Long binders: tips and tricks for trans men, nonbinary, and genderfluid people


tips and tricks for trans men, nonbinary, and genderfluid people

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Top things to know: 

  • Chest binding (compressing breast tissue to give the appearance of a flat chest) is common among anyone who doesn’t want their chest to look feminine. 

  • Do NOT bind your chest with duct tape or plastic wrap. The most popular safe methods are to use commercial binders, sports bras, strategic layering, and bandages or elastic materials. 

  • If you’re binding frequently, make sure to take breaks throughout the day and take days off, as binding continuously can cause negative side effects (2,4). 

  • If you hope to get top surgery (a procedure to reduce or remove breast tissue), binding frequently can affect skin elasticity and impact surgery outcomes (4,5). 

Chest binding (compressing breast tissue to give the appearance of a flat chest) is a common practice among people who do not want their chest to look feminine, such as  transgender men and masculine-presenting AFAB (assigned female at birth) people.

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For some trans and non-binary people, breasts are a source of gender dysphoria, as they’re a visual reminder of a person’s birth-assigned sex (1). Binding can reduce gender dysphoria and improve mental health, but it can also cause negative physical health symptoms (2).

How do people bind their chests?

People bind in many different ways: Some people wrap their chests with elastic bandages, some wear a sports bra, neoprene or athletic compression wear, or layer several sports bras or shirts. Others wear commercially-available binders specially designed for this purpose (2).

Everyone binds differently. Some people bind only for special occasions, others every day. One study surveying people who bind reported that the average person bound their chest for around 10 hours per day, with the most popular methods being commercial chest binders, followed by sports bras, shirt or bra layering, and bandages or elastic materials (2).

Risks and side effects of binding

Like many things people do to modify their outward appearance (wearing high heels, or shaving facial hair), chest binding comes with some risks.

Binding can affect skin, muscles, and movement, particularly over long periods of time. Tightly covering the skin and chest with materials that don’t allow free-flowing air can create warm, moist environments for bacterial and fungal infections to develop. Wearing binders that are too tight can cause underlying tissue and muscle damage, prevent free movement, and even restrict a person’s ability to breathe.

There haven’t been many studies about the health effects of binding, so it’s important to listen to experiences of others, and to talk to your healthcare provider. (Here’s a guide for finding a trans-friendly doctor and how to seek better care from the ones you do have.)

Two studies have been completed that focus specifically on people who bind. They were cross-sectional studies, observing a specific population (people who chest bind) at a specific point in time, and were published in 2017 and 2018. Both of these studies are based on data from 1,800 responders to an online survey.

Across both studies, the majority of people (89-97%) reported experiencing at least one negative symptom from chest binding (2,3).

Common side effects of chest binding

  • 76-78% of people in studies reported skin/tissue problems, like tenderness, scarring, swelling, itching, infections

  • 74-75% of people reported pain in chest, shoulders, back or abdomen

  • 51-52% of people reported respiratory problems (like shortness of breath)

  • 47-49% of people reported musculoskeletal symptoms, like postural changes, muscle wasting, or rib fractures (2,3)

However, a lot of people feel better mentally and emotionally when they bind. According to these studies, chest binding helps people decrease their gender dysphoria, as well as feelings of anxiety or suicidality, while increasing feelings of confidence in public and self-esteem (2).

Risk factors for binding side effects

People who bind their chest more frequently (every day) are more likely to experience negative symptoms. For this reason, taking days off between binding may help decrease this risk. Long term binding (over years) was also more likely to be associated with negative symptoms, particularly skin, tissues, and musculoskeletal problems (2). People with larger breasts were more likely to experience skin and soft tissue issues (2).

What people use to bind their chests with is a very personal choice, and finding a standard “best type of binder” for everyone is unclear. One study showed that people who used commercial binders experienced increased risk for the highest number of negative symptoms from binding, followed by those who used bandages, and plastic wrap or duct tape (2).

The high amount of negative effects found from commercial binders in this study were a surprise to the researchers, since blogs and other informal resources dedicated to trans men and healthy binding often recommend commercial binders (2,4). This could be due to people wearing binders that are too small, wearing them for longer periods, or wearing more than one at a time. More research is needed, but if you choose to wear a commercial binder, do your research, read reviews online, and make sure it is the right size for you.

Healthcare and chest binding

The 2017 study found that almost 9 in 10 people experienced at least one negative effect from binding, and 8 out of 10 felt that it was important to discuss binding with a healthcare provider. But only 3 in 20 (15%) sought medical care for binding-related health issues (3).

Over half of participants report that their healthcare practitioner is aware that they bind their chests, but among those, less than half actually discussed their binding practices with their provider. People who felt safe and comfortable about starting a conversation about binding, were more likely to seek help for any negative binding side effects (3). This highlights the disparity between the healthcare that transgender people need, versus the healthcare that they have access to or feel safe to pursue. Almost everyone, regardless of their gender, manipulates their body to feel good, whether it’s binding, smoking, wearing make-up, or waxing their pubic hair—we all change ourselves in some way to feel like our “true selves.

Sometimes these activities have some risks that require medical help (for example, smoking can cause lung cancer and many other health problems, or waxing your pubic hair can lead to ingrown hairs or infected follicles). There is no shame in talking to your healthcare provider if you experience any side effects. It’s your body and your life—you deserve safe and judgement-free healthcare.

People should consider both the mental health benefits and the potential negative physical symptoms when making decisions about binding (2).

Tips for healthier chest binding

Everyone binds differently, the trick is to figure out what is safest and best for you.

1. Limit the amount of time you bind.

Don’t wear binders for longer than 8-12 hours and do not sleep while wearing your binder. It’s also crucial to schedule binder-breaks daily and make sure you aren’t binding every day. People who bind their breasts more frequently, such as every day, are more likely to experience negative side effects (2,4).

2. Avoid binding while working out.

While physical movement might exacerbate some individuals’ dysphoria, exercising is when you need to breathe deeply, move freely, and you are more likely to be sweating. If you still want to flatten your chest while exercising, search for a sports bra that has this effect.

3. Get the right fit.

If you want to wear a commercial binder, take the time to make sure you’re buying the right size and that it fits you correctly. When buying a commercial binder, do some research to find the perfect binder for you and read customer reviews to get a sense of the sizing accuracy. Try not to buy one that is too tight—if it causes pain, cuts/trauma, or restricts your breathing, then you need to go up a size or two. A binder should allow for breathing normally and allow for air circulation (look for breathable fabrics). Wet, clammy, sweaty skin conditions provide the perfect environment for skin rashes and fungal infections (4). 


Don’t bind with plastic wrap, duct-tape, or bandages.

These are associated with increased negative symptoms. Duct tape can damage your skin, and bandages may tighten as you move. You might feel a rush to start binding or lack the resources to purchase a commercial binder, but it isn’t worth putting your health at risk. Sports bras, layering shirts, or wearing athletic or neoprene compression gear, are the options associated with the least amounts of negative side effects (2).

5. Bind less if you are planning to have top surgery.

If you plan on having top surgery (a procedure to reduce or remove breast tissue), it’s best not to bind as often, as this can affect your skin’s elasticity and have surgical impacts (4,5). Some FtM (Female to Male transgender) mastectomy researchers feel that longterm binding may cause a decrease in skin quality, specifically elasticity, which can actually make performing a mastectomy more complex (5).

6. Listen to your body.

If you feel pain or have any difficulty breathing, remove your binder (or other restrictive garment). Maybe what you were wearing was too tight, or you have been binding for too long without a break. You might feel tempted to bind all the time if it has a positive impact on your dysphoria or mental health, but it’s critical that you take care of your body in the process.

Much more research about the health and needs of transgender men, non-binary, and genderfluid people is needed. These populations have different healthcare needs, and everyone deserves access to adequate and personalized healthcare.

If you’re experiencing any negative symptoms related to binding, we recommend that you see a healthcare provider.

Check out our guide to how to find a trans-friendly OB/GYN. We’ve also written about gender dysphoria, how testosterone affects your period, and trans, nonbinary, and genderqueer people’s experiences of birth control.

Some people find that tracking their period can help reduce dysphoria. See our tips for using Clue when you’re trans. Download Clue to know when your period is coming.

This article was updated on May 20, 2020.

How to Find A Trans-friendly OB/GYN

At Clue, we often receive requests for help from people who are nervous about going to the gynecologist because they are transgender, non-binary or gender non-conforming. Over time, we’ve collected lots of useful tips and information, so we decided to share them here.

If you have a vagina, a cervix or breast tissue, it’s important to make regular visits to a gynecologist—regardless of your gender or sexuality. Your gynecologist can provide cancer screening, sexual health checkups and safer sex advice. There’s nothing about this that has to be particularly gendered in order to get the job done.

Unfortunately, finding adequate medical care is a huge issue for trans people. A study by Gretchen P. Kenagy in Philadelphia found that 26% of respondents had been denied healthcare because they were transgender, and 52% of respondents had difficulty accessing health services (1).

A survey of young transgender and genderqueer Canadians found that a third of respondents aged 14–18 and half of those aged 19–25 missed needed physical health care. Only 15% of respondents with a family doctor felt very comfortable discussing transgender issues with them (2).

If you currently have a gynecologist with whom you feel comfortable, coming out to them is an important step to being healthy. Being open about your sexual orientation, sexual behavior and gender identity means that your provider will be able to offer care that is personalized and relevant to you. Bring a friend for support if you want to. Tell your healthcare provider your pronouns and the names you prefer that they use for your body parts. They should respect this and start to use your preferred terms.

If your gynecologist is not understanding, or your don’t feel comfortable with them, find a new one — there are several ways to find a provider with whom you connect. To start, ask people you trust for recommendations.

Friends, local support organizations and online forums are all good sources for this information. You might want to ask another healthcare provider with whom you had a good experience.

The World Professional Association for Transgender Health offers a list of recommended healthcare providers worldwide, and there are many more organizations working at a local level. If you’re based in South Africa, there is Gender Dynamix, or in India: The Sahodari Foundation. ANZPATH has information for people in Australia and New Zealand and Action for Trans Health for those in the UK and Ireland. In the US and Canada you could try MyTransHealth, Rad Remedy or The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association.

Remember, your health is important. When you visit your healthcare provider, you deserve to be addressed with the correct name and gender, and treated with respect and dignity — both by your physician and by the other staff.

In the next blog post in this series, we’ll go over what to expect at your appointment, and advice for making it a more comfortable experience. Let us know if we missed something or if you have any tips to share.

Tracking your cycle can help you feel more connected with your body and help you feel more confident at the doctor’s office.

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Gender dysphoria and your cycle

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Gender dysphoria happens when a person experiences distress because of a mismatch between their anatomy and their gender identity. Getting your period as a person who doesn’t identify as a woman can cause discomfort and anxiety—especially when many people equate menstruation with femaleness. Not all women menstruate, and not all people who menstruate identify as women.

We reached out to the trans, non-binary, and gender-nonconforming community of Clue users to ask about their experiences during the menstrual cycle. Here are their thoughts on gender dysphoria and menstruation:

“I normally end up dressing more masculine. I prefer to use tampons as there is no visual reminder that I bleed.” – Anonymous

“I typically disassociate to escape from the dysphoria. I also bind regularly whenever I go out and sometimes my androgynous appearance and flatter chest helps.” – Sam

“Sometimes I feel ‘not trans enough’ because period dysphoria feels like such a common experience among transmasculine people. I’m dysphoric about my physical appearance and social perception, but my bodily functions don’t bother me.” – Grey

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Everyone has a different experience and different needs. What helps one person might make things worse for someone else. Not everyone who is trans or gender-nonconforming feels dysphoric when they menstruate, and not every trans person wants to have surgery or take hormones. Only you can know and decide what is best for you, but if you are struggling with gender dysphoria during your menstrual cycle, here are some things that might help:

Find the perfect period supplies.

Want to avoid the pink and flowery section of the supermarket? Reusable pads or a menstrual cup can be a good option. Cups only need to be changed twice a day if your flow is not heavy. Pads don’t need to be inserted, and if you use reusable cloth pads you can change them quietly without that telltale “wrapper sound.” You can buy or D.I.Y. pad-friendly boxer briefs. If you find standard pads and tampons convenient, you can always buy them online, shop for them on days when your dysphoria is at a low point, or find other creative solutions to make the process less stressful for yourself. Try a few different products and see what makes you feel the most comfortable.

Ease the pain.

You can manage cramps with a hot water bottle or heating pad, painkillers or a warm shower or bath. Masturbation is another popular remedy, as is chocolate. Stretching or exercise can ease pain and give you an endorphin boost.

Find affirmation.

At difficult times of your cycle, or anytime you feel dysphoric, try doing or saying things that affirm how you identify, such as wearing your favorite outfit. Clothes that you feel good in and that affirm your gender can make a huge difference, as can binding (using a binder to flatten your chest) or packing (padding your underwear to give the appearance of having a penis).

“I’d wear my binder at home and try on different clothes. Sometimes I’d go for a walk, and accidentally bump into someone, and they’d say ‘Sorry, man!’ That was always nice.” – Anonymous

Reach out for support.

Share your feelings and get reassurance from other trans people to remind yourself that you are not the only one going through this. Or, reach out to a supportive cisgender friend, family member, therapist. Additionally, you could write in your journal or blog, cuddle a furry animal, play music that uplifts you or chat anonymously with someone at a LGBTQIA helpline like The Trevor Project. Remember that having a period doesn’t make you female any more than having nipples makes someone a mother. People of all genders can and do have periods.

Stop your period.

You might decide to stop or reduce the frequency and heaviness of your period by using hormonal birth control. This could be in the form of pills, the Depo-Provera injection, a hormonal implant, hormonal ring or hormonal IUD. Some people find that taking testosterone stops their menstruation, but others continue to get their period or spotting even after months of treatment. You can read more about testosterone and your cycle in a previous article.

A more permanent way to stop your period is a hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus) although it can be difficult to find doctors that will do this and health insurance that will cover it.

Talk with your healthcare provider to find the best option for you. If you need help to access appropriate healthcare, we wrote a guide to finding a trans-friendly OB/GYN.

Name it.

Maybe you want to call them “brovaries” instead of ovaries, or perhaps you prefer to use scientific terms. Use the words that work for you. Menstruation isn’t a “women’s issue,” it is an issue for people who menstruate. Bodies and body parts don’t need to be gendered. Let’s just say “people with periods” or “people who menstruate.” It’s that easy!

“I don’t see the need for coded language. I usually just refer to it as ‘I’m dying.’ That’s just my fatalistic humor rearing its head.” -Anonymous

Within the Clue app, we do our best to remain gender neutral, but in some of our marketing we’re still using the term “female” to describe what we do and be accessible to people who are not familiar with evolving language around menstruation and gender.

Be kind to yourself

There’s no need to put too much pressure on yourself to figure this out right away, so focus on finding solutions for yourself one at a time. Growing up in a society that (mostly) conforms to the gender binary makes it seem as if gender is intrinsic to our body parts. It takes time to undo the social conditioning that has brought us here, so be patient with yourself as you start to unlearn that link. 

Try to remember that your period is not male or female, and it does not make you male or female. It just is. And that is okay.

Keep track.

Want to find out if your dysphoria fluctuates at certain times of your cycle? Did you start or change hormonal medication, and want to keep a record of any changes in bleeding, cramps or mood? Download Clue and start tracking today.

This article was updated on May 14, 2020.

11 Of The Best Binders You Can Buy, According To A Trans Person

Like many transgender people, when I first Googled “being transgender,” plenty of the links were about how to bind your chest. In recent years, trans awareness has been spreading and binder companies have been flourishing, so I want to share my list of the best binders you can buy.

I’m assigned female at birth (AFAB) and have so far been unable to pursue any kind of medical transition, like hormones or surgery. That makes binding the number one way I shift my body to a more traditionally masculine shape — and I’m just one of many trans people who do the same.

A 2016 study — the very first on chest binding — done by a five-person team at The Binding Health Project found that half of the 1,800 respondents bind their chests seven days a week.

A report from the study revealed conclusions from the survey and research, saying, “Based on our preliminary analysis, for most participants, binding was a positive experience and led to improvements in mood and self-esteem, minimized gender dysphoria, anxiety, and depression, and helped them to feel in control of their bodies.”

However, researchers also cautioned folks that binding can cause health problems, including “pain in different parts of your body, to shortness of breath, to bruising or other skin changes.

That’s why it’s so important to find a binder that fits you well, and to keep a close eye on your body while you’re binding.

Here are my suggestions for some of the most comfortable, versatile, and well-made binders you can buy.

Black Half Binder, $33, GC2B

GC2B sent me a binder for review back in 2016, and it quickly became my everyday go-to. This half binder is made of sleek, soft material, and its shape and size make it ideal for plus-size folks. I will say that, for me, this one takes a little bit of working with: It has some slippage problems, which can be solved by wearing a tank top underneath it, and the length can make it difficult to figure out how to position larger breasts so you look flat (again, the tank underneath will help!).

Despite its drawbacks, this is my favorite binder. I’ve never felt any discomfort while wearing it, and it’s one of the easiest to take off and put on. It’s a great starter binder, and at $33, it’ll give you plenty of bang for your buck. Also, GC2B does offer customized sizing options if you need them, which is a totally necessary feature that few binder companies offer.

Bareskin Binder, $50, Flavnt

FLAVNT caught my eye in 2015, when they ran a Kickstarter to fund a skintone-matching swim binder. The Bareskin Binder officially launched in late 2016, and is now available in four skintones. It’s swim-friendly, and is meant to give trans folks a more shirtless look on beach days. The stretchy Nylon-Spandex combo is a comfy one, but the one downside for me is that FLAVNT doesn’t offer this binder in sizes larger than XL — that’s a 45 to 48-inch bust, according to FLAVNT’s size chart.

In an email, a FLAVNT rep told me the company does plan to expand to plus sizes, but for now, plus-size folks will have to lose out here.

Trans-Vormer Strapless Binder, $45, Blue Stockings Boutique

One of the tough things for nonbinary folks is that binders are often designed to be worn under traditionally masculine clothes. But this binder gives people the freedom to wear things like strapless dresses and ubercute spaghetti straps. It has a Velcro closure in the back, making on and off easy. As someone who often has to get their spouse to help them out of smaller/thinner binders, believe me — easy on/off is a blessing. Again, this binder is only available to size XXL, which is a 46.5-inch bust.

Cotton Concealer Chest Binder, $35-$120, Amazon

The top portion of this binder has “double reinforced powernet panels” made of Spandex and Nylon, but has a relaxed stomach, which means you won’t get the unfortunate shelf look that comes with some other long binders. It’s also great for folks with larger stomachs or sensitive stomachs, and who don’t want any tummy compression. This binder comes in sizes up to 3X, and is just one of Underworks’ Extreme Compression series, which offers about 15 different extra-powerful options.

Tri-top Chest Binder, $50, Venus Envy

This binder was also sent to me for review, and alternating it with GC2B’s piece gave me a great perspective on the differences, both positive and negative. This binder is more snug than the GC2B piece, so offers a flatter look, and it has a longer hem so it feels even less like a bra and more like a tank top, but it has a high neckline and wide shoulder straps, which makes it hard to hide under clothes. The material is wicked comfortable, though, as well as durable, and it’s great for everyday wear. However, I was sent the largest size, and it is just shy of too tight and cuts in under my arms, so I would mostly recommend it to folks who are smaller than I am — aka, less than a 52-inch bust.

Cool Mesh Zipper Short Chest Binder, $61, Amazon

I like this binder because it offers solutions to lots of universal binder problems: A zipper to fix the over-the-head on/off difficulty; super breathable mesh to help the sweating-like-a-horse aspect of binding; and thin straps that almost look like you’re wearing a regular tank. I don’t mind my binder showing under my clothes, but for folks who need to stealth bind, this is a great option. Keep in mind, however, that while this binder comes up to size 3XL, it’s definitely made for smaller people, and likely won’t stretch well for plus-size folks.

Galactic Space Binder, $50, Shape Shifters

Shapeshifters offers the best custom sizing of any binder brand I know. They account not only for your bust size, but also your underbust, waist, hips, and even the length of your back so they know where to cut off the hem. In their FAQ, the company adds that they “will be happy to widen or narrow the straps, raise or lower the armholes, or set the straps closer to the neck or farther apart, upon request for no charge.”

Customization like that is completely unbeatable. I will say Shapeshifters’ binders don’t offer as much compression as binders from Underworks or GC2B, so you won’t get as flat a chest, but if you’re plus-size or have an unusual body shape, Shapeshifters is so flexible and inclusive that it’s worth the sacrifice.

Nude No. 1 Tank, $35, GC2B

I’m so happy nude binders are becoming more common. GC2B offers tanks in white and black, but also in various skintones. All the skintone binders are offered in half binders and in tanks like this one; I suggest the tank if you’re looking for some stomach compression. For folks who are OK with stomach compression, you’ll find this binder offers a very flat look, but like its half binder sibling, you may need to wear a regular tank top underneath to prevent slipping and to help hold your breasts in place.

Custom Superhero Binder, $75, Shape Shifters

I can’t resist putting these on the list, because they’re functional, but they’re also amazing. My geeky self wants all of them — from this Ultimates Captain America look to the Steven Universe and Iron Man (with an actual LED light ARC reactor in the chest) pieces. Like all of Shapeshifters’ binders, they’re custom-sized, and come with tons of optional add-ons like a racerback cut, a side zipper, and layers of lace for extra aesthetics.

Extreme MagiCotton Sports and Binding Bra, $35, Amazon

Many of my gripes with binders come from one thing: They ride up. And when I have to wear a tank underneath them to keep both my breasts and my binder in place, it gets hot, itchy, and sweaty real fast. But this binder is actually built for sports, so while it won’t give you a completely flat chest during your workouts or sports events, it does have anti-bouncing support, and it will allow you to bind while you exercise, which is something that should never be done in a binder which isn’t specifically made for physical activity.

Preloved Binder, $5, Gender Gear

Hey there, young trans folks and folks who can’t afford the binders I’ve listed so far. I’m with you. Up till this year, I wasn’t able to afford a binder myself. So my ultimate suggestion is, if you can’t afford a binder and you need one, to poke around and look for preowned and donation-based binder recycling programs like the one Gender Gear runs, or this one by Point 5CC, or this one by TransActive Gender Center.

I always felt like I didn’t deserve to apply for a free binder, because surely there was someone out there who needed a binder more than I did. I don’t want anyone else to feel like that, so please: If you’re in financial straits and need one, apply for one. Helping you is the reason these awesome orgs run recycling programs.

Whatever your budget, body type, and individual needs, I hope my recommendations have given you ideas for your next — or first — binder. Just remember: Measurements matter, don’t bind for more than a few hours at a time, and be sure to check in with your body to make sure what looks good feels good too.

Compression Top, $35, TomboyX

Meant to be a more comfortable alternative to the traditional binder top, this compression top comes down a bit longer, offering full chest coverage. The low neckline allows for a larger amount of shirt variations to be worn on top without revealing what’s underneath. There is mesh in the front and back to both aid support and compression, as well as ventilation.

Air Max Half Length Chest Binder, $61, Amazon

With Velcro sides, this chest binder has more adjustability than some others, allowing you to not only make it as loose or tight as you want, but also accommodating a wider range of chest sizes. The back is made of mesh for breathability, and it boasts a racerback tank style to accommodate a wide range of shirt styles on top.

6-in-1 High-Compression Tank, $58, Bare Necessities

If you’re looking for a top that’s both chest binder as well as overall compression, consider this tank option. It’s more visible in silhouette, with a higher neckline and sleeveless design, but perfectly appropriate to be seen underneath any tops you might choose to layer. This particular design boasts in inner double panel that can be worn at the front or back, depending on where you seek the most compression.

Tank Chest Breast Binder, $2, Wish

This ultra-affordable chest binder has a more structured side, but a string of hook-and-eye closures that not only ensure that it won’t bust open, even when on the tightest measurement, but also that you can adjust the sizing of your top at your leisure. The material is moisture-wicking breathable to ensure the most comfortable all-day wear.

Tri-Top Chest Binder, $30, Underworks

This chest binder fits more like a top than a bra to ensure that everything you’re looking to minimize will be, without wardrobe malfunction. As such, it’s also a bit more comfortable as it flattens your torso as a whole and not just your upper chest. The top is made of nylon spandex, ensuring that it won’t catch on clothing and slide easily under other garments.

Images: Courtesy Brands

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Chest Binding Helps Smooth the Way for Transgender Teens, but There May Be Risks

Tami Staas, 51, a schoolteacher who lives in Tempe, Ariz., and is president of the Arizona Trans Youth and Parent Organization, has a 21-year-old son who was assigned female at birth and who started binding at 12. He wore a binder about 12 hours a day for five years. He had trouble in gym class and breathing trouble.

“It was like trying to run a marathon in a tight bustier,” Ms. Staas said. “It was difficult for me to weigh: Am I doing the right thing? Is it causing irreparable damage? It was very difficult to watch him cause himself physical pain in order to be comfortable in his own skin.” At 18, he had a double mastectomy, or top surgery, and now takes testosterone weekly.

A 17-year-old in Phoenix who binds daily and asked to be identified only by the initials J.M. said he started binding at 13. To maximize the compression, he bought a binder one size too small and wore it at night. “My arms and hands would feel numb and tingly off and on,” he emailed, “from how tight the material was around that area.” When he removed the binder, he found his skin “severely chafed and raw.”

He added: “The divots left behind from those times took months to heal. In all honesty, I couldn’t have cared less about the damage being created, just that my chest was flat.”

Dr. Ilana Sherer, a pediatrician and founder of the Child and Adolescent Gender Center at the University of California, San Francisco, Benioff Children’s Hospital, emailed that “binders can be physically very uncomfortable and can cause problems especially if overused or ill-fitting, so it’s important that every youth weigh the risks and benefits for themselves and have access to quality, well-fitting binders.

But even those are correlated with negative health effects. Though there have been no studies on binding and adolescent health, because of ethical concerns about research on minors, a 2017 study by students at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the Boston University School of Medicine, and the Boston University School of Public Health looked at 1,800 transmasculine adults with a median age of 23. Seventy-eight percent of respondents said they had bound for over a year, over half bound an average of seven days a week, and 66.6 percent were interested in top surgery. An additional 13.1 percent had already had the surgery.

Participants reported a statistically significant improvement in mood after binding. They also reported decreased gender dysphoria, anxiety and depression. As for physical effects, 97.2 percent of the group that bound reported at least one negative physical symptom, such as back pain, overheating, chest pain and shortness of breath. Other symptoms included numbness, bad posture and lightheadedness.

Long-Term Aging of Recycled Binders

Asphalt pavement is America’s most recycled material. Eighty million tons of asphalt, nearly 80% of all milled asphalt pavement, is recycled every year. To effectively maintain its 40,000 miles of paved roads, the Florida Department of Transportation continues to refine its maintenance and rehabilitation methods. Hot in-place recycling is a rehabilitation method with recognized financial and environmental benefits when used properly. The primary concern with this method is the longevity of the recycled pavement. Aging of the recycled binder has a strong impact on the durability of the pavement. Asphalt binders harden with age and become prone to cracking. Rejuvenators are added to hard asphalt to enhance its rheological properties. Traditional methods that evaluate the effectiveness of binder rejuvenation only examine the early performance. However, the recycled asphalt should have acceptable long-term performance.

The pavement might crack prematurely if the asphalt binder ages quickly. This research looks beyond early performance and evaluates long-term aging of recycled asphalt binders and compares it with that of virgin asphalt. Aging rates of recycled asphalt binders, rejuvenated by five different commercially available products, were studied and compared with the aging rate of the virgin binder. These rejuvenators were selected through a screening process based on their softening power and other considerations. The Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV) was used to simulate aging, and the high temperature Performance Grade (PG) was implemented to characterize the level of aging. The cracking resistance of recycled asphalt mixes was evaluated using the Texas Overlay Test. The change in the mix crack resistance over time was evaluated using the Accelerated Pavement Weathering System. The results showed a significant difference in the long-term aging of samples recycled with different recycling agents. While some samples aged significantly slower than the virgin binder, others aged faster.
Analysis of the aging rates of binders revealed that selecting a proper recycling agent can extend the service life up to nine years. In contrast with original binders, the aging rate of recycled binders did not decrease significantly after the first 20 hours of PAV exposure. Therefore, even when recycled binders pass PG requirements, they might be less durable than virgin asphalt. Mix tests showed that rejuvenated mixes generally have a better initial fatigue and reflective cracking resistance than new mixes. However, their cracking resistance might drop faster over the pavement life. The knowledge obtained from this study identified approaches to evaluate long-term aging of recycled binders. Performing a durability test, limiting the aging rate, and increasing PAV exposure time are the three proposed alternative procedures. These procedures can be used to modify the specifications so that the longevity of the recycled asphalt is considered.

  • Record URL:
  • Summary URL:
  • Corporate Authors:

    Florida Department of Transportation

    Research Center
    605 Suwannee Street MS-30
    Tallahassee, FL  United States  32399-0450

    Florida International University, Miami

    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
    10555 West Flagler Street
    Miami, FL  United States  33174
  • Authors:
    • Ali, Hesham
    • Mohammadafzali, Mojtaba
  • Publication Date: 2015-7-15


Media Info

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01580063
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Contract Numbers: BDV29 Two 977-01
  • Created Date: Oct 28 2015 8:12AM

Binding 101: Tips to Bind Your Chest Safely

Binding is a great way to reduce chest dysphoria and become more comfortable with your body.

For many of us, a flat chest affirms our identities or helps us to be read correctly in public. The most important thing about binding is that you bind safely.


The Facts

Not just for trans guys!

Lots of people who don’t identify as trans men bind their chests for a flatter appearance or to feel more comfortable. Even some cis women bind their chests! Genderqueer, trans, cis – doesn’t matter how you ID.

Not all trans guys!

At the same time, not every trans guy chooses to bind his chest. Many guys feel no need to bind, or they choose to conceal their chest through clothing or other means. If someone chooses not to bind, that doesn’t not mean he’s not “really trans” or that he should be misgendered. Everyone is different!

The Golden Rules of Binding

  • Always bind for less than 8 hours a day (the more breaks and time you can go without, the better!). Binding for long hours every day over time breaks down tissue and can cause breathing problems, back pain, and skin irritation.
  • Always take your binder off before you sleep. Give your body rest while you rest. Also, take it off before exercising. Sports bras are designed to move with you as you workout, while a binder can make movement and even breathing more difficult.
  • Never use duct tape or Ace bandages to bind your chest. Binding with these materials can restrict your ability to breathe and move properly. Ace bandages in particular are designed to constrict, so as you breathe, they get tighter and tighter and can really hurt you.
  • If it hurts, stop. Try out a larger compression shirt, find binding alternatives that work for you, or try different ways to hide your chest without binding. Pain is always an indicator that something is wrong.

The safest binding techniques have been left to the professionals, so if possible, purchase a binder made specifically for the task, or seek out a gently-used compression shirt.

Styles of Binders/Compression Shirts

  • Long shirt style: Most folks prefer a full, long shirt style binder because it compresses your chest without looking or feeling like a bra, and tucks easily into your pants. (Sometimes binders roll up on themselves, so having extra length to tuck them into pants is helpful.) These binders might include stomach compression too, while others have a relaxed stomach.
  • Mid-length style: A mid-length style binder typically reaches your belly button or just to the top of your pants.
  • Sports-bra style: Sports-bra style binders give you chest compression and nothing else. Ideal to avoid overheating or feeling uncomfortable in a fuller-length style.
  • Vest style: Most vest-style binders have velcro or a zipper to make putting on and taking off your binder easier.
Wearing Your Chest Binder

Protip: depending on your style of binder (especially full-length or mid-length styles), it might be easier to put it on by stepping into it rather than pulling it on like a regular t-shirt. Stick your feet in between the shoulder straps and pull it up your body to your chest, then stick your arms through the holes.


Where to Buy a Binder or Compression Shirt

  • GC2B.co Binder Company has great binders for all body shapes and sizes, as small as XXS–4XL! You can also check out their Instagram for customer reviews, and check out the site for any sizing questions. GC2B.co is a proud sponsor of our Binder Exchange Program, where FTMs and gender non-comforming folks in need have access to safe binding with any Point 5cc purchase.
  • Underworks has a number of different style binders for FTMs, the most popular being their double-front compression shirt and tri-top compression shirt. Underworks even offers bathing suit options with build-in binding.
  • T-Kingdom has been selling binding and compression shirts since 1999 and ship internationally. They offer several options, including pull-over, Velcro, and zippered styles.


Binder Donation Programs

  • Point 5cc developed the first binder exchange program that has been adopted by LGBT centers around the United States. The program supplies free binders to those in need throughout the community with any purchase.
  • Binder Boys offers a monthly giveaway on Facebook for pre-op trans* folks seeking a binder.
  • In a Bind donates new or used binders to trans* masculine youth 21 and under in need.
  • Replace the Ace seeks to donate gently-used binders to people in need to help get rid of harmful binding practices in our community.


More Information on Binding

Related Reading:

Need a binder but can’t get one? Learn more about Point 5cc’s free binder donation program

The target path is too long, we decide in a minute

Updated on 11/28/2020

Good afternoon! Dear readers and guests of one of the largest IT blogs Pyatilistnik.org. Last time we examined the capabilities of the PING utility, looked at how to use it in practice. In today’s publication, I will show you how pain and sadness are eliminated in Windows operating systems, I am talking about long paths, in my practice I very often met complaints “ Too long target path ” or “ Too long destination path “, then you can see the same thing when deleting. Below I will show you how to get out of this situation.

Long Path Problem Description

Previously, Windows file names were limited to 8.3 – only eight characters for the file name and three for the extension. With the advent of Windows 95, Microsoft lifted this limit and allowed much longer names.

However, the Windows file system still imposes some restrictions, such as what characters can be used in file names and the total length of paths.For some time, the maximum path length was 260 characters , but with the advent of Windows 10, some of the restrictions began to slowly go away, for example, for applications and it became possible to disable the MAX_PATH check and use long paths without the \\? \ Prefix.

Interestingly, the 260 character value is due to the MAX_PATH value of the Win32 API. NTFS has a slightly longer maximum path length of 32767 characters. To bypass the Win32 API restrictions, some applications use the UNC format, specifying an absolute path with the prefix \\? \, For example:

\\? \ C: \ directory \ subdirectory \ filename

I want to note that for the period of November 2020 and the latest version of Windows 10 1909, Windows Explorer still has 260 character limits , and we all hear promises that they will be fixed

Most people may not encounter it, but almost every system administrator will definitely see it . ..The point is that most organizations have their own network file resources through which users exchange and work with documents. At some point, people might create a path that is 258 or 260 characters long, try to copy a file there, and they get an error:

Target path too long: The file names are too long to fit into this target folder. Try using a shorter file name or a location with a shorter path

The same thing when copying to a folder, also “Destination path too long” pops up.

Here is an error when extracting an archive to a network folder:

Unable to complete extracting. The final path is too long. Rename the compressed ZIP folder and try again

Methods to remove path length restrictions in Windows

  • Through Windows Group or Local Policy (Applies only to Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016 and above)
  • Via Windows Registry (Applicable only to Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016 and higher)
  • Via third-party utilities 7-Zip, Far, TotalCommander (Applies to all Windows versions)
  • Use silinks (symbolic links) (Applies to all Windows versions)
  • Via a network drive, to shorten the path
  • Utilities xcopy, robocopy

The nuances of long paths in applications

There is one nuance. This new setting (meaning that policy and registry key) will not necessarily work with all existing applications, but it will work with most. In particular, any modern application should work fine, like all 64-bit applications. Older 32-bit applications must be usable to work, which really just means that the developer has specified in the application manifest file that the application supports longer paths. Most popular 32-bit applications shouldn’t be problematic.However, you risk nothing by trying the setup. If the application does not work, the only thing that will happen is that it will not be able to open or save files saved in locations where the full path exceeds 260 characters.

If you are a developer, then for your application to be able to work with long Windows paths, be sure to specify the following settings in the manifest:

How to disable the 260 character path length limit in Windows 10 through policy

This is because it does not force unprepared users to execute commands or edit the registry, everything is in a graphical form.Likewise, if you have an Active Directory domain and you want to massively remove the errors “ Too long target path ” or “ Too long final path “in applications and prevent them from checking MAX_PATH and using long paths without the \\? \ prefix, then Group Policy will help you.

I remind you once again that this method is also suitable for server versions, even the most modern Windows Server 2019.

First, I will show you how to do it through a local policy, open the “Run” window in which you write gpedit.msc.

I want to note that this method will not work for Windows 10 Home, there is simply no local policy editor, you will have to go into the Windows registry

Next, follow the path:

Computer configuration – Administrative templates – System – File system (Computer configuration – Administrative templates – System – Filesystem)

Find the parameter “ Enable Win32 long paths ” here, it is disabled by default, and I honestly don’t understand why. Activate it.

You can do the same thing centrally for mass management through group policies, all branches are the same.

As I wrote above, this will have no effect in Explorer, so you will still get an error when copying, creating, deleting “ Destination path too long ” or “ Destination path too long “. Below I will show you what to do if you need to delete or change something there. This limitation in the length of the path can no longer be picked up on the fly by all applications; a reboot is required.

Enabling support for long paths through the registry

This method is no more complicated than the previous one and does the same thing, including support for long paths over 256 characters for Windows applications. When you change something through the policy editor, in fact, the settings in the registry change, you need to remember and know this. Now I will show you which key is changing. Open Windows Registry Editor. Go to the section:

HKLM \ System \ CurrentControlSet \ Control \ FileSystem

here you need to find the parameter LongPathEnabled, which to activate support for long paths and change restrictions in MAX_PATH, you need to set the value “1”. A reboot is required here.

All you need is to unpack the zip archive and run the required activation file, then reboot in the same way, since you will have the required registry key, without having to go into the registry yourself.

You can also make such support for a specific user along the path:

HKEY_CURRENT_USER \ SOFTWARE \ Microsoft \ Windows \ CurrentVersion \ Group Policy Objects \ {48981759-12F2-42A6-A048-028B3973495F} Machine \ System \ CurrentControlSet Policies

If there is no key LongPathsEnabled, then create it, DWORD type (32 bits) and value 1.

How to disable 260 character path length limit in Windows 10 via PowerShell

Not all people are ready to dig into editors and registries, they need a quick solution, one of them is PowerShell. In the shell, run the command to activate the “Enable Win32 Long Paths ( LongPathEnabled )” option. Do not forget to reboot the system.

Set-ItemProperty -Path HKLM: \ SYSTEM \ CurrentControlSet \ Control \ FileSystem -Name LongPathsEnabled -Value 1

How to delete, copy, move files and folders on error with long paths

Having figured out how to disable checking MAX_PATH in applications, let’s now understand and learn how to solve the problem of long paths on file balls and just in explorer.The classic situation is when a user tried to transfer his file or delete it, create a folder, and so on, and he gets an error with the notorious long paths. He asks you to figure it out, and then dances with tambourines begin, you ask him to either rename part of the path, or ask him to perform actions in a different location, or simply score, saying that Windows with its limitations is to blame, but we are professionals and engineers, therefore must be able to get out of such situations.

How to disable 260 character path length limitation in Windows 10 via command line

Start command line in administrator mode and enter:

reg add “HKLM \ SYSTEM \ CurrentControlSet \ Control \ FileSystem” / v LongPathsEnabled / t REG_DWORD / d 1

A restart is required.

Bypassing the restrictions of long paths through 7zFM

Surely many people know the 7Zip archiver, but few people use its file manager 7zFM.exe, and in vain it is he who can help you in a situation with the message “ Too long target path ” or ” The final path is too long. ” Here I have a test directory that already has 260 characters in its path, and I cannot create a new folder there.

Open 7zFM.exe and navigate to the destination folder of your path.

Press F7 to create a new folder.

Enter the name you need, in my example it will be “ Greater than 260 Microsot “.

As a result, a new folder has been created and note 7zFM did not swear at the presence of long paths, it simply ignores them, that’s all.

Check that the directory is accessible through Windows Explorer.

Everything is displayed perfectly. Now I think you can easily transfer, copy, delete files through 7zFM when Windows Explorer curses you for long paths.

How to bypass the limitation of long paths through a symbolic link

We have already done this trick when it was necessary to transfer an IMAP profile from Outlook. The point is that a file is created in the location you need, and this file is just a shortcut linking to the file or folder you need, after that the path is shortened and you can delete or create whatever you need. Open the command line, then you need to have two components:

  • The path where the symbolic link file will be located – in my example C: \ short path
  • Long path – C: \ Share \ WINDOW ~ 1 \ C73D ~ 1 \ C6BF ~ 1 \ D915 ~ 1 \ 5C04 ~ 1 \ B4E5 ~ 1 \ 260MIC ~ 1

The mklink command will help us, where the / D key creates a link to the directory

mklink / D “C: \ short path” “C: \ Share \ WINDOW ~ 1 \ C73D ~ 1 \ C6BF ~ 1 \ D915 ~ 1 \ 5C04 ~ 1 \ B4E5 ~ 1 \ 260MIC ~ 1 “

The symlink was successfully created, you can check.

Open a directory with a shortened path and try to create a simple folder, as a result it will be created exactly along that long path, as you can see, you can easily bypass the 260 character limit.

How to bypass the long path limitation by mapping subst

subst is a simple command that allows you to associate the desired path to a directory with a drive letter. Also open a command prompt in administrator mode and map your long path to the letter W.

subst W: “C: \ Share \ WINDOW ~ 1 \ C73D ~ 1 \ C6BF ~ 1 \ D915 ~ 1 \ 5C04 ~ 1 \ B4E5 ~ 1 \ 260MIC ~ 1”

drive with this letter, if it is not there, then read the article “The drive does not appear after the subst command” or just type in W: \ in the explorer and press Enter .

How to bypass the limitation of long paths by mounting a network drive

In the command line, use the net use command, then the drive letter that we assign and at the very end the path:

net use Z: “\\ DESKTOP-OJ0SCOE \ Share \ WINDOW ~ 1 \ C73D ~ 1 \ C6BF ~ 1 \ D915 ~ 1 \ 5C04 ~ 1 \ B4E5 ~ 1 \ 260MIC ~ 1 “/ persistent: yes

As you can see, everything worked fine and the disk appeared.

Using Far or Total Commander utilities

After enabling the “Enable long paths Win32” option, these utilities in 100% of cases helped you to perform any actions with folders or files on any long path in Windows. Open Total Commander and create, for example, a folder in the directory with a long path, I remind you to do this you need to press F7.

As you can see, everything is perfectly created, deleted or copied if desired.

How else to work around the problem with long paths Windows

In the world of virtualization and the cloud, many companies are moving their file resources there.For example, in my company they use Google Drive to store most of the data, someone drives mail.ru or Yandex, you don’t need to be afraid of this, the main thing is to see that it fits from a legal point of view, but you don’t need to dissemble it may cost additional costs, but but not any long paths, failed disks in RAID, the space is increased on the fly, in short, there are some pluses.

That’s all for me, we figured out how to fix the errors “ Too long target path ” or “ Too long final path “, with you was Ivan Semin, the author and creator of the IT portal Pyatilistnik.org.

File copy operation failed if files or folders have long paths in Explorer


English (United States) version of this hotfix installs files with the attributes that are listed in the following tables. The dates and times for these files are listed in UTC. The dates and times for files on your local computer are displayed in local time with your current Daylight Saving Time (DST) offset. In addition, when you perform certain file operations, the dates and times may change.

Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 file information and notes Hotfixes for Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7 are included in the same packages. However, the hotfixes on the Hotfix Request page are listed under both operating systems. To request a hotfix package that applies to one or both operating systems, install the hotfix that is described in the “Windows 7 / Windows Server 2008 R2” section of this page. Always refer to the “Information in this article applies to the following products” section of this article to determine the actual operating systems to which each hotfix applies.

  • Files related to a specific product, stage of development (RTM, SP n ) and direction of support (LDR, GDR) can be determined by checking the file version numbers as shown in the following table.

  • GDR update releases contain only fixes that are released globally and are intended to address common critical issues.LDR updates also include specialized fixes.

  • The MANIFEST (.manifest) and MUM (.mum) files that are installed for each environment are listed separately in the Additional file information for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 section. The MUM and MANIFEST files, and the associated security catalog (CAT) files, are extremely important to maintaining the state of the updated components. The security catalog files, for which the attributes are not listed, are digitally signed by Microsoft.

Easy Way to Delete Long Named Folder in Windows ~ Rebecca Z Blog

Yes Friends This is a fairly common situation for Windows users. This phenomenon happens when we copy, cut, move, delete, rename … or do anything in a directory, a data file whose path length exceeds 255 characters in Windows (theoretically 260 characters in Microsoft), the system will display error as below:

  • Source file (s) name is larger than supported by the file system.Try to navigate to a location with a shorter pathname or rename to a shorter name (s) before attempting this operation.

An illustrative error occurred on Windows 7

Or here:

This error message is similar:

  • An unexpected error prevents the folder from being deleted. If you keep getting this error, you can use the error code to find help for this issue.
  • Error: 0x80004005: Unspecified error

For these types of errors, even if you use killers like Folder Lock, Folder Guard, Unlocker … they don’t even play PowerShell utility should still be bundled:

  • Remove-Item: The specified path, file name, or both are too long. The full file name must be no more than 260 characters, and the directory name must be no more than 248 characters.

Just because PowerShell does not support all files, the directory path is longer than 255 characters, even if the saved partition is in NTFS format.However, not all methods are available to deal with this situation. In the next article, PCfix2019 will introduce you to a rare tool that can help us overcome this situation. This is the Long Path Tool support software, the download link for the latest version is here.

How to use the Long Path Tool is pretty simple, watch the video tutorial below:

But also, did you know that Microsoft still provides tools that support it well – Robocopy. Basically, Robocopy works like this:

  • When used with the / MIR command, Robocopy will continue to backup the entire folder, the current filename in another partition, and when your root folder is empty, the system will delete the current files and folders.

As in the above example image, you can see in the game folder that has a directory, there are many other subdirectories, so the total number of characters appearing on the path has exceeded 260 characters and results. As a result, you cannot delete, move, copy or rename these folders. Or here, I have 3 subdirectories with the same path structure as above. And of course Windows Explorer can’t do anything right now:

On drive C (or any other drive), I create a new empty folder (name it whatever you like) and then use the following command to copy the entire internal directory HomeDrives to the new address:

  • robocopy / MIR c: test E: UserDataHomeDrives

After executing the above command, the entire directory inside E: UserDataHomeDrives was deliberately deleted and our rest became much easier. Robocopy has demonstrated its tremendous leadership in handling, copying, deleting, renaming folders with names that are too long, beyond the standard 255 Windows characters, which you still don’t need to support external support.

Video demonstration using Robocopy to delete files and folders with too long names on Windows:

How to delete a directory with a long name using the command line tool

In addition to the above two ways, deleting a directory of long names using a command line tool presents is a simple three-step process.The trick is to automatically create shorter names and use them.

  • Open a command prompt in the file folder.
  • Use DOS command to get short filename in 8.3 file format.
  • Now use the DOS DEL command to delete the file.

Let’s see how this tool works in the following example with a long file name in a directory.

Open File Explorer and find the files in the folder.Press Shift, then right-click an empty area. Select Open command window here. A command prompt window will appear with a link to the folder you are visiting.

Enter the DOS command to list the folders and files in the current directory. The dir command is internal and available on all Microsoft operating systems. The / X attribute displays short names for non-8.3 file names. You can also use DIR / X / P to pause and switch from one screen to the next when there are too many files to check.

The screenshot below shows the text file we want to delete with the edited short file name.

So you can see how we use DOS to automatically generate a shorter filename. Now just use a simple DEL command on the short filename to delete the file.

The lesson here is not to ignore DOS. There are many useful DOS commands that can save you time.

Good luck!

. Filename (s) will be too long for target folder 2021

While browsing some of my backup files and folders on my Windows PC recently, I came across some old backup files that I wanted to delete. I didn’t need to use the old backup, so I needed to delete the compressed .tar file.

But when I kept deleting it, I got the following error message:

The file name is too long for the target folder

The compressed file appears to contain a JPG image file that my Windows was unable to delete.Using the Skip option, I deleted everything except this file. Now why did this happen?

In the standard Windows file naming system, the common name cannot be, or the path is longer than 259 characters. This includes the folder path, file name, and file extension. If so, you will receive this error when you try to uninstall it.

Maximum path length limitation : In the Windows API (with some exceptions described in the following paragraphs) the maximum path length is MAX_PATH, which is 260 characters.The local path is structured in the following order: drive letter, colon, backslash, backslash-separated name components, and a terminating null character. For example, the maximum path on disk D is “D: some 256-character path string”, where “” represents an invisible terminating null character for the current system code page. (Characters are used here for visual clarity and cannot be part of a valid path string) says MSDN.

The file name is too long for the target folder

Now in my case the full path to the folder is:

D: Site backups Miscellaneous backup-4.7.2012_23-41-31_thegadget.tar backup-4.7.2012_23-41-31_thegadget backup-4.7.2012_23-41-31_thegadget homedirect 2 public_html2 wp-content2 uploads 2011 08

And the filename was very long – like Music-producer-… -and-video-games.jpg – as seen in the image.

I opened it and tried to delete or rename the file. I was not even offered an option to do it. If you can rename it, great, but I was not offered that option.

So, I went back to my subfolder and tried to delete it. No success. I got the same error message.

Then I used option Move to folder to move the folder to my D-drive . It worked! The path suddenly became shorter and I was able to delete.

This simple trick worked in my case and I hope it helps too.

Sometimes just rebooting, running Check Disk, or using a third-party uninstall can also help to remove deleted files and folders.

You can also use the free Long Path Fixer to fix Path Too Long errors in Windows.

If all else fails, you might want to take a look at this Microsoft thread where some advanced ways to use CMD and Robocopy have been suggested.

If files in Windows cannot sync to iCloud Drive due to path too long

Find out what you can do if you see a notification on your Windows computer that some files in iCloud Drive will not sync.

The file name or path may be too long

Too long path may mean the following:

  • One or more file names are too long;
  • way too long.The path can contain the name of the file and the names of all folders and subfolders in which it is located.

In iCloud for Windows 10.8 or later, a file with a too long name or path is not synced to iCloud Drive. But this will not affect the rest of the files. In addition, the file path will be displayed, so the file can be easily found using the search function.

In iCloud for Windows 10 or earlier, if the length of a single file name or path is exceeded, iCloud Drive sync stops for all files in the folder. To ensure that the rest of your files continue to sync with iCloud Drive, download the latest version of the iCloud for Windows app.

Find file name or path

If you know the path to a file that cannot sync with iCloud Drive, you can find the file using the search function. To speed up syncing files with iCloud Drive, change the names of files, folders, or subfolders in the file path so that they are less than 256 characters long.

If you rename a file or folder, the changes may not appear in some third-party applications.

Information about non-Apple products or third-party websites not controlled or tested by Apple is not endorsement or recommendation. Apple assumes no responsibility for the selection, functionality, or use of third party websites or products. Apple is also not responsible for the accuracy or reliability of information posted on third party websites. Contact your supplier for more information.

Published Date:

Version History Overview | Dropbox


You can view and restore previous versions of files and folders in your Dropbox account. Version history determines how old data you can view and restore, and its validity period depends on your Dropbox plan.

  • For Dropbox Basic, Plus, and Family users, this period is 30 days.
  • For Dropbox Professional and Business users, this period is 180 days.

However, there are additions that increase the effect of the version history.

Note :

View the version history for file

To view the version history for a file:

  1. Sign in to your dropbox.com account.
  2. Hover the cursor over the file or folder for which you want to view the version history.
  3. Click “” (ellipsis).
  4. Press Version History .

View version history for folder

To view the version history for a folder and its subfolders:

  1. Sign in to your dropbox.com account.
  2. Open the folder for which you want to view the changelog.
  3. Click on the “” (ellipsis) icon above the file list.
  4. Press Folder Change Log .

To view the version history for all folders in your Dropbox account:

  1. Sign in to your dropbox. com account.
  2. Click on the “” (ellipsis) icon above the file list.
  3. Press Folder Change Log .

Version History FAQ

What happens if I switch to a plan with a longer version history?

If you upgrade to a plan with a longer version history or purchase the Extended Version History add-on, your new version history will begin on the date you switched to that plan, as the version history does not include changes made before this feature was activated.

For example, if you switched from a Basic plan with 30 days version history to a Professional plan with 180 days version history, you can view and restore previous versions of files and folders in the next 180 days, but you cannot view and restore previous versions. versions of files and folders that were deleted or changed 180 days ago.

Is the version history using space in my account?

No, the version history does not use the storage space available to you.

Command Line Commands Every Windows User Should Know

About two decades ago, there was no Start menu or taskbar. The friendly GUI we know didn’t exist back then, but instead there was a black screen with a blinking cursor. But if you need to access some elements of Windows, you still have to open the Command Prompt or CMD:

If you’ve never used the Command Prompt, this guide will help you master it and tell you about some CMD commands you should know in case emergency situations.

To access it in Windows 7 or higher, you can type “cmd” or “command prompt” in the Start menu search bar. You can also find it here: Start Menu – All Programs – Accessories – Command Line. You can find a complete list of parameters for each of the commands below on the Microsoft website.

Note that the commands are not case sensitive and you need to press Enter to execute them.

Basic Command Line Commands

DIR is short for Directory, this CMD command for a beginner lists all files and folders in a specific directory. As well as their size, expansion and free space remaining on the disk. The dir command on the command line can be modified with additional parameters, such as DIR / p (lists page by page), DIR / q (displays information about the site owner), DIR / w (displays a list in extended format with the maximum number of files in one line), DIR / d (displays an expanded list in columnar format), DIR / n (displays a long list in one line), DIR / l (displays an unsorted list of directory and file names in lowercase), DIR / b ( lists files without additional information).DIR / s lists the files and directories in the given directory, as well as all subdirectories. By entering DIR /?, You will see a list of all available options.

The command line CD or CHDIR (Change Directory) command is used to change directory. The command performs several operations. The CD takes you to the very top of the directory tree. CD .. moves you to the parent directory of the current one. CD dirname moves you to that directory. Enter CD to display the name of the current directory.

MD or MKDIR (Make Directory) allows you to create a directory (folder). To create a directory, use the following syntax: MD directory-name.

CLS clears the screen. This CMD command in Windows is used if the command line emulator is full of a list of commands and their operations.

EDIT filename allows you to modify the contents of a file.

The DEL command allows you to delete one or more files. Alternatively, you can use the ERASE command. Use the syntax DEL filename to delete a file.

If you want to delete all files with a certain extension, then enter DEL * .doc, and all files with a doc extension will be deleted from the current directory. DEL *. * Removes all files from the current directory, so be careful with this command.

RD or RMDIR – You can use this command to delete a folder, but the folder must be empty. The syntax is pretty straightforward. Enter RD folder-name. If you want to delete a folder that is not empty, you can use RD / S folder-name. Be careful with this command, as it permanently deletes the folder and all of its contents.

RENAME, or REN renames a file or directory. The syntax for this computer management CMD command is as follows: RENAME currentname newname. For example, if you want to rename a file named iPhone.txt to iPad.txt, enter RENAME iPhone.txt iPad.txt.

MOVE allows you to move one or more files from one directory to another. For example, if you want to move file 1.txt located in the current directory in a folder called Numericals within the current directory, enter MOVE 1.txt Numericals.
If you tried to rename a directory (folder) using the RENAME command in the above way, you know that it does not work. The MOVE command will help us with this, as it can also be used to rename directories. Enter MOVE current-name new-name, where current name is the name of the directory in the current folder.

The COPY command allows you to copy one or more files from one location to another. The command allows you to combine files of the same type. Let’s look at various examples of how the COPY command can be used:

  • COPY filename foldername will copy the file filename to an existing folder;
  • COPY filename new filename creates a copy of the file with a new filename;
  • COPY * .doc Word copies all .doc files to a folder named Word.

CMD The basic XCOPY command is for files and directories, including subdirectories. The simplest way to use it is to copy all files from one disk to another.Syntax: XCOPY SourceDisk: DestinationDrive: / e, where the / e option allows you to copy all subdirectories, even if they are empty. Use / s to disallow copying empty directories. You can use the folder names of the source drive or the destination drive to simply copy the entire contents of one folder to another.

Additional commands

The FORMAT command in CMD allows you to erase information from the hard drive or prepare it for copying data if you installed a new disk. The syntax for using the command is: FORMAT drive :. If you want to reformat a specific drive for a specific file system, you can do so with the command: FORMAT drive: / FS: filesystem, where filesystem can be: FAT, FAT32, or NTFS. After applying the command, all data from the disk will be erased without a trace.

FC – Used to compare two files with each other. Suppose you have two files gadgets360_1.txt and gadgets360_2.txt. To compare them, enter the following command: FC gadgets360_1.txt gadgets360_2.txt.

IPCONFIG displays detailed information about the network settings: IP-address, and also informs the type of network connection of your computer (using Wi-Fi or Ethernet). Enter IPCONFIG / ALL to get an overview of all network settings, including which DNS servers you are using. Enter IPCONFIG / RENEW to get a new IP address from the DHCP server. This can help if you are having problems with your internet connection.

CMD ping command – If you are not sure if the site you want to visit is available, enter PING followed by the IP address or domain name.

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