Macarthur square trading hours: Macarthur Square Trading Hours – Macarthur Square

Woolworths – Macarthur Square, Campbelltown

Getting Here – Gilchrist Drive, Campbelltown

Woolworths occupies a good space right near the intersection of Parc Guell Drive and Gilchrist Drive, in Campbelltown, New South Wales, at Macarthur Square Shopping Centre.

By car

Only a 1 minute drive from Joubert Lane, Paley Street, Bairin Street and Kellicar Road; a 4 minute drive from Oxley Street, Narellan Road or Appin Road; and a 8 minute trip from M31 / Hume Motorway or A9.

Enter the address 200 Gilchrist Drive, Campbelltown, NSW 2560 when using route finder devices to get to this location.

By train

If you are coming by train, you will be dropped off at Macarthur Station (384 m) and Campbelltown Station (2.1 km away).

On foot

This supermarket is a short walk from Campbelltown Private Hospital, Glichrist Oval, Robinson Park, Mount Huon Park, Marsden Park and Campbelltown Hospital.

Woolworths Locations Nearby Campbelltown, NSW

The total number of Woolworths locations presently operational in Campbelltown, New South Wales is 3. The nearest Woolworths stores to this location are:

Visit the following page for the entire index of all Woolworths branches near Campbelltown.

Christmas, Easter, Anzac Day 2021

During public holidays, usual open hours for Woolworths in Macarthur Square, Campbelltown may be modified. In 2021 the aforementioned changes cover Xmas Day, Boxing Day, Easter Sunday or Queen’s Birthday. We recommend that you go to the official site or phone the service number at 1300 767 969 to get more details about Woolworths Macarthur Square, Campbelltown seasonal hours of business.

Macarthur Square Shopping Centre

While shopping at Woolworths, please visit the wide range of fine quality stores in Macarthur Square Shopping Centre. Located in this place you can also find ALDI, Harris Scarfe, Woolworths, Coles, Big W and other options.

Write a Review, Report a Problem

Opening Hours in Australia’s main objective is to deliver you with the most accurate information as possible. If you find mistakes in the address description or trading hours for Woolworths in Macarthur Square, Campbelltown, please utilize this form to report a problem. You may critique Woolworths using the box provided below. Please also critique the supermarket using the star rating system.

Sportsco MacArthur

Store Infomation

  • Store Details

    Shop 136, MacArthur Square Shopping Centre, Gilchrist Drive, Ambarvale, New South Wales, Australia. – 2560

Get directions

Trading hours

Phone no:

(02) 4625 5820

Monday: 9:00 am – 5:30 pm
Tuesday: 9:00 am – 5:30 pm
Wednesday: 12:00 am – 5:30 pm
Thursday: 12:00 am – 9:00 pm
Friday: 12:00 am – 5:30 pm
Saturday: 12:00 am – 5:30 pm
Sunday: 12:00 am – 5:00 pm

Sanity Store Listing | Lasoo

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90,000 Opening and closing times of exchanges

Forex trading is conducted around the clock, excluding weekends and some holidays, but there are several time periods that you need to pay attention to – this is the opening of forex exchanges. It is necessary to know the time of trading or working on Forex (see the table below), because at the moment of opening a trading platform on the market (session), most often there is a sharp jump in the currency that is inherent in this country.

This is closely watched by all traders, as at these minutes intraday movements arise, which most often give the direction of the trend.


Schedule of trading sessions
Opening of exchanges on Monday
Opening of the exchange for trading in rubles
Asian session
European session
American session
Session definition service

There are 4 trading sessions – Asian , European , American and Pacific (Australian). Each of these exchanges opens and closes in such a way that they only overlap for an hour or two and generally provide the opportunity to trade around the clock.

Schedule of the opening and closing of exchanges (time of trading sessions) Moscow time:

Attention! It should be borne in mind that the time in the table is given in Moscow and in the world – GMT (Greenwich Mean Time). If you want to know the opening times of exchanges in another region, you need to add the hourly deviation you need to the GMT time.

Service for identifying trading sessions

If you find it difficult at first to determine when trading starts on Forex, there is a service that graphically shows which session is currently open.We go to the page of the site and set your time, which we look around the city, or, if you know, by the GTM + deviation. Your time and active session will appear in the table:

The second we need to know is when the exchanges open on Monday, after the weekend and when they close on Friday.

So, the beginning of forex trading, like the opening times of exchanges, occurs on Monday, at 00:00 broker time.Please note, not according to Moscow time, not according to Greenwich Mean Time, but directly according to the terminal time. We look at the upper left corner of the terminal – this is the right time.

Closing of exchanges for the weekend is made on Friday at 24:00 broker time , See the screen below.


  • Brokers have different times and may close / open at different times. This must be taken into account when trading with Expert Advisors.
  • Some brokers, for example Alpari (screen above), stop and start trading in 5 minutes. before the specified time.

Opening of the exchange for trading in rubles

Moscow Exchange for ruble trading opens at at 10:00 and trades close at at 17:45 Moscow time. As for the work of the exchange itself, as for trading in the ruble in the forex market – this is a separate topic and about it a little below.

Trading schedule for the ruble on the Moscow Exchange:

1) Opening at 10:00 . Once again, I ask you not to confuse currency trading with the forex market, since currency is bought / sold on the exchange, and the “game” is on the course on forex.

2) At 11:30 Moscow time , the official exchange rate USDRUB appears with calculations for “tomorrow”, which is used by the Bank of Russia to determine the official exchange rate of the US dollar. This means that the ruble exchange rate the next day, for settlements on payments at the rate of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, will be known after the specified time.

3) At 17:45 , the exchange closes trading in rubles. Below is a screen of trading from the currency exchange:

The time for trading the ruble on forex is from 10:00 to 20:00 or 21:00 Moscow time , everything depends on the broker. At this time, the rate of USDRUB (dollar-ruble) begins to change. At this rate, banks exchange currency within the day. At other times, the USDRUB chart is stagnant.

That is, to find out the official exchange rate of the dollar against the ruble, you need to wait for 10 hours Moscow time .At other times, you can observe the movement of the dollar exchange rate without taking into account the ruble on any informer, for example here .

Please note that the most active on the market at the moment is the currency, the trading session of which is open. Trading is aggressive on all exchanges, except for the Australian one, at this time traders most often use scalping strategies, since low volatility makes it possible to conduct calm trading.

Asian trading session

Asian session

opens at 3 am Moscow time and often sets the direction of the daily trend. The session closes at 12 o’clock. The center of trade is Tokyo, which is also the financial capital of Asia. During the beginning of trade in Asia, all banks, financial institutions and other institutions are opened.

The Japanese yen is one of the three most traded currencies on Forex and accounts for more than 20% of foreign exchange turnover. Below is a list of currency pairs that are traded during the Asian session – USD / JPY, AUD / USD, NZD / USD, USD / CAD, USD / CHF, EUR / JPY, GBP / JPY, AUD / JPY, EUR / CHF. The most active traders are the euro / dollar / pound / New Zealand dollar against the Japanese yen.

This session is usually calm with little volatility. This is often because Americans and Europeans are already resting after their hard day at work. The exceptions are important news, which usually comes out around 3 a.m. GMT (7 a.m. Moscow time). This is where you need to be careful, movements are often strong and prolonged. If you are using the intraday strategy and left an open position overnight, you need to check the Forex calendar and set stops.

European trading session

European session is the most active of all. This is due to the fact that it overlaps with the Asian and American sessions. In addition, the largest financial funds and banks are localized in the UK. More than 30% of all transactions occur during this time. The stock exchanges open at 8 am GMT in London (11:00 Moscow time), closing at 17:00 (20:00 Moscow time).

The most active part of trading falls on the first part of the trading session.Brokers close major deals before their lunch break. Then, according to the classics of the genre, there is a quiet part, and closer to the close, strong leaps again occur – the opening of the American session.

All major currencies are traded – yen, dollar, euro, pound, franc (EURUSD, GBPUSD, EURJPY, EURCHF). But the European session also has the largest amount of news. Trading is very active at this time, intraday trend strategies are used, and news trading is also actively used.

But keep in mind that at the end of the trading time, the trend can change direction, as the majority of traders begin to take profits and withdraw money from the market. And the Americans can add fuel to the fire by throwing out some news.

American trading session

Opening of American session occurs at 13:00 GMT (16:00 Moscow time). But the opening of the exchange overlaps with the European one for several hours. And this is a rather hot time for trading, since the Americans have a large amount of funds and can actively move the market with them.Closing takes place at 1 am Moscow time. All major pairs with the dollar are traded – EURUSD, GBPUSD, etc.

Since most currency pairs have a dollar in them, almost all pairs are traded. America also has a large number of large banks and speculators. Tipping points and strong trend reversals are possible. News usually comes out in the first half of the trading session and is especially strong.

This time falls on 17-19 hours Moscow time. At this time, American stocks are traded.Everyone is trying to sell or buy these pieces of paper. Then there is a lull, and it is possible to last until the end of the auction. If it happens on Friday, the Americans take full profit and almost never leave open positions over the weekend. So on the last day of the week, in the evening, it is better to fix, since on Monday morning, trading can open with a gap.

Schedule of forex trading sessions, working hours of the forex market

Trading sessions

The Forex market is not geo-referenced to a specific area like the stock market – the whole world is the trading floor.Nevertheless, activity in the foreign exchange market directly depends on the trading sessions of individual regions.

Trading activity on Forex begins with the start of Asian sites , in particular the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Strictly speaking, Australian traders start trading, but due to relatively low turnovers, the opening of the Australian session traditionally has little effect on trading activity. The real activity of trading in Forex begins two to three hours later with the opening of the Tokyo and other Asian exchanges.It is deep night in the central part of Russia at this time.

During the Asian session, the Japanese yen is actively traded as the main currency of the region.

The most active trading begins with the opening of the European session from 9-00 Moscow time (winter time). At this time, Asian stock exchanges are still traded, giving the exchange rates sufficient volatility (volatility), which plays into the hands of speculators.

At 16-00 Moscow time (winter time) the American currency trades will open.The American session is the most important part of Forex trading, because During trading, important macroeconomic statistics are released that have the most significant impact on the course of trading.

Schedule of Forex Trading Sessions

So, chronologically trading sessions on Forex can be represented as follows (Moscow winter time):

  1. 01: 00-09: 00 – Australia;
  2. 90 080 03: 00-13: 00 – Asia;

  3. 09: 00-20: 00 – Europe;
  4. 16: 00-01: 00 – USA.

As you can see, trading on the foreign exchange market is not interrupted for a minute during the day. The break in trading occurs only on weekends, when all trading floors are closed. Due to these market characteristics, price gaps on the charts of major currencies are extremely rare, except for the opening of markets after weekends and holidays.

Next: Central Banks

Plisetskiy Evgeny Evgenievich – National Research University Higher School of Economics

Provision of services for training and expert revision of the draft Strategy of socio-economic development of the Tyumen region until 2030 period until 2032 and an action plan for its implementation “

Research and development work” Development of a scientifically grounded plan of priority measures for the implementation of the Strategy for the development of the city of Tver until 2030 and ensuring sustainable development of the city, taking into account the changing socio-economic conditions “, Administration of the city of Tver

R&D “Analysis of problems hindering the development of Russian cities, and development of proposals for their solution taking into account the best Russian and foreign practices”, JSC FCPF

Concept of investment and urban planning development of the projected territory of the Customer (as part of New Moscow), benchmark

Foresight research services for Tekes Russia, Consulate General of Finland in St. Petersburg, Finnish Agency for Financing Technology and Innovation Tekes Russia

Analysis of scientific -research and innovation activities of universities in the city of Moscow and the development of comprehensive proposals for its organizational and economic support and development at the regional level, Department of Science, Industrial Policy and Entrepreneurship of the city of Moscow

Research and Development Work Correction and revision of the working draft “Strategy of socio-economic development of the municipal formation of the city Kurgan until 2030 “and the development of a Comprehensive plan for the implementation of the Strategy for the socio-economic development of the municipal formation of the city of Kurgan until 2030, Administration of the city of Kurgan

Calculation of socio-economic indicators during the reorganization of production on the territory of JSC NPO VZLET for the development of the Project for the planning of the territory for the placement of complex residential buildings with a developed social, cultural, household, trade and administrative, transport and engineering infrastructure, JSC NPO Vzlyot

R&D “Analysis of the state and market assessment rental housing in Moscow city real estate, taking into account the prospects for the development of the Moscow agglomeration “, LLC FINEX

Proposals for the creation of a legal framework for environmental regulation of natural resources in the cityMoscow, State Unitary Enterprise NiPI of the General Plan of the mountains. Moscow

Conducting an independent assessment of the effectiveness of long-term targeted programs of the Tyumen region, Department of Economics of the Tyumen region

Preparing solutions aimed at optimizing the location of the network of federal and city higher educational institutions located in Moscow, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics

Impact of Russia joining the World trade organization for the development of the main sectors of the economy of the Kamchatka Territory, the Ministry of Investments and Entrepreneurship of the Kamchatka Territory

Strategy of socio-economic development of the Tula region until 2030, Government of the Tula region

Expert work on the draft Strategy of the socio-economic development of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Yugra until 2020 and for the period until 2030, OJSC Siberian Research and Analytical Center

Drafting the Concept for the Development of the Moscow Agglomeration, Antoine Grumbach et Associes

Expert support in the revision and presentation of the draft Strategy for the Socio-Economic Development of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Yugra until 2020 and for the period up to 2030, JSC “Siberian Scientific Analytical Center”

The satellite-spacesuit refused to work without an astronaut – Kommersant newspaper No. 20 (3351) dated 06.02.2006

The first experiment on launching a spacecraft into orbit in an unconventional “package” ended in failure. Yesterday, the Ivan Ivanovich spacesuit satellite launched by cosmonauts Valery Tokarev and Ulyam MacArthur into free flight on Friday night from the International Space Station (ISS) stopped transmitting signals to Earth and turned into space debris.

Orlan spacesuits, which had exhausted their service life, were usually sent from the ISS to Earth on board American shuttles, and then put up for sale at space auctions.However, the American shuttles are now idle, and the return of goods to Earth is not taking place. Therefore, one of the exhausted Orlan-M spacesuits was invented a new application.

In September and December 2005, Progress M-54 and M-55 trucks delivered rechargeable batteries and radio equipment to the ISS, and the station crew installed them in a spacesuit. On the night from Friday to Saturday, during the spacewalk, Valery Tokarev and William MacArthur pulled the Orlan-M out of the ISS, turned on the equipment and sent it into free flight.According to the calculations of the Russian Mission Control Center (MCC), the device, which was given the name Ivan Ivanovich at RSC Energia (by analogy with the dummies that were launched into space in 1960 on the Vostok unmanned spacecraft before the flight of Yuri Gagarin), should have fly off at least until the end of February, and then enter the dense layers of the atmosphere and burn up. During this period, he had to transmit signals for radio amateurs at a frequency of 145.99 MHz.

The Orlan-M # 14 spacesuit was manufactured at the Zvezda Research and Production Enterprise (Tomilino, Moscow Region) and delivered to the ISS in September 2001.The spacesuit weighing 130 kg was used three times by astronauts for work in outer space in 2002-2003.

However, after a couple of hours of independent flight, “Ivan Ivanovich” fell silent. The cause of the accident, as Kommersant was told at the MCC, will no longer be able to establish, because, apart from the radio transmitter, no other equipment was installed in the spacesuit to monitor the state of the apparatus in flight. Nevertheless, the US space command managed to name the new satellite SuitSat and put it in its catalog under the number 28 933.

Most of all for “Ivan Ivanovich” is now mourned at the Bauman Moscow State Technical University, whose equipment was installed in the spacesuit. This is already the second space failure of the Bauman people: they tried to acquire their own full-fledged satellite, timed to coincide with the 250th anniversary of the university, back in November last year, but the launch of the Satan rocket from Baikonur with the first Belarusian satellite BelKA and the Baumanets-1 spacecraft “was postponed to 2006 due to unpreparedness for the start of BelKA.It was after this that RSC Energia suggested that the Baumans, without waiting for a “real” launch, to use the out-of-date Orlan-M spacesuit as the body of the spacecraft (at MSTU itself it was called “Radioskaf”). True, according to Kommersant’s information, there are still two similar spacesuits on board the ISS, which, if desired, can be used to repeat a failed experiment. It is worth recalling, by the way, that MSTU, which celebrated its 175th anniversary last year, was more fortunate: its anniversary satellite Tatiana was successfully launched from Plesetsk together with the military satellite Parus on a light launch vehicle Cosmos 3M back in January 2005.


Leaders and Nations Civilization VI – Black Queen, Center-Left and Lady with a Broken Heart | Games

The Civilization series is an excellent textbook on world history if you can read footnotes and analyze the information received. And although in the course of each game you keep your own chronicle of times, the skills and characteristics of each nation are most often formed on the basis of the real deeds of its leader. Everyone knows about the opening of a window to Europe by Peter I and the conquests of Genghis Khan, but there are more unusual characters in Civilization – I will tell you about some in this article, while others are waiting for you in the game itself.

John Curtin – the leader of Australia

The word “history” mentally sends many of us back to the beginning of time. Perhaps the point is in the school curriculum, because in the lower grades we begin to study it from the annals of the Ancient World. My teacher even promoted the theory of the impossibility of assessing contemporary events from a historical point of view, and stated that at least 150 years must pass before any person will be eligible to get into a textbook. Fortunately, Firaxis Games did not fall under his influence, which is why Civilization VI has quite modern leaders.One of them is John Joseph Curtin (1885-1945).

The 14th Prime Minister of Australia was a peculiar figure. After finishing school at the age of 12, he immediately went to work in a factory and at about the same time went into politics, and always “drowned” for socialism and even published in one of the most radical newspapers of that time. At an older age, he became the secretary of the lumberjack trade union, and later its president. He did not retreat from his political views: he officially joined the center-left Labor Party of Australia in his youth and remained a member of it, already as the country’s prime minister.

Civilization VI:

“The life of John Joseph Curtin could have exemplified the triumph of the common man — in the sense that the unremarkable man became a politician, party leader, and prime minister. Both political allies and opponents reckoned with him. This was in no small part due to the way he led Australia through the chaos of World War II, realizing the enormous danger looming over the young power. ”

There was another curious moment in the life of John Curtin: he deliberately dodged the army, promoting a pacifist lifestyle and believing that a mandatory military conscription could not exist in a civilized state.At the same time, he himself would hardly have been taken into the army, since the future prime minister had poor eyesight. Fate laughed at him rather cruelly: Curtin rose to his post in 1941, World War II was already in full swing, and Australia had a powerful enemy – Japan.

John Curtin. Source: @Wikipedia

Since Curtin disliked open military conflicts, but still had nowhere to go, the politician threw his forces into ensuring the safety of citizens.He withdrew Australian troops from the Middle East, believing that they would be much more useful in protecting New Guinea and Australia from the Japanese threat. Under his leadership, shelters from air raids appeared on the territory of the state, residents were instructed on their use, and factories were reoriented for military needs. In addition, women were given the opportunity to work on machines, which was previously not allowed in Australia, and food was rationed so that the population did not die of hunger.In particular, this was facilitated by the control over cattle breeding – the bonus and unusual development of farms in Civilization VI arose thanks to this feature of the real state, because it was cattle breeding that helped the aborigines to cope with hunger.

Defense from an external enemy with the provision of conditionally comfortable (nevertheless, wartime cannot be joyful) living of the population was Curtin’s trick. He bucked the industry with union loyalty, found new hands and kept many soldiers, rarely unleashing conflicts on his own.In 1942, he even entered into a defense alliance with the United States, transferring command of the army to General Douglas MacArthur. At the same time, the Prime Minister was always extremely jealous of the borders and protected them from any invaders, especially the Japanese, encouraging the pushing back of foreign troops as far as possible. Guess what you can do with gusto playing as this leader?

Leader Bonus – Bulwark of Civilization:

  • + 100% production if war was declared on Australia in the last ten turns or if they liberated the city within the last 20 turns.

Historic Goal – Always On Guard:

  • Enters into defensive pacts with friends and sympathizes with the civilizations that liberate cities. Dislikes warring civilizations that conquer enemy cities.

Catherine de Medici – the leader of France

The French queen Catherine Maria Romola di Lorenzo de Medici is familiar to many, even if you haven’t heard her name before. The lady left a bloody mark in history: it was thanks to her that the concept of “St. Bartholomew’s Night” appeared on the pages of textbooks.Of course, the mother of Charles IX did not personally go out into the streets to kill the Huguenots, she only provoked the massacre. In Civilization VI, Catherine de Medici is a master of intrigue, she competently manages spies and knows everything about her opponents.

It should be noted that in Civilization VI, Catherine has two hypostases at once. One of them is more insidious and is called the Black Queen, while the other is famous for her love of luxury and art, therefore she is known as the Magnificent. Both nicknames belong to the same woman, revealing different character traits.

Civilization VI:

“Catherine de Medici (in Italian her name sounds like“ Catarina ”) thanks to historians has a bad reputation: partly because of her family, partly because of her own cruelty, with which she tried at all costs to keep Valois (a branch of the Capetian house) on throne. But no matter what they say, without Catherine, the Valois family would hardly have been able to survive all the troubles, and France could hardly bear all the sorrows that fell on her at that time. “

If you have watched the series “Game of Thrones”, then it is not difficult to imagine what Catherine de ‘Medici was like in the 16th century: the character of Cersei Lannister seems to be copied from the Black Queen. She wove intrigues, was wise, did not favor her own husband too much, who answered her “in return” and spent his free time with his mistresses, and, in the end, had huge problems with childbirth. Despite a stormy youth, Medici met old age peacefully: she solved problems with children with the help of court doctors and gave birth to as many as ten heirs, and met death in her own bed by the age of seventy.

Catherine de Medici. Source: @Wikipedia

Catherine de Medici Leader’s Black Queen Bonus – Catherine’s Flying Squadron:

  • Has one more diplomatic visibility level than usual for every civilization she knows. Receives a free spy (and an additional spy slot) after researching the Castles technology. All Spies start the game as agents with one free promotion.

Bonus of the leader of Catherine de Medici “Magnificent” – “Catherine’s Miracles”:

  • Improved rare resources located near the theater square or chateau receive +2 culture. Can arrange a court festival in any city with a theater square.

Historic Objectives – Black Queen and Luxurious Decoration:

  • Uses as many spies and diplomatic means as he can. Dislikes civilizations that ignore espionage.
  • Loves civilizations that trade luxury items with her. Dislikes civilizations that do not provide such trade. Strives to collect as many copies of rare resources as possible.

Dido – leader of Phenicia

Carthage must be … built. So Dido once decided. And although it was precisely this act of her that was key from the point of view of history, the personality of Dido attracts me because of her interesting fate. It seems to serve as a reminder that it is not enough to be smart and successful, you also need to have a stable psyche, not succumbing to momentary weaknesses on the basis of love.By the way, so many myths and legends have been put together about Dido that it is difficult for modern people to distinguish truth from speculation.

Almost all myths about Dido are associated with tragic love, where at the end she either throws herself on the sword or commits an act of self-immolation. According to one version, Dido’s female happiness was shattered by the customs of antiquity society, which considered that, being a widow, she could not fall in love with another man – handsome Aeneas. The Roman was not against a romantic relationship with Dido, but, succumbing to the will of the gods, abandoned the girl to “found a great city”, as fate had predicted for him.It seems that ambition did not allow the guy to come to terms with the fact that his beloved in this matter had already bypassed him. Dido, no matter how wise and brave, still remained a woman: because of the refusal of her lover, she lay down with her heart on the edge of the sword, simultaneously cursing Aeneas sailing from the shores of Carthage and not suspecting anything. The warrior himself was not to blame for anything: he was allegedly led by the gods, in particular Mercury.

The second version tells about the oath that Dido took to King Iarbant, who wished to marry a Carthaginian woman.Iarbant’s ambassadors reported that in case of refusal, the city would be destroyed. The queen foolishly blurted out that any girl who refused the king would be executed. Naturally, Iarbant desired Dido herself, who had no choice but to enter a huge bonfire in the square.

Civilization VI:

“Finally the ships landed on the North African coast. King Iarbant (Yarba) ruled here. Dido asked permission to settle in his domain, and he gave her as much land “as a cowhide could cover”.Dido cut the hide into thongs and covered the whole mountain with it. In memory of her resourcefulness, the hill on which Carthage was built was named Birsa (“bull’s skin” in Greek). ”

Other myths are associated with Dido. For example, Carthage is essentially a city of refugees. Dido cunningly grabbed a rather large territory off the coast, simply ferrying the crowd to the border of a foreign state and asking the local king for a small piece of land to live in.

This myth did not significantly affect the perks of the leader in Civilization VI, but in the fifth part it was reflected.According to legend, she should have received as much land as the cowhide would cover.

Dido. Source: @Wikipedia

The resourceful Dido dismissed it on straps, and this was enough to cover the whole mountain. Perhaps that is why the troops of Carthage easily cross the terrain impassable for other nations, and hills often appear on the respawn. In Civilization VI, the same feature of Phenicia was the construction of government districts.

Leader Bonus – “Founder of Carthage”:

  • Can transfer the original capital to any Carthaginian city that has a cotton, completing a unique project in that city.
  • +1 to Maximum Trade Routes for every government square and building on it.
  • + 50% production when building districts in a city with a government area.

Historical target – “Greco-Carthaginian Wars”:

  • Seeks to establish cities on the coast.Sympathizes with those who populate the interior regions. Dislikes those who have many cities on the coast.

Poundmaker – Leader of the Cree

Poundmaker – Indian peacemaker, unjustly accused of treason and acquitted only posthumously. All his life he strove for the unification of the tribes, until he ended up in prison. However, in his youth, he still managed to serve a great goal, and not without the help of fate.

Poundmaker was born into the family of a shaman who was a professional bison breeder – an honorable art of replenishment in the Indian tribes.Poundmaker inherited this gift, which in fact was rather an unusual skill of a hunter, passed from father to son. In addition, the Indian was a good orator, thanks to which he achieved recognition in his own tribe already in childhood.

Indian tribes rarely lived in peace, fighting both with each other and with external conquerors. Poundmaker was lucky: because of his oratorical skills, he was a representative of his own community wherever possible, and was once noticed by the leader of the “Blackfoot” Crowfoot.His community was large and powerful, and negotiations with the leader could have gone very differently if Crowfoot’s wife had not seen Poundmaker. She was clearly not herself, since she had recently lost her son, and the arriving bison breeder seemed terribly similar to her. Wanting to reassure his wife, Crowfoot adopted Poundmaker, named him Thin-Legged Wolf and left him in the family, making him his closest assistant. This had a positive effect on history: the two tribes practically became related and ended armed conflicts with each other.

Poundmaker. Source: @Wikipedia

Although the first significant alliance with the Blackfeet was formed in a rather unconventional way, Poundmaker continued the unification with traditional methods and realized himself in negotiations, and also paid a lot of attention to trade. Poundmaker made mutually beneficial deals and thus slowly but surely reconciled the Indians with each other. Foreign policy was a little worse for him: the battles with the American cavalry did not always end happily.In 1885, the Indians and a detachment of Canadian Colonel William Otter clashed in a heated battle for territory, as a result of which Poundmaker’s men took the upper hand, but he himself was eventually sentenced to several years in prison, accused of treason. The shameful stigma was removed only posthumously.

Leader Bonus – “Favorable Conditions”:

  • All alliances give collective visibility.
  • Trade routes grant +1 food at the starting point and +1 gold at the ending point for each camp and pasture at the destination.

Historic Target – “Iron Confederation”:

  • Seeks to form as many alliances as possible and respects those who do the same.

Seondok is the leader of Korea

Seondok is the first reigning queen in the history of Korea, who ruled from 632–647. It is believed that she ascended the throne due to her father’s absence of sons, but at the same time King Jinpyeong chose her and taught her on his own, seeing suitable leadership qualities and, most importantly, a clear mind.

Civilization VI:

“King Jinpyeong’s father Seondok had no male heirs. Of all the daughters, he chose Seondok for her early intuitive mindset. According to an unofficial story, Jinpyeong received peony seeds as a gift from China. The seed box was decorated with a picture of a blooming peony. Young Seondok noticed that the painted flowers are beautiful, but they have no scent. When asked by Jinpyeong why she decided that, Seondok replied that if the flowers smelled good, butterflies and bees would hover around them in the drawing.As it turned out later, the peony flower was really devoid of any smell. ”

Korea in Civilization VI is a scientific country, Seondok’s personal qualities came in handy here. In addition, being rather mild, she devoted her life to improving the living conditions of her subjects, established a system of state benefits for the poorest strata of the population, and “pumped up” the sphere of education, as far as was possible in antiquity.

The advantages of a woman’s hand at the head of an ancient state can hardly be overestimated.During her reign, Seondok entered into beneficial alliances many times, but she also skillfully pitted Korea’s opponents against each other. It seems that a love of intrigue is a common feature among women rulers.

Seondok. Source: @Wikipedia

Seondok devoted her life to politics and found no love. She did not give birth to an heir, so the Korean people received another queen after the first – her cousin Chindok ascended the throne.

Leader’s bonus – “Hwaran”:

  • + 10% culture and + 10% science in all cities with a current governor.

Historical Target – Chomseongdae:

  • Seeks to develop science and sympathizes with civilizations that also pay great attention to science.

If you study the description of all the leaders in all parts of Civilization, you can safely enter into smart arguments with your comrades, trumping interesting facts. However, the main feature of the strategy is that each of us can rewrite history.Go for it!

Rum Rebellion – Rum Rebellion

Revolt in British New South Wales Correctional Colony (1808)

This article is about the Australian coup d’état. For the Mutiny album, see Rum Rebellion (album).

Rum Rebellion 1808 was a coup d’etat in the then British colony of New South Wales, staged by New South Wales, to oust Governor William Bligh. The first and only military coup in Australia, it is named after the illicit rum trade in Sydney, a monopoly of which the Rum Corps were said to have held.In the first half of the 19th century in Australia it was called The Great Rebellion .

Bligh, a former Royal Navy officer known for his overthrow during the mutiny at Bounty , was appointed governor in 1805 to curb the power of the Corps. Within two years, rising tensions between Bligh and the military elite, as well as prominent civilians such as John MacArthur, prompted Major George Johnston to organize an armed takeover.On January 26, 1808, 400 soldiers marched to the Government House and arrested Bly. He was detained in Sydney and then aboard a ship off Hobart, Van Diemen Land for the next two years, while Johnston served as Lieutenant Governor of New South Wales. The military remained under control until the arrival of Major General Lachlan Macquarie from Great Britain in 1810, who became the new governor of the colony.

Bligh’s appointment as governor

William Bligh succeeded Philip Gidley King as the fourth governor of New South Wales in 1805 from Sir Joseph Banks.A naval officer, he was well known for his overthrow during the mutiny at Bounty . It is likely that he was deliberately chosen by the British government as governor because of his reputation as a “tough man” and was expected to have a good chance of reining in the individual corps of New South Wales; what his predecessors could not do. Bligh left for Sydney with his daughter Mary Putland and her husband, while Bligh’s wife remained in England.

Even before his arrival, Bligh’s management style was causing problems with his subordinates.The Admiralty gave the transport crew with supplies HMS Porpois and the convoy’s bottom was captured by Captain Joseph Closing and Bligh took command of the transport ship. This led to an altercation that eventually led Captain Short to shoot through Bly’s bow in an attempt to force Bly to obey his signals. When that failed, Short attempted to order Lieutenant Putland, Bly’s son-in-law, to stand aside and fire at Bly’s ship. Bly boarded Porpoise and seized control of the convoy.

When they arrived in Sydney, Bligh, backed by statements from two of Short’s officers, stripped Short of his post as captain Porpoise – which he handed over to his son-in-law – canceled 240 hectares (600 acres) of land. Short’s Grant was promised as travel fare and sent him back to England for a military tribunal at which Short was acquitted. The President of the Court, Sir Isaac Coffin, wrote to the Admiralty and brought several serious charges against Bligh, including influencing the officers to testify against Short.Bligh’s wife received a statement from one of the officers denying this, and Banks and other Bligh supporters successfully lobbied for his recall as governor.

Arrival in Sydney.

Shortly after arriving in Sydney, in August 1806, Bly received a welcome speech signed by Major Johnston for the military, Richard Atkins for civilian officers, and John MacArthur for free settlers. However, shortly thereafter, he also received addresses from free and liberated settlers in Sydney and the Hawkesbury River region, a total of 369 signatures, many of which were made only by the cross, complaining that MacArthur did not represent them as they accused him.for keeping sheep to raise the price of mutton.

One of Bly’s early actions was to use the colony’s stocks and herds to help farmers severely affected by the Hawkesbury River flood, a situation that disrupted the colony’s barter economy. The supplies were split according to those most in need, and provisions were made for store loans based on their ability to repay. This brought Bly the gratitude of the farmers, but the animosity of the Corps merchants, who profited immensely from the situation.

Bligh, guided by instructions from the Office of Colonial Affairs, attempted to normalize trade conditions in the colony by banning the use of alcoholic beverages as payment for goods. Bly reported his policy to the Colonial Office in 1807 with the advice that his policy would meet with resistance. Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, Secretary of State for War and Colonial Affairs, responded to Bligh, his instructions were received on December 31, 1807. The instructions were to stop the liquor trade, and H.W. Evatt concludes in his history of the rebellion that … “Bly was empowered to discourage free entry, keep the trade under his full control, enforce all illegal import fines, and set discretionary rules for the sale of alcoholic beverages.”

Sydney Painting, c. 1799

Evatt argues that the enmity of the monopolists within the colony stems from this and other policies that opposed the rule of the rich and contributed to the well-being of the poor settlers.Bly stopped the practice of distributing large land holdings to the powers that be; during his tenure, he donated just over 1,600 hectares of land, half of which to his daughter Mary Putland and himself.

Bligh also upset some people by allowing a group of Irish riot defendants to be tried by their accusers, and then, when six of the eight were acquitted, he kept them under arrest anyway. He dismissed D’Arcy Wentworth from his post as assistant surgeon at the colony without giving any reason, and sentenced three traders to a month in prison and a fine for writing a letter he considered offensive.Bly also dismissed Thomas Jamison from graduate school, calling him “hostile” to good government in 1807. Jameson was a very capable (albeit cunning) surgeon general in New South Wales. He amassed a considerable personal fortune as a sea merchant and was a friend and business partner of MacArthur. Jameson never forgave Bly for firing him as magistrate and interfering with his private business, and he supported Bly’s later testimony.

In October 1807, Major George Johnston wrote a formal letter of complaint to the Commander-in-Chief of the British Army, stating that Bligh had insulted and interfered with the forces of the NSW Corps.It is clear that Bligh has made enemies among the most powerful people in the colony. He also angered some of the less wealthy when he ordered those who rented government land in Sydney to rent their homes.

Feud between Bly and MacArthur

John MacArthur arrived with the NSW Corps in 1790 as a lieutenant, and by 1805 he had significant farming and commercial interests in the colony. He fell out with Bligh’s predecessor governors and fought three duels.

Bligh’s and MacArthur’s interests conflicted in many ways. Bly prevented MacArthur from cheaply distributing large quantities of rum for the Corpus. He also stopped MacArthur’s alleged illegal import of footage. Macartar’s interest in the piece of land granted to him by Governor King ran counter to Bly’s urban planning interests. MacArthur and Bly were also involved in other controversies, including a conflict over landing rules. In June 1807, the perpetrator took refuge and escaped from Sydney on the schooner MacArthur Paramatta , and in December 1807, when Parramatta returned to Sydney, a bond held to ensure that captains and shipowners did not help prisoners escape the Colony. was considered confiscated.

Bligh instructed Judge Advocate Richard Atkins to issue an order for John MacArthur to appear on bail on December 15, 1807. MacArthur disobeyed the order, was arrested and released on bail, and failed to appear in court at the next session of the Sydney Criminal Court on January 25, 1808. The court consisted of Atkins and six officers from the NSW Corps. MacArthur objected to Atkins being able to judge him because he was his debtor and a hardened enemy. Atkins denied this, but MacArthur’s protest was supported by the other six members of the court, all Corps officers.Without a lawyer, the trial could not take place, and the court was dissolved. ”

Bligh accused six officers of the mutiny and summoned Major George Johnston to investigate the matter. Johnston replied that he was ill, as he had crashed his concert on the evening of the 24th on his way home to Annandale after lunch with Corps officers.

Overthrow of Governor Bligh

On the morning of January 26, 1808, Bligh again ordered the arrest of MacArthur, and also ordered the return of court documents, which were now in the hands of the Corps officers.The Corps responded with a request to appoint a new attorney judge and release MacArthur on bail. Bly summoned the officers to Government House to answer the judge’s allegations, and informed Major Johnston that he considered the actions of the Corps officers to be a betrayal. Now the entire Corps sat together, begging for revenge.

Johnston instead went to jail and ordered the release of Macartar, who then drew up a petition urging Johnston to arrest Bly and take charge of the colony.The petition was signed by Corps officers and other prominent citizens, but Evatt said most of the signatures were probably added only after Bligh was safely placed under house arrest. Johnston then consulted with the officers and issued an order stating that Bligh’s “respected residents accuse you of crimes that render you unfit to exercise supreme power at another point in this colony; and all the officers under my command joined this charge. “Johnston urged Bly to resign and be arrested.

At 18:00, the Corps in full force and banner went to the Government House to arrest Bly. They were thwarted by Bly’s daughter and her umbrella, but Captain Thomas Laycock finally found Bly in full dress behind his bed, where he claims he was hiding documents. Bly was portrayed as a coward for this, but Duffy claims that if Bly went into hiding, it would mean fleeing and thwarting the coup. In his book Captain Bloe Other Mutiny , Stephen Dando-Collins agrees and goes so far as to suggest that Bligh was planning to flee to Hawkesbury and the lead settlers who were strongly supportive of him and who were against the putschists there.In 1808, Bligh and his daughter Mary Putland were imprisoned in the Government House under house arrest. Bly refused to leave for England until he was legally dismissed from office.

Johnston took over as lieutenant colonel on April 25, 1808 and appointed Charles Grimes, Inspector General, Judge Advocate, and ordered Makart and six officers to be tried; they were found not guilty. MacArthur was then appointed Secretary of State for the Colonies and effectively directed the affairs of the colony.Another prominent opponent of Bligh, MacArthur’s ally Thomas Jameson, was appointed as a naval officer of the colony (the equivalent of a customs and excise collector). Jamieson was also reinstated as Justice of the Peace, allowing him and his legal colleagues to examine Bligh’s personal documents for evidence of wrongdoing by the ousted governor. In June 1809, Jamieson sailed to London to support his business interests and testify against Bly in a prosecution that could be brought against the rebels.Jameson died in London early in 1811, so he was not able to testify before the Johnston Tribunal, which was only held in June of that year (see below).

Soon after Bligh’s arrest, a watercolor illustrating the arrest of an unknown artist was displayed in Sydney for what may be Australia’s first public art exhibition. The watercolor shows a soldier pulling Bly out from under one of the servants’ beds in Government House, with two more figures standing nearby.The two soldiers in the watercolor are most likely John Sutherland and Michael Marlborough, while the other figure on the right is believed to represent Lieutenant William Minchin. This watercolor is the earliest surviving political caricature in Australia, and like all political cartoons, it uses cartoons and exaggerations to convey its message. NSW Corps officers considered themselves to be gentlemen, and by portraying Bly as a coward, the caricature declares that Bly was not a gentleman and therefore not fit to rule.

The origin of the watercolor comes from a dispute between Bligh and Sergeant Major Whittle that Bligh asked Whittle to demolish his house as it interfered with the improvement of the city. It has been suggested that Whittle either commissioned the painting or painted the watercolor himself, but it is unlikely that Whittle did as he was illiterate.

New governor appointed

After the overthrow of Bligh, Johnston notified his superior, Colonel William Paterson, who was in Van Diemen’s Land (modern Tasmania) and established a settlement in Port Dalrymple (now Launceston).Paterson did not want to intervene until clear orders came from England. When he learned in March that Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Fauveau was returning to Sydney with orders to become Acting Lieutenant Governor of New South Wales, Paterson left Fauveau to investigate the situation.

Foveaux arrived in July and took over the colony as lieutenant colonel on 28 July 1808, irritating Macarthur. As a decision was expected from England, and feeling that Bligh’s behavior was unbearable, Foveau left Bligh under house arrest and turned his attention to improving roads, bridges and public buildings in the colony, which, in his opinion, were heavily ignored.When there was still no news from England, he summoned Paterson to Sydney in January 1809 to sort things out.

Paterson sent Johnston and Macarther to England for trial and imprisoned Bligh in barracks until he signed a contract whereby he agreed to return to England. Paterson, whose health was deteriorating, then retired to the Old Government House, Parramatta, and left Foveaux to rule the colony.

In January 1809, Bligh gained control of HMS Porpoise , a ten-gun magazine ship, on condition that he returned to England.Nevertheless, Bligh sailed to Hobart, Van Diemen’s Land, seeking support from the Lieutenant-Governor David Collins to regain control over the colony. Collins refused to support him, and by Paterson’s orders, Bligh remained cut off aboard Porpoise , moored at the mouth of the Derwent River south of Hobart, until January 1810.

In the end, the Colonial Office decided that sending naval governors to govern the colony was untenable.Instead, the NSW Corps, now known as the 102nd Infantry Regiment, was to be recalled to England and replaced by the 73rd Infantry Regiment, whose commander took over as governor. Bligh was to be reinstated in office for 24 hours, then recalled to England, Johnston was sent to England for a military tribunal, and Macartar was tried in Sydney. Major General Lachlan Macquarie was appointed head of the mission after Major General Miles Nightingall fell ill before leaving.Macquarie took over as governor after an elaborate ceremony on January 1, 1810.


Governor Macquarie reinstated all officials dismissed by Johnston and MacArthur, got rid of the alcoholic Judge Atkins, replacing him with Ellis Brent (the very first professional lawyer to enter a public office in Australia), and canceled all land and fund grants. this was done after Bly’s deposition, although to calm the situation he made grants he saw fit and prevented any revenge.When Bligh received news of Macquarie’s arrival, he sailed for Sydney, arriving on January 17, 1810, to gather evidence for the upcoming military tribunal of Major George Johnston. He went on trial to England on May 12 and arrived on October 25, 1810 aboard Hindustan .

After informally hearing the arguments of both sides, the government authorities in England were not impressed by the accusations of MacArthur and Johnston against Bligh, or by Bligh’s irascible letters accusing key figures in the colony of unacceptable behavior.Johnston was brought before a military tribunal, was found guilty and cashed, which was the lowest punishment. He was then able to return as a free citizen to his Annandale estate in Sydney. Macartar was not tried, but he was denied permission to return to New South Wales until 1817, as he did not admit his wrongdoing.

Bligh’s promotion to Rear Admiral was postponed until the end of Johnston’s trial. Subsequently, this was retroactively until July 31, 1810, and Bligh took over the post he retained.He continued his naval career with the Admiralty without command and died of cancer in 1817.

Macquarie was impressed by the Foveaux administration. He put forward the name Foveau to replace Collins as Lieutenant Governor of Tasmania, because he could not think of anyone more suitable, and believed that he could not do otherwise with regard to Bligh. However, when Foveaux returned to England in 1810, he was brought before a military tribunal for agreeing to have Bligh overthrown and imprisoned; Macquarie’s recommendation was ignored.Foveaux was accepted into active service in 1811 and was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the 1st regiment of the Greek light infantry; After that, he continued his trouble-free military career, rising to the rank of lieutenant general.


Michael Duffy writing in 2006 says:

In fact, it was the culmination of a long struggle for power between the government and private entrepreneurs, the struggle for the future and the nature of the colony. The early governors wanted to preserve New South Wales as a large open prison with a primitive economy based on former yeoman inmates and governed by government decree.

Duffy continues that at the time, the rebellion was not related to rum:

… almost no one during the uprising thought it was rum. Bly briefly tried to give him such a spin to defame his opponents, but there was no evidence and he moved on.
Many years later, in 1855, the English Quaker William Howitt published the popular history of Australia.Like many teetotalers, he sought to blame alcohol for all the world’s problems. Howitt sided with Bligh and coined the phrase “Rum Rebellion” and it has since stuck.

A Biography of Early Australia dismisses MacArthur’s complaints as ludicrous and cites Evatt that MacArthur is legally guilty of two of the three charges brought against him, including incitement to mutiny. Both believe that Bligh was completely acquitted of his actions because he was the legitimate authority.However, imprisoning people and threatening to do the same in court when they failed to rule in favor of the said authority was extremely problematic from a legal point of view, and the decisions of subsequent trials clearly show that modern British legal authorities did not agree with the assessment. that MacArthur’s complaints were unfounded on the basis of the pardon granted and an explicit characterization of his conduct in the line of duty. Duffy argues that if Johnston had arrived when he was called on January 25, the Rum Rebellion would probably never have happened.

In Popular Culture

  • In 1951, it was reported that Carey Wilson was researching a film version of the rebellion for the Hollywood studio MGM called Rum Rebellion.
  • This was the subject of the 1960 Australian television series Petrel.
  • Australian folk punk band Mutiny included a song about rebellion and the earlier Mutiny on the Bounty entitled “Bligh” in their 1997 debut album Rum Rebellion .
  • In the book Temeraire “ Tongues of Serpents ” the protagonists visit Australia during the Roma Uprising. In the alternate story series, the protagonists arrive in Australia to witness the uprising and meet with Governor Bligh and MacArthur, who advise them to stay out of the fight. At the end of the novel, MacArthur is reinstated as governor in place of Macquarie.
  • TV miniseries Against the Wind includes the events of the Roma Uprising in episode 12.

See also


List of used literature

  • Dando Collins, Stephen, Captain Bly’s Another Mutiny: The True Story of the Military Coup That Turned Australia into a Two-Year Rebel Republic , Sydney, Random House, 2007.
  • Duffy, Michael, A Man of Honor: John MacArthur , Sydney, Macmillan, Australia, 2003.
  • Evatt, HV, Roma Uprising: A Study of the Overthrow of Governor Bligh by John MacArthur and New South Wales , 1943.
  • Tom Frame (January 23, 2008). “Who will watch the guards when we are ruled by former officers?” … Australian . Archived from the original on June 12, 2008.
  • Fitzgerald, Ross and Hearn, Mark, Bligh, MacArthur and Rum Rebellion , Canterst: Kangaroo Press, 1988.
  • Hughes, Robert (1986). Fatal Shore . Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 0-394-50668-5 .
  • Richie, John, Wentworths: Father and Son , Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1997.
  • Spiegelman, James (January 23, 2008). “The coup that paved the way for our focus on the rule of law.” Opinion. Sydney Morning Herald . Retrieved January 23, 2008. (Spiegelman is Chief Justice in New South Wales.)

external links

90,000 Countries – Philippines

the main



Philippine peso (international designation – PHP, within the country – P), equal to 100 centavos.In circulation there are banknotes in denominations of 1000, 500, 100, 50, 20, 10 and 5 pesos, coins of 5 and 1 pesos, as well as 25 and 10 centavos. Banks are open from Monday to Friday from 9.00 to 16.00. Banks in Manila and other major cities can usually exchange pounds sterling and euros. Outside the capital, servicing other foreign currencies is quite problematic; only branches of the Central Bank of the Philippines offer an exchange rate close to the official one. The American dollar is widely accepted in the Philippines and is often more convenient to use than travel checks.Prices are often quoted in both Philippine pesos and dollars. Banks, shops and hotels in major cities of the country accept credit cards of the major world systems and traveller’s checks; in the provinces, their use is unlikely. To avoid additional conversion costs, it is recommended that you bring traveller’s checks in US dollars. ATMs are ubiquitous and operate around the clock.

Democratic Republic. The head of state and government is the president (elected for 6 years).Legislature – bicameral Congress (Senado Senate – 24 seats, Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatavan House of Representatives – 214 seats). Administratively, the country is divided into 79 regions (headed by governors) and 115 independent urban formations.

Visa and customs regimes

Visa regime. To enter the country, you must have a passport and visa. To obtain a visa, you must submit a passport, an invitation – tourist, private or business (original or copy), air tickets (or their copy), a passport-size photograph and 1 questionnaire in English (issued at the embassy).Consular fee is charged. The usual time for processing documents at the embassy is from 3 to 7 days. The visa is valid for a single entry to the Philippines for a period of 21 days. The visa is valid for entry for a period of 3 months from the date of issue at the consulate. A transit visa is valid only for a single border crossing with subsequent transit to another country. Failure to comply with the requirements of the visa regime entails a fine and deportation from the country. Traveling with children is possible if they are indicated in the invitation.There are no discounts for children with their own passport. Children entered in the parents’ passport also pay the full cost of the entry visa. Children under the age of 14 traveling without parents may be denied a visa.


5 hours ahead of Moscow.


State in Southeast Asia, located on the Philippine Islands, stretching from north to south in the western part of the Pacific Ocean. In the north it borders on Taiwan (Bashi Strait), in the south with Malaysia (Balabak and Alis straits) and Indonesia, in the east it is washed by the waters of the Pacific Ocean, in the west – by the South China Sea.The entire territory between the Philippine Islands is occupied by numerous inland seas and straits. The total area of ​​the country is 300 thousand square meters. km., the area of ​​inland water areas – more than 1.8 thousand square meters. km. The country includes more than 7.1 thousand islands, of which about 1000 are permanently inhabited, and more than 2500 are not only not inhabited, but do not even have a name. The islands are located in three groups – the northern island of Luzon and adjacent islands, the central Visayan group (about 6 thousand islands) and southern Mindanao with the surrounding islands.


Manila is the capital and largest city of the country, located on the southwestern coast of Luzon, on the shores of the bay of the same name. Stretching for tens of kilometers, “Big Manila” is a complex conglomerate of 7 large satellite cities (directly Manila, Quezon City, Pasai, Kalookan, Mandaluyong, Makati and Pasig) and a dozen small ones, each with its own zoning and characteristic appearance. In total, the city occupies more than 680 and is historically divided into several districts. After the brutal bombing of 1945, almost the entire city was destroyed, but intensive construction made it possible to restore most of the local attractions.

In the oldest district of the capital, Intramuros (founded in 1571), located south of the Pasig River, the fortress walls of the 16th century deserve attention. with a total length of 4.5 km. (now in their thickness there are many art galleries, restaurants, museums and even an aquarium), Fort Santiago (XVI century.), miraculously preserved after the cruel bombing of the city in 1945, the Catholic Manila Cathedral (1581, restored in 1954-1958) opposite the fort, the Cathedral of St. Augustine (1571-1599 – the oldest stone church in the Philippines) and adjoining to him is a museum of ecclesiastical art in the building of an old Augustinian monastery, the Casa Manila museum in Piazza San Luis, the Silahis shopping center (antiques and works of art), numerous colonial buildings of the 16th-17th centuries, Rojas Boulevard street, given over to numerous entertainment establishments for adults, Luneta Park with the Jose Rizal Memorial, American Cemetery and Coconut Palace.

Rizal Park (60 hectares) with a planetarium, concert venues, an orchid pavilion, a butterfly park and monuments to Filipino heroes, separates Intramuros from the “tourist belt” of the Ermita region, where most of the capital’s hotels are concentrated. Trendy restaurants and bars are scattered in abundance across Remedios Sökle, Jose Nacpil Street and nearby Maria Orosa Street, which is why thousands of people rest here from Friday night to Sunday. Interesting are the Malate Church, the avenues on Robinson Place and Harrison Plaza in front of the Rizal Memorial Stadium.Risal Park is also home to the National Museum of the Philippines (rich collection of geology, biology, ethnography and history of the country) and the National Museum of the Philippines.

“Chinatown” Binondo has long been not inhabited by the Chinese. Nowadays, it is the focus of commercial centers, jewelry stores and pharmacies. Noteworthy are the Church of San Binondo, the Church of Chiapo (the famous January procession in honor of the “Black Nazarene” starts from here), the area of ​​handicraft shops under the Chiapo Bridge (“Sa Llalim nga Tulay”) and the picturesque Chinese cemetery, famous for its mausoleums and crypts of the most diverse architecture …

Makati District is the financial center of Manila. Attractions in the area include numerous skyscrapers, Ayala Museum, Bohemia Mabini Street, Glorietta Cinema Center, Philippine Heritage Library on Makati Avenue, American War Cemetery and Memorial on McKinley Avenue, Marcos Museum at Malacanang Palace on Laurel Street, Commercial Center Makati Park, as well as the state-of-the-art Power Plant Cinema.

In the Quezon City area, the Capitol, the Colosseum and a beautiful zoo are interesting.The only railway station in the Philippines is located in the Kaloocan City area. You should definitely familiarize yourself with the Paoai Church and Bell Tower (1704-1894, included in the UNESCO World Heritage List), the Santo Tomas Museum with a collection of exhibits on natural history and archeology, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Juan Luna House Museum, inspect the building University (one of the oldest in Southeast Asia) and the Museum of Traditional Filipino Culture, which houses all the islands of the Philippines in miniature on 32 acres.

There are also many interesting places in the vicinity of the capital – the lighthouse at Cape Boheador (1892, the highest in the country), textile workshops in Paoai (widely known for their fabrics in the national style), the famous “Bamboo Organ” in the Las Picas region, factory for the production of the famous “jeepney” in Sarao, “lonely mountain” Arayat (1026 m.), the city of Pagsanyan (63 km. from Manila), near which the famous Macdapio waterfall and picturesque river rapids are located (it was here that F. Coppola filmed his film “Apocalypse Now”), etc.d.

In the throat of the Bay of Manila is the infamous Corregidor Island, for the possession of which there were fierce battles during the Second World War. Now the ruins of the fortress of those times, the network of tunnels Malinta (the location of the temporary headquarters of General MacArthur), as well as the Japanese cemetery, a small museum and the Memorial to the Fallen are interesting here. The province of Laguna (45 km southeast of the capital) enjoys immense popularity, where many hot sulphurous springs and resorts based on them are concentrated – Cuiyab, Los Banos (the unique Rice Research Institute is also located here), Pansol, etc.

Northwest of Manila, Subic Bay is a former US naval base and one of the best diving areas in the country. At the top of the bay is the city of Olongapo, which is increasingly becoming a major resort with golf courses, yacht clubs, sports centers and luxury hotels. Also, the former American Clark Air Base (70 km north of Manila) has been turned into a large resort area, on the territory of which a special economic zone (SEZ) is now open with many tax incentives for companies operating here.One of the best parachuting centers in Asia, the Tropical Asian Center, is also built here, as well as many golf courses and routes for active recreation.

To the north is the mountainous region of Zambale, where the Sagada caves (the place of traditional burials of the Ifuago head-hunters tribe), picturesque rice terraces around Banaue with a total length of about 22.4 thousand km are curious. (it is believed that they were carved into the rocks of local mountains more than 3 thousand years ago), the most beautiful serpentine Zigzag Road, the Sino-Philippine “Friendship Pagoda” and the Ma-Cho temple in San Fernando (La Union), resorts the islands of Kapones and Kamera, the Pinatubo volcano area, the fishing village of Pandakit, the salt mining area in the Dasol Bay area, as well as tens of kilometers of luxurious beaches in the La Union, Tambobong, Pandakit, Iba, Amungan and Ermana Major islands.

The mountain resort of Baguio is located 250 km. north of Manila, in Benguet province. This is the “summer capital” of the country, which lies at an altitude of about 1525 meters above sea level, and is famous for its mild climate and clean air. The sights of the city are considered the summer residence of the government of the country – the Menshn mansion, Bell Church (“Temple of the Bell”), picturesque crystalline massifs of the surrounding rocks and ancient burials in the surrounding mountains. Nearby lies the Lingaen Bay with its “hundred islands” (in fact, there are about 400), framed by white sandy shores and long coral reefs.

70 km. south of Manila lies the picturesque Tagaytay mountain range (height 600 m.), within which the Quezon National Park and the unique Taal volcano (the smallest active volcano on the planet) are located, in the crater lake of which there is an island, which, in turn, also has a small lake. Also in the southeastern part of Luzon are the “city of seven lakes” San Pablo, the Banajao volcano (2188 m., The sacred mountain of as many as seventeen religious sects, a cult place where numerous pilgrimages are arranged) and the magnificent Basilica of Saint Martin de Tours ( 1856 g., considered a national treasure) in Taale. Nearby, at the foot of Mackeeling volcano, lies the famous “Lost Valley” of Hidden Valley with the Alaminos crater, numerous caverns with hot mineral water, waterfalls, the Lourdes grotto (it is believed that the water flowing from it has healing powers), hundreds of thermal springs and luxurious vegetation … In the province of Albay rises the Mayon volcano (2462 m.), Considered one of the most perfect volcanic cones in the world.

Mindoro Island

Mindoro lies south of Luzon, separated from it by the Veras Strait.Puerto Galera is located on the northern coast of Mindoro. Such wonderful places are attractive here as the underwater National Park Puerto Galera with beautiful ichthyofauna and rather strong currents (thanks to which “drift diving” is popular here), the beaches of Sabang, La Laguna, White Beach and Talipanan, as well as the Aninuan waterfalls. No less interesting are the Apo Reef Marine Park, the stunning landscape of Mount Alcon (2695 m.), Tamarro Falls and Lake Nauhan.


The period of the primitive communal system and the emergence of feudal relations (until the end of the 16th century.).

In archaeological terms, F. have been poorly studied. Many scientists associate the Neolithic monuments with the penetration of the Philippine archipelago from the Asian continent by the southern Mongoloids, who ousted and partially assimilated in the 2nd millennium BC. e. the most ancient Negro-Australoid aborigines. Subsequent waves of migrations in the 1st millennium BC e. came first from Indochina, later – from Indonesia. From the 10th century. n. e. trade relations of F. with China and the countries of the South-East are traced. Asia, especially Indonesia.By the 15th-16th centuries. The primitive communal system remained dominant in most of France. But in some coastal regions a class society of the early feudal type began to take shape — in the southwest. parts about. Luzon, on about. Cebu, in the Sulu archipelago. In the 14-15th centuries. Islam was introduced to these regions through Indonesia. Small scattered principalities were formed here. The Sultanate of Holo arose in the Sulu archipelago.

The period of development of feudal relations and the emergence of the capitalist system under the conditions of Spanish colonial rule (late 16th – 19th centuries).Capture F. Spain. Establishment of a system of colonial exploitation (16th – early 19th century).

B 1521 isp. F. Magellan’s expedition discovered the Philippine Islands, calling them the San Lazaro Islands. Magellan convinced the ruler about. Cebu made a ‘blood alliance’ with him and promised help in the conquest of neighboring Fr. Mactan. But the ruler of Mactan Lapulapu (who is honored in F. as the first hero of the struggle for independence) defeated the Spanish. detachment. In 1564, Spain sent an expedition led by Legazpi to conquer F. Spain, which captured the coastal regions of the main islands of the central and north by of F. Spanish control was also established over the interior regions of the archipelago, over the southern regions (Western Mindanao, Sulu), this control until the end of the 19th century. in fact, it was never fixed. The Spaniards failed to convert Muslims in the south of F. to the Catholic faith, while the rest of the population of F. (except for the inhabitants of inaccessible mountain regions) was rather quickly Christianized. The colonialists introduced F. on the model of their Amer. possessions of the so-called encomiend system. The ‘trustee’ – the encomendero collected a household tax (tributo) from the population in his favor, forced the residents to perform labor service (polo) and supply food to the authorities.The community elders were transformed into village officials (kasiks) who acted as intermediaries in the collection of taxes. The Kasiks turned into feudal landowners, but they also experienced colonial oppression, so part of the popular uprisings against the colonialists took place under their leadership: the uprisings in the Kagayan valley in 1639, on about. Pour and Fr. Mindanao 1649-1650, powerful Malong uprising in Central Luzon 1660-1661. Throughout the 17th century. the encomiend system was replaced by the collection of taxes for the benefit of the crown.During this period, isp. Catholic orders (Dominicans, Augustinians, Jesuits, etc.) became the main economic and political force in the colony. They concentrated huge estates in their hands. F.’s ties with the outside world were limited to the admission of whales to the country. and ind. merchants and two voyages a year of merchant ships (galions) between Manila and Acapulco (Mexico). The proceeds from the galleon trade fell mainly into the hands of the orders. In 1782, a government monopoly on the tobacco trade was introduced. In 1785, the Royal Philippine Company was established, which received the privilege of direct but strictly regulated trade between F.and Spain. In the 18th century. the spontaneous popular struggle against the colonialists continued to develop, it was sometimes distinguished by great stubbornness. The uprising, begun in 1744 on about. Bohol, under the leadership of F. Dagohoy, the Spaniards could not suppress for 85 years. In 1762, during the Seven Years’ War 1756-63 English. For one year, troops captured Manila and a number of other regions of F. This gave impetus to large peasant uprisings, led by H. Palaris and D. Silang. Protest against oppression by the Spanish churchmen gave rise to numerous sectarian movements of the messianic type, when the Christian doctrine, merged with ancient local beliefs, became the banner of the struggle against foreign oppression.

The emergence of the capitalist system, the movement for reforms, the national liberation revolution (early 19th century – 1898).

At the beginning of the 19th century. the bourgeoisie that grew up in Spain began to seek admission to exploitation of F., monopolized by the highest Spanish bureaucracy and the church. Under her pressure, halion flights were terminated in 1815, the privileges of the Royal Company were abolished in 1830, and the tobacco monopoly was abolished in 1882. Private Spanish traders were allowed to visit F., and merchants from Great Britain, France, and the United States began to infiltrate here, who soon pushed aside Spanish competitors and made Manila open to foreign trade (1834), and others.ports (1855-60). This stimulated the production of export crops – sugar cane, tobacco, hemp, indigo. The formation of the local commercial and industrial bourgeoisie began. It gained great popularity among all strata of the population in the middle of the 19th century. a movement led by Burgos, Zamora and Gomez to equalize the rights of Filipino and Spanish priests. The priest Apolinario de la Cruz led in 1842-43 a major peasant uprising, the reason for which was the prohibition of the monastic order he created.The uprising in 1872 of workers at the Cavite arsenal (Central Luzon), supported by local peasants, caused a great response throughout the country. During this period, an intelligentsia formed in F., educated in Europe and adopting democratic ideas. She advocated political reforms that would save the F. people from poverty and political powerlessness. The supporters of the reforms (J. Rizal, M. del Pilar, G. López Jaena, and others) created the first patriotic organs of the press and organizations. In 1892, among the urban poor, a secret patriotic organization Katipunan arose, headed by A.Bonifacio and others, to which the radical intelligentsia soon joined. At the call (August 23, 1896) of Katipunan, an anti-Spanish uprising began (see Philippine National Liberation Revolution of 1896-98). He was also supported by the bourgeois landlord group led by E. Aguinaldo. On March 22, 1897, the rebels proclaimed an independent republic, Aguinaldo became its president. Aguinaldo’s group easily succumbed to the promise of concessions from Spain and in November – December 1897 agreed to stop the struggle (see.Biaknabat Treaty of 1897) and left France. In April 1898, the United States began a war to seize the Spanish colonies (see Spanish-American War of 1898). The American representatives agreed with Aguinaldo on joint actions, promising to recognize the independence of F. On June 12, 1898, F.’s independence was proclaimed for the second time in Cavite (this day is now celebrated as F.’s official holiday), and Aguinaldo, who returned to F. Aguinaldo, again headed the Revolutionary Government. The Philippine army in June – July forced Spanish troops to surrender almost throughout the archipelago.On August 13, an American landing force, in agreement with the Spanish command, occupied Manila without a fight in order to prevent the rebels from capturing the capital of France. On September 15, the Revolutionary Congress opened, which drafted and adopted the constitution of the Philippine Republic (see the Malolos Constitution).

Philippines during American colonial rule (1899-1946). The capture of F. and the establishment of Amer. colonial regime in F. (1899-1916).

December 10, 1898 the US government, ignoring the proclamation of independence by F., signed a peace treaty with Spain, according to which Spain “ceded” F. to the United States of America for $ 20 million. The Aguinaldo government tried to protest, but on February 4, 1899, Amer. troops began military operations against the Republican army, having an overwhelming superiority in numbers and equipment (see American-Philippine War of 1899-1901). By the beginning of 1900, the regular army of France had split into separate detachments, which went over to the partisan struggle (it lasted until 1906, and in some regions in the south until 1913).On March 23, 1901, Aguinaldo was taken prisoner, who agreed to call on the Filipinos to stop fighting. Having captured F. at the height of the national liberation revolution, Amer. the colonialists were forced to create a social support for themselves among the local population. They made significant economic and political concessions to the landowners: they legally secured private ownership of land, made, in agreement with the Vatican, the ransom of most of the Order’s lands and sold them to wealthy strata of the population.A duty-free trade regime was established between France and the United States. Representatives of the propertied classes received lucrative posts in the colonial administration. In 1902, the forthcoming organization of the Legislative Assembly (with limited rights), elected on the basis of a high property qualification, was announced. Petty bourgeois circles hostile to the invaders grouped around the so-called. Aglipayan Church. In 1907, the bourgeois-landlord Party of Nationalists was created, headed by former participants in the liberation wars of 1896-1901.This party advocated the independence of France, but rejected the revolutionary path of struggle for it. In the first Assembly elections in 1907, the Nationalists won the majority of the seats. In 1913, the leaders of this party headed the first national trade union center – the Workers’ Congress. Since 1913 Amer. the authorities started the so-called. Filipinization – increasing the participation of the local bourgeoisie and landowners in the administrative apparatus; in 1916, it was completed by the adoption by the US Congress of Jones of a law, according to which a 2-chamber Legislative Assembly was created in F. and the granting of independence to F. was promised.

Expansion of imperialist exploitation of France by the United States of America and the growth of the national liberation movement (1917-1941).

After World War I (1914-1918) a significant number of sugar and butter factories and tobacco factories were built in F. The formation of a large local bourgeoisie began (mainly in trade and export industries), and the working class grew. Under the influence of the Great October Socialist Revolution in Russia, F.communist ideas began to penetrate. The first Marxist group, headed by K. Evanhelist and A. Ora, emerged within the Workers ‘Congress, which in 1924 became the Workers’ Party. It was joined by the island, created in 1922 in a number of regions. Luzon National Confederation of Peasants. However, in the main, the peasant movement during this period developed spontaneously, in isolation from the labor movement, under religious and naive monarchist slogans (the large peasant uprisings of 1923-24 on the island of Mindanao and in 1925-27 on the island of Negros and about.Panay). The labor movement was very active (stubborn strikes in 1920, 1924, 1928), but it was mainly led by reformists; the exception was a number of trade unions that united in 1929 into the Union of Proletarians, which was led by the Labor Party. The economic crisis of 1929–33 caused unemployment in F. and intensified the ruin of the peasants. In 1929-31, a wave of major strikes swept; in 1931, two peasant uprisings took place in Luzon. The movement for independence intensified in bourgeois and petty bourgeois circles.In 1930, on the initiative of the leadership of the Labor Party, the Communist Party of the Philippines was founded, but already in 1932 it was banned, and its leaders were arrested. With the intensification of the class struggle and the growing patriotic movement in France, the United States was forced to make new concessions to national forces; in 1934 under Tydings – McDuffie law F. was promised independence after a 10-year ‘transitional period’, during which they were granted autonomy. Tydings-McDuffy law also defined the main features of F.both for the period of autonomy and after its expiration. The Constitutional Convention, created on the basis of this law, developed a draft constitution for France, which was approved by the President of the United States in March 1935. The 1935 Constitution, with reservations, proclaimed bourgeois-democratic freedoms in France, the government of autonomous France was headed in 1935 by the leader of the Nationalist Party, M. Quezon. In 1937, the government of France legalized the Communist Party and granted amnesty to its leaders. In 1938 the Socialist Party (which emerged in the 1930s) joined the ranks of the Communist Party.The largest trade union center was the Collective Labor Movement, founded in 1938, in which the Communists had significant influence. The People’s Front, led by the Communists, an electoral bloc of workers ‘and peasants’ organizations, came out under the slogan of expanding democratic freedoms and mobilizing the masses to defend France against the threat of Japanese aggression. During the years of autonomy of F., workers and peasants won concessions from the government in the field of improving working conditions (a minimum wage was established, the labor of children under 14 was prohibited, and compensation for injuries at work was established), as well as conditions for share-renting of rice fields, etc.

Occupation of F. Japanese. troops, a new upsurge of the national liberation movement (December 1941 – 46).

In December 1941, Japanese troops invaded F. The invaders established a terrorist regime. Most of the bureaucracy and landowners agreed to cooperate with the Japanese authorities, who created a pro-Japanese government in F. The most active organization of resistance to the invaders – the Hukbalahap army – was created (March 1942) and led by the communists. The peasants who made up this army waged an armed struggle against the Japanese troops and against the collaborationist landlords in Central Luzon.During the Japanese occupation, several partisan detachments and clandestine anti-Japanese groups, led by representatives of the national bourgeoisie and the intelligentsia, also operated in France. In October 1944, the partisans provided effective assistance to the American troops that landed on F. After the end of World War II (1939–45), the national liberation movement began a stormy upsurge. In 1945, a bloc of workers ‘, peasants’, and bourgeois patriotic organizations – the Democratic Alliance – was formed in F., in whose leadership the Communist Party began to play a prominent role.The communists influenced the mass organizations of working people – the National Peasant Union (founded in 1945) and the Congress of Workers’ Organizations (founded in 1945). In the presidential elections in April 1946, the Democratic Alliance launched a program of independence and social reform and entered into a coalition with the progressive wing of the Nationalist Party. But the ruling circles of the United States supported the Liberal Party (created in 1946 on the basis of a reactionary group that broke away from the Nationalist Party), which expressed its readiness to accept all the conditions set by the United States for the proclamation of independence of F.Liberals received a majority in Congress, their leader M. Rojas became President F.

Philippines after the declaration of independence (since 1946).

On July 4, 1946, F.’s independence was proclaimed. However, the F. government was forced to sign with the United States in 1946-47 a series of unequal treaties that secured the Amer. capital has the same rights as the national in a number of sectors of the economy, limited the independence of the F. in monetary and customs policy, made the armed forces dependent on the; on the basis of these agreements, territories were transferred to the United States for military bases; amer. the personnel of these bases were not subject to Philippine jurisdiction. the Rojas government tried to violently suppress the democratic movement. In 1946-47, gendarmes tried to disarm the veterans of Hukbalahap, but met with resistance. The Communist Party began negotiations with the government in an effort to prevent a civil war, but they ended in vain. In 1948 the Communist Party led an armed struggle against the government among the peasants of Central Luzon.The Liberation Army of the country was formed (numbering about 10 thousand people). The Communist Party, the National Peasant Union, and in 1951 also the Congress of Workers’ Organizations were banned by the government, and their activists were arrested. By 1953, government forces had defeated poorly armed peasant detachments, forcing them to disperse. During the years of the civil war, an atmosphere of police terror was established in F. In foreign policy, the Philippines followed the lead of the United States: in 1950, Philippine troops were sent to take part in the intervention in Korea (1950-53); in 1954, F.entered the aggressive military bloc SEATO. After the proclamation of independence in F., the positions of local capital were strengthened. In 1951-53, the production of the main types of products reached the pre-war level. The energy and manufacturing industries, which work for the domestic market, have grown significantly. But then the rate of growth of the national product gradually decreased, the sources of accumulation of national capital were very limited. Due to the unresolved agrarian issue, the domestic market remained narrow, the development of agriculture lagged sharply behind the country’s needs.The United States retained its capital investments in France ($ 800 million in 1960), but its share in foreign trade declined due to the increase in Japan-Philippine trade. The national bourgeoisie strove to restrict foreign capital, to eliminate the privileges of the Amer. entrepreneurs. In both parties, which succeeded one another in power in the post-war years (the Liberal Party headed the government in 1946-53, 1962-65, the Nationalist Party in 1954-61 and 1966-72), the influence of the bourgeoisie increased, although the landowners still retained control over the state apparatus on the ground and a significant part of the Congress, which gave them the opportunity to sabotage all attempts at agrarian reforms.In 1954–55, a social movement arose under the slogan “Filipinos First of All”, which demanded an end to the economic and political dependence of Philippines on the United States. In 1965-67 in Manila, there were repeated violent demonstrations of protest against the US aggression in Vietnam and against the dispatch of 2 construction battalions of the Philippine army to South Vietnam, undertaken in 1966 under US pressure. In 1967, the public organization Movement for the Development of Nationalism was created, which came up with a program of struggle for the national interests of F.; it was supported by some bourgeois-nationalist circles, as well as progressive workers and peasants’ organizations, which received from the mid-60s. the possibility of legal activity. In the 70s. in F.’s foreign policy, tendencies began to appear towards a revision of the one-sided orientation towards the United States. In 1970, the F.E.Marcos government withdrew Filipino military units from Vietnam. Restrictions on economic and cultural contacts with socialist countries were lifted. By the beginning of the 70s. the internal situation in the country has become more complicated.In the south of France, an insurrectionary movement developed among the Muslim population, and some of its leaders came out with a separatist program. On Luzon, the so-called rebel and terrorist actions led. The New People’s Army, created in 1969 by an extremist leftist splinter from the Communist Party. The ‘new people’s army’ did not receive support from the peasantry. In the summer of 1972, the New People’s Army carried out a series of sabotage and terrorist attacks in Manila. In September 1972, the president declared a state of emergency with the aim of strengthening the power of the government, suppressing the oligarchic opposition, leftist terrorism, in order to freely carry out urgent social reforms in the interests of the national bourgeoisie.In January 1973, the president ratified a new constitution (drafted in 1971-72), but postponed the elections to the National Assembly indefinitely. The activities of parties and political organizations are prohibited. All power was concentrated in the hands of the president, who simultaneously assumed the functions of the prime minister. In 1973, 1975 and 1976, referendums were held, confirming the authority of Marcos to govern the country in a state of emergency. Marcos came up with a program for building the so-called.n. A “ new society ” in F. was issued a law on agrarian reform, aimed at the development of capitalism in the countryside by transferring the leased land to the peasants and introducing cooperation (the state buys land from large and medium-sized landowners, land recipients reimburse the treasury in installments). The landlord’s ‘private armies’ have been disarmed, and the press and radio stations belonging to the plutocracy have been closed. As a result of Marcos’ measures, the economic and political positions of the landlord oligarchy weakened, and the role of the national bourgeoisie in determining state policy increased.In October 1974, as a result of a meeting between Marcos and the leaders of the Communist Party of F., an agreement was reached on the withdrawal of the Communist Party from the underground and the disbandment of its armed detachments; party members were amnestied; the communists expressed their readiness to support the implementation of the agrarian reform and other government measures that meet the interests of the people. the government began negotiations with the leaders of the Muslim movement on the socio-economic development and political autonomy of the Muslim regions, in this regard, the insurgency began to weaken by 1977.In March 1977, the government decided to create an autonomous region with 13 provinces in the South of France. As a result of a referendum in April 1977, this decision did not receive the support of the Catholic majority of the population of the South. The question of creating an autonomous Muslim region has been postponed indefinitely. In the field of foreign policy, the Marcos government took a number of steps aimed at strengthening the national sovereignty of France. The government negotiated with the United States to revise the main Filipino-Amer.agreements and declared its intention to develop new agreements that would ensure equality of the parties. These negotiations first concerned a trade and economic agreement (its term expired in 1974), then were extended to military agreements, including the question of F.’s control over the use of US military bases located on their territory. The Marcos government contributed to the de facto winding down of the SEATO bloc; it seeks to develop regional cooperation with the countries of the South-East.Asia – France’s partners in organizing the states of the South-East. Asia (ASEAN), activates F.’s participation in the group of developing countries – members of the UN, develops contacts with non-aligned countries. By 1977, the F. had established diplomatic relations with almost all socialist countries. During Marcos’ visit to the Soviet Union (May 31 – June 7, 1976), the coincidence or similarity of the positions of F. and the USSR on many international issues was revealed, diplomatic relations were established between F. and the USSR, a trade agreement was signed (the beginning of trade relations between F.and the USSR was laid back in 1972). Soviet-Filipino cultural contacts developed. In July 1976, the F. established diplomatic relations with the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The main trade union center of France is the Congress of Trade Unions of the Philippines. Founded in 1975 with about 300 thousand members.


Tropical marine and subequatorial, monsoon. There are three seasons – the rainy period from June to September, determined by the northeastern monsoons “habakat” and “amikhan” (temperature + 23-33 C, precipitation over 1000 mm.), cool dry season from October to February, temperature 23-39 C, precipitation up to 400 mm.) and hot dry (March-May, temperature above +35 C, precipitation no more than 300-800 mm.). At the same time, the average temperature at any time of the year is about +27 C (November and December are the coolest months of the year, the daytime temperature during this period is kept around +28 C, and in the early morning hours on the coast it can drop to +17 C ), and the air humidity is quite high all year round (1000-4000 mm will fall.precipitation), August is the wettest month of the year. Frosts are not uncommon in mountainous areas. From June-August to October, destructive typhoons are frequent. The best time to visit the country is from late September to mid-May.


Philippine cuisine is a complex blend of Spanish, Malay and Chinese culinary traditions and, as elsewhere in the region, rice plays a central role. White boiled rice is always on the table, it is believed that it replaces bread, which is almost never used here.Everywhere they offer fried rice “morischeta tostada”, all kinds of boiled rice with garlic, spices, shrimps and pieces of meat, rice in sweet and sour sauce, fried rice with adobo, dumplings made from rice flour “siomay”, rice porridge with pieces boiled chicken “arroz kaldo”, numerous rice dishes borrowed from Chinese cuisine, etc. Chinese pansit noodles with all kinds of additives (meat, fish, seafood, chicken pieces, etc.) and sauces, along with rice , is also a popular everyday dish.There are practically no salads in Filipino cuisine, all such dishes are most often borrowed from the cuisines of other countries, but there are a lot of vegetables on the table. Basically, they are consumed whole or as a side dish for meat and fish dishes, and are also part of complex dishes with rice and meat. But always on the table is sweet and sour sauce, a local variety of lemon “kalamansi”, hot pepper “labuyo”, soy sauce and traditional local vinegar, which is made in different regions according to their unique recipe. The food is cooked mainly in palm oil and is not subjected to such intensive heat treatment as, for example, in China.Also, in any institution in the country you can taste dishes of French, Italian, Middle Eastern, Japanese, Thai and Vietnamese cuisine, many of which local chefs bring their own national flavor and ingredients. Meat dishes are very diverse, as the traditional oriental motives in these products are most strongly influenced by Spanish traditions. Typical dishes are fried chicken “tinola”, luxurious paella with pork, chicken, seafood, ham, sausages and vegetables, meat rolls “morcon” and “embutido”, pork cooked in sour broth with “shinigang” vegetables, “pankitmolo” (casserole from pork, chicken and mushrooms with chicken or meat broth), fried chicken with boiled vegetables and curry “riitafel” sauce, the famous “lechon” – a piglet stuffed and fried on charcoal, beef tongue in a hazel-nut sauce, traditional stew dish “adobo” (pieces of pork and chicken meat marinated in vinegar with garlic, spices and rice), beef bone soup with vegetables “bulalo”, stuffed chicken or fish “reljeno”, broth of pork (or fish) and vegetables with Indian dates “shinigang-na-baboy”, meat of oxen and buffaloes (“carabao”), traditionally grilled on coals, and even such exotic dishes as boiled duck egg with embryos “baluot” or dog meat “aso”.At the same time, the country’s maritime location can be traced in the cuisine very clearly – there are a lot of fish and seafood dishes: “siniganga” (fruit-flavored broth with shellfish or shrimps), “pinakbet” shrimp paste, a variety of pickled fish, including the famous mackerel with vinegar, ginger, onion and hot pepper in kinilo-na-tankwinke coconut milk, fish balls with vinegar (often strung on sticks and fried over coals), freshly cooked escabeche fish, rather exotic bagong (fermented salted shrimp) , all kinds of shellfish and bangus fish – all this can be considered a visiting card of local chefs.Fish dishes are often accompanied by slices of unripe papaya or calamansi, as well as spicy sauce, indispensable rice and all kinds of greens. Various confectionery products also enjoy deserved attention – rice cakes “puto” and “bibinka”, buns “Ensaimadas” with sugar and cheese, fried bananas poured with sweet sauce (in dough and without), pies with “leche” fruits, numerous open cakes with fruits, local fruits in syrup (coconuts, santol, guava, mango, etc.), original natilla, yemas, dolches de naranha, membrillo, torta del rey , a dessert made of coconut milk and ginataan fruits and the famous halo-halo ice cream from the ube vegetable, which is a mixture of crushed ice with fruit pulp and condensed milk.Traditional drinks are all sorts of lemonades, buko coconut milk and local fruit juices. It is not customary to drink hot tea, usually they drink ice tea (often it is not even brewed, but instant tea of ​​factory production is used). But coffee, especially its local version of “barako”, is much more popular. Alcoholic drinks are usually represented by local beer, of which the most famous is San Miguel, first-class Filipino rum, a kind of wine made from fermented coconut milk “tuba”, palm wine “Lombonac” and all kinds of imported wines.


About 86.3 million people. More than 90% of the country’s inhabitants are Filipinos, other ethnic groups are Chinese, Spaniards, Americans, Ilocans, Visaya, Moro.

Useful information

The Brussels Research Center has declared the Philippines the most disaster-prone country on Earth. This is not surprising – regular typhoons, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, landslides and other natural disasters occur here almost constantly.If we add to this the constant clashes between government forces and Islamic rebels, the picture, it would seem, becomes completely bleak. But these are only obvious risks when visiting this country. Travelers are advised to avoid visiting most areas of Mindanao Island, the Zamboanga Peninsula and the Sulu Archipelago, where ethnic and religious conflicts occur almost constantly. The safety of maritime transport is also not ensured throughout the country – dozens of bands of sea pirates have found shelter in the countless bays and bays of the archipelago.In all other aspects, the country maintains a fairly acceptable level of security, and the locals have always been famous for their friendliness towards foreign tourists. And given that this is one of the most “Europeanized” countries in Asia, with an overwhelming predominance of the Christian population, compliance with the simplest safety standards makes a trip to the Philippines quite safe.

Theft is a problem mainly in big cities. In rural areas, this is simply unthinkable.But begging a “present” from a foreigner in one form or another is quite common. However, in comparison with neighboring Asian countries, such “begging” seems simply childishly naive, and no one usually shows much persistence here. Filipinos are smiling and friendly, cheerful in any situation and quite romantic. The shyness and sluggishness of local residents, especially service personnel, taxi or bus drivers, have long been the talk of the town.Local residents acquire more or less noticeable mobility only during the period of traditional holidays and Sunday masses, as well as at sports competitions, be it cockfighting, which is colossally popular here, or the equally popular basketball.

English is widely spoken even in the provinces, and the locals usually speak it much better than their neighbors in the region (the colonial past of the country is reflected).

The police, quite unnoticed, but persistently, control all aspects of public life.Almost in any public place there are always full of uniformed and uniformed policemen, who are watching everything and everyone. At the same time, the attitude towards foreigners is rather careful, albeit somewhat intrusive.

Public toilets are found throughout the city, and the corresponding rooms in some hotels, bars and shops are also available (often a small fee). Toilets in establishments are usually referred to as “comfort room” or “CR”, but in Tagalog they are usually referred to as “lalake” (male) and “babae” (female).At some popular resorts (Davao, etc.), a strict ban on smoking in public places has been introduced, for violation of which a large fine is imposed, and if the violator is caught three times, he will be imprisoned for several days.

Tipping in most establishments is 5-10% of the invoice amount (including in a taxi, for hotel and restaurant services), but usually the service staff is added for service in excess of this percentage “how much it is not a pity.” The mains voltage is 220 V.or 110 V., 60 Hz. Sockets are available with both two (American) and three pins.

Holidays and weekends

January 1 – New Year.

end of March – beginning of April – Maundy Thursday and Holy Week.

April 9 – Bataan Day.

May 1 – Labor Day.

June 12 – Independence Day.

August 31 – National Heroes Day.

November 1 – All Saints Day.

November 30 – St.Boniface.

December 25 – Christmas.

December 30 – Risal Day (dedicated to the Filipino martyr of the same name).

December 31 – New Years Eve.


The country has an extremely developed diving infrastructure with a large number of diving centers, which is not surprising – the total area of ​​only shallow reefs here is 39 thousand square meters. km., and the abundance of sunken ships, most of which belong to the period of the battles of the Second World War, attracts the constant attention of divers from all over the world.There are 31 underwater objects in Subic Bay, including more than 20 sunken ships, the most interesting of which is the US Navy cruiser New York, which lies at a depth of 27 m. Near Olongapo there are more than 60 sunken ships and aircraft plus extensive reefs … Near San Jose (Mindoro Island) lies the famous Apo Reef and the reefs off Ilene Island.

The small town of Anilao in the province of Batangas is known to fans of underwater filming from all over the world; the famous underwater hot springs are also located here.Famous sea snakes live near the island of Gato, the poison of which is deadly to humans. Reef sharks and dolphins are common around the tiny volcanic island of Maripipi. The pearl shoals of the Sulu archipelago in the very south of the country are famous. The vicinity of Coron Bay, located in the center of the Kalamian Islands, as well as the waters of Leyte Bay, are famous for the huge number of wrecks from the Second World War. The southern coast of Mindanao, as well as the islands of Aho, Balikasag, Basilan, Bantayan, Bohol, Kabilao, Lapinin, Mahanay, Pamilakan, Tavitavi and Holo, whose waters are visited from November to April by tiger sharks and hammerhead sharks, are also considered among the best ( but also dangerous!) diving sites in the world.Near Malapaska Island (east of Bantayan Island) manta rays live, gathering here in huge flocks.

Fiesta is an integral part of the Philippine culture. A huge number of holidays and various memorable dates are celebrated here, and each locality has its own calendar of carnivals or significant events, celebrated with particular care and due scope. Many religious holidays are a rather unusual mixture of Christian norms and local pagan traditions, which gives them a special charm.New Year is celebrated, as befits a Catholic country, with a lot of fancy and lots of fireworks. On January 9, the most famous religious event of the country is held in Manila – “Day of the Black Nazarene” – a colossal procession in honor of Jesus, gathering millions of believers (this is no exaggeration) from all over the country (the procession is often repeated on Easter Monday and May 11-12). Of interest are the Cebu City Festival (January 18-19), the colorful fancy dress festival “Dinagyang” in Iloilo (January 25-26), the Baguio Flower Festival (February 23 – March 3), the Kaamulan procession in Malaybalay (February 28 – March 1 ), the colorful festival “Moriones” on the island of Marinduke and the festival of the eve of the harvest “Pachyas” in Quezon (Holy Week).Theatrical festival of Ati-Atikhan (one of the most ancient rituals of the country – its roots go back to the 13th century), which takes place at the end of January in the central provinces, as well as the International Sargan Fishing Tournament, the Philippine Fishing Tournament (January) and the International Bamboo Festival are interesting. in Las Pinas (February), as well as the famous religious procession in San Fernando at Easter.

In the summer months, there are such colorful events as the Mango Festival (late May – early June), the Pignan sa Daet pineapple festival (June 15-24), the Pintados festival in Tacloban (late June), the festival “Sandugo” (Tagbilaran, July 1-2) in honor of the peace treaty with Spain, the colorful theatrical performance “Kinabayo” (Dapitan, July 25), the festival of the Sa-Wava pagoda in Balayan (July), the annual Davao festival (August 20-24 ) and the Tanghai Aurora Festival (August).Independence Day is celebrated with widespread theatrical performances and military parades. Feast of Tadtarin (Tattarin, June 21-22) in honor of the patron goddess of mothers and fertility, is a three-day carnival, considered a “women’s day”, often turning on the Day of St. John the Baptist.

In autumn, interesting is the ethnic Bonok-Bonok festival in Surigao (September 9), the nine-day fiesta Pekafrancia-Viva la Virge in Naga (September 20) with a river parade, the large-scale Zamboanga Hermosa festival (October 10-12) , Carnival “Mascara” in Bacolod (October 14-21), luxurious festival “Lanzones” on Camiguin Island (25-18 October), theatrical holiday “Pinta Flores” in Carlos City (November), St.Clement in Ancono and Rizal (November), Islamic Sharif Qabunsuan Festival in Cotabato (December 15-19), San Fernando Lantern Festival (December 3), Laoag Christmas Festival (December 25), etc. Christmas in the Philippines – the longest in the world. It begins to be celebrated on December 16, celebrations continue until January 6, the Day of the Three Kings, when the holiday officially ends.


The majority of believers are Catholic Christians (83%) and Protestants (9%, the Philippines is the only Asian country with a predominance of Christianity), Muslims (5%), Buddhists, etc. also live.


The country has laid about 202 thousand km. highways, of which 161 thousand km. falls on large islands (Mindanao, Luzon and the Visayan group of islands). Right-hand traffic. Numerous traffic jams force you to carefully plan your movement around the country, especially in Manila and other large cities. Local drivers do not differ in particular respect for traffic rules, but nevertheless, in comparison with their neighbors in the region, they look quite decent in this aspect. The capital of the country has a fairly extensive network of city buses (including double-decker buses) operated by Metro Manila Transport and many private carriers.Light rail Metrorail (MRT) trains connect the northern (Kalookan terminal) and southern (Baklaran) parts of the city. Trains are usually crowded, but move faster than buses.

The overwhelming majority of passenger traffic in the capital is carried out by the original local mode of transport – the so-called “jeepney”. These are open American jeeps from the Second World War, painted by local drivers in the most unimaginable colors, and performing the function of route taxis (in the capital alone there are more than 35 thousand of them.pieces). The fare for this exotic form of transport usually does not exceed $ 10 for a trip through the entire city, so they are very popular with both tourists and locals. Three-wheeled rickshaws and motorcycles with passenger sidecars are even cheaper alternatives to public transport for short-distance travel.

Minibuses (“ef-ex-vans”) can be used, which follow certain routes and depart as the cabin is full, as well as two-wheeled horse-drawn carriages “kalesas” or “tartanillas”, which are common in Manila, Vigan and Cebu.They are ubiquitous, both standard sedans and small Japanese cars, which are called “pu-cab” here. Taxi fares are around 12-15 pesos per km, but many cars are not equipped with meters, and drivers often overcharge. Taxi drivers in the capital never give change, so it is recommended to have as many small bills as possible with you.

Intercity buses are the main overland means of transportation around the country. The bus service is quite regular and cheap, but the speed of movement of cars is very low, especially in the vicinity of the capital.Some lines connect points on different islands – in this case, the ticket price includes a ferry fee, after which passengers are usually transferred to another bus. Many drivers stop on demand for both pick up and drop off passengers. Car rental offices are widely available in Manila and other major cities. The minimum age allowed for a rental is 18. An international and national driver’s license is required at the same time.

There is only one passenger railway line in the country from Manila through Naga to San Fernando, Legazpi in the north and Albay in the south (total in the country 897 km.railways). Philippines National Railways maintains a regular passenger service on this route (3 trains per day). The rolling stock is quite old, the speed is low.

Most of the islands are connected by intensive ferry services and numerous hydrofoils and boats. Medium tonnage vessels with reasonably modern equipment connect the main ports of the island. At the same time, many ferries on local lines are in appalling technical condition.It is recommended to take cheap tickets, since there are usually no air conditioners on ships and there is a stifling heat in the interior (besides, in the event of an accident, it is simply safer to be on the upper deck). Sometimes it is the other way around – air conditioners operating at full capacity in the cabins can chill even a resident of northern latitudes, who are accustomed to the cold. Also, the connection between many islands is carried out by “sea jeepney” – small motor boats with bangka balancers.

A variety of local and international airlines (Philippine Airlines, Air Ads, Air Philippines Corporation, Air Soriano Aviation, Asian Spirit Airlines, Cebu Pacific Air, Grand Air, Laoag International Airlines, Mindanao Express, Pacific Airways, etc.

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