Woolworths – Macarthur Square, Campbelltown
Getting Here – Gilchrist Drive, Campbelltown
Woolworths occupies a good space right near the intersection of Parc Guell Drive and Gilchrist Drive, in Campbelltown, New South Wales, at Macarthur Square Shopping Centre.
Only a 1 minute drive from Joubert Lane, Paley Street, Bairin Street and Kellicar Road; a 4 minute drive from Oxley Street, Narellan Road or Appin Road; and a 8 minute trip from M31 / Hume Motorway or A9.
Enter the address 200 Gilchrist Drive, Campbelltown, NSW 2560 when using route finder devices to get to this location.
If you are coming by train, you will be dropped off at Macarthur Station (384 m) and Campbelltown Station (2.1 km away).
This supermarket is a short walk from Campbelltown Private Hospital, Glichrist Oval, Robinson Park, Mount Huon Park, Marsden Park and Campbelltown Hospital.
Woolworths Locations Nearby Campbelltown, NSW
The total number of Woolworths locations presently operational in Campbelltown, New South Wales is 3. The nearest Woolworths stores to this location are:
Visit the following page for the entire index of all Woolworths branches near Campbelltown.
Christmas, Easter, Anzac Day 2021
During public holidays, usual open hours for Woolworths in Macarthur Square, Campbelltown may be modified. In 2021 the aforementioned changes cover Xmas Day, Boxing Day, Easter Sunday or Queen’s Birthday. We recommend that you go to the official site or phone the service number at 1300 767 969 to get more details about Woolworths Macarthur Square, Campbelltown seasonal hours of business.
Macarthur Square Shopping Centre
While shopping at Woolworths, please visit the wide range of fine quality stores in Macarthur Square Shopping Centre. Located in this place you can also find ALDI, Harris Scarfe, Woolworths, Coles, Big W and other options.
Write a Review, Report a Problem
Opening Hours in Australia’s main objective is to deliver you with the most accurate information as possible. If you find mistakes in the address description or trading hours for Woolworths in Macarthur Square, Campbelltown, please utilize this form to report a problem. You may critique Woolworths using the box provided below. Please also critique the supermarket using the star rating system.
(02) 4625 5820
|Monday:||9:00 am – 5:30 pm|
|Tuesday:||9:00 am – 5:30 pm|
|Wednesday:||12:00 am – 5:30 pm|
|Thursday:||12:00 am – 9:00 pm|
|Friday:||12:00 am – 5:30 pm|
|Saturday:||12:00 am – 5:30 pm|
|Sunday:||12:00 am – 5:00 pm|
Sanity Store Listing | Lasoo
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90,000 Opening and closing times of exchanges
Forex trading is conducted around the clock, excluding weekends and some holidays, but there are several time periods that you need to pay attention to – this is the opening of forex exchanges. It is necessary to know the time of trading or working on Forex (see the table below), because at the moment of opening a trading platform on the market (session), most often there is a sharp jump in the currency that is inherent in this country.
This is closely watched by all traders, as at these minutes intraday movements arise, which most often give the direction of the trend.
Schedule of trading sessions
Opening of exchanges on Monday
Opening of the exchange for trading in rubles
Session definition service
There are 4 trading sessions – Asian , European , American and Pacific (Australian). Each of these exchanges opens and closes in such a way that they only overlap for an hour or two and generally provide the opportunity to trade around the clock.
Schedule of the opening and closing of exchanges (time of trading sessions) Moscow time:
Attention! It should be borne in mind that the time in the table is given in Moscow and in the world – GMT (Greenwich Mean Time). If you want to know the opening times of exchanges in another region, you need to add the hourly deviation you need to the GMT time.
Service for identifying trading sessions
If you find it difficult at first to determine when trading starts on Forex, there is a service that graphically shows which session is currently open.We go to the page of the site and set your time, which we look around the city, or, if you know, by the GTM + deviation. Your time and active session will appear in the table:
The second we need to know is when the exchanges open on Monday, after the weekend and when they close on Friday.
So, the beginning of forex trading, like the opening times of exchanges, occurs on Monday, at 00:00 broker time.Please note, not according to Moscow time, not according to Greenwich Mean Time, but directly according to the terminal time. We look at the upper left corner of the terminal – this is the right time.
Closing of exchanges for the weekend is made on Friday at 24:00 broker time , See the screen below.
- Brokers have different times and may close / open at different times. This must be taken into account when trading with Expert Advisors.
- Some brokers, for example Alpari (screen above), stop and start trading in 5 minutes. before the specified time.
Opening of the exchange for trading in rubles
Moscow Exchange for ruble trading opens at at 10:00 and trades close at at 17:45 Moscow time. As for the work of the exchange itself, as for trading in the ruble in the forex market – this is a separate topic and about it a little below.
Trading schedule for the ruble on the Moscow Exchange:
1) Opening at 10:00 . Once again, I ask you not to confuse currency trading with the forex market, since currency is bought / sold on the exchange, and the “game” is on the course on forex.
2) At 11:30 Moscow time , the official exchange rate USDRUB appears with calculations for “tomorrow”, which is used by the Bank of Russia to determine the official exchange rate of the US dollar. This means that the ruble exchange rate the next day, for settlements on payments at the rate of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, will be known after the specified time.
3) At 17:45 , the exchange closes trading in rubles. Below is a screen of trading from the currency exchange:
The time for trading the ruble on forex is from 10:00 to 20:00 or 21:00 Moscow time , everything depends on the broker. At this time, the rate of USDRUB (dollar-ruble) begins to change. At this rate, banks exchange currency within the day. At other times, the USDRUB chart is stagnant.
That is, to find out the official exchange rate of the dollar against the ruble, you need to wait for 10 hours Moscow time .At other times, you can observe the movement of the dollar exchange rate without taking into account the ruble on any informer, for example here .
Please note that the most active on the market at the moment is the currency, the trading session of which is open. Trading is aggressive on all exchanges, except for the Australian one, at this time traders most often use scalping strategies, since low volatility makes it possible to conduct calm trading.
Asian trading session
opens at 3 am Moscow time and often sets the direction of the daily trend. The session closes at 12 o’clock. The center of trade is Tokyo, which is also the financial capital of Asia. During the beginning of trade in Asia, all banks, financial institutions and other institutions are opened.
The Japanese yen is one of the three most traded currencies on Forex and accounts for more than 20% of foreign exchange turnover. Below is a list of currency pairs that are traded during the Asian session – USD / JPY, AUD / USD, NZD / USD, USD / CAD, USD / CHF, EUR / JPY, GBP / JPY, AUD / JPY, EUR / CHF. The most active traders are the euro / dollar / pound / New Zealand dollar against the Japanese yen.
This session is usually calm with little volatility. This is often because Americans and Europeans are already resting after their hard day at work. The exceptions are important news, which usually comes out around 3 a.m. GMT (7 a.m. Moscow time). This is where you need to be careful, movements are often strong and prolonged. If you are using the intraday strategy and left an open position overnight, you need to check the Forex calendar and set stops.
European trading session
European session is the most active of all. This is due to the fact that it overlaps with the Asian and American sessions. In addition, the largest financial funds and banks are localized in the UK. More than 30% of all transactions occur during this time. The stock exchanges open at 8 am GMT in London (11:00 Moscow time), closing at 17:00 (20:00 Moscow time).
The most active part of trading falls on the first part of the trading session.Brokers close major deals before their lunch break. Then, according to the classics of the genre, there is a quiet part, and closer to the close, strong leaps again occur – the opening of the American session.
All major currencies are traded – yen, dollar, euro, pound, franc (EURUSD, GBPUSD, EURJPY, EURCHF). But the European session also has the largest amount of news. Trading is very active at this time, intraday trend strategies are used, and news trading is also actively used.
But keep in mind that at the end of the trading time, the trend can change direction, as the majority of traders begin to take profits and withdraw money from the market. And the Americans can add fuel to the fire by throwing out some news.
American trading session
Opening of American session occurs at 13:00 GMT (16:00 Moscow time). But the opening of the exchange overlaps with the European one for several hours. And this is a rather hot time for trading, since the Americans have a large amount of funds and can actively move the market with them.Closing takes place at 1 am Moscow time. All major pairs with the dollar are traded – EURUSD, GBPUSD, etc.
Since most currency pairs have a dollar in them, almost all pairs are traded. America also has a large number of large banks and speculators. Tipping points and strong trend reversals are possible. News usually comes out in the first half of the trading session and is especially strong.
This time falls on 17-19 hours Moscow time. At this time, American stocks are traded.Everyone is trying to sell or buy these pieces of paper. Then there is a lull, and it is possible to last until the end of the auction. If it happens on Friday, the Americans take full profit and almost never leave open positions over the weekend. So on the last day of the week, in the evening, it is better to fix, since on Monday morning, trading can open with a gap.
Schedule of forex trading sessions, working hours of the forex market
The Forex market is not geo-referenced to a specific area like the stock market – the whole world is the trading floor.Nevertheless, activity in the foreign exchange market directly depends on the trading sessions of individual regions.
Trading activity on Forex begins with the start of Asian sites , in particular the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Strictly speaking, Australian traders start trading, but due to relatively low turnovers, the opening of the Australian session traditionally has little effect on trading activity. The real activity of trading in Forex begins two to three hours later with the opening of the Tokyo and other Asian exchanges.It is deep night in the central part of Russia at this time.
During the Asian session, the Japanese yen is actively traded as the main currency of the region.
The most active trading begins with the opening of the European session from 9-00 Moscow time (winter time). At this time, Asian stock exchanges are still traded, giving the exchange rates sufficient volatility (volatility), which plays into the hands of speculators.
At 16-00 Moscow time (winter time) the American currency trades will open.The American session is the most important part of Forex trading, because During trading, important macroeconomic statistics are released that have the most significant impact on the course of trading.
Schedule of Forex Trading Sessions
So, chronologically trading sessions on Forex can be represented as follows (Moscow winter time):
- 01: 00-09: 00 – Australia;
- 09: 00-20: 00 – Europe;
- 16: 00-01: 00 – USA.
90 080 03: 00-13: 00 – Asia;
As you can see, trading on the foreign exchange market is not interrupted for a minute during the day. The break in trading occurs only on weekends, when all trading floors are closed. Due to these market characteristics, price gaps on the charts of major currencies are extremely rare, except for the opening of markets after weekends and holidays.
Next: Central Banks
Plisetskiy Evgeny Evgenievich – National Research University Higher School of Economics
Provision of services for training and expert revision of the draft Strategy of socio-economic development of the Tyumen region until 2030 period until 2032 and an action plan for its implementation “
Research and development work” Development of a scientifically grounded plan of priority measures for the implementation of the Strategy for the development of the city of Tver until 2030 and ensuring sustainable development of the city, taking into account the changing socio-economic conditions “, Administration of the city of Tver
R&D “Analysis of problems hindering the development of Russian cities, and development of proposals for their solution taking into account the best Russian and foreign practices”, JSC FCPF
Concept of investment and urban planning development of the projected territory of the Customer (as part of New Moscow), benchmark
Foresight research services for Tekes Russia, Consulate General of Finland in St. Petersburg, Finnish Agency for Financing Technology and Innovation Tekes Russia
Analysis of scientific -research and innovation activities of universities in the city of Moscow and the development of comprehensive proposals for its organizational and economic support and development at the regional level, Department of Science, Industrial Policy and Entrepreneurship of the city of Moscow
Research and Development Work Correction and revision of the working draft “Strategy of socio-economic development of the municipal formation of the city Kurgan until 2030 “and the development of a Comprehensive plan for the implementation of the Strategy for the socio-economic development of the municipal formation of the city of Kurgan until 2030, Administration of the city of Kurgan
Calculation of socio-economic indicators during the reorganization of production on the territory of JSC NPO VZLET for the development of the Project for the planning of the territory for the placement of complex residential buildings with a developed social, cultural, household, trade and administrative, transport and engineering infrastructure, JSC NPO Vzlyot
R&D “Analysis of the state and market assessment rental housing in Moscow city real estate, taking into account the prospects for the development of the Moscow agglomeration “, LLC FINEX
Proposals for the creation of a legal framework for environmental regulation of natural resources in the cityMoscow, State Unitary Enterprise NiPI of the General Plan of the mountains. Moscow
Conducting an independent assessment of the effectiveness of long-term targeted programs of the Tyumen region, Department of Economics of the Tyumen region
Preparing solutions aimed at optimizing the location of the network of federal and city higher educational institutions located in Moscow, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Impact of Russia joining the World trade organization for the development of the main sectors of the economy of the Kamchatka Territory, the Ministry of Investments and Entrepreneurship of the Kamchatka Territory
Strategy of socio-economic development of the Tula region until 2030, Government of the Tula region
Expert work on the draft Strategy of the socio-economic development of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Yugra until 2020 and for the period until 2030, OJSC Siberian Research and Analytical Center
Drafting the Concept for the Development of the Moscow Agglomeration, Antoine Grumbach et Associes
Expert support in the revision and presentation of the draft Strategy for the Socio-Economic Development of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Yugra until 2020 and for the period up to 2030, JSC “Siberian Scientific Analytical Center”
The satellite-spacesuit refused to work without an astronaut – Kommersant newspaper No. 20 (3351) dated 06.02.2006
The first experiment on launching a spacecraft into orbit in an unconventional “package” ended in failure. Yesterday, the Ivan Ivanovich spacesuit satellite launched by cosmonauts Valery Tokarev and Ulyam MacArthur into free flight on Friday night from the International Space Station (ISS) stopped transmitting signals to Earth and turned into space debris.
Orlan spacesuits, which had exhausted their service life, were usually sent from the ISS to Earth on board American shuttles, and then put up for sale at space auctions.However, the American shuttles are now idle, and the return of goods to Earth is not taking place. Therefore, one of the exhausted Orlan-M spacesuits was invented a new application.
In September and December 2005, Progress M-54 and M-55 trucks delivered rechargeable batteries and radio equipment to the ISS, and the station crew installed them in a spacesuit. On the night from Friday to Saturday, during the spacewalk, Valery Tokarev and William MacArthur pulled the Orlan-M out of the ISS, turned on the equipment and sent it into free flight.According to the calculations of the Russian Mission Control Center (MCC), the device, which was given the name Ivan Ivanovich at RSC Energia (by analogy with the dummies that were launched into space in 1960 on the Vostok unmanned spacecraft before the flight of Yuri Gagarin), should have fly off at least until the end of February, and then enter the dense layers of the atmosphere and burn up. During this period, he had to transmit signals for radio amateurs at a frequency of 145.99 MHz.
The Orlan-M # 14 spacesuit was manufactured at the Zvezda Research and Production Enterprise (Tomilino, Moscow Region) and delivered to the ISS in September 2001.The spacesuit weighing 130 kg was used three times by astronauts for work in outer space in 2002-2003.
However, after a couple of hours of independent flight, “Ivan Ivanovich” fell silent. The cause of the accident, as Kommersant was told at the MCC, will no longer be able to establish, because, apart from the radio transmitter, no other equipment was installed in the spacesuit to monitor the state of the apparatus in flight. Nevertheless, the US space command managed to name the new satellite SuitSat and put it in its catalog under the number 28 933.
Most of all for “Ivan Ivanovich” is now mourned at the Bauman Moscow State Technical University, whose equipment was installed in the spacesuit. This is already the second space failure of the Bauman people: they tried to acquire their own full-fledged satellite, timed to coincide with the 250th anniversary of the university, back in November last year, but the launch of the Satan rocket from Baikonur with the first Belarusian satellite BelKA and the Baumanets-1 spacecraft “was postponed to 2006 due to unpreparedness for the start of BelKA.It was after this that RSC Energia suggested that the Baumans, without waiting for a “real” launch, to use the out-of-date Orlan-M spacesuit as the body of the spacecraft (at MSTU itself it was called “Radioskaf”). True, according to Kommersant’s information, there are still two similar spacesuits on board the ISS, which, if desired, can be used to repeat a failed experiment. It is worth recalling, by the way, that MSTU, which celebrated its 175th anniversary last year, was more fortunate: its anniversary satellite Tatiana was successfully launched from Plesetsk together with the military satellite Parus on a light launch vehicle Cosmos 3M back in January 2005.
Leaders and Nations Civilization VI – Black Queen, Center-Left and Lady with a Broken Heart | Games
The Civilization series is an excellent textbook on world history if you can read footnotes and analyze the information received. And although in the course of each game you keep your own chronicle of times, the skills and characteristics of each nation are most often formed on the basis of the real deeds of its leader. Everyone knows about the opening of a window to Europe by Peter I and the conquests of Genghis Khan, but there are more unusual characters in Civilization – I will tell you about some in this article, while others are waiting for you in the game itself.
John Curtin – the leader of Australia
The word “history” mentally sends many of us back to the beginning of time. Perhaps the point is in the school curriculum, because in the lower grades we begin to study it from the annals of the Ancient World. My teacher even promoted the theory of the impossibility of assessing contemporary events from a historical point of view, and stated that at least 150 years must pass before any person will be eligible to get into a textbook. Fortunately, Firaxis Games did not fall under his influence, which is why Civilization VI has quite modern leaders.One of them is John Joseph Curtin (1885-1945).
The 14th Prime Minister of Australia was a peculiar figure. After finishing school at the age of 12, he immediately went to work in a factory and at about the same time went into politics, and always “drowned” for socialism and even published in one of the most radical newspapers of that time. At an older age, he became the secretary of the lumberjack trade union, and later its president. He did not retreat from his political views: he officially joined the center-left Labor Party of Australia in his youth and remained a member of it, already as the country’s prime minister.
“The life of John Joseph Curtin could have exemplified the triumph of the common man — in the sense that the unremarkable man became a politician, party leader, and prime minister. Both political allies and opponents reckoned with him. This was in no small part due to the way he led Australia through the chaos of World War II, realizing the enormous danger looming over the young power. ”
There was another curious moment in the life of John Curtin: he deliberately dodged the army, promoting a pacifist lifestyle and believing that a mandatory military conscription could not exist in a civilized state.At the same time, he himself would hardly have been taken into the army, since the future prime minister had poor eyesight. Fate laughed at him rather cruelly: Curtin rose to his post in 1941, World War II was already in full swing, and Australia had a powerful enemy – Japan.
John Curtin. Source: @Wikipedia
Since Curtin disliked open military conflicts, but still had nowhere to go, the politician threw his forces into ensuring the safety of citizens.He withdrew Australian troops from the Middle East, believing that they would be much more useful in protecting New Guinea and Australia from the Japanese threat. Under his leadership, shelters from air raids appeared on the territory of the state, residents were instructed on their use, and factories were reoriented for military needs. In addition, women were given the opportunity to work on machines, which was previously not allowed in Australia, and food was rationed so that the population did not die of hunger.In particular, this was facilitated by the control over cattle breeding – the bonus and unusual development of farms in Civilization VI arose thanks to this feature of the real state, because it was cattle breeding that helped the aborigines to cope with hunger.
Defense from an external enemy with the provision of conditionally comfortable (nevertheless, wartime cannot be joyful) living of the population was Curtin’s trick. He bucked the industry with union loyalty, found new hands and kept many soldiers, rarely unleashing conflicts on his own.In 1942, he even entered into a defense alliance with the United States, transferring command of the army to General Douglas MacArthur. At the same time, the Prime Minister was always extremely jealous of the borders and protected them from any invaders, especially the Japanese, encouraging the pushing back of foreign troops as far as possible. Guess what you can do with gusto playing as this leader?
Leader Bonus – Bulwark of Civilization:
- + 100% production if war was declared on Australia in the last ten turns or if they liberated the city within the last 20 turns.
Historic Goal – Always On Guard:
- Enters into defensive pacts with friends and sympathizes with the civilizations that liberate cities. Dislikes warring civilizations that conquer enemy cities.
Catherine de Medici – the leader of France
The French queen Catherine Maria Romola di Lorenzo de Medici is familiar to many, even if you haven’t heard her name before. The lady left a bloody mark in history: it was thanks to her that the concept of “St. Bartholomew’s Night” appeared on the pages of textbooks.Of course, the mother of Charles IX did not personally go out into the streets to kill the Huguenots, she only provoked the massacre. In Civilization VI, Catherine de Medici is a master of intrigue, she competently manages spies and knows everything about her opponents.
It should be noted that in Civilization VI, Catherine has two hypostases at once. One of them is more insidious and is called the Black Queen, while the other is famous for her love of luxury and art, therefore she is known as the Magnificent. Both nicknames belong to the same woman, revealing different character traits.
“Catherine de Medici (in Italian her name sounds like“ Catarina ”) thanks to historians has a bad reputation: partly because of her family, partly because of her own cruelty, with which she tried at all costs to keep Valois (a branch of the Capetian house) on throne. But no matter what they say, without Catherine, the Valois family would hardly have been able to survive all the troubles, and France could hardly bear all the sorrows that fell on her at that time. “
If you have watched the series “Game of Thrones”, then it is not difficult to imagine what Catherine de ‘Medici was like in the 16th century: the character of Cersei Lannister seems to be copied from the Black Queen. She wove intrigues, was wise, did not favor her own husband too much, who answered her “in return” and spent his free time with his mistresses, and, in the end, had huge problems with childbirth. Despite a stormy youth, Medici met old age peacefully: she solved problems with children with the help of court doctors and gave birth to as many as ten heirs, and met death in her own bed by the age of seventy.
Catherine de Medici. Source: @Wikipedia
Catherine de Medici Leader’s Black Queen Bonus – Catherine’s Flying Squadron:
- Has one more diplomatic visibility level than usual for every civilization she knows. Receives a free spy (and an additional spy slot) after researching the Castles technology. All Spies start the game as agents with one free promotion.
Bonus of the leader of Catherine de Medici “Magnificent” – “Catherine’s Miracles”:
- Improved rare resources located near the theater square or chateau receive +2 culture. Can arrange a court festival in any city with a theater square.
Historic Objectives – Black Queen and Luxurious Decoration:
- Uses as many spies and diplomatic means as he can. Dislikes civilizations that ignore espionage.
- Loves civilizations that trade luxury items with her. Dislikes civilizations that do not provide such trade. Strives to collect as many copies of rare resources as possible.
Dido – leader of Phenicia
Carthage must be … built. So Dido once decided. And although it was precisely this act of her that was key from the point of view of history, the personality of Dido attracts me because of her interesting fate. It seems to serve as a reminder that it is not enough to be smart and successful, you also need to have a stable psyche, not succumbing to momentary weaknesses on the basis of love.By the way, so many myths and legends have been put together about Dido that it is difficult for modern people to distinguish truth from speculation.
Almost all myths about Dido are associated with tragic love, where at the end she either throws herself on the sword or commits an act of self-immolation. According to one version, Dido’s female happiness was shattered by the customs of antiquity society, which considered that, being a widow, she could not fall in love with another man – handsome Aeneas. The Roman was not against a romantic relationship with Dido, but, succumbing to the will of the gods, abandoned the girl to “found a great city”, as fate had predicted for him.It seems that ambition did not allow the guy to come to terms with the fact that his beloved in this matter had already bypassed him. Dido, no matter how wise and brave, still remained a woman: because of the refusal of her lover, she lay down with her heart on the edge of the sword, simultaneously cursing Aeneas sailing from the shores of Carthage and not suspecting anything. The warrior himself was not to blame for anything: he was allegedly led by the gods, in particular Mercury.
The second version tells about the oath that Dido took to King Iarbant, who wished to marry a Carthaginian woman.Iarbant’s ambassadors reported that in case of refusal, the city would be destroyed. The queen foolishly blurted out that any girl who refused the king would be executed. Naturally, Iarbant desired Dido herself, who had no choice but to enter a huge bonfire in the square.
“Finally the ships landed on the North African coast. King Iarbant (Yarba) ruled here. Dido asked permission to settle in his domain, and he gave her as much land “as a cowhide could cover”.Dido cut the hide into thongs and covered the whole mountain with it. In memory of her resourcefulness, the hill on which Carthage was built was named Birsa (“bull’s skin” in Greek). ”
Other myths are associated with Dido. For example, Carthage is essentially a city of refugees. Dido cunningly grabbed a rather large territory off the coast, simply ferrying the crowd to the border of a foreign state and asking the local king for a small piece of land to live in.
This myth did not significantly affect the perks of the leader in Civilization VI, but in the fifth part it was reflected.According to legend, she should have received as much land as the cowhide would cover.
Dido. Source: @Wikipedia
The resourceful Dido dismissed it on straps, and this was enough to cover the whole mountain. Perhaps that is why the troops of Carthage easily cross the terrain impassable for other nations, and hills often appear on the respawn. In Civilization VI, the same feature of Phenicia was the construction of government districts.
Leader Bonus – “Founder of Carthage”:
- Can transfer the original capital to any Carthaginian city that has a cotton, completing a unique project in that city.
- +1 to Maximum Trade Routes for every government square and building on it.
- + 50% production when building districts in a city with a government area.
Historical target – “Greco-Carthaginian Wars”:
- Seeks to establish cities on the coast.Sympathizes with those who populate the interior regions. Dislikes those who have many cities on the coast.
Poundmaker – Leader of the Cree
Poundmaker – Indian peacemaker, unjustly accused of treason and acquitted only posthumously. All his life he strove for the unification of the tribes, until he ended up in prison. However, in his youth, he still managed to serve a great goal, and not without the help of fate.
Poundmaker was born into the family of a shaman who was a professional bison breeder – an honorable art of replenishment in the Indian tribes.Poundmaker inherited this gift, which in fact was rather an unusual skill of a hunter, passed from father to son. In addition, the Indian was a good orator, thanks to which he achieved recognition in his own tribe already in childhood.
Indian tribes rarely lived in peace, fighting both with each other and with external conquerors. Poundmaker was lucky: because of his oratorical skills, he was a representative of his own community wherever possible, and was once noticed by the leader of the “Blackfoot” Crowfoot.His community was large and powerful, and negotiations with the leader could have gone very differently if Crowfoot’s wife had not seen Poundmaker. She was clearly not herself, since she had recently lost her son, and the arriving bison breeder seemed terribly similar to her. Wanting to reassure his wife, Crowfoot adopted Poundmaker, named him Thin-Legged Wolf and left him in the family, making him his closest assistant. This had a positive effect on history: the two tribes practically became related and ended armed conflicts with each other.
Poundmaker. Source: @Wikipedia
Although the first significant alliance with the Blackfeet was formed in a rather unconventional way, Poundmaker continued the unification with traditional methods and realized himself in negotiations, and also paid a lot of attention to trade. Poundmaker made mutually beneficial deals and thus slowly but surely reconciled the Indians with each other. Foreign policy was a little worse for him: the battles with the American cavalry did not always end happily.In 1885, the Indians and a detachment of Canadian Colonel William Otter clashed in a heated battle for territory, as a result of which Poundmaker’s men took the upper hand, but he himself was eventually sentenced to several years in prison, accused of treason. The shameful stigma was removed only posthumously.
Leader Bonus – “Favorable Conditions”:
- All alliances give collective visibility.
- Trade routes grant +1 food at the starting point and +1 gold at the ending point for each camp and pasture at the destination.
Historic Target – “Iron Confederation”:
- Seeks to form as many alliances as possible and respects those who do the same.
Seondok is the leader of Korea
Seondok is the first reigning queen in the history of Korea, who ruled from 632–647. It is believed that she ascended the throne due to her father’s absence of sons, but at the same time King Jinpyeong chose her and taught her on his own, seeing suitable leadership qualities and, most importantly, a clear mind.
“King Jinpyeong’s father Seondok had no male heirs. Of all the daughters, he chose Seondok for her early intuitive mindset. According to an unofficial story, Jinpyeong received peony seeds as a gift from China. The seed box was decorated with a picture of a blooming peony. Young Seondok noticed that the painted flowers are beautiful, but they have no scent. When asked by Jinpyeong why she decided that, Seondok replied that if the flowers smelled good, butterflies and bees would hover around them in the drawing.As it turned out later, the peony flower was really devoid of any smell. ”
Korea in Civilization VI is a scientific country, Seondok’s personal qualities came in handy here. In addition, being rather mild, she devoted her life to improving the living conditions of her subjects, established a system of state benefits for the poorest strata of the population, and “pumped up” the sphere of education, as far as was possible in antiquity.
The advantages of a woman’s hand at the head of an ancient state can hardly be overestimated.During her reign, Seondok entered into beneficial alliances many times, but she also skillfully pitted Korea’s opponents against each other. It seems that a love of intrigue is a common feature among women rulers.
Seondok. Source: @Wikipedia
Seondok devoted her life to politics and found no love. She did not give birth to an heir, so the Korean people received another queen after the first – her cousin Chindok ascended the throne.
Leader’s bonus – “Hwaran”:
- + 10% culture and + 10% science in all cities with a current governor.
Historical Target – Chomseongdae:
- Seeks to develop science and sympathizes with civilizations that also pay great attention to science.
If you study the description of all the leaders in all parts of Civilization, you can safely enter into smart arguments with your comrades, trumping interesting facts. However, the main feature of the strategy is that each of us can rewrite history.Go for it!
Rum Rebellion – Rum Rebellion
Revolt in British New South Wales Correctional Colony (1808)
This article is about the Australian coup d’état. For the Mutiny album, see Rum Rebellion (album).
Rum Rebellion 1808 was a coup d’etat in the then British colony of New South Wales, staged by New South Wales, to oust Governor William Bligh. The first and only military coup in Australia, it is named after the illicit rum trade in Sydney, a monopoly of which the Rum Corps were said to have held.In the first half of the 19th century in Australia it was called The Great Rebellion .
Bligh, a former Royal Navy officer known for his overthrow during the mutiny at Bounty , was appointed governor in 1805 to curb the power of the Corps. Within two years, rising tensions between Bligh and the military elite, as well as prominent civilians such as John MacArthur, prompted Major George Johnston to organize an armed takeover.On January 26, 1808, 400 soldiers marched to the Government House and arrested Bly. He was detained in Sydney and then aboard a ship off Hobart, Van Diemen Land for the next two years, while Johnston served as Lieutenant Governor of New South Wales. The military remained under control until the arrival of Major General Lachlan Macquarie from Great Britain in 1810, who became the new governor of the colony.
Bligh’s appointment as governor
William Bligh succeeded Philip Gidley King as the fourth governor of New South Wales in 1805 from Sir Joseph Banks.A naval officer, he was well known for his overthrow during the mutiny at Bounty . It is likely that he was deliberately chosen by the British government as governor because of his reputation as a “tough man” and was expected to have a good chance of reining in the individual corps of New South Wales; what his predecessors could not do. Bligh left for Sydney with his daughter Mary Putland and her husband, while Bligh’s wife remained in England.
Even before his arrival, Bligh’s management style was causing problems with his subordinates.The Admiralty gave the transport crew with supplies HMS Porpois and the convoy’s bottom was captured by Captain Joseph Closing and Bligh took command of the transport ship. This led to an altercation that eventually led Captain Short to shoot through Bly’s bow in an attempt to force Bly to obey his signals. When that failed, Short attempted to order Lieutenant Putland, Bly’s son-in-law, to stand aside and fire at Bly’s ship. Bly boarded Porpoise and seized control of the convoy.
When they arrived in Sydney, Bligh, backed by statements from two of Short’s officers, stripped Short of his post as captain Porpoise – which he handed over to his son-in-law – canceled 240 hectares (600 acres) of land. Short’s Grant was promised as travel fare and sent him back to England for a military tribunal at which Short was acquitted. The President of the Court, Sir Isaac Coffin, wrote to the Admiralty and brought several serious charges against Bligh, including influencing the officers to testify against Short.Bligh’s wife received a statement from one of the officers denying this, and Banks and other Bligh supporters successfully lobbied for his recall as governor.
Arrival in Sydney.
Shortly after arriving in Sydney, in August 1806, Bly received a welcome speech signed by Major Johnston for the military, Richard Atkins for civilian officers, and John MacArthur for free settlers. However, shortly thereafter, he also received addresses from free and liberated settlers in Sydney and the Hawkesbury River region, a total of 369 signatures, many of which were made only by the cross, complaining that MacArthur did not represent them as they accused him.for keeping sheep to raise the price of mutton.
One of Bly’s early actions was to use the colony’s stocks and herds to help farmers severely affected by the Hawkesbury River flood, a situation that disrupted the colony’s barter economy. The supplies were split according to those most in need, and provisions were made for store loans based on their ability to repay. This brought Bly the gratitude of the farmers, but the animosity of the Corps merchants, who profited immensely from the situation.
Bligh, guided by instructions from the Office of Colonial Affairs, attempted to normalize trade conditions in the colony by banning the use of alcoholic beverages as payment for goods. Bly reported his policy to the Colonial Office in 1807 with the advice that his policy would meet with resistance. Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, Secretary of State for War and Colonial Affairs, responded to Bligh, his instructions were received on December 31, 1807. The instructions were to stop the liquor trade, and H.W. Evatt concludes in his history of the rebellion that … “Bly was empowered to discourage free entry, keep the trade under his full control, enforce all illegal import fines, and set discretionary rules for the sale of alcoholic beverages.”
Sydney Painting, c. 1799
Evatt argues that the enmity of the monopolists within the colony stems from this and other policies that opposed the rule of the rich and contributed to the well-being of the poor settlers.Bly stopped the practice of distributing large land holdings to the powers that be; during his tenure, he donated just over 1,600 hectares of land, half of which to his daughter Mary Putland and himself.
Bligh also upset some people by allowing a group of Irish riot defendants to be tried by their accusers, and then, when six of the eight were acquitted, he kept them under arrest anyway. He dismissed D’Arcy Wentworth from his post as assistant surgeon at the colony without giving any reason, and sentenced three traders to a month in prison and a fine for writing a letter he considered offensive.Bly also dismissed Thomas Jamison from graduate school, calling him “hostile” to good government in 1807. Jameson was a very capable (albeit cunning) surgeon general in New South Wales. He amassed a considerable personal fortune as a sea merchant and was a friend and business partner of MacArthur. Jameson never forgave Bly for firing him as magistrate and interfering with his private business, and he supported Bly’s later testimony.
In October 1807, Major George Johnston wrote a formal letter of complaint to the Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, stating that Bligh had insulted and interfered with the forces of the NSW Corps.It is clear that Bligh has made enemies among the most powerful people in the colony. He also angered some of the less wealthy when he ordered those who rented government land in Sydney to rent their homes.
Feud between Bly and MacArthur
John MacArthur arrived with the NSW Corps in 1790 as a lieutenant, and by 1805 he had significant farming and commercial interests in the colony. He fell out with Bligh’s predecessor governors and fought three duels.
Bligh’s and MacArthur’s interests conflicted in many ways. Bly prevented MacArthur from cheaply distributing large quantities of rum for the Corpus. He also stopped MacArthur’s alleged illegal import of footage. Macartar’s interest in the piece of land granted to him by Governor King ran counter to Bly’s urban planning interests. MacArthur and Bly were also involved in other controversies, including a conflict over landing rules. In June 1807, the perpetrator took refuge and escaped from Sydney on the schooner MacArthur Paramatta , and in December 1807, when Parramatta returned to Sydney, a bond held to ensure that captains and shipowners did not help prisoners escape the Colony. was considered confiscated.
Bligh instructed Judge Advocate Richard Atkins to issue an order for John MacArthur to appear on bail on December 15, 1807. MacArthur disobeyed the order, was arrested and released on bail, and failed to appear in court at the next session of the Sydney Criminal Court on January 25, 1808. The court consisted of Atkins and six officers from the NSW Corps. MacArthur objected to Atkins being able to judge him because he was his debtor and a hardened enemy. Atkins denied this, but MacArthur’s protest was supported by the other six members of the court, all Corps officers.Without a lawyer, the trial could not take place, and the court was dissolved. ”
Bligh accused six officers of the mutiny and summoned Major George Johnston to investigate the matter. Johnston replied that he was ill, as he had crashed his concert on the evening of the 24th on his way home to Annandale after lunch with Corps officers.
Overthrow of Governor Bligh
On the morning of January 26, 1808, Bligh again ordered the arrest of MacArthur, and also ordered the return of court documents, which were now in the hands of the Corps officers.The Corps responded with a request to appoint a new attorney judge and release MacArthur on bail. Bly summoned the officers to Government House to answer the judge’s allegations, and informed Major Johnston that he considered the actions of the Corps officers to be a betrayal. Now the entire Corps sat together, begging for revenge.
Johnston instead went to jail and ordered the release of Macartar, who then drew up a petition urging Johnston to arrest Bly and take charge of the colony.The petition was signed by Corps officers and other prominent citizens, but Evatt said most of the signatures were probably added only after Bligh was safely placed under house arrest. Johnston then consulted with the officers and issued an order stating that Bligh’s “respected residents accuse you of crimes that render you unfit to exercise supreme power at another point in this colony; and all the officers under my command joined this charge. “Johnston urged Bly to resign and be arrested.
At 18:00, the Corps in full force and banner went to the Government House to arrest Bly. They were thwarted by Bly’s daughter and her umbrella, but Captain Thomas Laycock finally found Bly in full dress behind his bed, where he claims he was hiding documents. Bly was portrayed as a coward for this, but Duffy claims that if Bly went into hiding, it would mean fleeing and thwarting the coup. In his book Captain Bloe Other Mutiny , Stephen Dando-Collins agrees and goes so far as to suggest that Bligh was planning to flee to Hawkesbury and the lead settlers who were strongly supportive of him and who were against the putschists there.In 1808, Bligh and his daughter Mary Putland were imprisoned in the Government House under house arrest. Bly refused to leave for England until he was legally dismissed from office.
Johnston took over as lieutenant colonel on April 25, 1808 and appointed Charles Grimes, Inspector General, Judge Advocate, and ordered Makart and six officers to be tried; they were found not guilty. MacArthur was then appointed Secretary of State for the Colonies and effectively directed the affairs of the colony.Another prominent opponent of Bligh, MacArthur’s ally Thomas Jameson, was appointed as a naval officer of the colony (the equivalent of a customs and excise collector). Jamieson was also reinstated as Justice of the Peace, allowing him and his legal colleagues to examine Bligh’s personal documents for evidence of wrongdoing by the ousted governor. In June 1809, Jamieson sailed to London to support his business interests and testify against Bly in a prosecution that could be brought against the rebels.Jameson died in London early in 1811, so he was not able to testify before the Johnston Tribunal, which was only held in June of that year (see below).
Soon after Bligh’s arrest, a watercolor illustrating the arrest of an unknown artist was displayed in Sydney for what may be Australia’s first public art exhibition. The watercolor shows a soldier pulling Bly out from under one of the servants’ beds in Government House, with two more figures standing nearby.The two soldiers in the watercolor are most likely John Sutherland and Michael Marlborough, while the other figure on the right is believed to represent Lieutenant William Minchin. This watercolor is the earliest surviving political caricature in Australia, and like all political cartoons, it uses cartoons and exaggerations to convey its message. NSW Corps officers considered themselves to be gentlemen, and by portraying Bly as a coward, the caricature declares that Bly was not a gentleman and therefore not fit to rule.
The origin of the watercolor comes from a dispute between Bligh and Sergeant Major Whittle that Bligh asked Whittle to demolish his house as it interfered with the improvement of the city. It has been suggested that Whittle either commissioned the painting or painted the watercolor himself, but it is unlikely that Whittle did as he was illiterate.
New governor appointed
After the overthrow of Bligh, Johnston notified his superior, Colonel William Paterson, who was in Van Diemen’s Land (modern Tasmania) and established a settlement in Port Dalrymple (now Launceston).Paterson did not want to intervene until clear orders came from England. When he learned in March that Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Fauveau was returning to Sydney with orders to become Acting Lieutenant Governor of New South Wales, Paterson left Fauveau to investigate the situation.
Foveaux arrived in July and took over the colony as lieutenant colonel on 28 July 1808, irritating Macarthur. As a decision was expected from England, and feeling that Bligh’s behavior was unbearable, Foveau left Bligh under house arrest and turned his attention to improving roads, bridges and public buildings in the colony, which, in his opinion, were heavily ignored.When there was still no news from England, he summoned Paterson to Sydney in January 1809 to sort things out.
Paterson sent Johnston and Macarther to England for trial and imprisoned Bligh in barracks until he signed a contract whereby he agreed to return to England. Paterson, whose health was deteriorating, then retired to the Old Government House, Parramatta, and left Foveaux to rule the colony.
In January 1809, Bligh gained control of HMS Porpoise , a ten-gun magazine ship, on condition that he returned to England.Nevertheless, Bligh sailed to Hobart, Van Diemen’s Land, seeking support from the Lieutenant-Governor David Collins to regain control over the colony. Collins refused to support him, and by Paterson’s orders, Bligh remained cut off aboard Porpoise , moored at the mouth of the Derwent River south of Hobart, until January 1810.
In the end, the Colonial Office decided that sending naval governors to govern the colony was untenable.Instead, the NSW Corps, now known as the 102nd Infantry Regiment, was to be recalled to England and replaced by the 73rd Infantry Regiment, whose commander took over as governor. Bligh was to be reinstated in office for 24 hours, then recalled to England, Johnston was sent to England for a military tribunal, and Macartar was tried in Sydney. Major General Lachlan Macquarie was appointed head of the mission after Major General Miles Nightingall fell ill before leaving.Macquarie took over as governor after an elaborate ceremony on January 1, 1810.
Governor Macquarie reinstated all officials dismissed by Johnston and MacArthur, got rid of the alcoholic Judge Atkins, replacing him with Ellis Brent (the very first professional lawyer to enter a public office in Australia), and canceled all land and fund grants. this was done after Bly’s deposition, although to calm the situation he made grants he saw fit and prevented any revenge.When Bligh received news of Macquarie’s arrival, he sailed for Sydney, arriving on January 17, 1810, to gather evidence for the upcoming military tribunal of Major George Johnston. He went on trial to England on May 12 and arrived on October 25, 1810 aboard Hindustan .
After informally hearing the arguments of both sides, the government authorities in England were not impressed by the accusations of MacArthur and Johnston against Bligh, or by Bligh’s irascible letters accusing key figures in the colony of unacceptable behavior.Johnston was brought before a military tribunal, was found guilty and cashed, which was the lowest punishment. He was then able to return as a free citizen to his Annandale estate in Sydney. Macartar was not tried, but he was denied permission to return to New South Wales until 1817, as he did not admit his wrongdoing.
Bligh’s promotion to Rear Admiral was postponed until the end of Johnston’s trial. Subsequently, this was retroactively until July 31, 1810, and Bligh took over the post he retained.He continued his naval career with the Admiralty without command and died of cancer in 1817.
Macquarie was impressed by the Foveaux administration. He put forward the name Foveau to replace Collins as Lieutenant Governor of Tasmania, because he could not think of anyone more suitable, and believed that he could not do otherwise with regard to Bligh. However, when Foveaux returned to England in 1810, he was brought before a military tribunal for agreeing to have Bligh overthrown and imprisoned; Macquarie’s recommendation was ignored.Foveaux was accepted into active service in 1811 and was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the 1st regiment of the Greek light infantry; After that, he continued his trouble-free military career, rising to the rank of lieutenant general.
Michael Duffy writing in 2006 says:
- In fact, it was the culmination of a long struggle for power between the government and private entrepreneurs, the struggle for the future and the nature of the colony. The early governors wanted to preserve New South Wales as a large open prison with a primitive economy based on former yeoman inmates and governed by government decree.
Duffy continues that at the time, the rebellion was not related to rum:
- … almost no one during the uprising thought it was rum. Bly briefly tried to give him such a spin to defame his opponents, but there was no evidence and he moved on.
- Many years later, in 1855, the English Quaker William Howitt published the popular history of Australia.Like many teetotalers, he sought to blame alcohol for all the world’s problems. Howitt sided with Bligh and coined the phrase “Rum Rebellion” and it has since stuck.
A Biography of Early Australia dismisses MacArthur’s complaints as ludicrous and cites Evatt that MacArthur is legally guilty of two of the three charges brought against him, including incitement to mutiny. Both believe that Bligh was completely acquitted of his actions because he was the legitimate authority.However, imprisoning people and threatening to do the same in court when they failed to rule in favor of the said authority was extremely problematic from a legal point of view, and the decisions of subsequent trials clearly show that modern British legal authorities did not agree with the assessment. that MacArthur’s complaints were unfounded on the basis of the pardon granted and an explicit characterization of his conduct in the line of duty. Duffy argues that if Johnston had arrived when he was called on January 25, the Rum Rebellion would probably never have happened.
In Popular Culture
- In 1951, it was reported that Carey Wilson was researching a film version of the rebellion for the Hollywood studio MGM called Rum Rebellion.
- This was the subject of the 1960 Australian television series Petrel.
- Australian folk punk band Mutiny included a song about rebellion and the earlier Mutiny on the Bounty entitled “Bligh” in their 1997 debut album Rum Rebellion .
- In the book Temeraire “ Tongues of Serpents ” the protagonists visit Australia during the Roma Uprising. In the alternate story series, the protagonists arrive in Australia to witness the uprising and meet with Governor Bligh and MacArthur, who advise them to stay out of the fight. At the end of the novel, MacArthur is reinstated as governor in place of Macquarie.
- TV miniseries Against the Wind includes the events of the Roma Uprising in episode 12.
List of used literature
- Dando Collins, Stephen, Captain Bly’s Another Mutiny: The True Story of the Military Coup That Turned Australia into a Two-Year Rebel Republic , Sydney, Random House, 2007.
- Duffy, Michael, A Man of Honor: John MacArthur , Sydney, Macmillan, Australia, 2003.
- Evatt, HV, Roma Uprising: A Study of the Overthrow of Governor Bligh by John MacArthur and New South Wales , 1943.
- Tom Frame (January 23, 2008). “Who will watch the guards when we are ruled by former officers?” … Australian . Archived from the original on June 12, 2008.
- Fitzgerald, Ross and Hearn, Mark, Bligh, MacArthur and Rum Rebellion , Canterst: Kangaroo Press, 1988.
- Hughes, Robert (1986). Fatal Shore . Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 0-394-50668-5 .
- Richie, John, Wentworths: Father and Son , Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1997.
- Spiegelman, James (January 23, 2008). “The coup that paved the way for our focus on the rule of law.” Opinion. Sydney Morning Herald . Retrieved January 23, 2008. (Spiegelman is Chief Justice in New South Wales.)