a way out: the girl in the advertisement can be shown from the back – so that the armpit does not fall into the frame.

In addition, it is prohibited on Malaysian television to advertise the services of lawyers and doctors, as well as contraception.

For the performance of the song “Despacito” may be fined

The fact is that the lyrics in it are too defiant, in which there are very transparent hints of the relationship between the sexes, which is unacceptable for a Muslim country. This is despite the fact that Spanish is not spoken in Malaysia.

Censorship also applies to songs by Madonna, Lady Gaga and many other performers.Movies and cartoons containing scenes of violence and adult material are also prohibited.

There is no 4th floor in elevators

Sometimes the 4th floor is completely absent and after the 3rd, the 5th immediately goes, but sometimes it is replaced by 3a. The fact is that “4” in Chinese sounds the same as “death”. The Chinese, on the other hand, are the largest national minority in the country.

Before a football match a shaman is invited to the field

Bomo shamans are so popular in Malaysia that before a football match they fumigate football players’ boots, give them amulets, and sometimes bury amulets at the gates.

Organize a tea making competition

The favorite drink of the Malaysians is teh-tarik, tea with milk, which is prepared by pouring liquid from one container to another, and the further they are from each other, the better ( teh-tarik literally means “stretched tea”). The masters do it so spectacularly that making tea sometimes turns into a competition.

But usually teh-tarik is poured into a bag and drunk with a straw.

The smallest member of the bear family is found here

Biruang, or Malay bear, weighs only 45 kg and does not exceed 1.5 m in length.Its fur, unlike its northern counterpart, is short, hard and smooth. The Malay bear feeds mainly on insects and roots, but sometimes it preys on lizards and rodents.

Malaysia is also the birthplace of the binturong, which, due to its resemblance to the two species, has been nicknamed the “cat bear”, although it is not related to either. Binturongs often enter people’s homes in search of food leftovers and generally do not show aggression – on the contrary, a binturong can be tamed. However, the animal did not take root as a pet: uncontrolled urination is to blame.

Monitor lizards live in sewers

Monitor lizards can be found everywhere, even in large cities, where they often live in sewers and sewers, feeding on waste.

The rooster chooses the name for the child

In Malaysia, there is a tradition to name children after relatives, but only the deceased. The parents choose several suitable names and prepare cups of rice – each corresponding to a specific name. Which cup the fighting rooster chooses first ( decoy tawai ), so the child will be named.

And in Sarawak province there is a funny tradition to call all children who have not yet chosen a name, the word “ulat” (“worm”). It is believed that this is a very affectionate name for a child. At the same time, giving children names that match the names of plants, animals, flowers, numbers, car brands is prohibited at the state level.

Ketchup is native to Malaysia

The English word ketchup is believed to be derived from ke-tsiap from the Hokkian dialect of Chinese.The word means fermented sauce for dishes. Chinese traders brought it to Malacca, where Europeans saw and tasted it.

Important inscriptions and signs are duplicated in 4 languages ​​

The main population of Malaysia is Malays, Chinese and Tamil Indians. Often they only know their own language, so the government is forced to translate all important announcements into Chinese and Tamil. English is used for tourists and members of national minorities.

Educated Malaysians often speak all 4 languages ​​and easily “switch” them even during a conversation with the same person, because some things are easier to discuss in Chinese, while others, for example, in English.

After the wedding, the newlyweds cannot go to the toilet for 3 days

In some regions of the country, after the wedding, the newlyweds cannot use the toilet for 3 days. To endure the due date, they do not eat or drink anything at the wedding. It is believed that breaking the tradition will lead to all kinds of misfortune.

After the birth of a child, a woman must not leave the house for more than a month.

Traditionally, Malay women cannot leave the house for 1–1.5 months after giving birth. Only the closest ones see the mother and the baby at this time. Also, a woman is forbidden to wash her hair, and you can only take a bath with herbs.

At this time, the mother is completely relieved of household chores, she only needs to take care of the baby. All household issues, such as washing, cooking, cleaning, shopping, fall on the shoulders of the mother-in-law or nanny.For many women, a period of seclusion is a luxury and a dream.

There are caves in Malaysia where swallow nests are taken

The Gomatong Caves in Sabah are one of the most famous places where they get nests for swallows and eat them. They are most often used for soup. Swallows make nests from their saliva, during the cooking process they dissolve and create a gelatinous texture of the soup. Nests are black (with impurities) and white (clean).

In the 90s, for the extraction of swallow nests on an industrial scale, they began to build special structures like multi-storey buildings, but in the Gomatong caves the delicacy is still mined in the traditional way.2 times a year, only after the chicks leave the nest, licensed pickers with long bamboo ladders come to the caves. Such nests are considered the most valuable, their cost reaches $ 4,000 per 1 kg.

Have you been to Malaysia? Would you like to visit? What was the most interesting fact to you?

90,000 Peranakan culture – history, language, clothing, cuisine, religion

Baba-nyonya or Peranakan – this is the name of the descendants of Chinese immigrants who married local Malay or Indonesian girls.They began to migrate to the coast of the Malak Peninsula in the 15th century. Like, what’s wrong with that? Both then and now, mixed marriages were not uncommon. But not every mixed marriage leads to the formation of a new nationality, culture and language.

As usual, it was all about religion. The majority of Chinese men did not want to convert to Islam, their children professed their father’s religion, which prevented assimilation into Muslim society. The Peranakans invented their language based on Malay grammar with many Chinese words.

The uniqueness of the culture lies in the mix of Chinese, Malay and European traditions. Baba-nyonya has her own traditional dress, which differs from Thai and Malay. And the greatest interest has recently been shown in Peranakan cuisine.

Peranakan

Difference between Peranakan and Huaqiao in language. While the latter still remember or learn Chinese, the Peranakans formed their own language. It is called Baba Malay. It is a Creole dialect of the Malay language, in which the spelling and grammar are borrowed from Malay, and there are many Chinese words in the vocabulary, mainly Ming.Novels, poems and poems have been written in the Peranakan language. Now the Baba Malay language is dying. Only the older generation speaks it fluently. Young Peranakans in Thailand speak Thai, and English in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. Most of the Peranakans were educated abroad or studied in English, which they are fluent in. In ancient times, European traders greatly appreciated the Peranakan for its ability to speak three languages: Chinese, Malay and English.

Procession in Peranakan robes

Peranakan clothing

Peranakans have their own traditional clothing, which is a symbiosis of Chinese and Malay.Women wear a kebayu – a lace blouse fastened with three brooches, a sarong – a flowered batik skirt, a kasot mannek – beaded slippers. Men wear suits that mix influences from China, Malaysia and Europe. The shirt with a stand-up collar will be embroidered with Chinese motifs, dragons, phoenix, peonies, lotuses and traditional Malay or Indonesian ornaments. The European influence is noticeable in the monochromatic festive clothing of men. I have a mix of a women’s blouse in the style of men’s clothing: a stand-up collar, a Chinese-style closure on the side, and the fabric itself is made of batik in the Malay style.

Peranakan Fridge Magnets

Kebaya came to Malaysia and Thailand from Indonesia and was worn by both Malay and Peranakan girls. The Malay Kebaya worn by the Malays was loose, long and opaque, with no embroidery or little ornamentation. Peranakan women wore nyonya kebaya – a cotton, lace or translucent blouse with a V-neck and embroidery. The traditional motives were flowers, butterflies, birds, phoenixes, dragons. This blouse was made by hand for weeks or even months.A top of the same color was worn under a translucent kebaya. There were no buttons on the kebaye, but kerongsang fasteners were used – a set of three brooches connected by chains. Modern kebayas are made with buttons or hooks. The second must-have for every Peranakan girl is a batik sarong. Fabric patterns are always bright: flowers, birds, butterflies. It was originally a piece of fabric that was wrapped around the waist. Now the sarong is more like a wrap skirt. A silver belt was tied over the sarong.

Couple in wedding clothes

Religion

Peranakans profess Chinese beliefs: Taoism, Confucianism and Chinese Buddhism. On rare occasions, you can find Muslims in Phuket, and some of them are Catholics. Peranakan is celebrated by Chinese and local holidays: new year, moon cake festival and others. Speaking of Phuket, descendants of the Peranakans honor Thai holidays and participate in local community celebrations: the Vegetarian and Hungry Spirits Festivals.

Casot mannek – beaded slippers

Peranakan Cuisine

Peranakan cuisine is based on Malay, Indonesian and Chinese spices. Pork is widely used in it, which is unacceptable for Muslims in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. The Peranakans are known for their sweets, which are called “kui” or “khan” in Thai. Restaurants with true Peranakan cuisine can be found in Penang, Malacca, Jakarta and Surabaya.

Peranakan Soup Asam Laksa

All Peranakan cuisine is different.Penang has a Thai influence and the use of tamarind and other sour ingredients. In Singapore and Malacca, due to Indonesian traditions, coconut milk is used more. A prime example of nyony’s cuisine is Lax’s soup. It is included in CNN Travel’s list of the top 50 dishes in the world. There are three main varieties: sour soup Asam Laksa or Penang Laksa; curry soup with coconut milk Curry Laksa, Nyonya Laksa, Kelantan Laksa; and different mixes not included in the previous two options. The palette of tastes is roughly the following: sour, sweet, spicy, fresh.I like Asam Laksa more – a fish soup, to which a paste of tamarind or some other fruits is added, giving a unique sourness, pineapple, mint leaves and grated cucumber. Among the Peranakan dishes, it is worth trying otak-otak – a fish souffle wrapped in a banana leaf and grilled.

Peranakan cuisine is found in Malaysia and Singapore. There are very few of them in Phuket, you can literally count them on your fingers: various sweets, Mi Sua noodles, Bachang rice triangles and Popia Sot rolls.You can find curry laxa with crab at the Sea Salt Lounge & Grill in Patong. Angsana Laguna has a Peranakan buffet on Saturday nights. We serve our cuisine, recognized by UNESCO as a world heritage. In Phuket, you can taste a real mix of Peranakan and Chinese cuisine: black soup Bak-kut-te, tender Mu Hong pork, Hokkien-style noodles, fried Kien sausages and much more. Local dishes and desserts are described in my mobile guide. Enjoy your gastronomic travel and immersion in the world of Peranakan culture!

It will be interesting for you to read:

How did the Chinese come to Phuket?
Phuket signature restaurants
Phuket in the history of Thailand
Graffiti on the streets of the Old Town of Phuket
How the Old Town Festival is held

Malaysia | Paragon Travel

Malaysia … Holidays in this place will leave in your soul the best memories of the time spent.Tropical forests, clear waters, unique reserves, monuments of Malaysian culture – you can see all this by ordering tours to Malaysia from Khabarovsk from Paragon Travel. If you do not like traveling to too popular destinations, and prefer tours that are not much advertised, you should think about vacationing in Malaysia right now. The amazing, untouched nature, as well as its pristine culture, will impress everyone.

Despite the fact that tours to Malaysia are not as popular as, for example, to Thailand, the islands of Layang Layang and Sipadan are very well known among diving travelers.The underwater world is a separate topic that deserves detailed consideration. And you can do this “consideration” by going on vacation to Malaysia. The country’s tourist zones are distinguished by a decent level of service, safety and cleanliness, as well as good roads.

Traveler’s Memo to Malaysia

General information

Malaysia is evergreen forests, crystal clear waters, a variety of flora and fauna, hundreds of interesting places and excellent cuisine.To date, this direction is still poorly developed in our country, but the growth in popularity is still observed. Our tourists have already fallen in love with the islands of Langkawi, Borneo, Penang, and Sipadan and Layang Layang are the places where all divers aspire. Malaysia is truly exotic. The tourist areas in this country are clean, high level of service, safety, good roads and good English-speaking locals everywhere. Malaysia is a good opportunity for beach holidays, ethnographic and ecological tourism.
Capital: Kuala Lumpur

Features of stay in the country

The country is supported mainly by tourism, so tourists are very fond of here, treating them extremely carefully. It lacks many of the restrictions inherent in the bulk of Islamic states.

Customs

If a tourist brings with him more than 1000 MYR (3 thousand dollars), then at the entrance and exit from the country he will have to fill out a currency declaration. You can carry duty-free a liter of wine or liqueur, a liter of strong alcohol, 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 225 g of tobacco.Along with this, the import and export of cosmetics and perfumery for an amount exceeding MYR 200, souvenirs for an amount exceeding MYR 200 is prohibited. There is a ban on the import of goods from Israel, Israeli coins or banknotes, clothes with texts from the Koran, radios, pornography, meat, mushrooms, seeds, primates, gold products weighing more than 100 g, various weapons (including toys that look like combat). Expensive antiques are exported with official permission. There is also a ban on the export of certain species of flora and fauna.The death penalty is provided for the import and export of narcotic drugs.

Useful phones

Police: 999 (nationwide), Rescue Service: 994 (nationwide),
Codes of some cities and regions: Langkawi Island – 4, Kota Kinabalu – 88, Johor Bahru – 7, Kuala Lumpur – 3, Kuching – 82, Sibu – 84, Kota Bharu – 9, Penang – 4, Port Dickson – 6, Sandakan – 89

Transport

The best way to get around is by taxi or metro. The traffic here is left-hand and very aggressive, so tourists are not advised to rent a car.

Restrictions and prohibitions

There are no private beaches here, so you can hardly sunbathe topless. It is not customary to visit mosques and Malay villages in shorts, short skirts and T-shirts. When entering a temple or someone’s house, you need to take off your shoes. It is impolite to refuse the drinks offered at a party. Pointing at someone is allowed only with the thumb, while the rest must be bent. Things are accepted and transmitted only with the right hand. The left hand is used here for hygienic purposes only.It is not allowed to stroke anyone on the head, including small children.

Security

Malaysia is one of the safest tourist destinations in Southeast Asia. Drinkable tap water, fresh food from street vendors, and a low crime rate will make your stay as comfortable as possible.

Electricity

Voltage 220-240V. Plugs are “English”. You can buy an adapter at any store or take it from the hotel at the reception.

Climate

Heat, humidity and tropical rainfall have led to the fact that Malaysia is called the “sauna”. There are no seasonal changes in climate, but from November to January it is cooler here – on the thermometer about +26 degrees. There are heavy but short rains throughout the year. The best time to visit West Malaysia is from late November to early February. The eastern part is best visited from May to September.

Hotels

All hotels, including three-star hotels, are clean and comfortable.Hotels are diverse, you can choose both skyscrapers and bungalows. There are also many hotels in the world “chains”.

Currency

Money can be exchanged at a bank, airport, hotels, shopping centers, etc. But the most favorable rate is observed in private exchange offices. Cards for payment are accepted almost everywhere. You can pay in dollars, but it is not profitable. Make sure you have ringgits in your wallet.

Shopping

Products made of tin, silver and batik are in the greatest demand among souvenirs.You can also buy wickerwork or wood carvings. Malay gold jewelry is distinguished by its spectacular design. Products made of “pewter” (an alloy of copper, tin and antimony) look elegant – figurines, glasses, dishes, vases, etc. The opening hours of shops – as a rule, from 9.30 to 19.00, supermarkets – from 10.00 to 20.00. Large shopping malls are also open on Sundays. Here you can buy quite inexpensively new items of electronics, video, audio equipment, computers. Sales are held in the middle and end of the year, and in October there is an annual “carnival of trade”.You can buy clothes and food in the markets where you can bargain well.

National clothes in Singapore (64 photos)

Indonesians girls

Traditional clothes of Malaysians

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Singapore National dress

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Chingai Parade in Singapore

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Geography of material and spiritual culture

The concept of “culture”.Civilizations (historical and cultural regions of the world).

The concept of “culture” means a set of material and spiritual values ​​created by human society, methods of their creation and application, characterizing a certain level of development of society. The natural conditions surrounding a person largely determine the distinctive features of his culture. Countries differ in the history of their peoples, the peculiarities of natural conditions, culture, a certain commonality of economic activity.They can be called historical and cultural regions of the world or civilizations.

Geography of culture studies the territorial distribution of culture and its individual components – lifestyle and traditions of the population, elements of material and spiritual culture, cultural heritage of previous generations. The first cultural centers were the valleys of the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates. The geographical spread of ancient civilizations led to the formation of a civilization zone from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific coast.Outside this civilization zone, other highly developed cultures and even independent civilizations of the Mayan and Aztec Indian tribes in Central America and the Incas in South America arose. The history of mankind has more than twenty major civilizations in the world.

Modern civilizations in various regions of the world preserve their culture, develop it in new conditions. Since the end of the 19th century, they have been influenced by Western civilization.

Within the Yellow River basin, an ancient cultural center, the ancient Sino-Confucian civilization was formed, which gave the world a compass, paper, gunpowder, porcelain, the first printed maps, etc.e. According to the teachings of the founder of Confucianism Confucius (551-479 BC), the Chinese-Confucian civilization is characterized by an orientation towards self-realization of those human abilities that are inherent in it.

Hindu civilization (the Indus and Ganges basins) was formed under the influence of castes – isolated groups of people related by the origin, legal status of their members. The cultural heritage of the Islamic civilization, which inherited the values ​​of the ancient Egyptians, Sumerians and other peoples, is rich and diverse.It includes palaces, mosques, madrasahs, the art of ceramics, carpet weaving, embroidery, artistic metalworking, etc. The contribution to the world culture of poets and writers of the Islamic East (Nizami, Ferdowsi, O. Khayyam, etc.) is well known.

The culture of the peoples of Tropical Africa, the Negro-African civilization, is very distinctive. She is characterized by emotionality, intuition, close connection with nature. The modern state of this civilization was influenced by colonization, the slave trade, racist ideas, mass Islamization and Christianization of the local population.

The young civilizations of the West include Western European, Latin American and Orthodox civilizations. They are characterized by the basic values: liberalism, human rights, free market, etc. Unique achievements of the human mind are philosophy and aesthetics, art and science, technology and economics of Western Europe. The cultural heritage of Western European civilization includes the Colosseum in Rome and the Athenian Acropolis, the Parisian Louvre and Westminster Abbey in London, the polders of Holland and the industrial landscapes of the Ruhr, the scientific ideas of Darwin, Lamarck, the music of Paganini, Beethoven, the works of Rubens and Picasso, etc.e. The core of Western European civilization coincides with the countries that gave the world ancient culture, the ideas of the Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment and French Revolution.

Russia and the Republic of Belarus, as well as Ukraine, are the core of modern Orthodox civilization. The cultures of these countries are close to those of Western Europe.

The boundaries of the Orthodox world are very blurred and reflect the mixed composition of the Slavic and non-Slavic population. Russia, Belarus and Ukraine serve as a kind of bridge between the western and eastern worlds.(What contribution did Belarusians make to world culture and art?)

Latin American civilization has absorbed the culture of pre-Columbian civilizations. Japanese civilization is distinguished by its originality, local traditions, customs, and the cult of beauty.

Material culture includes tools, housing, clothing, food, that is, everything that is necessary to meet the material needs of a person. Taking into account the peculiarities of the natural environment, a person on Earth builds dwellings, eats those products that can mainly be obtained in the natural zone of his residence, dresses in accordance with climatic conditions.The essence of material culture is the embodiment of various human needs that allow people to adapt to the natural conditions of life.

Dwelling

Log houses in the forest zone, in temperate latitudes, speak of the ability of people to adapt to natural conditions. The gaps between the logs are dug with moss and reliably protect from frost. In Japan, because of earthquakes, houses are being built with sliding light walls that are resistant to vibrations of the earth’s crust. In hot desert areas, the sedentary population lives in round adobe huts with conical thatch roofs, and nomads pitch their tents.The dwellings of the Eskimos in the tundra zone, built of snow, and the pile buildings of the peoples of Malaysia and Indonesia are amazing. Modern houses of large cities are multi-storey, but at the same time they reflect the national culture and influence of the West.

Clothes

Clothes are influenced by the natural environment. In equatorial climates in many African and Asian countries, women’s clothing is a skirt and blouse made of lightweight fabric. Most of the male population of the Arab and African equatorial countries prefers to wear floor-length, wide shirts.In the tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, unstitched forms of wrap-around clothing under the belt – sari, convenient for these countries, are common. Robe-like clothing formed the basis of the modern attire of the Chinese and Vietnamese. The population of the tundra is dominated by a warm, deaf long jacket with a hood.

Clothing reflects national traits, character, temperament of the people, the scope of its activities. Almost every nation and individual ethnic group has a special version of the costume with unique cut or ornament details.The modern clothing of the population reflects the influence of the culture of Western civilization.

Food

Peculiarities of human nutrition are closely related to the natural conditions of human habitats, the specifics of farming. Vegetable food prevails in almost all peoples of the world. The food is based on products made from grains. Europe and Asia are regions where quite a lot of wheat and rye products (bread, muffins, cereals, pasta) are consumed. Corn is the staple grain in America and rice in South, East and Southeast Asia.

Almost everywhere, including Belarus, dishes from vegetables, as well as from potatoes (in countries with a temperate climate), from sweet potatoes and cassava (in tropical countries) are widespread.

Geography of spiritual culture

The spiritual culture associated with the inner, moral world of a person includes those values ​​that are created to satisfy spiritual needs. These are literature, theater, fine arts, music, dance, architecture, etc. The ancient Greeks formed the peculiarity of the spiritual culture of mankind in this way: truth – goodness – beauty.

Spiritual culture, like material culture, is closely related to natural conditions, the history of peoples, their ethnic characteristics, and religion. The greatest monuments of the world written culture are the Bible and the Koran – the Holy Scriptures of the two largest world religions – Christianity and Islam. The influence of the natural environment on spiritual culture is manifested to a lesser extent than on the material one. Nature suggests images for artistic creation, provides physical material, promotes or hinders its development.

Everything that a person sees around him and that attracts his attention, he displays in drawings, songs, dances. From antiquity to the present, folk arts and crafts (weaving, weaving, pottery) have been preserved in different countries. Different architectural styles developed and changed in different regions of the Earth. Their formation was influenced by religious beliefs, national characteristics, environment, nature. For example, the architecture of Europe has long been dominated by the Gothic style, the Baroque.The buildings of Gothic cathedrals are striking in their openwork and lightness, they are compared to stone lace. They often express the religious ideas of their creators.

Many red brick temples are made from clay, which is common in a certain area. In Belarus, these are Mir and Lida castles. In the village of Synkovichi, near Slonim, there is a fortified church, which is the oldest defense-type temple in Belarus. Its architecture has features typical of the Gothic style.

The influence of Western European civilization manifested itself in the countries of Eastern Europe.The Baroque style, which became widespread in Spain, Germany, France, manifests itself in the architecture of magnificent palaces and churches with an abundance of sculptures, paintings on the walls in Russia and Lithuania.

Fine and decorative and applied arts are widespread among all peoples of the world – the creation of art products intended for practical use. The countries of Asia are especially rich in such crafts. In Japan, painting on porcelain is widespread, in India – chasing on metal, in the countries of Southeast Asia – carpet weaving.Among the artistic crafts of Belarus, weaving from straw, weaving, artistic ceramics are known.

Spiritual culture accumulates the history of peoples, customs and traditions, the nature of their countries of residence. Its originality is known for a long time. Elements of the material and spiritual culture of the peoples of different countries have a mutual influence, mutually enrich and spread throughout the world.

The material and spiritual culture of the peoples of the world reflects the peculiarities of the surrounding nature, the history of the development of ethnic groups, the peculiarities of the religions of the world.Modern historical and cultural regions of the world differ in material and spiritual culture, preserve it and develop it in new conditions.

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& ast; & ast; & Fcy; & ucy; & ncy; & kcy; & tscy; & icy; & icy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & dcy; & ucy; & kcy; & tcy; & acy; & colon;
& ast; & ast; & Ecy; & kcy; & ocy; & lcy; & ocy; & gcy; & icy; & chcy; & iecy; & scy; & kcy; & icy; & bcy; & iecy; & zcy; & ocy; & pcy; & acy; & scy; & ncy; & ycy; & iecy; & mcy; & acy; & tcy; & iecy; & rcy; & icy; & acy; & lcy; & ycy; & colon; & Vcy; & scy; & iecy; & ncy; & acy; & shcy; & icy; & tcy; & kcy; & acy; & ncy; & icy; & pcy; & iecy; & rcy; & iecy; & dcy; & acy; & yucy; & tcy; & scy; & yacy; & scy; & tcy; & ncy; & dcy; & acy; & rcy; & tcy; & ncy; & ycy; & iecy; B & icy; & scy; & pcy; & ycy; & tcy; & acy; & ncy; & icy; & yacy; & lpar; & kcy; & acy; & kcy; SGS & icy; & scy; & pcy; & ycy; & tcy; & acy; & ncy; & icy; & yacy; & rpar; & comma; & kcy; & ocy; & tcy; & ocy; & rcy; & ocy; & iecy; & gcy; & acy; & rcy; & acy; & ncy; & tcy; & icy; & rcy; & ucy; & iecy; & tcy; & scy; & yacy; & Tcy; & kcy; & acy; & ncy; & iecy; & jcy; & comma; & bcy; & iecy; & zcy; & ocy; & pcy; & acy; & scy; & ncy; & ycy; & khcy; & icy; & zcy; & dcy; & ocy; & rcy; & ocy; & vcy; & ycy; & khcy; & ucy; & scy; & lcy; & ocy; & vcy; & icy; & jcy; & dcy; & lcy; & yacy; [vcy] [acy] [shcy] [iecy] [jcy; & kcy; & ocy; & zhcy; & icy; & comma; & ncy; & iecy; & tcy; & tcy; & ocy; & kcy; & scy; & icy; & chcy; & ncy; & ycy; & khcy; & icy; & fcy; & ocy; & rcy; & mcy; & acy; & lcy; softcy; & dcy; & iecy; & gcy; & icy; & dcy; & acy; & period;

& Tcy; & icy; & pcy; & tcy; & kcy; & acy; & ncy; & icy; – & Vcy; & ycy; & scy; & ocy; & kcy; & ocy; & iecy; & Kcy; & acy; & chcy; & iecy; & scy; & tcy; vcy; & ocy; & Pcy; & ocy; & lcy; & icy; & ecy; & fcy; & icy; & rcy; & ncy; & ocy; & jcy; & Scy; & pcy; & ncy; & dcy; & iecy; & kcy; & scy; & Mcy; & acy; & tcy; & iecy; & rcy; & icy; & acy; & lcy; & acy; & semi; & Mcy; & yacy; & gcy; & kcy; & icy; & jcy; & comma; & Scy; & ncy; & icy; & mcy; & icy; & tcy; & iecy; & ecy; & lcy; & acy; & scy; & tcy; & icy; & chcy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; & comma; & Lcy; & iecy; & gcy; & kcy; & icy; & iecy; & Icy; & Ucy; & dcy; & ocy; & bcy; & ncy; & ycy; & iecy;
& Ucy; & khcy; & ocy; & dcy; [zcy] [acy; & ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & dcy; & ocy; & jcy; – & Rcy; & ucy; & chcy; & ncy; & ocy; & jcy; & Lcy; & lcy; & icy; & Mcy; & acy; & shcy; & icy; & ncy; & ncy; & acy; yacy; & scy; & tcy; & icy; & rcy; & kcy; & acy; & period; & Mcy; & ocy; & zhcy; & iecy; & tcy; & Bcy; & ycy; & tcy; & softcy; & Scy; & ucy; & khcy; & ocy; & jcy; & icy; & ocy; & chcy; & icy; & scy; & tcy; & icy; & tcy; & softcy; & Pcy; & rcy; & icy; & Ncy; & iecy; & ocy; & bcy; & khcy; & ocy; & dcy; & icy; & mcy; & ocy; & scy; & tcy; & icy;
& Pcy; & lcy; & yucy; & scy; & Rcy; & acy; & zcy; & mcy; & iecy; & rcy; & Fcy; & icy; & ocy; & lcy; & iecy; & tcy; & ocy; & vcy; & ycy; & jcy; & Mcy; & acy; & kcy; & scy; & icy; & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & yacy; & Dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & ZHcy; & iecy; & ncy; & shchcy; & icy; & ncy; & Scy; & Rcy; & ucy; & kcy; & acy; & vcy; & acy; & semi; & Fcy; & ucy; & tcy; & bcy; & ocy; & lcy; & kcy; & ucy; & scy; & dcy; & lcy; & icy; & ncy; & ncy; & ycy; & mcy; & icy; & rcy; & ucy; & kcy; & acy; & vcy; & acy; & mcy; & icy; Plus & rcy; & zcy; & mcy; & iecy; & rcy; & acy; Gowns & semi; [Dcy] [acy] [mcy] [ycy; & Scy; & vcy; & ocy; & bcy; & ocy; & dcy; & ncy; & ycy; & iecy; & Icy; & Pcy; & ocy; & khcy; & ucy; & dcy; & iecy; & ncy; & icy; & iecy; Maxi & comma; & Bcy; & ocy; & lcy; & softcy; & shcy; & iecy; & gcy; & ocy; & Rcy; & acy; & zcy; & mcy; & iecy; & rcy; & acy; & Pcy; & ocy; & lcy; & ucy; Kaftans & Scy; & Rcy; & ucy; & kcy; & acy; & vcy; & acy; & semi; & Rcy; & icy; & scy; & ucy; & ncy; & ocy; & kcy; Gowns & Dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & Lcy; & iecy; & dcy; & icy; curvy & semi; Abaya & Icy; & scy; & lcy; & acy; & mcy; & scy; & kcy; & ocy; & jcy; & Mcy; & ucy; & scy; & ucy; & lcy; & softcy; & mcy; & acy; & ncy; & scy; & kcy; & ocy; & jcy; & Ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & dcy; & ycy;
& Gcy; & ocy; & fcy; & rcy; & icy; & rcy; & ocy; vcy; & ncy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; & Fcy; & icy; & tcy; & icy; & ncy; & gcy; & Ucy; & dcy; & ocy; & bcy; & ncy; & ycy; & iecy; Caftan & Pcy; & ocy; & vcy; & scy; & iecy; & dcy; & ncy; & iecy; & vcy; & ncy; & acy; & yacy; & Ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & dcy; & acy; & semi; Cute & Mcy; & acy; & rcy; & ocy; & kcy; & kcy; & acy; & ncy; & scy; & kcy; & ocy; & mcy; & Scy; & tcy; & icy; & lcy; & iecy; Gowns & Dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & Scy; & tcy; & ocy; & rcy; & ocy; & ncy; & semi; & Ecy; & lcy; & iecy; & gcy; & acy; & ncy; & tcy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; & Gcy; & ocy; & fcy; & rcy; & icy; & rcy; & ocy; vcy; & acy; & ncy; & ncy; & ocy; & jcy; & Pcy; & ocy; & lcy; & ucy; – & dcy; & lcy; & icy; & ncy; & ycy; & Mcy; & acy; & kcy; & scy; & icy; & mcy; & acy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ycy; & khcy; & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & yacy; & Dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & ZHcy; & iecy; & ncy; & shchcy; & icy; & ncy; & Scy; & Dcy; & lcy; & icy; & ncy; & ncy; & ycy; & mcy; & icy; & Rcy; & ucy; & kcy; & acy; vcy; & acy; & mcy; & icy; & semi; Flowy Maxi & YUcy; & bcy; & kcy; & icy; & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & yacy; & Scy; & Icy; & mcy; & pcy; & iecy; & rcy; & icy; & icy; & Tcy; & acy; & lcy; & icy; & icy; & Fcy; & icy; & ocy; & lcy; & iecy; & tcy; & ocy; & vcy; & ycy; & jcy; & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & yacy; & ucy; & scy; & tcy; & rcy; & ocy; & jcy; & scy; & tcy; vcy; & acy; & ocy; & bcy; & vcy; & yacy; & zcy; & kcy; & icy; & scy; & iecy; & tcy; & kcy; & ocy; & jcy;
& Mcy; & icy; & ncy; & icy; & Mcy; & acy; & kcy; & scy; & icy; & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & yacy; & Scy; & Rcy; & ucy; & kcy; & acy; vcy; & acy; & mcy; & icy; & semi; & Kcy; & rcy; & acy; & scy; & icy; vcy; ycy; & iecy; Gowns & Scy; & ocy; & Scy; & kcy; & lcy; & dcy; & kcy; & acy; & mcy; & icy; & semi; & Bcy; & ocy; & gcy; & icy; & ncy; & yacy; & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & yacy; & Scy; & Rcy; & ucy; & kcy; & acy; vcy; & acy; & mcy; & icy; & semi; & Scy; & vcy; & dcy; & iecy; & bcy; & ncy; & ycy; & iecy; & Pcy; & lcy; & tcy; & softcy; & yacy; & semi; & Scy; & vcy; & dcy; & iecy; & bcy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; & Gcy; & ocy; & scy; & tcy; & softcy; & Gcy; & rcy; & ucy; & pcy; & pcy; & acy; & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & yacy; & Scy; & Dcy; & lcy; & icy; & ncy; & ncy; & ycy; & mcy; & icy; & Rcy; & ucy; & kcy; & acy; vcy; & acy; & mcy; & icy; & semi; & Fcy; & icy; & ocy; & lcy; & iecy; & tcy; & ocy; & vcy; & ycy; & jcy; & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & yacy; & Ncy; & acy; & Ocy; & scy; & iecy; & ncy; & softcy; & Ocy; & scy; & iecy; & ncy; & softcy; & yucy; & Icy; & Zcy; & icy; & mcy; & ocy; & jcy; & semi; & Scy; & kcy; & rcy; & ocy; & mcy; & ncy; & ycy; & iecy; & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & yacy; & Dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & ZHcy; & iecy; & ncy; & shchcy; & icy; & ncy;

& Acy; & ncy; & acy; & lcy; & ocy; & gcy; & icy; & chcy; & ncy; & ycy; & iecy; & pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & yacy;

& Scy; & vcy; yacy; & zcy; & acy; & ncy; & ycy; & iecy; & scy; & mcy; & ucy; & scy; & ucy; & lcy; & softcy; & mcy; & acy; & ncy; & scy; & kcy; & icy; & mcy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & dcy; & ucy; & kcy; & tcy; & ocy; & vcy;

& Ocy; & bcy; & rcy; & acy; & tcy; & icy; & tcy; & iecy; & vcy; & ncy; & icy; & mcy; & acy; & ncy; & icy; & iecy; & colon;

1 & comma; & bcy; & iecy; & scy; & pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & ncy; & ycy; & iecy; & kcy; & acy; & tcy; & acy; & lcy; & ocy; & gcy; & icy; & scy; & vcy; & scy; & iecy; & ncy; & acy; & shcy; & icy; & ncy; & ocy; & vcy; & iecy; & jcy; & shcy; & icy; & iecy; & mcy; & ucy; & scy; & ucy; & lcy; & softcy; & mcy; & acy; & ncy; & scy; & kcy; & ocy; & jcy; & ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & dcy; & ycy; & scy; & tcy; & icy; & lcy; & icy; & period;
2 & comma; Nice & kcy; & acy; & chcy; & iecy; & scy; & tcy; & vcy; & acy; & period; & lpar; & pcy; & ocy; & scy; & kcy; & ocy; & lcy; & softcy; & kcy; & ucy; & kcy; & acy; & chcy; & iecy; & scy; & tcy; vcy; & ocy; – & ecy; & tcy; & ocy; & ncy; & acy; & shcy; & acy; & kcy; & ucy; & lcy; & softcy; & tcy; & ucy; & rcy; & acy; & excl; & rpar;
3 & period; & Bcy; & ycy; & scy; & tcy; & rcy; & acy; & yacy; & dcy; & ocy; & scy; & tcy; & acy; & vcy; & kcy; & acy; & vcy; & tcy; & iecy; & chcy; & iecy; & ncy; & icy; & iecy; 24 & chcy; & acy; & scy; & ocy; & vcy; & comma; & vcy; & scy; & iecy; ecy; & lcy; & iecy; & mcy; & iecy; & ncy; & tcy; & ycy; readystock & period;
4 & comma; & scy; & tcy; & iecy; & mcy; & dcy; & ocy; & bcy; & rcy; & ocy; & pcy; & ocy; & zhcy; & acy; & lcy; & ocy; vcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & period;
5 & comma; & bcy; & ocy; & lcy; & iecy; & iecy; & chcy; & iecy; & mcy; 30000 & period;
6 & comma; & Pcy; & ocy; & dcy; & dcy; & iecy; & rcy; & zhcy; & kcy; & acy; 7 & Dcy; & ncy; & iecy; & jcy; & vcy; & ocy; & zcy; & vcy; & rcy; & acy; & tcy; & dcy; & iecy; & ncy; & iecy; & gcy; & period;
7 & comma; & vcy; & ycy; & pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & ycy; T & sol; T & Icy; & lcy; & icy; & kcy; & rcy; & iecy; & dcy; & icy; & tcy; & ncy; & ocy; & jcy; & kcy; & acy; & rcy; & tcy; & ycy; & period;

& Ocy; & tcy; & zcy; & ycy; & vcy; & ycy; & pcy; & ocy; & kcy; & ucy; & pcy; & acy; & tcy; & iecy; & lcy; & iecy; & jcy;

& Pcy; & rcy; & icy; & ncy; & tscy; & icy; & pcy; & ycy; & ncy; & acy; & scy; & tcy; & rcy; & ocy; & jcy; & kcy; & icy;

MOQ & dcy; & lcy; & yacy; customizaion & colon; 100 & Pcy; & Kcy; & sol; design
& Ncy; & acy; & scy; & tcy; & rcy; & ocy; & jcy; & kcy; & acy; & pcy; & acy; & rcy; & acy; & mcy; & iecy; & tcy; & rcy; & ocy; & vcy; & colon; & Dcy; & icy; & zcy; & acy; & jcy; & ncy; & comma; & ncy; & acy; & kcy; & lcy; & iecy; & jcy; & kcy; & icy; & comma; & vcy; & ocy; & dcy; & yacy; & ncy; & ycy; & iecy; & zcy; & ncy; & acy; & kcy; & icy; & comma; & ucy; & pcy; & acy; & kcy; & ocy; & vcy; & kcy; & icy;
& Dcy; & icy; & acy; & pcy; & acy; & zcy; & ocy; & ncy; & ncy; & acy; & scy; & tcy; & rcy; & ocy; & jcy; & kcy; & icy; & colon; & ZHcy; & iecy; & ncy; & shchcy; & icy; & ncy; abayas & comma; & mcy; & ucy; & zhcy; & chcy; & icy; & ncy; thobes & comma; & mcy; & ucy; & scy; & ucy; & lcy; & softcy; & mcy; & acy; & ncy; & scy; & kcy; & icy; & khcy; & kcy; & ucy; & pcy; & acy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; & kcy; & ocy; & scy; & tcy; & yucy; & mcy; & comma; & zhcy; & iecy; & ncy; & shchcy; & icy; & ncy; & pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & yacy; & comma; Hijabs & icy; & tcy; & period; & Dcy; & period;

& Ncy; & acy; & scy; & tcy; & rcy; & ocy; & jcy; & kcy; & acy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & tscy; & iecy; & scy; & scy; & acy;

& icy; & dcy; & ocy; & scy; & tcy; & acy; & vcy; & kcy; & acy;

& Ecy; & kcy; & scy; & kcy; & ucy; & rcy; & scy; & icy; & yacy; & ncy; & acy; & zcy; & acy; & vcy; & ocy; & dcy; & iecy;
& ncy; & fcy; & rcy; & mcy; & acy; & tscy; & icy; yacy; & ocy; & kcy; & ocy; & mcy; & pcy; & acy; & ncy; & icy; & icy;

& SHcy; & acy; & ncy; & khcy; & acy; & iecy; weimei & ecy; & lcy; & iecy; & kcy; & tcy; & rcy; & ocy; & ncy; & ncy; & acy; & yacy; & kcy; & ocy; & mcy; & mcy; & iecy; & rcy; & tscy; & icy; & yacy; Co & period; & comma; Ltd & yacy; & vcy; & lcy; & yacy; & iecy; & tcy; & scy; & yacy; & Pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & fcy; & iecy; & scy; & scy; & icy; & ocy; & ncy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ycy; & mcy; & pcy; & ocy; & scy; & tcy; & acy; & vcy; & shchcy; & icy; & kcy; & ocy; & mcy; Islamice & ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & dcy; & ycy; & comma; & vcy; & tcy; & ocy; & mcy; & chcy; & icy; & scy; & lcy; & iecy; & mcy; & ucy; & scy; & ucy; & lcy; & softcy; & mcy; & acy; & ncy; & pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & yacy; & comma; abaya & comma; & khcy; & icy; & dcy; & zhcy; & acy; & bcy; & acy; & comma; & mcy; & ucy; & scy; & ucy; & lcy; & softcy; & mcy; & acy; & ncy; & scy; & kcy; & icy; & khcy; & pcy; & lcy; & acy; & vcy; & acy; & tcy; & iecy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; & icy; & zcy; & ncy; & ocy; & scy; & acy; & comma; & mcy; & ucy; & scy; & ucy; & lcy; & softcy; & mcy; & acy; & ncy; & scy; & kcy; & icy; & khcy; & mcy; & ucy; & zhcy; & scy; & kcy; & icy; & iecy; & Icy; & zcy; & ncy; & ocy; & scy; & acy; & icy; & dcy; & iecy; & tcy; & scy; & kcy; & icy; & jcy; & icy; & zcy; & ncy; & ocy; & scy; & icy; & ncy; & iecy; & kcy; & ocy; & tcy; & ocy; & rcy; & ycy; & khcy; & dcy; & rcy; & ucy; & gcy; & icy; & khcy; & mcy; & ucy; & scy; & ucy; & lcy; & softcy; & mcy; & acy; & ncy; & scy; & kcy; & icy; & khcy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & dcy; & ucy; & kcy; & tcy; & ocy; & vcy; & period;

& Mcy; & ycy; & scy; & tcy; & rcy; & iecy; & mcy; & icy; & mcy; & scy; & yacy; & pcy; & ocy; & mcy; & ocy; & chcy; & softcy; & ncy; & acy; & shcy; & icy; & mcy; & kcy; & lcy; & icy; & iecy; & ncy; & tcy; & acy; & mcy; & ncy; & acy; & jcy; & tcy; & icy; & khcy; & ocy; & rcy; & ocy; & shcy; & icy; & jcy; & kcy; & acy; & chcy; & iecy; & scy; & tcy; vcy; & ocy; & icy; & zcy; & ocy; & bcy; & rcy; & acy; & zhcy; & iecy; & ncy; & icy; & yacy; & icy; & ncy; & ocy; & vcy; & iecy; & jcy; & shcy; & icy; & iecy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & dcy; & ucy; & kcy; & tcy; & ycy; & scy; & ncy; & acy; & icy; & bcy; & ocy; & lcy; & iecy; & iecy; & rcy; & acy; & zcy; & ucy; & mcy; & ncy; & ycy; & iecy; & tscy; & iecy; & ncy; & ycy; & comma; & pcy; & ocy; & mcy; & ocy; & gcy; & acy; & yacy; & ncy; & acy; & shcy; & icy; & mcy; & kcy; & lcy; & icy; & iecy; & ncy; & tcy; & acy; & mcy; & dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & icy; & zcy; & ucy; & chcy; & iecy; & ncy; & icy; & yacy; & gcy; & lcy; & ocy; & bcy; & acy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; & rcy; & ycy; & ncy; & kcy; & acy; & icy; & ucy; & scy; & icy; & lcy; & iecy; & ncy; & icy; & yacy; & rcy; & ocy; & scy; & tcy; & acy; & bcy; & icy; & zcy; & ncy; & iecy; & scy; & acy; – & ecy; & tcy; & ocy; & icy; & ncy; & acy; & shcy; & acy; & mcy; & iecy; & chcy; & tcy; & acy; & comma; & mcy; & ycy; & khcy; & ocy; & tcy; & iecy; & lcy; & icy; & bcy; & ycy; & rcy; & acy; & scy; & tcy; & icy; & bcy; & ocy; & lcy; & softcy; & shcy; & iecy; & scy; & vcy; & lcy; & acy; & dcy; & iecy; & lcy; softcy; & tscy; & iecy; & vcy; & mcy; & acy; & lcy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; & bcy; & icy; & zcy; & ncy; & iecy; & scy; & acy; & period;

& Dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & tcy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; & chcy; & tcy; & ocy; & bcy; & ycy; & icy; & dcy; & tcy; & icy; & vcy; & ncy; & ocy; & gcy; & ucy; & scy; & bcy; & ycy; & scy; & tcy; & rcy; & ocy; & mcy; & iecy; & ncy; & yacy; & yucy; & shchcy; & icy; & mcy; & scy; & yacy; & rcy; & ycy; & ncy; & ocy; & chcy; & ncy; & ycy; & mcy; & scy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & scy; & ocy; & mcy; & comma; & mcy; & ycy; & pcy; & ocy; & scy; & tcy; & ocy; & yacy; & ncy; & ncy; & ocy; & ocy; & bcy; & ncy; & ocy; & vcy; & lcy; & yacy; & iecy; & mcy; & ncy; & acy; & shcy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & dcy; & ucy; & kcy; & tcy; & dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & ucy; & dcy; & ocy; & vcy; & lcy; & iecy; & tcy; & vcy; & rcy; & iecy; & ncy; & icy; & yacy; & scy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & scy; & acy; & comma; & scy; & tcy; & icy; & lcy; & icy; & vcy; & ncy; & acy; & shcy; & iecy; & mcy; & scy; & acy; & jcy; & tcy; & iecy; & yacy; & vcy; & lcy; & yacy; & yucy; & tcy; & scy; & yacy; & ncy; & acy; & icy; & bcy; & ocy; & lcy; & iecy; & iecy; & pcy; & ocy; & pcy; & ucy; & lcy; & yacy; & rcy; & ncy; & ycy; & iecy; & icy; & ncy; & ocy; & vcy; & iecy; & jcy; & shcy; & icy; & iecy; & vcy; & Kcy; & icy; & tcy; & acy; & iecy; & icy; & gcy; & lcy; & ocy; & bcy; & acy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; & rcy; & ycy; & ncy; & kcy; & acy; & icy; & mcy; & ycy; & ncy; & iecy; & ocy; & scy; & tcy; & acy; & ncy; & ocy; vcy; & icy; & tcy; & softcy; & ocy; & bcy; & ncy; & ocy; & vcy; & lcy; & iecy; & ncy; & icy; & iecy; & period;

° CHcy; a & scy; & tcy; & ocy; & zcy; & acy; & dcy; & acy; vcy; & acy; & iecy; & mcy; ycy; & iecy; & vcy; & ocy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & scy; & ycy;

1 & period; & Mcy; & ocy; & gcy; & ucy; & lcy; & icy; & yacy; & Pcy; & ocy; & lcy; & ucy; & chcy; & icy; & tcy; & softcy; & ocy; & bcy; & rcy; & acy; & zcy; & iecy; & tscy; & Dcy; & ocy; & mcy; & acy; & scy; & scy; & ocy; & vcy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & icy; & zcy; & vcy; & ocy; & dcy; & scy; & tcy; & vcy; & acy; & quest;
& Ocy; & tcy; & vcy; & iecy; & tcy; & colon; & Kcy; & ocy; & ncy; & iecy; & chcy; & ncy; & ocy; & excl; & Ncy; & ocy; & rcy; & mcy; & acy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; & dcy; & ocy; & bcy; & icy; & tcy; & softcy; & scy; & yacy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & gcy; & rcy; & iecy; & scy; & scy; & acy; & vcy; & tcy; & ocy; & mcy; & comma; & chcy; & tcy; & ocy; & mcy; & ycy; & bcy; & ucy; & dcy; & iecy; & mcy; & scy; & dcy; & iecy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & pcy; & rcy; & iecy; & dcy; & vcy; & acy; & rcy; & icy; & tcy; & iecy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; & ocy; & bcy; & rcy; & acy; & zcy; & iecy; & tscy; & dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & ocy; & tscy; & iecy; & ncy; & kcy; & icy; & kcy; & acy; & chcy; & iecy; & scy; & tcy; & vcy; & acy; & period; & Mcy; & acy; & scy; & scy; & acy;
& Pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & icy; & zcy; & vcy; & ocy; & dcy; & scy; & tcy; & vcy; & ocy; & bcy; & ucy; & dcy; & iecy; & tcy; & zcy; & acy; & pcy; & ucy; & shchcy; & iecy; & ncy; & pcy; & ocy; & scy; & lcy; & iecy; & tcy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; & comma; & kcy; & acy; & kcy; & mcy; & ycy; & scy; & mcy; & ocy; & zhcy; & iecy; & mcy; & pcy; & ocy; & lcy; & ucy; & chcy; & icy; & tcy; & softcy; & pcy; & ocy; & dcy; & tcy; & vcy; & iecy; & rcy; & zhcy; & dcy; & iecy; & ncy; & icy; & iecy; & ncy; & acy; & ecy; & tcy; & ocy; & tcy; & ocy; & bcy; & rcy; & acy; & zcy; & iecy; & tscy; & period;

2 & comma; – & ecy; & tcy; & ocy; & ocy; & bcy; & rcy; & acy; & zcy; & iecy; & tscy; & mcy; & ocy; & zhcy; & iecy; & tcy; & bcy; & ycy; & tcy; & softcy; & vcy; & ocy; & zcy; & vcy; & rcy; & acy; & shchcy; & iecy; & ncy; & quest;
& Ocy; & tcy; & vcy; & iecy; & tcy; & colon; & Dcy; & acy; & comma; & ocy; & bcy; & ycy; & chcy; & ncy; & ocy; & ocy; & bcy; & rcy; & acy; & zcy; & iecy; & tscy; & mcy; & ocy; & zhcy; & iecy; & tcy; & bcy; & ycy; & tcy; & softcy; & vcy; & ocy; & zcy; & vcy; & rcy; & acy; & shchcy; & iecy; & ncy; & pcy; & ocy; & scy; & lcy; & iecy; & pcy; & ocy; & dcy; & tcy; & vcy; & iecy; & rcy; & zhcy; & dcy; & iecy; & ncy; & icy; & yacy; & mcy; & acy; & scy; & scy; & ocy; & vcy; & ycy; & khcy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & icy; & zcy; & vcy; & ocy; & dcy; & scy; & tcy; vcy; & iecy; & ncy; & ncy; & ocy; & jcy; & scy; & rcy; & iecy; & dcy; & iecy; & comma; & ncy; & ocy; & icy; & dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & kcy; & ocy; & ncy; & kcy; & rcy; & iecy; & tcy; & ncy; & ocy; & jcy; & scy; & icy; & tcy; & ucy; & acy; & tscy; & icy; & icy; & vcy; & ycy; & dcy; & ocy; & lcy; & zhcy; & ncy; & ycy; & pcy; & ocy; & zcy; & vcy; & ocy; & ncy; & icy; & tcy; & softcy; & comma; & pcy; & ocy; & scy; & lcy; & iecy; & dcy; & ucy; & yucy; & shchcy; & iecy; & jcy; & dcy; & iecy; & yacy; & tcy; & iecy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ocy; & scy; & tcy; & icy; & vcy; & scy; & vcy; & yacy; & zcy; & icy; & scy; & vcy; & acy; & shcy; & icy; & mcy; & zcy; & acy; & kcy; & acy; & zcy; & ocy; & mcy; & period;

3 & comma; MOQ & dcy; & ocy; & lcy; & zhcy; & ncy; & ocy; & bcy; & ycy; & tcy; & softcy; 100 & quest;
A & colon; & Vcy; & tscy; & iecy; & lcy; & ocy; & mcy; & comma; MOQ & dcy; & ocy; & lcy; & zhcy; & iecy; & ncy; & bcy; & ycy; & tcy; & softcy; & bcy; & ocy; & lcy; & iecy; & iecy; 100 & Pcy; & Kcy; & period; & Tcy; & iecy; & mcy; & ncy; & iecy; & mcy; & iecy; & ncy; & iecy; & iecy; & comma; & Pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & bcy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; & zcy; & acy; & kcy; & acy; & zcy; & dcy; & ocy; & scy; & tcy; & ucy; & pcy; & iecy; & ncy; & dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & vcy; & acy; & scy; & comma; & chcy; & tcy; & ocy; & bcy; & ycy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & vcy; & iecy; & rcy; & icy; & tcy; & softcy; & kcy; & acy; & chcy; & iecy; & scy; & tcy; vcy; & ocy; & ncy; & acy; & shcy; & iecy; & jcy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & dcy; & ucy; & kcy; & tscy; & icy; & icy; & period;
& Tcy; & acy; & kcy; & zhcy; & iecy; & mcy; & ycy; & mcy; & ocy; & zhcy; & iecy; & mcy; & scy; & ocy; & gcy; & lcy; & acy; & scy; & icy; & tcy; & softcy; & scy; & yacy; & scy; & tcy; & iecy; & mcy; & dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & mcy; & acy; & lcy; & ycy; & khcy; & icy; & scy; & mcy; & iecy; & shcy; & acy; & jcy; & tcy; & iecy; & scy; & tcy; & iecy; & mcy; & period;

4 & comma; – & ecy; & tcy; & ocy; & tscy; & iecy; & ncy; & acy; & dcy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; & vcy; & ocy; & rcy; & ncy; & acy; & yacy; & quest;
A & colon; & Dcy; & acy; & comma; & tscy; & iecy; & ncy; & acy; & yacy; & vcy; & lcy; & yacy; & iecy; & tcy; & scy; & yacy; # pcy; & rcy; & iecy; & dcy; & mcy; & iecy; & tcy; & ocy; & mcy; & pcy; & iecy; & rcy; & iecy; & gcy; & ocy; & vcy; & ocy; & rcy; & ocy; & vcy; & period; & Ncy; & ocy; & tscy; & iecy; & ncy; & ycy; & mcy; & ycy; & ocy; & scy; & ncy; & ocy; vcy; & acy; & ncy; & acy; & ncy; & acy; & scy; & tcy; & ocy; & icy; & mcy; & ocy; & scy; & tcy; & icy; & icy; & vcy; & pcy; & ocy; & lcy; & ncy; & iecy; & rcy; & acy; & zcy; & ucy; & mcy; & ncy; & ycy; & mcy; & comma; & mcy; & ycy; & mcy; & ocy; & zhcy; & iecy; & mcy; & pcy; & rcy; & iecy; & dcy; & ocy; & scy; & tcy; & acy; vcy; & icy; & tcy; & softcy; & scy; & kcy; & icy; & dcy; & kcy; & icy; & comma;
& Ncy; & ocy; & ncy; & iecy; & tcy; & acy; & kcy; & mcy; & ncy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; & period; & Icy; & tscy; & iecy; & ncy; & acy; & kcy; & acy; & zhcy; & dcy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; & pcy; & ucy; & ncy; & kcy; & tcy; & acy; & icy; & mcy; & iecy; & iecy; & tcy; & scy; & vcy; & yacy; & zcy; & softcy; & scy; & kcy; & ocy; & lcy; & icy; & chcy; & iecy; & scy; & tcy; & vcy; & ocy; & zcy; & acy; & kcy; & acy; & zcy; & acy; & comma; & mcy; & acy; & tcy; & iecy; & rcy; & icy; & acy; & lcy; & acy; & icy; & zcy; & gcy; & ocy; & tcy; & ocy; vcy; & lcy; & iecy; & ncy; & icy; & yacy; & icy; & tcy; & period; & Dcy; & period;

5 & period; & Mcy; & ocy; & gcy; & ucy; & lcy; & icy; & yacy; & Pcy; & ocy; & lcy; & ucy; & chcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & scy; & kcy; & icy; & dcy; & kcy; & icy; & quest;
& Ocy; & tcy; & vcy; & iecy; & tcy; & colon; & Dcy; & acy; & comma; & dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & bcy; & ocy; & lcy; & softcy; & shcy; & icy; & khcy; & icy; & chcy; & acy; & scy; & tcy; & ycy; & khcy; & kcy; & lcy; & icy; & iecy; & ncy; & tcy; & ocy; & vcy; & comma; & mcy; & ycy; & bcy; & ucy; & dcy; & iecy; & mcy; & dcy; & acy; & vcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & rcy; & acy; & zcy; & ucy; & mcy; & ncy; & ycy; & iecy; & scy; & kcy; & icy; & dcy; & kcy; & icy; & period;

& Kcy; & ocy; & ncy; & tcy; & acy; & kcy; & tcy; & ycy; & colon; & Mcy; & ocy; & ncy; & icy; & kcy; & icy;

& ast; & ast; & Ncy; & acy; & jcy; & tcy; & icy; & mcy; & iecy; & ncy; & yacy; & ocy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & icy; & zcy; & vcy; & iecy; & dcy; & iecy; & ncy; & ncy; & ycy; & khcy; & vcy; & Kcy; & icy; & tcy; & acy; & iecy; & colon; Pls & pcy; & ocy; & icy; & scy; & kcy; & ast; & ast; & SHcy; & acy; & ncy; & khcy; & acy; & jcy; weimei & ast; & ast;

& ast; & ast; & IEcy; & scy; & lcy; & icy; & Vcy; & ycy; & ocy; & chcy; & iecy; & ncy; & softcy; & scy; & rcy; & ocy; & chcy; & ncy; & ycy; & khcy; & comma; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & scy; & tcy; & ocy; & pcy; & ocy; & zcy; & vcy; & ocy; & ncy; & icy; & tcy; & iecy; & mcy; & ncy; & iecy; & pcy; & rcy; & yacy; & mcy; & ocy; & vcy; & lcy; & yucy; & bcy; & ocy; & iecy; & vcy; & rcy; & iecy; & mcy; & yacy; & comma; & chcy; & tcy; & ocy; & vcy; & ycy; & khcy; & ocy; & tcy; & icy; & tcy; & iecy; & comma; i & bcy; & ucy; & dcy; & iecy; & tcy; & dcy; & iecy; & rcy; & zhcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & mcy; & ocy; & jcy; & ncy; & ocy; & mcy; & iecy; & rcy; & tcy; & iecy; & lcy; & iecy; & fcy; & ocy; & ncy; & acy; & ncy; & acy; 24 & chcy; & acy; & scy; & ocy; vcy; & excl; & ast; & ast;

& Mcy; & ucy; & scy; & ucy; & lcy; & softcy; & mcy; & acy; & ncy; & scy; & kcy; & icy; & iecy; Abaya Caftan & Dcy; & ucy; & bcy; & acy; & icy; & Ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & dcy; & ycy; & Dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & ZHcy; & iecy; & ncy; & shchcy; & icy; & ncy; & Icy; & scy; & lcy; & acy; & mcy; & scy; & kcy; & ocy; & jcy; & Ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & dcy; & ycy; – & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & iecy; Jilbab Khimar & Icy; & YUcy; & bcy; & kcy; & acy; & Vcy; & Vcy; & ocy; & zcy; & dcy; & ucy; & khcy; & ocy; & ncy; & iecy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & ncy; & icy; & tscy; & acy; & iecy; & mcy; & ycy; & jcy; & Mcy; & yacy; & gcy; & kcy; & icy; & jcy; & Ncy; & icy; & dcy; & acy; & Tcy; & kcy; & acy; & ncy; & softcy; & comma; & Scy; & vcy; & ocy; & bcy; & ocy; & dcy; & ncy; & ocy; & jcy; & ocy; & tcy; & Rcy; & acy; & zcy; & mcy; & iecy; & rcy; & acy; & Vcy; & tcy; & ucy; & lcy; & kcy; & icy; Batwing & Pcy; & ocy; & lcy; & ocy; & vcy; & icy; & ncy; & acy; Niqab & Dcy; & ocy; & lcy; & gcy; & ocy; & Scy; & ocy; & pcy; & lcy; & ocy; & Vcy; & Vcy; & ocy; & zcy; & dcy; & ucy; & khcy; & ocy; & ncy; & iecy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & ncy; & icy; & tscy; & acy; & iecy; & mcy; & ycy; & jcy; & Ucy; & khcy; & ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & ocy; & rcy; & zhcy; & iecy; & tcy; & Ocy; & pcy; & tcy; & ocy; & vcy; & ycy; & iecy; & TScy; & iecy; & ncy; & ycy; & Ucy; & zhcy; & iecy; & dcy; & acy; & vcy; & ncy; & ocy; & zhcy; & iecy; & ncy; & shchcy; & icy; & ncy; & Kcy; & icy; & mcy; & ocy; & ncy; & ocy; & Mcy; & ucy; & fcy; & tcy; & ucy; V- & ocy; & bcy; & rcy; & acy; & zcy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; [vcy] [ycy] [rcy] [iecy] & zcy; & gcy; & ocy; & rcy; & lcy; & ocy; & vcy; & icy; & ncy; & ycy; Wrap & Pcy; & rcy; & icy; & scy; & tcy; & iecy; & gcy; & ncy; & ucy; & tcy; & ycy; & Icy; & mcy; & pcy; & iecy; & rcy; & icy; & icy; Flowy Maxi & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & iecy; & ZHcy; & iecy; & ncy; & shchcy; & icy; & ncy; & ycy; & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & iecy; & Pcy; & lcy; & yucy; & scy; & Rcy; & acy; & zcy; & mcy; & iecy; & rcy; & Pcy; & iecy; & chcy; & acy; & tcy; & icy; & vcy; & scy; & tcy; & icy; & lcy; & iecy; & rcy; & iecy; & tcy; & rcy; & ocy; & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & iecy; Abaya Jilbab & Mcy; & ucy; & scy; & ucy; & lcy; & softcy; & mcy; & acy; & ncy; & scy; & kcy; & ocy; & jcy; & Ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & dcy; & ycy; Maxi Spreader & Pcy; & ocy; & vcy; & scy; & iecy; & dcy; & ncy; & iecy; & vcy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; Kaftan & Dcy; & ocy; & lcy; & gcy; & ocy; & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & iecy; & Mcy; & ucy; & scy; & ucy; & lcy; & softcy; & mcy; & acy; & ncy; & scy; & kcy; & ocy; & jcy; & Ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & dcy; & ycy; Kaftan & Dcy; & bcy; & acy; & icy; & Dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & ZHcy; & iecy; & ncy; & shchcy; & icy; & ncy; & Kcy; & ocy; & rcy; & ocy; & tcy; & kcy; & ucy; & yucy; & vcy; & tcy; & ucy; & lcy; & kcy; & ucy; & ncy; & acy; & Acy; & rcy; & bcy; & scy; & kcy; & ocy; & mcy; & yacy; & zcy; & ycy; & kcy; & iecy; & Ucy; & zhcy; & iecy; & dcy; & acy; & vcy; & ncy; & ocy; & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & iecy; Abaya & Icy; & scy; & lcy; & acy; & mcy; & scy; & kcy; & ocy; & jcy; & Ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & dcy; & ycy; & Dcy; & iecy; & vcy; & ocy; & chcy; & iecy; & kcy; Caftan Jalabiya
& Mcy; & ucy; & scy; & ucy; & lcy; & softcy; & mcy; & acy; & ncy; & scy; & kcy; & icy; & iecy; Abaya Caftan & Dcy; & ucy; & bcy; & acy; & icy; & Ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & dcy; & ycy; & Dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & ZHcy; & iecy; & ncy; & shchcy; & icy; & ncy; & Icy; & scy; & lcy; & acy; & mcy; & scy; & kcy; & ocy; & jcy; & Ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & dcy; & ycy; – & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & iecy; Jalabiyas & CHcy; & iecy; & rcy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; & Scy; & rcy; & iecy; & dcy; & ncy; & iecy; & gcy; & ocy; & Mcy; & ucy; & scy; & ucy; & lcy; & softcy; & mcy; & acy; & ncy; & scy; & kcy; & ocy; & jcy; & Ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & dcy; & ycy; & Dcy; & ucy; & bcy; & acy; & icy; Abaya Caftan & ZHcy; & iecy; & ncy; & shchcy; & icy; & ncy; & Icy; & scy; & lcy; & acy; & mcy; & scy; & kcy; & ocy; & jcy; & Ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & dcy; & ycy; – & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & iecy; Jalabiyas & Dcy; & iecy; & vcy; & ocy; & chcy; & iecy; & kcy; & Tcy; & ucy; & ncy; & icy; & kcy; & acy; & ZHcy; & iecy; & ncy; & shchcy; & icy; & ncy; Ruched & Tcy; & lcy; & icy; & icy; Rhinestone & Pcy; & ocy; & vcy; & scy; & iecy; & dcy; & ncy; & iecy; & vcy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; & Tcy; & yucy; & lcy; & softcy; Semi-Formal & Dcy; & ocy; & lcy; & gcy; & ocy; & Scy; & vcy; & acy; & dcy; & softcy; & bcy; & acy; & Ncy; & iecy; & vcy; & iecy; & scy; & tcy; & ycy; & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & yacy; & ZHcy; & iecy; & ncy; & scy; & kcy; & icy; & iecy; & Pcy; & lcy; & yucy; & scy; & Rcy; & acy; & zcy; & mcy; & iecy; & rcy; & Pcy; & ocy; & vcy; & scy; & iecy; & dcy; & ncy; & iecy; & vcy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; & Kcy; & ocy; & rcy; & ocy; & tcy; & kcy; & icy; & iecy; & Vcy; & tcy; & ucy; & lcy; & kcy; & icy; & Scy; & tscy; & vcy; & iecy; & tcy; & ocy; & chcy; & ncy; & ycy; & mcy; & rcy; & icy; & scy; & ucy; & ncy; & kcy; & ocy; & mcy; Maxi & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & yacy; & Scy; & Kcy; & acy; & rcy; & mcy; & acy; & ncy; & acy; & mcy; & icy; & Kcy; & rcy; & icy; & scy; & tcy; & acy; & lcy; & lcy; & ocy; & vcy; & Rcy; & iecy; & lcy; & softcy; & iecy; & fcy; & ncy; & acy; yacy; & Kcy; & rcy; & ucy; & zhcy; & iecy; vcy; & acy; & Rcy; & ucy; & scy; & acy; & lcy; & kcy; & icy; & Vcy; & iecy; & chcy; & iecy; & rcy; & ncy; & icy; & iecy; & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & yacy; & Dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & ZHcy; & iecy; & ncy; & shchcy; & icy; & ncy; & Fcy; & ocy; & rcy; & mcy; & acy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; & ZHcy; & iecy; & ncy; & shchcy; & icy; & ncy; & Mcy; & ucy; & scy; & ucy; & lcy; & softcy; & mcy; & acy; & ncy; & scy; & kcy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; Abaya Kaftan & KHcy; & acy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & Lcy; & iecy; & dcy; & icy; & Pcy; & lcy; & yucy; & scy; & Rcy; & acy; & zcy; & mcy; & iecy; & rcy; & Dcy; & lcy; & icy; & ncy; & ncy; & ocy; & jcy; & Vcy; & tcy; & ucy; & lcy; & kcy; & icy; & Scy; & tscy; & vcy; & iecy; & tcy; & ocy; & chcy; & ncy; & ycy; & mcy; & ocy; & rcy; & ncy; & acy; & mcy; & iecy; & ncy; & tcy; & ocy; & mcy; & icy; & zcy; & Mcy; & acy; & kcy; & scy; & icy; & mcy; & acy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ycy; & khcy; & Pcy; & ocy; & vcy; & scy; & iecy; & dcy; & ncy; & iecy; & vcy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; & scy; & tcy; & icy; & lcy; & softcy; & ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & dcy; & ycy; & Pcy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy; & iecy; & ncy; & acy; & acy; & rcy; & bcy; & scy; & kcy; & ocy; & mcy; & yacy; & zcy; & ycy; & kcy; & iecy;

90,000 Kuala Lumpur.- Travel Blog Tudam

Kuala Lumpur is a modern Asian metropolis, the capital of Malaysia. In some ways, it is similar to other Asian cities: modern business buildings coexist with shabby and cramped rooms, huge shopping malls with tent food and markets on the streets, there are traditional China and India towns, tropical parks and chaos on the roads. But there is something that immediately sets Kuala Lumpur apart from other familiar Asian metropolises: Islamic culture.

Islam came to this part of Asia in the 13th century and subsequently became firmly entrenched here.Traditionally, in our ideas, Asians are associated with eating with chopsticks, narrow eyes, straw hats, rice, Buddhism and anything else, but not Islam. However, elements of Islamic culture in Kuala Lumpur shine through everywhere, interestingly intertwining with the bustling life of the metropolis. Among the concrete and steel boxes of modern buildings, here and there the onions of mosques and the arrows of minarets flicker. The octagonal stars of Islam are harmoniously woven into the architectural details of the buildings, and the curly Arabic script quotes sayings about the eternal.Five times a day, a drawn-out call to prayer sounds on the streets of the city.

National Mosque in Kuala Lumpur

Muslim women in Malaysia, as in other Islamic states, wear a headscarf – tudung on their heads, but in form and appearance it is very different from the Arab. Malayak scarves in the forehead area usually have a seal and are placed in the shape of a “house” in the style of traditional Malay architecture, hanging low on the shoulders, and covering the neck. Often the tudung is sold ready-made with a zipper in the front under the neck.Tudung colors are preferred by Malaysians as opposed to traditional black Arabic. Wearing a headscarf is not mandatory for women in Malaysia, although most prefer to keep the tradition.

Women in traditional clothes

There are also no strict Muslim laws like in Arab countries, but the religious rules of behavior in society are observed. For example, no tender feelings are allowed in public, be it kissing or just hugging.

Girls in headscarves in a company with a girl in an open blouse

In one of the transport systems (analogous to our electric trains) there are special carriages for women.On the platform, the stop area for such cars is marked with pink “ladies only” signs, and the cars themselves are marked with restrictive signs. Women with children of any sex are allowed on such cars, but not adult men. It should be noted that travel in such cars is completely voluntary, a woman can choose to ride in it or in a common carriage with men.

Train with a carriage for womenCarriage for women

Another distinctive feature of Kuala Lumpur is its multinationality. Despite the fact that the Indian and Chinese communities are now present in almost every major world metropolis, here their presence is felt much brighter.Chinese women can be easily identified in the crowd by their rather revealing outfits for this city and lighter skin. Indian women often wear national clothes: Punjabi (colorful pants and tunic) and sometimes saris. In shopping and entertainment centers and other public places, there are definitely establishments with Indian and Chinese food, there are shops with Chinese utensils or sari sewing workshops. Among the motley crowd, you can often find traditional Arab families, women in burqa.

Indian women buy fruit

Along with the state Islamic holidays, local national communities widely celebrate their holidays, for example, during our visit to Kuala Lumpur, preparations for the Hindu festival of Diwali were carried out everywhere. Diwali is the “Festival of Lights”, it symbolizes the victory of good over evil, and candles and lanterns are lit everywhere as a sign of this victory. In shopping malls, scenes were prepared and beautiful paintings of multi-colored powders were poured on the floor.

Diwali decoration

Another striking sign of multinationality on a national scale is the widespread use of the English language at the household level.Despite the fact that the official language is Malay, no one will try to speak Malay with you in a cafe or shop. English is the de facto language for business and official communication.

Chinese temple in Kuala Lumpur

Of course, such a neighborhood of polar cultures cannot do without problems. Malay history has also known bloody ethnic conflicts in the 70s of the 20th century. In the present, the political situation in the country is rather calm.

Walking around Kuala Lumpur, it is hard not to notice its inconvenience for walking.On the one hand, public transport is well developed in the city. There are several rail transport systems: KL Monorail monorail trains, LRT light rail trains, Metro underground, KTM Komuter commuter trains and an extensive bus network. Large transfer stations are equipped with all amenities: cafes, shops, toilets and even lockers. But at the same time, Kuala Lumpur suffers from a lack of sidewalks, convenient road crossings and walkways.

Golden Triangle – Business Center Kuala Lumpur

Crossing the road often turns into a whole adventure: the traffic lights have buttons for pedestrians, but in most cases they simply do not work.Car drivers are in no hurry to let passers-by, even on a zebra crossing. Drivers of mopeds calmly cross the road in the right direction along pedestrian crossings and sidewalks together with people, or simply ride a red light.

View of Kuala Lumpur

But what there is in the city is shopping centers. There are many of them, and almost all of them are huge and functional. It’s hard to call me a shopping lover, but Suria KLCC, the most important shopping center in the city, is really worth a visit. Despite the running location (at the foot of the city’s main attraction – the Petronas Towers), it is quite spacious, cool and comfortable.

It has everything from Tudung shawls for Malay fashionistas to Roxy surfer shorts, from elite Arabian perfumes for hundreds of dollars to Chinese soldiers’ armor to decorate your castle, from spare parts for photographic equipment to the latest laptops. There are even winter clothes! And all of this is sold at pretty good prices. When I was frantically looking for a swimsuit in November in Moscow, I was afraid that I would not be able to buy it on the spot because of the customs and national characteristics of the Malays. I was deeply mistaken, you can buy any swimsuit here.

Shopping center Suria KLCC

In addition to shops in the shopping center, there is a large number of restaurants, cafes, bakeries, pastry shops, snack bars – for every taste! At Suria KLCC, we decided to try durian for the first time in four trips to Asia. It was not in its pure form, but there were pies where they put slightly frozen durian. It turns out that the pancake is so hot on the outside and icy on the inside. His taste is shocking! It turned out to be completely different from what I had imagined. The first notes are like a pie with onions and potatoes, and the aftertaste is very sweet with a taste of rotten fruit.

Durian

So what is the city of Kuala Lumpur? Diverse and contrasting. In some ways comfortable and modern, in some ways completely uncomfortable. But its main highlight is, of course, a vivid mixture of different cultures coexisting together.

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