Kikki k personalise: Create your own Personalised Stationery at kikki.K


KIKKI.K Leather Journal | Top 10 Leather Journals

Overall rating

“Presentable, reliable and easily useful on a daily basis”

Size: A5
Colours: Black
Cost: $50 AUD
Personalisation: No
Country: Sweden
Available from:
For: Minimalist Swedish design, fantastic notepad, back cover pocket
Against: Blended leather missing top-grain character

First Impressions

We enjoyed venturing into our local KIKKI.K stationary store to find this A5 Notebook. The packaging and presentation on this notebook is perfect, and the Swedes haven’t missed a beat in making you feel like you’re opening something special for the first time.

KIKKI.K refers to this a genuine leather product on their website, however, this journal notebook doesn’t look or feel like the real deal.

It’s alike many similar products you’d see in a large stationary store or newsagency, and has more of a synthetic feel. This KIKKI.K leather journal is definitely sporting what’s called a thin “blended leather” outer cover.

There’s a contemporary zig-zag pattern printed on the inside of the leather journal covers and it’s quite mesmerizing in a good way.

The stitching and finish quality on this journal is perfect, and the team in charge of quality control at KIKKI.K are doing a great job.

While the front inside cover pocket is standard for many leather journals we’ve reviewed, we were impressed with the outside back pocket design. There’s also an elastic pen/pencil holder along the outside vertical border.

Finally, there’s the metal “K-Stamped” button which secures the closing strap. This is refreshing after the “pin push” straps on basically every other notebook we’ve ever seen.


1 Week Review

This leather journal is a solid performer during everyday use. The pages are comfortably lined (with tiny dots) and there’s a simple Subject & Date section atop each page.

The internal notebook pages are a brilliant white, which is different to many of the cream ‘parchment’ coloured paper in other leather journals. The morning glare off these pages is a little testing, but that’s neither here or there.

You can see from the photos that the outside back pocket is well constructed. You’ll have to be mindful that unless they’re tucked right away, whatever documents you place in here are exposed and can be damaged. There’s also an internal pocket inside the front cover to save the day!

One afternoon a slightly uncoordinated table waiter spilled some water on the back cover, and safe to say it ran straight off without any damage to the outer leather or notebook pages.

The KIKKI. K leather journal’s minimalist design flew right under the radar as far as attracting any attention in a corporate setting.

Size: A5 Colours: Black Cost: $50 AUD Personalisation: No Country: Sweden Available from:http://www. For: Minimalist Swedish design, fantastic notepad, back cover pocket Against: Blended leather missing top-grain character First Impressions We enjoyed venturing into our local KIKKI.K stationary store to find this A5 Notebook. The packaging and presentation on this…

KIKKI.K Leather Journal

KIKKI.K Leather Journal



Criteria Review



“Presentable, reliable and easily useful on a daily basis”


Purists may be annoyed this product isn’t wholegrain leather and its textured finish has more of a synthetic feel to it. There are also those who will celebrate the sleek minimalist design and usable features, in a journal notebook that will do everything they need it to do. At $49.95 AUD it comes in at a good price point, and the KIKKI.K fan-base of school kids, university students, and young predominantly female customers will enjoy this product and its Swedish pedigree!

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Bright plastic dividers + stickers A5 FILOFAX Kikki.

k insert refill PERSONALISED

eBay item number:


Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing.


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tcudaiV nrobloH 42




modgniK detinU

:[email protected]

Business seller information



International House

24 Holborn Viaduct




United Kingdom

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Item location: London, United Kingdom

Postage to: Worldwide

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Hung Hing Printing Group acquires interests in global Swedish design brand kikki.K

HONG KONG, Aug. 22, 2018 /PRNewswire/ — Hung Hing Printing Group Limited (HKSE: 450), one of the largest print and packaging companies in Asia, announced today that the company has entered into a strategic partnership agreement with global retailer of luxury products of Swedish design, kikki. K, to acquire a 10% stake in the latter. 

The global award-winning high-end lifestyle retailer, kikki.K, operates an extensive omni-channel sales network with over 100 boutiques across 5 countries including Hong Kong, 280 wholesale outlets in 11 countries and an e-commerce platform servicing 143 countries. kikki.K offers a broad range of stylish, fashionable and innovative stationery and gift products, including a newly launched personalised stationery and accessory service.

Matthew C.M. Yum, Executive Chairman of Hung Hing Printing Group Limited, said, “The strategic investment in kikki.K is a significant step to expand our product portfolio to capture high-end consumer product opportunities. We can leverage the strong reputation and global market presence of kikki.K to expand into the individualised product segment. The partnership is a perfect fit into our core production capability, enabling us to broaden our offerings to cover all significant segments of the value chain and yield manufacturing synergies. In turn, kikki.K will have access to capital and expanded infrastructure to help accelerate its global expansion plan, in particular growth into the robust China market. It’s win-win for both companies.”

kikki.K CEO, Iain Nairn, is at the forefront of kikki.K’s growth strategy. Under Nairn’s leadership, the brand has continued to excel internationally, driven by both its retail stores, e-commerce store and most recently, its accelerated wholesale growth.

kikki.K Chairman, Sam McKay commented, “kikki.K’s global expansion continues to progress well, and we are excited that Hung Hing is aligned with our vision for the future. We are focused on executing the many meaningful opportunities ahead.”

Since opening award-winning retail stores in London’s Covent Garden in December 2015, kikki.K has increased its UK footprint to 37 doors over the past three years by entering Selfridges, John Lewis and Harrods with great success. Beyond the UK, kikki.K has also launched in over 80 Nordstrom stores in the US, over 80 Indigo stores in Canada, as well as a string of other leading department stores across Asia and the UAE. The brand has plans to have its products stocked in over 3000 wholesale doors around the world in the coming years.

kikki.K was founded in 2001 by Swedish-born Kristina Karlsson and co-founder Paul Lacy, inspired by Kristina’s dream to start a meaningful business and share Swedish design with the world. Over fifteen years on, kikki.K is strongly driven by Kristina’s original purpose to inspire and empower people the world over to live their best life, every day through a unique offering of Swedish design, stationery and gifts. This September, Kristina will release her debut book, ‘Your Dream Life Starts Here’, which she wrote as the first step and go-to guide to help inspire people around the world to write down three dreams and make their dreams reality.

“We are so really pleased to have Hung Hing on board as we work towards our global vision. I absolutely love what I do, and as we continue to inspire millions of people to dream, do, enjoy and share — and help to make the world a better place by doing so — the backing of Hung Hing will be a great help,” said kikki. K Founder & Creative Director, Kristina Karlsson.

Today, kikki.K has over 100 retail stores throughout Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong and the UK in addition to its online store and wholesale doors. Whilst the brand is now over 15 years old, with an ambitious global vision to see something kikki.K in every stylish life, the world over, the team says it feels like they’re just getting started.

Hung Hing Printing Group Limited (HKSE: 450)

Hung Hing was founded by the Company’s former Honorary Chairman Mr. Yam Cheong Hung in 1950. Over the past six decades, the Company has developed into one of the largest printers in Asia, with significant operations in book and package printing, consumer product packaging, corrugated box manufacturing and paper trading, and manufacturing facilities at seven locations, including Hong Kong, China (Shenzhen, Zhongshan, Heshan and Foshan in the Guangdong province and Wuxi, near Shanghai) and Hanoi, Vietnam (to be operational in mid-2019). With its main focus on customers’ success, the Company harnesses the latest in technology and ideas to create print solutions through sustainable operating practice, and services multinational corporations from the U.S. and Europe as well as from domestic companies in China. The Company has a workforce of approximately 8,600 employees. It has been listed on The Hong Kong Stock Exchange since 1992.

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DAILY NOTES PERSONALISED Printable A5 Planner Refill Filofax weight loss KIKKI K. Change the Page Size from A4 To A5. You Must Change the Page Size to A5. This Is for Personal Use Only. Personal Use Only. Print Either in Normal or Best Quality Setting. Select Printer Settings/More Settings.. Condition:: New: A brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item in its original packaging (where packaging is applicable). Packaging should be the same as what is found in a retail store, unless the item was packaged by the manufacturer in non-retail packaging, such as an unprinted box or plastic bag. See the seller’s listing for full details. See all condition definitions : Brand: : Fluffyangel Stationery , MPN: : Does Not Apply: Type: : PDF , 。

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Personal Meeting ID (PMI) and Personal Link Subscribe


Personal Conference ID (PMI) and Personal Link are two possible ways to enter a Personal Conference room. A personal conference room is a virtual room that is always assigned to you. You can log in at any time or schedule for future use. You can also schedule a conference or start an instant conference using PMI.

Account owners and administrators can also turn off PMI so that users always create a unique conference ID. If you disable and lock the setting Enable Personal Conference ID , users will have to modify all PMI-scheduled conferences and update the conference ID. After updating, they will need to send the invitation to the attendees again.

This article addresses the following issues:

Personal Conference ID (PMI)


PMI is automatically assigned to you as a permanent personal conference room.You can log in at any time or schedule for future use.

PMI is part of the personalized conference link. Example: If you purchased a paid plan and a professional license, then you can edit the 10-digit Personal Conference ID.

PMI Personalization

  1. Sign in to your Zoom web portal.
  2. Press My profile .
  3. Next to field Personal Conference ID , press Edit .
  4. Enter a 10-digit identifier.
  5. Select the checkbox if you want to use PMI for instant conferencing.
  6. Press Save changes .

PMI personalization restrictions

There are some restrictions on PMI personalization. The specified identifier must meet the following criteria:

  • Start from 2-9 (cannot start from 1 or 0)
  • The following PMI prefixes (toll free number prefixes) are not allowed:
    800, 400, 888, 887, 877, 866, 855, 850, 803, 804, 807, 808, 809, 660, 508, 900, 200, 300, 500 , 600, 700
  • Groups of 3 digits must not be repeated, e.g. 247 247 247x or x247 247 247
  • Groups of 3 digits must not be repeated, e.g. 222 444 777x or x222 444 777
  • 8 identical digits must not be used, e. g. 222 x22 222x
  • 5 identical digits must not be repeated in a row, for example, 11111xxxxx, x11111xxxx, xx11111xxx, xxx11111xx, xxxx11111x, xxxxx11111
  • It is not allowed to use a sequence of numbers; example: 123456789x
  • Already used conference IDs are not allowed

Personal link

Personal Link is your personal URL associated with the Personal Conference Room.The personal link can be edited if you meet the following criteria:

  • Tariff plan “Business” or “Education”
  • Licensed Users
  • Personal link must contain between 5 and 40 characters
  • It must start with a letter and contain only letters, numbers and periods (.)

Note: your personal link must be unique. It should not be used by another Zoom user, even if your account has a memorable URL.It is not allowed to use common names in a personal link.

Change personal link

  1. Sign in to your Zoom web portal.
  2. Press My profile .
  3. Click Edit next to the Personal Link field.
  4. Enter the desired ID or personal link.
  5. Press Save changes .

Configuring a Personal Conference Room

  1. Sign in to your Zoom web portal.
  2. Press Conferences .
  3. Press Personal Conference Room .
  4. Press Edit this conference .
  5. Change the required settings.
  6. Press Save .

Disable Personal Conference ID

Account owners or administrators can turn off Personal Conferencing IDs for an entire account or for a specific group of users.Disabling this feature by default turns it off for users, but they can turn it back on in their user preferences. If you want to completely disable Personal Conferencing IDs, follow the instructions below and then take an additional blocking step.

If you disable and lock Personal Conference IDs, users will have to change all PMI-scheduled conferences and update the conference ID. After updating, they will need to send the invitation to the attendees again.


To disable the Enable Personal Conferencing ID setting for all users in an account, do the following:

  1. Log in to the Administrator account on the Zoom web portal with the right to edit account settings.
  2. In the navigation pane, click Account Management followed by Account Settings .
  3. In section Schedule Conference , disable the setting Enable Personal Conference ID .
  4. (Optional) If you want to disable this setting for all users in your account, click the padlock icon and then click Lock to confirm.


To disable the Enable Personal Conference ID setting for a user group, do the following:

  1. Log in to the Zoom Web Portal Administrator account with edit group rights.
  2. In the navigation pane, click User Management and then Group Management .
  3. Select the appropriate group name from the list and then click the Settings tab.
  4. In section Schedule Conference , disable the setting Enable Personal Conference ID .
  5. (Optional) If you want to disable this setting for all users in this group, click the padlock icon and then click Lock to Confirm.


To disable the Enable Personal Conference ID setting for yourself, do the following:

  1. Sign in to your Zoom web portal.
  2. In the navigation bar, click Settings .
  3. In section Schedule Conference , disable the setting Enable Personal Conference ID .
  4. Note : If a setting is grayed out, it is locked at the group or account level. Contact your Zoom administrator.

Farewell to the boring stationery from the House of Books! We buy beautiful notebooks and pens abroad | Shoppingway

The modern multitasking world is urgent – everything needs to be done here and now.In order to have time for everything and not forget anything, we draw up a schedule for the day and plan a week. According to surveys of my acquaintances, about 65% do it in special applications or the calendar of the phone, and the remaining 40% prefer a pen and a diary.

It is much more pleasant to make notes with a cool pen in a stylish notebook. That is why I have collected the coolest foreign online stationery stores. In them, in addition to office supplies, you can find beautiful paper for crafts and packaging.It is very important for the upcoming holidays.


Office supplies from Sweden, sold in more than 140 countries worldwide. The assortment of the store includes stylish gliders, diaries, notebooks and other accessories. Each model of the planner or planner can be personalized upon request. The design of products in the best Swedish traditions is simple, concise and thoughtful.


The shop started in 2012 on Columby Road, England. All suppliers are personally verified small family businesses, and the store itself hosts exhibitions of stationery achievements every four years.In 2018, due to the influx of customers, a larger site was required and now the store is based in the center of London on Tower Street. It is this store that I associate with Ollivander’s shop, only instead of sticks you can buy beautiful paper or the legendary Kaweco pens.

And you can buy Christmas cards on the site right now!

CW Pencil Enterprise

CW Pencil Enterprise was founded in November 2014 by Caroline Weaver, a pencil collector.Therefore, if you are as much a pencil fan as Caroline is, then this store should be bookmarked. What pencils are there just not: classic, mechanical, double-sided, vintage and various densities. Also on the site you will find accessories in the form of pencil cases, sharpeners, erasers and boxes.

Rifle Paper

Anna and Nathan Bond founded the company in 2009. We started by creating invitations and stationery illustrations with our own branded and unique prints. Today, their painting can be found in home decor, shoes, or gift bags.

On the site you can choose planners, calendars, postcards, sets of different cards, as well as accessories – phone cases, scarves, dishes, shoes, silk scarves and home decor. Be sure to check out the “wallpaper” section with a unique painting.

Present and correct

As the creators of the brand say: “The long-term obsession with stationery has reached its highest point and is constantly evolving in the store.” The range includes products of our own design, products from other designers from all over the world, and vintage collections that are found on trips and expeditions.I wish all the offices could afford to buy office supplies from these guys!

Do you have any favorite stationery stores?

Kiki & Fifi Pet Friends – Virtual Cat & Dog Care 5.0.30025 Download Android APK

Meet the cutest pet friends Kiki the Cat and Fifi the Dog! Feed, bath, style and dress up your new virtual pets in this super fun kids game!

Play and take care of two sweet virtual pets: cat Kiki and dog Fifi. Give a bubble bath, shower, clean up, brush fur, polish nails and design the perfect outfits for your virtual pets.Build a house and design the sweetest home for them. A perfect game for kids who want to have a cat or a dog and love taking care of cute virtual pets!

Play fun Kiki & Fifi Pet Friends virtual pet care games for kids:
· Comb, curl and straighten cat Kiki’s and dog Fifi’s colorful hair!
Free your imagination and make a super cool virtual pet toy!
Play and learn how to brush teeth for the cutest pet cat and dog!
Clean up the cat litter box and decorate it as you wish!
Give a warm bubble bath for the most adorable virtual cat and dog!
Mix and match the cutest pet clothes and dress up Kiki and Fifi!
Prepare delicious pet food for hungry little cat and dog!
Fix, paint and decorate Kiki and Fifi’s little virtual pet house!
Play Kiki & Fifi Pet Friends kids game every day and collect all gift awards!
Watch videos for kids and get bonus coins for new exciting game items!

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

About TutoTOONS Games for Kids
Crafted and play-tested with kids and toddlers, TutoTOONS games foster kids’ creativity and help them learn while playing the games they love.Fun and educational TutoTOONS games strive to bring meaningful and safe mobile experience to millions of children worldwide.

Important Message to Parents
This app is free to download and play, but there are certain in-game items that may be purchased for real money. By downloading this app you agree to TutoTOONS Privacy Policy and Terms of Use.

Discover More Fun with TutoTOONS!
Subscribe to our YouTube channel:
Learn more about us: https: //
Read our blog:
Meet the cutest pet friends Kiki Cat and Fifi the Dog! Feed, bathe, dress and dress up your new virtual pets in this super fun kids game!

Play and care for two sweet virtual pets: Kiki the cat and Fifi the dog. Take a bubble bath, shower, tidy up, clean fur, polish your nails and create the perfect outfit for your virtual pets.Build a home and design the sweetest home for them. Perfect game for kids who want to have a cat or dog and love to take care of cute virtual pets!

Play fun virtual games Kiki & Fifi Pet Friends for kids:
· Comb, curl and straighten the colorful hair of Kiki the cat and Fifi the dog!
Free your imagination and make a super cool virtual animal toy!
· Play and learn to brush your teeth for the cutest cat and dog!
Clean the cat litter box and decorate it however you want!
Give a warm bubble bath to the adorable virtual cat and dog!
Mix and match the cutest pet clothes and dress up Kiki and Fifi!
Prepare delicious pet food for hungry little cats and dogs!
· Fix, paint and decorate Kiki and Fifi’s little virtual pet!
· Play Kiki & Fifi Pet Friends kids game every day and collect all the gift rewards!
Watch videos for kids and get bonus coins for exciting new in-game items!

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

About TutoTOONS Games for children
Designed and tested for play with children and toddlers, TutoTOONS games stimulate the creativity of children and help them learn by playing their favorite games.TutoTOONS fun and educational games aim to bring meaningful and safe mobile interactions to millions of children around the world.

Important Message for Parents
This app is free to download and play, but there are some in-game items that can be purchased with real money. By downloading this app you agree to TutoTOONS ‘privacy policy and terms of use.

Find out more fun with TutoTOONS!
Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https: //
Learn more about us:
Read our blog:

reviews, pros and cons of the product, user ratings

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  • is not true or contains data that cannot be authenticated,
  • containing in the text of the review contact details, exact addresses or full names of individuals,
  • related to a topic about which there is already a review or appeal in any written form from the same person,
  • in other cases, at the discretion of the moderator.

Any incoming information is processed by the moderator and used to improve the quality of our services. The moderator can remove contact information, full name and links from the text of the published review, correct formatting, transliteration, and also reject any review without explaining the reasons and without prior agreement with the author.

To receive feedback on a negative review, we kindly ask you to indicate your contact information (name, phone number, e-mail, order number or product model).Only in this case we can conduct an internal investigation and give an exhaustive answer. Contact details will only be used to contact you. We guarantee the confidentiality of your personal data and undertake not to transfer them to third parties and publish them on the site.

Any questions about the product you can ask through the Feedback form. The status of review moderation can be tracked in your Personal Account in the My Reviews section.

reviews, pros and cons of the product, user ratings

Rules for publishing reviews

Thank you for sharing your experience!

Your review will be published some time after being checked by the moderator.

Please note that we reserve the right not to publish reviews:

  • written in CAPITAL or transliterated,
  • containing profanity or offensive language,
  • not related to the consumer properties of a specific product,
  • of an advertising nature (containing contact information, names of other stores and links to other Internet resources),
  • is not true or contains data that cannot be authenticated,
  • containing in the text of the review contact details, exact addresses or full names of individuals,
  • related to a topic about which there is already a review or appeal in any written form from the same person,
  • in other cases, at the discretion of the moderator.

Any incoming information is processed by the moderator and used to improve the quality of our services. The moderator can remove contact information, full name and links from the text of the published review, correct formatting, transliteration, and also reject any review without explaining the reasons and without prior agreement with the author.

To receive feedback on a negative review, we kindly ask you to indicate your contact information (name, phone number, e-mail, order number or product model).Only in this case we can conduct an internal investigation and give an exhaustive answer. Contact details will only be used to contact you. We guarantee the confidentiality of your personal data and undertake not to transfer them to third parties and publish them on the site.

Any questions about the product you can ask through the Feedback form. The status of review moderation can be tracked in your Personal Account in the My Reviews section.

They are not happy with thin: models are forbidden to be slim

Victoria Beckham came under fire: the ads for her new collection of sunglasses were not liked by users of social networks.I did not like it due to the fact that, in the opinion of the public, a too thin girl starred in it, and this is a bad example to follow.

Continuation of the article is under advertising


A promotional image in support of the Victoria Beckham brand appeared on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter in order to draw the attention of users to the new collection of sunglasses.“Back to work!” Read the caption to the photo of a girl in a powdery pink blouse and large glasses with thin horn-rimmed frames. for an airy, light, fresh and modern look. ”

However, the reaction of users was not caused by air glasses, but by a girl who, it seems, can easily be carried away by the wind. The Lithuanian model Gyedra Dukuskaite seemed like a bad role model for people who could have a bad influence on teenage girls.Not everyone can be so airy and light. “This is a dangerous image for imposing on young women. No social responsibility,” wrote from Instagram users. “This girl looks so haggard,” said another. “Seriously Victoria, this is not the best look for young girls – show us real women, please!”

The world has been talking for a long time that the appearance of too thin models on the catwalks and in advertisements looks unhealthy. Back in 2000, the British Medical Association announced that this provokes an increase in the number of eating disorders in the world, that is, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa – then British doctors were concerned about the popularity of Kate Moss and Jody Kidd, who were at the origins of the fashion for “heroin chic”.

“Female models are getting thinner, while real women are getting bigger, and the gap between the ideal figure and reality is wider than ever,” the association said in a statement at the time. more realistic imagery. ” The calls of British doctors were not heard soon. In the mid-2010s, there was continued talk about what size models should advertise clothes. And fashion brands are regularly attacked because the girls in their ads are too thin legs and arms.

Now the sizes of models in advertising are monitored, and closely.

Foto: Reuters / Scanpix

In 2016, a British ad regulator banned Gucci ads – a model in a geometric print dress in an ad poster was deemed too gaunt.

The British Advertising Standards Authority stated that the model on the poster, who is leaning against a wall, has taken a pose that makes her body look unnaturally elongated, and therefore too thin.In addition, “the grim expression on her face and dark makeup, in particular the eyes, makes her face haggard.” The regulator demanded that the offending photo, as well as the video, from which the picture was in fact, should no longer be used. The frame was removed from the Gucci video, but the model, who gave the impression of an emaciated girl, continued to participate in the advertising campaign.

Foto: AFP / Scanpix / LETA

A year earlier, that is, in 2015, the French parliament had already regulated advertising standards regarding the size of models: modeling agencies were prohibited from hiring unhealthy thin girls, moreover, they had to demand a doctor’s certificate from them confirming that they were healthy and can work.

Violation of this rule now faces a fine of 75,000 euros.

The standards are designed to protect against the risk of developing anorexia nervosa both the models themselves, who are often required to lose weight, and the girls who will target them.

All this happened after the advertisement of Saint Laurent was criticized – the model, lying on the floor in the picture, had too thin legs. The ad featuring model Kiki Willems has been banned in the UK.

In 2017, history repeated itself – the brand again insulted the public by showing too slender girls in defiant poses: two images from a series of photographs were criticized by the French regulator of the advertising market.

Constant scandals have led brands to publicly refuse to hire overly skinny girls. In September, France’s largest conglomerates, which include apparel and luxury goods makers Kering and LVMH, announced that they would no longer feature thin-skinned models in their brands’ ad campaigns.

They signed a charter, according to which they refused to hire models whose clothing size is less than 34 (corresponds to the Russian 40).


In the early 2000s, I fell head over heels in love with Japanese anime and watched Miyazaki’s films (and not only 🙂 from morning till night. Being by nature an irrepressible popularizer and missionary, he decided to violate the behind-the-scenes underground status of the movement of fans of this amazing art that had just arisen in Russia and tell about it to as many people as possible.The result was this Issue Theme, which I prepared for “Computerra”. I invited the wonderful specialists Yevgeny Tsepenyuk and Stanislav Gadzinsky and we gave out together, IMHO, gorgeous material!


Anime mea
Sergey Golubitsky

The Japanese phenomenon of modern culture “anime” has the same root as “animation” – the American analogue of “animation”. This is where all the similarities end. Which is not surprising: American animation is pure fun, that is, entertainment, play, pleasant pastime.In one word, “spectacle”, the sale of which was only Hollywood and from the first day of its foundation. The point here is not the primitiveness of America, but the evolution of Western man, for whom any art today is a game (“happening”), not life.

Things are quite different in Japan. Art (and anime is no exception) is not just a real life, but life is much more intense, sublime and soulful. Pay attention to the term itself: what prevented the Japanese from simply taking and borrowing the whole word (“animation”), as they often did in everyday life? If the Japanese felt their animation in the same way as the Americans, they would undoubtedly do so.However, the term was changed to anime instead. Also, by the way, it is indicative: “soul” [1] instead of “animation” [2], real life instead of imitation.

All these thoughts came to my mind after I was thoroughly addicted to the “anime” needle and reviewed more than a dozen cartoon masterpieces. Before that, all my knowledge fit into a gentleman’s set, which is shared by the overwhelming majority of compatriots: “Japanese cartoons are Pokemon, which means homeric nonsense and utter wretchedness.”

Quite by accident I bought the Gone With the Wind DVD by Miyazaki Hayao. So a strange animal entered my house – the logo of Studio Ghibli, at the sight of which my son begins to laugh happily in anticipation of an enchanting sight. Miyazaki opened a big secret for me: it turns out that the Pekemon have the same relationship to anime as our “Wait a minute” – to serious animation. Indeed, in addition to the Plagiarized Wolf, there is also “Hedgehog in the Fog” and “Tale of Fairy Tales” by Norstein. Likewise, in addition to Pokémon, there is Princess Mononoke, Porco Rosso, and the Prince of the Sun.There is Totoro, finally.

The first shots of Gone With the Wind are uncomfortable. The fact is that the aesthetics of movement in anime is very different from the imitations of real dynamics we are used to: in Miyazdaki’s film, it seems that the characters do not smoothly move their arms and legs, but move from one picture to another. It is difficult to describe in words, it is better to see for yourself. But wait, you can try: the characters move like … in the comics! However, do not rush to frown: we are not talking about a symbol of the wretchedness of American culture, which has set the teeth of educated mankind on edge.The aesthetics of anime movement draws inspiration from medieval manga – traditional Japanese picture stories drawn by Buddhist monks long before Columbus was born (in the 12th century).

However, the aesthetic discomfort does not last long. After just five minutes of viewing, such a fireworks of fantasy begins, such a mixture of archaic exoticism and mythology with modern mechanistic miracles that two hours fly by like an instant. This is indeed magic beyond verbal description.You can only watch it.

The magic of Spirited Away is so omnipotent that my son never stops watching this film at least three times a week, and I rush to join him as soon as possible. The situation, however, worsened as soon as I got hold of another Miyazdaki masterpiece – “Princess Mononoke”, which, perhaps, I would dare to call the best animation in the history of world culture. In any case, now you have to watch constantly not one film, but two. Then we opened Laputa Castle in the Air, Kiki Witch Delivery Service, Porco Rosso, My Neighbor Totoro, Prince of the Sun, Cagliostro Castle.Please note: I am listing the films of only one director (Miyazaki), and how many more brilliant masters there are in the endless Japanese anime!

Of course, only children can experience anime most organically. Adults have long lost the ability to magically perceive art, therefore, revelations are given with incomparably great efforts. However, it is possible. To feel the uniqueness of Japanese anime in its entirety and to understand how this art differs from everything you have seen before, it is enough to conduct a simple experiment: watch Princess Mononoke and try to analyze your impressions of one character – Lady Eboshi.You will be shocked: the drawn “cartoon” character not only possesses Shakespeare’s tragedy, is endowed with unimaginable feminine beauty, but also literally radiates … purely sexual energy! The latter is generally inconceivable, since we are not talking about “hentai” – a unique erotic (and sometimes purely pornographic) anime – but about a simple children’s fairy tale in pictures. Of course, children do not notice Eboshi’s sexuality, but every normal adult man sees her (with the light hand of the director himself, of course). Such a complex symbiosis of diverse elements of culture, civilization and the human psyche you will not find anywhere except in Japanese anime. This alone makes the theme of this issue of “Computerra” absolutely unique.

Everything else – about the computer component of anime, its genres, origins and traditions – you will learn from the wonderful articles of my friends – Evgeny Tsepenyuk and Stanislav Gaidzinsky, whose efforts, in fact, embodied this topic on the pages of our magazine.

Evgeniy Tsepenyuk

Tell me, senpai, what is mecha-sentai?

Brief otaku-Russian explanatory dictionary of concepts, gestures, vague hints and technical terms.The data is ordered according to a haphazard algorithm taken from open source and in the public domain.

Otaku: In modern Japan – a harsh, almost abusive expression: “fanatic”, “obsessed”, is applied to fans who do not know the measure of anything – anime, cars, sports teams. This word, literally meaning “your home,” was once extremely respectful, but has become obsolete over time. Especially zealous fans of science fiction began to use it as a “brand” (sort of like “comrades” or “boys”), for which they received the nickname “those who call each other” otaku “(otaku-zoku).Which the thrifty Japanese people soon reduced to a simple “otaku” and extended to all generally especially zealous fans. In the West and in Russia, otaku are just a big fan of anime and manga. Until recently, in Russia, it was possible to enroll in the ranks of the otaku without looking, anyone who managed to watch anime more or less regularly, but, as it is now gradually becoming clear, there is still a difference. On the Internet, you can find many tests that allow you to “by points” determine whether you are an otaku or simply do not mind watching Japanese cartoons at your leisure.Personally, until recently, I was just a little short, but, having started writing about anime, I finally left the ranks of normal people … hopefully, forever.

Pasokon: personal computer. Regardless of shape and size: this word designates not only representatives of the Vintel family, but also Macs, and handhelds … and even the cyberservice of the future.

Manga: Japanese comics. The simplest and shortest explanation. Yeah, it’s all the same that “shamisen is a Japanese balalaika”, but for a start it will do.

Mangaka: The author of the manga. Not just a screenwriter or an artist, but someone who does everything himself: he comes up with a plot, writes dialogues and, of course, draws. This, however, does not mean at all that he cannot have helpers.

Manwa: Korean manga.

Anime: Animated films and TV series made in Japan. Precisely “created”, since they are produced (phasing, filling) they are often in Korea, China or the Philippines. Actually, that’s the whole definition: it does not imply any stylistic, plot, technological or any other other framework.Some Japanese artists and filmmakers (especially those who are experimenting with dolls, clay, etc.) believe that “anime is a type of manga animation” and do not like when their work is called that word. Well, that’s what the rules are for, so that exceptions are not translated.

Doujinshi: non-commercial (more precisely, sold in funny copyrights) manga, which tells the story of “new” (often bed) adventures of characters from popular anime, manga and video games. At the same time, there is no question of any observance of copyright rights … and this does not bother anyone at all, including the right holders.Occasionally professionals indulge in the creation of doujinshi, but usually amateurs start with this. Some of them, like the CLAMP group, eventually become professionals themselves.

Doujinshika: The author of doujinshi.

Fanubbers: Those who make fanbubs, that is, subtitles containing amateur translations of the anime. They differ from pirates in that, firstly, they don’t take money (and they don’t tell others – see the corresponding inscription at the beginning of most “honest” fansubs), and secondly, they wind up work on the project as soon as the anime comes out “for licenses ”In the respective region.

Studio: An anime design and production company. Some studios, such as Ghibli, provide the entire production cycle from script to finished film themselves. Some, for example, GAINAX, do not keep “non-creative” workers at all, delegating purely technical operations (phasing, filling) to third-party contractors. And some, like Production I.G. – they draw their full-length films with serials, and help people (of course, not disinterestedly).

Character Design: Like a Live Casting.And at the same time, the character designer does the work of a make-up artist, dresser and tailor – in general, determines the appearance of characters in all possible situations, their emotional reactions, characteristic poses and gestures, etc. It happens that a character designer gets carte blanche, and sometimes, together with the director, he works not only on the external, but also on the internal appearance of the heroes, but it also happens that his creative freedom is limited by the will of the author of the original manga, director, sponsors … In any In this case, he is considered one of the key figures in the process of creating anime, and it is his name that is most often called immediately after the director’s.

Seiyu: Voice actor – that is, doing voice acting for anime and drama. Many, if not most, professional voice actors have never taken part in “ordinary” theatrical performances in their lives, have not appeared on the screen except for interviews. But this does not in the least prevent them from being popular on a par with the stars of television and cinema. But many of them “also” sing!

Drama: in this case it is not a genre, but a whole form of popular art – sound performances. They sound on the radio, are published on disks.Once something like that was popular in the USSR – radio plays, records of fairy tales … only those records were made based on cartoons, but in Japan it happens that anime is made based on a drama (although more often it’s the other way around).

Lipsync: Synchronization of the movements of the lips of a speaking character with voice acting. In American (and not only), animation is considered an extremely important task, but in anime, as a rule, it is ignored. Because, firstly, the vast majority of anime is voiced as “live” cinema: seiyu is played looking at the footage already filmed (American animators, on the other hand, draw, trying to get into pre-recorded cues).And secondly, rather than spending so much time and effort on animating a single mouth, wouldn’t it be better to work more thoroughly on, so to speak, the overall expressiveness of the character?

Formats: Anime comes in the form of a TV series, feature film, OVA / OAV and ONA. The first two are almost the same as the formats we are used to, with two clarifications. First, the feature film of the same name is almost always secondary to the series, and not vice versa. Moreover, we are not necessarily talking about a continuation – it can be an alternative version of the same plot (the same story, told not just in other words, but also from a different point of view).Secondly, if, by analogy with literature, a full-length film is a story, then some anime series are like collections of stories, and others are like novels; such series have at least one end-to-end storyline, and you should not try to watch them from the middle.OVA (Only Video Anime), it is also OAV (Original Animated Video) is intended for distribution exclusively on personal media – videotapes and DVDs, and not for showing on TV or in cinemas. Unlike so-called “private video programming”, there is not a lot of hentai among OVAs (although almost all hentai anime is “video-only”).In form, these are, as a rule, small, four to six episodes, serials. In fact, it is an independent format, the brightest representatives of which combine the best qualities of television and film-anime: a long duration gives their authors room for the development of complex plots, and the absence of the need to issue a series of episodes per week allows thorough drawing and animation. Well, for young independent studios, OVA is often the best (if not the only) way to get through to the audience.

Finally, the abbreviation ONA stands for Only Network Anime, and the anime released in this format, as you might guess, is intended for distribution exclusively (or at least primarily) in the form of files and via the Internet. So far, most ONA are amateur short films, but some quite serious commercial works (for example, Mahou Yuugi) have recently appeared (quite officially), first in the public domain on the network, and only then, after a break, in television.Yes, of course, we are talking about the Japanese-speaking “sector” of the Internet.

3D: three dimensions known to all – length, width and height. Of course, you cannot see any “three-dimensionality” on a flat, that is, a two-dimensional screen (at the current level of development of science and technology). So, when they talk about “three-dimensional graphics”, they usually mean the technology with which the picture is obtained. First, a mathematical model of a three-dimensional object is created in a special program (did you have drawing lessons at school?) – at first it looks like a set of thin wires, but then it is “wrapped” in flat pictures – textures that imitate different surfaces (metal, clothes, wood etc.NS.). Then they combine them on the “virtual stage” with other similar mathematical objects, animate, arrange virtual projectors, set up a virtual camera and virtually shout “virtual motor!”. And rendering begins, that is, the process of visualization, during which the computer intensively thinks: if all this virtuality were real, how would a real camera behave in such a situation? .. The result is a sequence of normal flat frames. As you can see, there are no conceptual differences from traditional puppet animation, and where they come from – nothing new under the Moon.Unless 3D pretends to be some kind of mystical photorealism – but, apparently, this is not such a good thing, since cell-shading technology is becoming more and more popular: a rendering method in which three-dimensional objects end up looking like hand-drawn.

Compositing: combining “independently” moving objects with each other and with the background into a single whole. Let’s say we have an animated character, very expressively fingering with his feet – but in order for him to become a character walking somewhere, we need to slip a road under his feet, and along this road, frame by frame, move in the right direction.And then suddenly a cyclist is passing by! Also an animated character, only he, moving along the background, pedals. At some point, it will block the pedestrian, because it will be closer to us, because it is located one layer higher … In traditional animation, a camera and celluloid sheets are used, but since this material is still not completely transparent, you cannot combine too many layers – it will turn out dregs. Digital compositing, conceptually no different from traditional technology, unties the hands of animators and allows you to create very complex scenes with many objects moving along their trajectories.

Phasing: drawing intermediate positions (phases) between keyframes during animation. Key frames: hand down, hand up. Phases: the arm is slightly raised, the arm is slightly raised, the arm is raised, the arm is raised a little higher … You probably already guessed that keyframes are drawn by animators, and this is a complex and creative work, and unskilled workers are engaged in phasing – as a rule , young and green. Such is the hazing – well, all the greats went through this too …

Morphing: smoothly transform one image into another.Let’s say a young and attractive girl turns into a disgusting witch before our eyes … and I say that in animation this is called morphing! Drawing the intermediate phases of morphing is a very difficult task, but the computer is able to make it much easier, the main thing is to correctly outline the position of key points (for example, on the face – the tip of the nose, the corners of the eyes, etc.) on the source and final images.

Fill: The most tedious and uncreative stage in the production of animated films. Painting pre-defined areas of the drawing (animators usually work with empty paths) with a pre-approved color.Requires care, perseverance … and nothing more. It is this operation that is primarily entrusted to contractor studios, and more recently to computers.

Cosplay (from the English costume play): an amateur costume show popular among the otaku. Participants dress up in the costumes of their favorite anime characters (or Japanese video games), apply make-up if necessary and … further depends solely on the taste and capabilities of the participants and / or organizers. As a rule, business is limited to the creation of a series of staged photographs, but real theatrical performances “based on” happen within the framework of festivals.Hentai cosplay is also found in nature – as a rule, commercial. In Japan, a lazy otaku can easily purchase a ready-made costume with all the accessories, but real cosplayers, of course, do everything with their own hands (although, say, for contact lenses with a shiringan, like Kakashi-sensei from Naruto, you still have to go to the store ).

Hentai, etty: first, erotica and pornography in anime, manga and video games; secondly, an expletive: “Oh, you are a pervert!”. From Japanese, “hentai” literally translates as “perversion”, and “etchi” is the Japanese reading of the name of the Roman letter H (hi), which, in turn, begins the word Hentai, written in English.Typically, hentai anime is released as an OVA (and hentai games are released on the PC). In modern Japan, severe laws on the fight against pornography, introduced during the occupation period, are formally in force, but in practice, according to the well-known Russian proverb, their severity is compensated by the non-binding nature of their implementation. Of course, this does not mean rampant permissiveness at all, just Japanese society, with its centuries-old culture of sexual relations, as a rule, copes with issues of sexual morality without the help of the state … at least for now.

Fanservice: scenes with erotic coloring of varying degrees of lightness, as a rule, not motivated by the plot, but inserted exclusively as a “gift” (service) to the audience. A certain category of spectators. A very broad category of spectators …

Kawaii: in Japanese “lovely”, “what a sweetheart!” etc. Speaking of “kawaii”, “kawaii design”, they mean deliberate childishness, defenselessness, “sympathy” of the characters and / or their environment.

Sentai: If anyone decided to make an anime based on “The Elusive Avengers”, critics would attribute it to this genre.The adventures of a small but cohesive team goal is what it is.

Maho-shoujo: the genre of “fairy girls’ adventures”. At first glance, she is an ordinary girl, and at the second, too. But as soon as you turn away, and she immediately turns … what a hentai you are, lieutenant. She turns into a sorceress. And then – back.

Furs: all kinds of mechanisms, preferably large, shiny and futuristic. First of all, of course, the giant war robots! Well, spaceships too.In many studios there are artists who are exclusively engaged in fur design (that is, inventing the appearance of furs), and they do not really know how to draw people … they just get better furs (than those who draw people well).

Yaoi: Male Same-Sex Love Motives in Anime and Manga.

Yuri: Motifs of Female Same-Sex Love in Anime and Manga.

Live action is a live action film or television series based on popular anime.

Big eyes: they are not at all a mandatory attribute of all anime and manga characters.This excusable delusion is based on a very gross – as if the Japanese, allegedly embarrassed by their appearance, constantly draw Europeans, for the sake of appearing to call them by Japanese names. This is wrong. First, the Japanese themselves do not at all consider themselves “narrow-eyed”, and the main difference between Mongoloid and Caucasian faces, in their opinion, lies in the shape and length of the nose. Secondly, it is the eyes that are considered by the Japanese to be the main “expressive element” of the face, while for contemporary Western artists the “mirror of the soul”, apparently, is the mouth.Thirdly, according to the traditional Japanese system of symbols, large, wide-open, shining eyes are a sign of youth, naivety, and purity of soul. Mature people are portrayed with normal-sized eyes, and characters on their minds are depicted with a fox’s squint.

Headscarf tied “a la village grandmother”, but with a knot under the nose: a traditional symbolic attribute of a thief who has gathered “for business”. Something like a scarf stretched over the lower half of the face of the heroes of classic westerns.In modern anime and manga, it is used, as a rule, in comic episodes.

Nosebleeds: The Japanese believe that a young virgin male body reacts to the sight of naked female charms and, in general, sexually colored scenes in this way. Well, that is, of course, they do not believe that this happens in reality, but there are a lot of comedy scenes that play on this character in anime.

White headband, twisted with a tourniquet – so that sweat from the forehead does not get into the eyes. A strip of fabric simply wrapped around the head and tied at the back of the head is a symbol of concentration, dedication to some important cause.Which one – you can usually guess from the inscription on the bandage.

Sneezing: according to the observations of folk physiologists, recorded in the form of signs, the Russians, when someone remembers them somewhere, begin to hiccup, and the Japanese begin to sneeze.

Number “4”: considered unlucky, similar to the “devil’s dozen” in Russia. The explanation is simple: the words “four” and “death” in Japanese sound the same.

Aydoru (from English idol): idol. In Japanese show business, this is not an honorary title, but such a profession.Not every commercially successful Japanese artist is an idol, and vice versa. Idols are, in a sense, actors who, 24 hours a day, play “as if they are themselves” according to a scenario carefully thought out by image-makers, while “ordinary” artists calmly wash away their image along with makeup. Idols may have neither a strong voice, nor perfect hearing, nor professional acting skills, the main thing for them is charm and the ability to “keep a smile” in any circumstances (however, this also requires a fair amount of acting ability).And yet – obedience to the will of the producer, since their contracts, in fact, are the most real slavery.

Mononoke: Literally “the spirit of a thing”. Mononoke is brought to life by inanimate objects: furniture, cars, weapons … computers (why not?). The spirits of nature – forests (and individual trees), fields and rivers – are also mononoke.

Oni: demon. In principle, it can denote the restless spirit of the deceased, and an evil spirit or deity, and a werewolf, and a Buddhist hungry spirit – in general, an otherworldly creature, from which it is better to stay away.Since the 17th century, their appearance has been unified: they are depicted as humanoids with large horns, sharp fangs, three or four eyes, mouth to ear and wearing a tiger skin loincloth.

Shinto: literally “the way of the gods”. National Japanese religion. Roughly speaking, pagan (based on the cult of ancestors and worship of the forces of nature), but by no means primitive. There are no official Shinto canons, but there are many sacred relics, including books (expressing the private opinion of a sage on a particular issue).In fact, Shinto is an extremely developed mythology plus numerous rituals, which, however, no one forces anyone to observe (at least too often). In Shinto, there are no clear formulations that make it possible to distinguish gods (kami) from people: people descended from gods (for example, the first Japanese emperor Jimmu is a direct descendant of the sun goddess Amaterasu), live with them in the same world and can privately become gods. Accordingly, instead of hoping for a reward in the afterlife, Shinto offers harmony with itself and with the world around it, the best and generally the only one possible.There are also no moral attitudes, instead of them – the idea of ​​”clean” and “unclean”, that is, worthy and unworthy behavior. Really grave sin – “tsumi”, violation of the world order, so you will have to pay for it even after death. Most Japanese are “born Shinto, die Buddhist”: rituals accompanying births and marriages, as well as local holidays are usually performed according to Shinto customs, and memorial rites according to Buddhist canons; a small Buddhist temple in the courtyard of a large Shinto is a common thing, and that is very convenient.But no one forbids a Shintoist (and even a Buddhist) to simultaneously profess any other religion or even call himself an atheist.

Buddhism: The second main religion of the Japanese. Penetrated from China in the 6th century. Zen is the most widespread, it is also Chan Buddhism. More details? Tell you about Zen Buddhism ?! You know, I’d rather have some tea about Zen Buddhism, and then I’ll go have a smoke about Zen Buddhism – there will be much more sense in this. Or I will quote a wonderful text by Yuri Nesterenko entitled “Why programs are buggy”: “Is a program that prints itself buggy? What does a program look like that is not recorded on any media? One day a student asked a teacher how to get rid of glitches in programs, and the teacher gave him the CIH virus.One day, another student told the teacher that he wanted a glitch-free program. “Fool! – shouted the teacher, – why don’t you ask for a glitch without a program? ”- and hit him on the head with a hard drive. If you have not yet attained enlightenment, there is nothing to talk about with you. ”

Japanese: Not as difficult as it is commonly believed. In fact, it is much more difficult! By the way, if you do study it, keep in mind: do not abuse the speech patterns overheard in the anime, in a conversation with real Japanese – they instantly determine where what came from.Although why should we be ashamed …

Some useful information, knowledge of which will help you better understand what is happening on the screen:

– There are only two tenses in Japanese: past and present. There is no future. It just can be. Therefore, when talking about upcoming events, planned affairs, and so on, the Japanese use the subjunctive mood. Thus, an important feature of the national mentality is manifested in the language. Or vice versa? ..

– In Japanese, the word order in a sentence is from least important word to main.For example, the phrase “recently read an article on about a new anime series” according to the Japanese word order would look like this: “I recently read on a new anime series about an article”. In a negative sentence, the actual negation is indicated at the very end: “there is no means for getting rid of this scourge” – “there is no such scourge for getting rid of the means”.

– Foreign words in the mouth of the Japanese are sometimes transformed beyond recognition. So, the surname of the wonderful actor Frunzik Mkrtchan in the mouth of the Japanese sounds like “Makurotyan”.The fact is that, although Japanese words, like Russian ones, consist of syllables, syllables are not divided into separate sounds: each syllable is written with one letter hiragana or katakana. Accordingly, several consecutive consonants are a problem. In addition, in Japanese there are not many sounds (for example, “l”), for which reason English love turns into “slave”, cutlet – into “kotsuretsu” and so on.

– Vertical text is read from top to bottom from right to left, horizontal – in the usual way, from left to right from top to bottom.Manga “frames” are read from right to left from top to bottom. Books and magazines are flipped from right to left.

Sensei (literally “unborn”): Teacher. Not in the sense of a profession (apart from the teachers themselves, doctors, writers, scientists and even lawyers are also called sensei), but as an expression of the lowest respect for a Person with Knowledge. To say that in Japan teachers are universally respected is like “from Tokyo to the moon a little further than to Osaka.”

Senpai: An older friend or colleague in terms of age or experience relative to the younger.For example, a high school student in relation to a low school student. It can be used as a polite address, as an independent word or a suffix added to the surname or first name.

Kohai: The younger in age or experience is a comrade or colleague in relation to the elder. For example, a junior high school student in relation to a high school student. Not used as an address.

-samo: a suffix added to the surname or first name when referring to God, the emperor, a deeply revered and dearly loved person, as well as to a buyer or client.

-san: the suffix added to the surname expresses a neutral-polite attitude. Something like Russian “for you” and by name and patronymic.

-kun: the suffix added to the first or last name gives the speech a friendly, familiar tone. Something like Russian “for you”. It is usually used in relation to boys and young men, less often – to adult men, rarely – to girls and women (in the latter case, the speaker emphasizes that he sees in the interlocutor only “a comrade, not a woman,” and it sounds somewhat rude).It is never used by the younger in relation to the elder.

-tyan: the suffix added to the name or surname has a meaning close to the Russian diminutive suffixes “-ochka”, “-echka”. Like “-kun”, it has a tinge of familiarity. Used in relation to kawaii little children, girls, girls … but a guy may be offended by such treatment.

School Clubs: For many Japanese students, it is almost mandatory to participate in any hobby group.It happens that at a regular school there are several dozen clubs, circles and sports sections, and at the beginning of the school year a real battle for newcomers unfolds between them. Traditionally, school clubs are self-governing and are not subordinate to the school administration, but to the student committee. Often, the school’s participation in the club’s work is limited to the provision of premises and the purchase of equipment, although sometimes, especially if the club is the “pride of the school”, the administration hires a special “coming” teacher (but in this case, the formal head of the club is one of the students).

Kimono (from “kiru mono”, “thing to put on”): national dress. A real kosode is insanely expensive, it is almost impossible to put it on alone, and now, perhaps, only professional actors and geisha own the art of wearing it correctly. The Yukata is much cheaper, lighter and easier to operate, although in winter you cannot go outside in it. It is customary to wear a yukata while resting in an onsen, going to a festivities on the occasion of a national holiday, etc., but, in fact, a Japanese who wears national clothes as everyday clothes cannot even claim to be an eccentric.

Okinawa: for the Japanese – about the same as for the Soviet people the southern coast of Crimea was. It is warm there, palm trees grow there, there are many historical and architectural monuments, exotic souvenirs are sold there, you feel as if you are abroad … and everything is very, very expensive there.

Loss of face: maybe not the worst thing that can happen to a modern Japanese, but still an extremely unpleasant thing. Roughly speaking, “to lose face” means “to lose honor”, ​​“to be disgraced”. This is easy to do – for example, not being able to contain the outburst of anger caused by an empty insult.Not showing due respect when addressing the elder, failing to reason with the younger. And so on … in general, not to fulfill your duty, to behave in an inappropriate way. The entire Japanese culture of communication is built on the desire not to lose face and not accidentally leave the interlocutor without a face. That is why the Japanese rarely say “yes” and “no”, preferring “probably” and “I’m not sure”, and in general their speech is full of hints and reservations that give the interlocutors room to maneuver.

Sakura: Japanese cherry.Symbol … but why is there, it is not necessary to rudely interpret such subtle poetic images – you yourself will understand everything. Moreover, the image is not only subtle, but also very popular. At the time of cherry blossoms, the Japanese go to picnics en masse – to admire. So they sit and admire … and sake sake … beauty!

Sake: rice wine. Not vodka! It is used warm. Not hot! Of course, in terms of the variety and subtlety of the bouquet, rice drinks are no match for grapes, but there is something in it. Besides the degree, of course.

Ronin (literally “wave man”): Actually, a samurai without a permanent patron. In the sense transferred to modern times – an applicant who has failed the entrance exams at the university, but is determined to try again a year later (accordingly, he spends his “Ronin” year, deeply immersed in his studies).

Baka: fool, fool, fool … depending on the circumstances.

And finally, Russian-language portal dedicated to anime and manga. News, reviews, articles, forums … and, among other things, the latest version of this very dictionary.

Evgeniy Tsepenyuk

Pasokon in the country of otaku, or through the screen to Japan and back

On screen

“Just as there are many things that make a person a person, so there are many things that make a person a person. The face by which you are recognized. The voice you consider yours. The hand that you see when you wake up. Childhood memories. Dreams about the future. But that is not all. There is something else on the net that my cybernetic mind can grasp … ”

“Ghost In The Shell”, monologue by Kusanagi Motoko.

We say “computers on the screen” – we mean “cyberpunk”. We say “cyberpunk” – we mean metropolises scraping leaden skies, rampant crime, tyranny of megacorporations, intelligent computers and mad hackers, electrical flashes in the virtual heaven of the promised … Selfish characters who do not want to behave as normal positive or negative heroes should behave. Authors with good police training: “I am asking the questions here! Do androids dream of electric sheep? ”Yes, we have not yet had time to understand that we ourselves are dreaming, and we are already puzzled by androids … The problems posed by the Information Age to European civilization, frightening not so much by their numbers as by their fundamental, systemic novelty – this is the main content of cyberpunk.

Meanwhile, for Japanese culture, all these questions are childish. “Where the babies come from?”. “Who is dreaming to whom – a butterfly to a sage or a sage to a butterfly?” Everyone has known for a long time that the universe is hosted on the site of the old Liao teapot, which sells warez on one of the Beijing servers.A virtual reality? And what, is there any other? Chosen One, you still do not understand anything: there is a spoon. It’s not you …

Or, here’s an animated computer: an ordinary mononoke, “the spirit of a thing,” something unseen for Shintoists who animate everything around. And Buddhists are much more concerned about who or what you yourself will be in the next rebirth. They say that good sysadmins are transferred to Unix servers, and kulkhackers-virus writers are transferred to glitchy personal computers … is it a joke?

And the omnipotent hackers are just modern wizard-hermit monks.Indeed, what’s the difference what he uses there – magic or science, if you still don’t know and can’t understand how he achieves the result? The main thing is not to quarrel with him.

Corporations – the same feudal clans. Nothing changed. Well, almost nothing.

With misunderstandings about good and bad – also at the address. The concepts of “absolute good” and “absolute evil” are so alien to Japanese culture that before meeting Christians, naive islanders did not even differentiate gods, believing that an otherworldly being with whom you personally managed to agree is a good god, but a bad devil turns out if you really pissed off a good god.Of course, the idea of ​​saving money on motivation seemed to many to be a good rationalization, but until now most serious Japanese authors write out characters so ambiguous that they can be confidently attributed only to “ours” or “not ours”. And even then not always.

It would seem that for the successful assimilation of the ideas of cyberpunk, the creators of the anime did not need to make any special efforts: they added to the usual concepts of “electro” and “cyber”, and that’s it. However, not all so simple. To make it more expressive, here is a culinary metaphor for you: there is a dish called “kotsuretsu”; foreigners consider it the national Japanese, while the Japanese consider it European.In fact, this is an ordinary pork chop, only cut into small pieces so that it is more convenient to eat with chopsticks, flavored with soy sauce … and so on, and as a result, the taste, smell and appearance resembles the “original” no more than the word “kotsuretsu” – the word “cutlet”. And this is how Japanese culture processes almost everything that it borrows from the West. Cyberpunk is no exception.

First of all, we went to the trash heap with cylinders with the very stifling atmosphere of fear, hopelessness and animal melancholy, without which cyberpunk is not cyberpunk.As unnecessary. After all, if all the other elements of the imported style turned out to be familiar and familiar, then why be afraid?

Even in “Ghost In The Shell” by Oshii Mamoru – things that are perhaps the closest to the “classic models”, for all its gloom and oriental aesthetic cruelty, there is absolutely no fear. The director’s pessimism looks more like the blues of a tired skeptic (it is noteworthy that Japanese fans sharply criticized GITS for the fact that during the film adaptation the crude but juicy humor of the original Shirou Masamune manga was “lost”) than the trademark cyberpunk paranoia.Yes, identity can be faked, memories can be falsified; a person can be manipulated like a puppet, but … these are problems of humanity, not technology. The authors of GITS, Armitage III, Serial Experiment Lain prefer to be intimidated by the prospects of total dehumanization by thinking together with the viewer about what a person is and how he differs … not even from a cyborg, but from another person. What makes a person a person? Where is the border that delineates the limits of human consciousness and at the same time separates “I” from others? Is everyone born a human capable of being?

Further – more.Classic cyberpunk, for the Japanese taste, is still too superb and monotonous. Here with seasonings, but with a side dish … Imagine a musical action-comedy based on Blade Ranner: it’s called Bubblegum Crisis (exaggerating, exaggerating, but!). Or an adventurous space pirate adventure with a twist that strikingly resembles Total Recall: here’s the Space Adventure Cobra. Or heroic in some places up to parodic cyber fantasy with elements of a detective story and a plot, as if spied in Lukyanenko’s “Labyrinth of Reflections”: something like that will turn out.hack (within the framework of the project, anime series, manga and, most importantly, a role-playing game for PS2 were released, the action of which takes place … inside an online role-playing game).

Cyberpunk itself can also be used as a condiment to other genres. It is most actively used, perhaps, by the authors of lyrical youth comedies: Hand Maid May, Chobits … Of course, there can be no talk of any leaden sky (well, perhaps according to the mood), but the intricate relationships between artificial and natural minds, endowed with all possible sex characteristics, including tertiary (female logic and male naivety) – more than enough.Moreover, among the main heroes, cyborgs are almost always female. It is believed that the sincere suffering of humble, submissive and, of course, sexy cyber maids and their comprehensively positive, but (necessarily!) Unlucky owners in love is simply a manifestation of the secret nostalgia of Japanese men for the times of total patriarchy. Either way, the difference between cyber maids and angel housekeepers from TV shows like Angel’s Tail lies solely in such details as the shape of the ears, the presence or absence of a tail, and within the framework of the theme it is completely unprincipled, as is the general difference between magic and technology.Indicative in this sense is Video Girl Ai: if at the beginning of the series, Amano Ai’s high-tech origins are beyond doubt, closer to the end the smell of burnt insulation becomes fainter, and more and more smells of mysticism. However, the substitution of virtuality for subtlety does not affect the persuasiveness of everyday history.

The apotheosis of “understanding” cyberpunk is called FLCL: a thing completely unlike cyberpunk … and not like anything at all, comparable, in my opinion, except to “Snark Hunt”, but containing (look carefully!) Almost all cyberpunk elements.In one form or another. Sometimes in another to a mirror, say, in the form of an iron (of course, thinking all sorts of nasty things about us), but that’s the whole point! And the action from the megalopolis to the village was also transferred for a reason, and the “Matrix” was casually parodied for nothing to do …

What’s next, what’s next? I have no idea. Thank God I do not consider myself a critic. I, as they say, will take a look … Because the Japanese – although they are accustomed to questions, they, of course, also do not know the answers. But on the other hand, they know that they do not know them, and do not try to pretend that they do.And you know what? This is what I like.

On the other side of the screen

“Art is either revolution or plagiarism.”

Paul Gauguin

Oddly enough, it is not so easy to give an intelligible answer to the question “how much has the development of computer technology influenced anime”. That is, it seems that this is the same influence, you can see it with the naked eye: here, all in sparkling 3D, the blue submarine No. 6 from the series of the same name floats, here, in the flashes of digital special effects, spaceships from Cowboy Bebop are jumping through hyperspace, against the background of pre-rendered, sorry, the first ever android DJ from Maico 2010 is going on the air …

In my opinion, “visible” is not the right word: the combination of traditional “celluloid” drawing and computer graphics, especially 3D, just hurts the eye.Well, not always, of course, but nevertheless the habit has developed: halftones and small details are the prerogative of backgrounds, and animated objects are characterized by expressiveness of solid lines and clear outlines of areas filled with color; three-dimensional objects, rich in halftones and poor in detail, are neither fish nor meat. And it’s one thing to experiment with combining animation and feature films, where the contrast between living and lively works as a full-fledged artistic device, but plastic in appearance, whatever one may say, three-dimensionality is quite another.

However, even such enthusiasts of “numbers” as the executives of the studios Gonzo or Production I.G. are well aware of the existence of the “compatibility problem” and spend a lot of energy on solving it. With varying success and … with enviable persistence, continuing to use three-dimensional graphics to visualize mechanisms, urban landscapes, futuristic special effects, etc., while drawing “living” characters in the old fashioned way, by hand and even on paper. And only then scanning, painting and animating on the computer.Fully three-dimensional works are still the lot of screensavers for video games (well, with a couple of exceptions that only prove the rule).

If you take a closer look, or better – ask a specialist to poke a finger, you will find unobvious, but no less digital in origin fragments in the works of even the most conservative masters. Studio Ghibli also has one fully digital film, My Neighbors the Yamadas (director Takahata Isao wanted the watercolor softness of the drawing instead of the usual celluloid fill lines).Or here’s the epochal Neon Genesis Evangelion: if in the original television series computers were used exclusively to display computer monitors, then in the full-length End Of Evangelion there are, for example, scenes containing complex animation of many objects located on different planes and moving at different speeds along independent trajectories (aircraft with serial Evas). It is possible to achieve a similar effect when working with a traditional camera, but only theoretically … And, in the end, digital filling, completely indistinguishable from the traditional, but greatly accelerating the non-creative routine, is used by all who are lazy.

However … so what? Japanese artists have experimented with expressive means for a long time, and they are experimenting today. And why is there any kind of computer – animation itself is perceived by them, by and large, not as an end in itself, but, again, as one of the expressive means, new and powerful, but … one of.

Anime is not a style or a genre, and the notorious “big eyes” have nothing to do with it. There are anime graphic and pictorial, bright and dull, dynamic and meditative.And “cartoon” “1001 nights – The Adventures of Sinbad” (1962) Taiji Yabushita, and erotic “1001 nights” (1969 – by the way, the first full-length erotic cartoon in world history) “God of manga” Tezuka, and sophisticated “1001 nights” ( 1998) Amano Yoshitaki, who tried to fuse painting, manga, 3D, classical and computer animation into an indivisible whole – all this is anime. And Boogiepop Phantom, whose authors used digital post-processing of quite two-dimensional scenes to obtain an eerie effect of an amateur half-hidden shooting (an urban animated Blair Witch?), And completely three-dimensional, but at the same time fundamentally non-photographic (deliberately rough models rendered using technology cell shading) Platonic Chain, and the ancient Japanese psychedelic video series Kousetsu Hyaku Monogatari, in which three-dimensional elements and “hand” drawings covered with a thick layer of digital makeup arrange a real masquerade, sometimes transforming beyond recognition – all this is also anime.Final Fantasy: Sprits Within, a flop at the box office, is, with all due respect to Square Enix, not an anime. It’s just that the names in the credits are not the same, but the upcoming Final Fantasy: Advent Children is an anime, regardless of the rolling fate. Anime is animation created by Japanese authors, nothing more, nothing less.

So the question should be: have computers made Japanese animation less Japanese? No. Of course no. This Western art is developing in revolutionary leaps, and each new generation of talents first of all anathematize the achievements of their predecessors.The Japanese, on the other hand, feel too comfortable on the shoulders of giants, and willingly substitute their shoulders (there can be no other way in a country where the Teacher is revered just above the gods and just below the ancestors). And now, you see, they have a very broad outlook up there, on their shoulders. That’s all.

Stanislav Gaydzinsky

For amateur

Which country do you prefer wine at this time of day?

M.A.Bulgakov, “The Master and Margarita”

You come to the place where knowledgeable people exchange impressions.You are asking a simple, clear and obvious question. And in response, you get only an explanation of why your question is completely meaningless, and even advice to ask again in some way more correct. And this is the best case. In the case of a normal one, the old-timers of the anime forum breed a nostalgic flame, remembering their “first times”, in not the worst case, they arrange a bickering, defending each of their opinions. In the worst case, the answer to the eternal question “What would you advise a newbie to see?” will be given, and it will be a simple and unambiguous listing of one or two or three names, and it will be just as wrong as a prescription written out without a diagnosis.

Because anime films and TV shows are different, very different. For, firstly, they are created for a wide variety of people and for extremely different moods, and secondly, by people no less diverse: the total number of anime studios and the footage of the product they produce exceed all non-Japanese limits. Of course, even American animation – if we remember that, in addition to Disney-like musical fairy tales, it is proudly represented by super-numerous superheroes, and humanoid Beavis and Butt-head, and the old-fashioned Simpsons, and cynical South Park citizens – is not at all monolithic, but in terms of the diversity among the Japanese competitors in this world does not.Anime is subject to almost all genres and, more importantly, the themes available to feature films (comedy, satire, drama, bovik, horror, adventure, fantasy, psychology, erotica, politics, religion … and then until the vocabulary is completely exhausted), plus some more , some of which are purely local specifics and exotic, some are the usual, in general, features of the plot, awarded here their own genre definition.

Here, for example, an anime in the genre of maho-shojo (“girl-sorceress”) tells about a completely ordinary-looking girl who, under certain circumstances, can briefly turn into a powerful sorceress (Cinderella herself and the fairy godmother in one bottle).As a rule, her appearance at the same time changes beyond recognition (but not in the direction of fading), and her age, if it was originally a child, increases to quite sexually mature. At least in appearance. It is believed that the authors in this way metaphorically depict the amazing process of the transformation of a girl into a girl. I don’t know, I don’t know … In any case, I cannot help but wonder how a great many plots, sometimes very original, were born from such a seemingly banal plot.

Spokon (combination of “sport” and “willpower”) – a toast about how one small but very proud athlete trained hard and became a champion first, and then trained even harder and became the biggest champion! That is, sorry, not a toast, but a saga.

Sentai (literally “squad, team”) – the adventures of a small “group of comrades” united by a common cause (yakuza and classmates do not count). As a rule, this business is to save the world from Evil, but there are options. Not all team members are equally important for the development of the plot, someone should still be the main character (not necessarily the leader), but frank “eat-served” among them are almost never found. Series creators often arrange special “benefit episodes” for each of the “minor” characters.

Mecha is an anime genre in which these very mechs play a key role. For example, the main character fights Evil while sitting in the cockpit of a giant manned humanoid robot. And if he is not alone in his struggle, you get a mecha-sentai. Since the origin of furs can be different, it is quite possible not only SF, but also fantasy mecha-sentai.

Hentai, strictly speaking, is not a genre, because usually, unlike the usual (come on!) Pornography “with live actors”, has a quite coherent plot.Accordingly, detective, parody, heroic-fantasy, and so on. All the same, in general, an old tale, only the prince waking up the sleeping beauty is not limited to a kiss.

Some individual comrades tend to talk about shojo (anime for girls) and shounen (for boys) as genres, but have mercy, what a genre it is, this is sexual orientation! Moreover, in such a seemingly one-bit question, there is not always clarity. For example, the first yaoi anime (that is, with motives of male same-sex love) were addressed to girls.With age, too, not everything is simple: for example, children’s (kodomo) humor as imagined by the Japanese is a kind of humor whose jokes, due to their structural complexity, lack of moral restrictions and a high level of abstraction, cannot be understood by adults. By the way! I hope you have already understood that anime is not “cartoons for children” for you (although children are not forgotten)? And what, speaking of anime for adults, I do not mean at all “children before…”, but “those who are over…”?

The rest of the genre definitions should be more or less familiar to you, but do not forget to make allowances for local specifics! First, the heroes of anime action movies talk a lot and even think.The fist of the villain flies, say, to the face of the main hero, and while he flies, the hero recalls his carefree barefoot childhood, and how he and the future villain pulled their classmates by the pigtails, and how then the Terrible happened, which left a thick, thick imprint on the moral image of the villain … all this takes about half a series, and then the fist still hits, and … whether the fist hit, where did it hit and what came of it, you will find out in a week. This is kabuki … annoying at first, then you get used to it.

Secondly, mysticism in anime is not necessarily horror from the afterlife (those are wrong, but traditionally called gothic).Mysticism is just a great way to save time and effort explaining where what came from. And no one will catch, as a science fiction writer, not by inconsistencies.

Third, melodrama in Japan is not an exclusively female genre. What is a male melodrama, especially a good male melodrama, is difficult to explain in a nutshell. In Japanese terms, sensitivity is not a sign of weakness … well, just don’t be surprised.

Fourth and most importantly, things that are completely and completely squeezed into the framework of one particular genre are rare.Much more often in online guides-encyclopedias-reference books come across characteristics like “fantastic musical melodrama with elements of mecha-senai”, “heroic fantasy with elements of psychological thriller and everyday comedy” or even “fantastic philosophical western clowning”. Humor, by the way, in anime generally enters the screen without knocking and gets along well with the tragedy of any situation. The converse is also true. A cheerful comedy about the last year of the life of a terminally ill, without pathos, but also without vulgarity? Yes, Danelia had a similar episode in “Don’t Cry!”, Remember? Then you know what I mean.


Are you a teenager or an adult? Man or woman? Romantic or cynic, conservative or rebel? It depends on what you want to see on the screen … and something suitable is sure to be found. Well, almost certainly. You know, I really want to take advantage of the situation and bring my purely subjective list … but I will restrain myself. Ask on the Internet forums! And it will be answered to you.

Stanislav Gaydzinsky

Instead of hands

“Should you use a computer for what you can do with your hands?”

Miyazaki Hayao

Miyazaki Hayao and his old friend and colleague Takahata Isao, the founders and permanent leaders of Studio Ghibli, have never been true revolutionaries.Not in politics, not even when they headed the union of young animators at Toei Douga and fell out so deeply with the management that their first film together, Prince of the Sun: The Great Adventure of Horus, was removed from the box office just ten days after its release (in “ failure ”, of course, were accused of obstinate authors), nor in creativity. Therefore, their works instantly became “living classics”, that they easily and naturally entered the circle of recognized classics, joined the unhurried conversation of the colossi, without trying to shout out to anyone.And also: “I have never had anything against the law, according to which success can only be achieved by hard work” – these are the words of Miyazaki Hayao.

You cannot call them conformists either – otherwise they would not be engaged exclusively in full-length films, focusing on quality and trying not to get involved in the turnover inevitable when working with television (and a single commercial failure would mean complete bankruptcy and the closure of the studio). It is unlikely that in 1985, when they founded Ghibli for the production of “Laputa Heavenly Castle”, they sought financial independence: after all, formally Ghibli is a subsidiary of the major Japanese publisher Tokuma Publishing, which owns the distribution rights for all the films of the studio, for a single with the exception of Grave of the Fireflies.Nor would Miyazaki the pragmatist build a subsidiary studio Senior Ghibli specifically to do non-commercial and experimental animation there, and the curmudgeon Takahata would not bother nurturing talented youngsters at the East Koganei Village School of Animation.

Studio Ghibli films, perfect for family viewing, are inhabited by cute and funny characters, full of violence and cruelty, “low” humor (did anyone count how many times genitals are mentioned in Pom Poko?) And high sorrow; their plots are incredibly simple, almost linear, the figurative system is incredibly multidimensional and ambiguous, and the number of cross-cultural references is incalculable … in general, we can talk for a long time about how organic the internal contradictions of the work of these incredibly talented and hardworking people with stunningly boring biographies are, and where something extremely naive beliefs.At the moment, it is important that they are like that – not conservatives, not revolutionaries, but real evolutionists – in everything, including in their attitude to technological innovations, which, in fact, we are talking about.

Miyazaki long considered computers to be nothing more than an amusing toy, not suitable for serious work. Even Oshii Mamoru’s Patlabor 2, whose visuals he never tired of admiring, did not seem to convince the venerable director of the practical usefulness of computer graphics.

So Takahata used the first “number”. In the rudely touching Heisei Tanuki Gassen Pom Poko (1994) (which, although nominated for an Oscar in 1995 for best foreign film, most likely will never be officially released outside Japan – it is very “low”, according to American measures, its humor, and numerous references to root Japanese classics and folklore) there is a scene in which the camera floats through a corridor across the rows of library shelves. It would seem that it does not stand out in anything special – however, manual work on its creation would be too long and painstaking and at the same time completely uncreative, so why not?…

When creating Whisper of the Heart (1995), aspiring director (and actually, the studio’s lead animator) Kondo Yoshifumi was the first to use digital compositing. In a short but memorable scene of a magical flight, many independent objects – floating islands, banks of clouds and Shizuku themselves with the Baron, animated in a traditional way, float over virtual layers of digital celluloid. If real celluloid were used for this, then either the background, covered with so many layers of film, would look pale and dull, and not enchantingly picturesque, as in the film, or the number of animated objects would have to be reduced, and then the feeling of the vastness of space, distorted by the new moon, it would not be so bewitchingly bright.In addition, the more trajectories there are, the more difficult it is to keep them all in memory, and traditional work with a camera is not a very fast process; objects should move smoothly, without jerking.

The success of his colleagues, apparently, convinced Miyazaki that computers are still good for something, but first he tried new technologies on a one-of-a-kind project – an animation video (length 6.40) for the song On Your Mark duo Chage & Aska (1995). And only after that did he decide to use “digital” in the production of a full-fledged full-length film.

And as I decided, I decided so! In “Princess Mononoke” (1997) there are more than one hundred scenes (totaling about 15 minutes), which were created by the employees of the newly founded computer department, equipped (at the time of the release of the film) with two servers and twenty-one Silicon Graphics workstations. True, in ten of those fifteen minutes, computers are used only for digital filling (using the Softimage Toonz program) – nothing interesting. Just at one fine moment, shortly before the deadline, it turned out that it was impossible to paint the remaining 5,000 frames on time – there were not enough working hands.Instead of outsourcing the project, as is usually done, Miyazaki bought five computers and put the hastily hired “seasonal” animators behind them.

But the remaining five minutes is not only digital compositing, the advantages of which were described above, but also the most real 3D, as well as morphing of two-dimensional images. An incredible effort has been made to bring to life the slogan “our computer graphics shouldn’t look like computer graphics” – and they did not go to waste.It is unlikely that you yourself can easily guess what scenes are in question, even if you specifically revise “The Princess …”.

The god’s worms were modeled and animated in SOFTIMAGE | 3D, and then rendered using Toonshader, a hand-painted imitation program developed by the studio’s computer scientists in conjunction with Softimage’s. An interesting point: in this case, three-dimensional animation turned out to be a too long and laborious process, so as a result, some of the scenes with Tatari Kami’s participation are computer graphics, some are purely “manual” animation, and it is almost impossible to determine by eye what is where.

A technology called texture mapping is used in “Princess Mononoke” in some “landscape shots”. Traditional animation technologies force artists to greatly simplify the elaboration of backgrounds in scenes in which, for example, the camera “flies” above the surface and at the same time “looks” at it at an angle different from the direct one: a real camera cannot be rotated in the machine tool, which means that in each frame, the background will have to be redrawn, taking into account the perspective – a non-trivial and extremely time-consuming task.But the virtual camera over the virtual frame, on which a carefully detailed (manually!) Background is “stretched”, can be twisted and twisted as you like.

Morphing was used to animate detailed images – the rapid decay of the cursed god and the magical growth of trees in the finale. The computer calculated the intermediate stages of the smooth transformation of one hand-drawn keyframe into another, in fact, completing the work of the phase artists. But the fact is that usually the phasers are completely “green” animators, who simply cannot be entrusted with such a difficult job.

Particle systems were used to animate sparks floating inside the semi-ghostly body of the nocturnal version of the Forest Spirit. First, a three-dimensional wireframe model (virtual, of course) of the Forest Spirit was made, then it was “filled” with luminous particles, setting numerous parameters of their movement so that each of them drifted independently of the others, but not chaotically. And then the 3D wireframe was replaced with a hand-drawn and animated shape, and it was all connected to the background.

And again Takahata picked up the baton. My Neighbors the Yamadas (1999) was the studio’s first fully digital film. And again, computer graphics (no, by the way, 3D … well, in fact, there are still several three-dimensional models, although it is not easy to recognize them) does not look like computer graphics. And it looks like a bright and stylish drawing, made in a very free manner and traditional for painting and graphics, but not for animation with materials and tools: charcoal pencil, crayons, watercolor … wow, shading? Lines separately, color spots – separately? Characters “merging” with the background ?! It is almost impossible to animate this with a frame rate of more than two or three per second without the help of a computer.Full-length is impossible at all.

It would seem logical to some to assume that the studio’s next film will be digital not only entirely, but also frankly – like “Shrek” or “Monsters, Inc.” But that was not the case: Miyazaki’s Spirited Away is a completely traditional animation film, only even more delicately animated and more detailed than before.

Nevertheless, as in “Princess Mononoke”, in “Gone …” there are about a hundred scenes, in one way or another using the achievements of the digital economy.Only this time, digital filling and compositing are not included in their number, since the proven “digital” has replaced painstaking manual labor at these stages of the production process completely and permanently. Most of the other technologies and techniques have remained essentially the same, as well as the programs used from Softimage. Unless the versions have been updated, and some proprietary plug-ins have been added to them. For example, to make it easier to control the movements of the virtual camera when working with texture mapping.

New: a water surface completely worked out in SOFTIMAGE | 3D (great, isn’t it?), Which required writing several complex shader routines, as well as using the same program to calculate reflections and highlights, which were then thrown onto handmade backgrounds for the viewer their revitalization.

In an interview for one of the traditional “fairy tales about the success of our customers” (customer stories, translation is inaccurate, but in sense) of the Softimage company, Kataama Mitsunori, who is in charge of 3D graphics at Ghibli, let it slip: he and his colleagues will soon have to create a crowd …Not in the sense of “crowding” – out of about one hundred and fifty studio employees, ten work with digital fill, four are engaged in computer compositing, and seven – three-dimensional and computer-generated graphics in general … is this a crowd? No, they are going to model and animate a crowd of people for a new film, and they cannot do without Animation Mixer and, accordingly, the SOFTIMAGE | XSI package in this matter. “Is it really like in LOTR ?!” – the heart skipped a beat, but no: “… and we are also looking forward to the new version of Toon Shader, with the help of which we will be able to give the results of our work an even more man-made look.”So, apparently, it is still not worth waiting for revolutions from Miyazaki, Takahata and their colleagues. Of course, their next work will almost certainly be bold and groundbreaking as usual, but as usual, none of the viewers will notice. And thank God.

Evgeniy Tsepenyuk

Funny pictures

First, there was a hieroglyph. And he was neither a word nor a picture, but he was both at the same time. Actually, the master of brush and ink can even now write “mountain” in such a way that adding “high” or there “with a snow-capped peak” is simply not needed, due to the sheer obviousness.Even printed, that is, devoid of artistic uniqueness, hieroglyphic and “alphanumeric” texts are perceived by readers in completely different ways. This is important: if the European intellectual perceives the transition from text with illustrations to pictures with signatures, that is, comics, as a sign of decline, then from the point of view of classical Far Eastern culture, it looks like decline just like the disintegration of a single semantic space of artistic, in the literal sense of the word, literature into text and graphic components.

Secondly, since literature and fine arts in the Far East developed in parallel, maintaining communication through calligraphy, the idea to revive the drawing, to make the picture change following the narrative simply could not have occurred to anyone. And she did come – in the XII century, in Japan, in the shaved head of the Buddhist monk Kakuya (aka Toba), and was embodied in four scrolls of “Funny Pictures from the Life of Birds and Animals”. In fact, birds and animals, awkwardly parodying human troubles, were the heroes of only the first two scrolls, and on the third and fourth, Buddhist monks were engaged in all sorts of lewd practices.Not just what you think, but, say, playing cockfighting. Why the first Japanese comic strip was not anathematized along with its author, but, on the contrary, is revered as a shrine, it takes a long time to explain, and not the topic. It is important that Toba’s drawings contained the main features of modern manga: simple but expressive lines, exaggerated proportions and vivid emotions and, of course, text cues (albeit in the form of signatures, not “bubbles from the mouth” for now). More importantly, the genre “Toba-e”, that is, “pictures in the style of Toba”, soon became very, very popular.

Which is not surprising: after all (and this is third), learning a couple of thousand hieroglyphs is not a joke. Moreover, these upper and lower readings, whose subtle play gives rise to untranslatable semantic multidimensionality of classical Japanese poetry. Modern Japanese children are able to read “grown-up” newspapers and magazines from the age of twelve, after graduating from elementary school. An illiterate person without an illustration-clue is sometimes simply unable to understand what is being said in a literary text. The Picture Scrolls contributed, on the one hand, to the democratization of literature, and on the other hand, to raise the cultural level of the population and simply to spread literacy.

Fourth, the great artist, poet and philosopher Hokusai Katsushika in 1814 published the first of fifteen volumes of a kind of diary of drawings, observations of life in all its fleeting variety. And he called it “Hokusai manga”, and since then this word, literally meaning “funny pictures”, is called in general all Japanese comics. It is noteworthy that among more than 4000 pictures there are the series “Dancing Sparrows”, “Javelin Throwing” and “Informal Party” depicting successive phases of movement; the resemblance to the animator’s sketches is striking.

Fifth, in 1853, the battleships of Commander Matthew Perry brought the message of democracy to Japan and, at the same time, great American culture. The first Japanese comic magazines began to be published by the Englishman Charles Virgman (The Japan Punch, the first issue was published in 1862) and the Frenchman Georges Bigot (the magazine “Toba-e”, published since 1877). They were published, respectively, in English and French and were intended for the entertainment of foreign settlers. The first Japanese-language magazine comics soon appeared.At first, their authors completely copied the graphic style of their Western colleagues, however (over the course of several decades) they gradually returned to a manner inspired by the experience of classics compatriots, from Toba to Hokusai, only with the use of new technologies – pencil and pen replaced the brush, as a result of which the lines became sharper, drawing as a whole – more dynamic, expressive. In addition, the Japanese liked the idea of ​​”serial” comics with permanent characters. But the reprint of popular comics in the form of books is already purely in Japanese.

Sixth, the first Japanese animated films appear in 1917. Until the very end of the seventies of the last century they were called “manga-eiga”, that is, cinematography, and only then the term “anime”, derived from English animation, was fixed in the language … but this is already another chapter, albeit of the same story.

Seventh, the social significance of manga as a popular art gradually grew, so that the militaristic government, which came to power in the early thirties, could not help but take one of the “most important arts” under its control.Former political cartoonists and young authors who did not want to create “correct” propaganda like the famous “Warrior of Science Comes to New York” (in this 1943 manga, a giant humanoid manned robot appears for the first time!), Were forced to switch to “pure” fiction. adventures, erotica, everyday stories and children’s books … Which, on the one hand, of course, is bad, but on the other hand, from that moment on, manga again (and, I want to believe, already forever) ceases to be “just a caricature”, becomes a universal artistic tool …

Eighth and enough for today, in the post-war period, Tezuka Osamu, the “God of manga”, and his students and followers, with their works, finally brought manga to its current state of one of the most popular forms of popular art. Today, manga accounts for about a quarter of all print production in Japan. Mangaki are not laborers at a mass culture factory, but quite wealthy people (and some, like the famous Takahashi Rumiko, are even millionaires). Manga is published not only in magazines, but also in solid plump books that people of all ages and both genders buy to re-read.

In modern manga, as in Shinto, there are traditions, but no canons. Manga can be popular science and erotic, amateur and commercial, modern and sustained in the classical spirit of ukiyo-e prints. As a rule, it is hand-drawn in black and white, but sometimes it is colored, and picturesque, and even puppet. And, of course, humorous and serious – and more often both at once (which is generally characteristic of Japanese culture). But with all the variety of styles and authorial manners, manga is as easily distinguished from American or French comics as the bearer of a green card is from a decently dressed, well-fed and sleepy compatriot.A specific symbolic language? The harmony of aesthetics verified over the centuries? Just an uncommon expression? Probably both the one and the other, and the third.

Evgeniy Tsepenyuk

Author’s plagiarism, or the art of compromise

Instead of a conclusion …

I’ll write about this right in the introduction. Japanese writers, artists and other artists, without the slightest twinge of conscience, pirated from each other not only images, but whole plot solutions, techniques, compositions and ready-made phrases (as they would say now – using the copy-paste method) from time immemorial, by our standards , times (and the Chinese taught them this, of course).And the lamented masters were not only not outraged by the activity of imitators, but, on the contrary, made them extremely happy. For, according to this their incompatible with Western civilization, and, consequently, savage custom, the more hidden quotes from you are pulled, the cooler you are. And vice versa. It should be noted that the audience, brought up in the same cultural tradition, considered it a matter of honor to find and recognize all hidden references to teachers, no matter how organically they were implanted in the students’ work. As a result, the Japanese classical culture in places strongly resembles the current software with free sources (yes, and incomprehensible for a beginner – too, but that’s another question).

I would very much like to state so beautifully that the last two chaotic centuries did not affect the above-described tradition in any way, and this, they say, explains the violet attitude of anime and manga authors towards fansabs, fanclips and doujinshi. And that wouldn’t be a complete lie! But the truth is far from all.

The second component of the truth is of the most business nature. It is very important for anime producers, especially television series, to have an active, benevolent audience … consumers of reprints and all kinds of merchandise (that is, collectible and souvenir products – from T-shirts and towels to miniature figurines), which, of course, can only be copyrighted (read – licensed) …Some, such as studio Gainax, manage to squeeze more and more money from their successful projects for literally decades. So it turns out that the hypothetical damage from undersold discs cannot be compared either with the obvious benefits from constant heating of the audience, or with the easily predictable harm from spoiling relations with the most active part of the fans (after all, if you suddenly call them thieves, they will be offended! ). Again, the analogy with companies that prefer to make money by selling not boxes of software, but services, willingly exposes their ears to attract.

As for the Western publishers – they are simply, humanly pitiful, like anyone who is trying to reach a compromise between ours, yours and ours – but on the other hand, their ability to find this compromise in spite of everything deserves all respect. But more about that – when it comes to fansubbers … but by the way, let’s start with them.


“Fansabs exist to make anime accessible, not to make it cheap!”

Christopher McDonald, Browser for Anime News Network (http: //

Fansubbers are noble people, thanks to whose selfless work I have an idea of ​​what I am writing about now. If it hadn’t been for fansubbers, anime would probably never have spread outside Japan (at least as a cultural phenomenon), and it certainly wouldn’t have made it to Russia. It is only through fansubbers that non-Japanese audiences have the opportunity to watch and even understand works such as Ebichu or Boys Be. Fansubbers – they are, of course, a little pirate filibusters and even, in the words of Sergei Golubitsky, Bakunians, but American publishers-licensors prefer to negotiate with them without resorting to the help of the courts, and the Japanese generally turn a blind eye to their activities.

Fanubbers are people who, acting in well-organized groups, extract fresh anime in Japan, translate dialogues, inscriptions and lyrics into their native language, turn the translation into subtitles (a popular voiceover in our area, that is, reading the translation in a nasal voice over the original voice acting , is considered extremely bad form), and share the result with everyone.

In the era of videotapes, there were few fansubbers, and they were terribly far from the American people, to say nothing of all the others.Nevertheless, it was they who formed the audience, which, over time, ceased to be satisfied with the quality of the tenth copy from the “original” re-shot from the TV screen, and the audience generated demand, and the demand generated official publishers. Most of whom, surprisingly, still remember the relationship (we are, of course, not talking about the Disney Corporation, which publishes Miyazaki’s films, and other giants). Although now, when digital fansubs, even “filmed” from the air, are not far behind DVD in quality (if you watch it on a monitor screen, and listen through ordinary “computer” speakers), and, thanks to the Internet, you do not need to bother with mail orders and recording cassettes , and the very hobby for anime has practically ceased to be the lot of the “elite”, some frictions have been outlined in the relationship between fansubbers and Western publishers, but …

Two important features distinguish “correct” fansubbers from regular pirates (there are, of course, some marginal types that “rip” licensed DVDs).First: for their work (and, believe me, work is hellish: I still don’t understand how some groups manage to simultaneously “run” several serials, 25-minute episodes per week), fansubbers get nothing but moral satisfaction. Secondly, as soon as a Western publisher officially announces licensing of an anime, fansubbers wind up the project (some, however, wait until the “license” appears on the shelves). So, personally, I did not finish the last few episodes of the wonderful series Kaze No Yojimbo (a free modernized adaptation of Kurosawa’s classic “Bodyguard”).It is a pity that there were no enthusiasts outside the first region (our compatriots mainly translate from English … no, I will not scold them for that – it’s still better than nothing at all).

In turn, Western publishers prefer to maintain relations with fansubbers, if not friendly, then at least trusting. A typical case took place in June last year. The Americans Urban Vision, who bought the Ninja Scroll series eagerly awaited by the public, “on the vine”, that is, even before it aired in Japan, sent the fansubber group Anime Junkies, which managed to “release” the first few episodes, a rather polite letter with a proposal “in anticipation of a high-quality DVD to do something else. “The answer was rude and very … Bakunian. What do you think the offended publishers have done? Of course, they ran to complain, but not to my mother and not to the FBI. No, they sent out (again, well-written) resumes to prominent figures in the fandom, independent reviewers, non-profit portal reviewers, and they raised the public. And the public, the native community, the very people for whose happiness the fansubbers shed sweat, reared up and showered the Junkies with rotten tomatoes for the very “don’t play around”.The only thing left was to immediately apologize in the spirit of “this is our youngest who answered letters that day, and that is how we of course always”. Needless to say, no one has ever seen the subsequent episodes of Tale of the Ninja … until the pirates got down to business.

God knows if this little island of relatively common sense will survive in the tumultuous ocean of digital (anti) piracy. The inviolability of the position of Japanese manufacturers inspires some hope: they simply do not pay attention to fansubbers, but … in Japan, and in Shataty, the more circulation and, accordingly, profit, the more intense the disputes.More and more often, on the English-language forums, remarks like “fansubs negatively affect the sales of not only DVDs, but even souvenirs!” or “but let’s not fanbase anything for six months, and then we’ll see how much you have to add to your ad to sell at least something!” However, even in the worst case, the notorious “ordinary user” will lose little – pirates will replace fansubbers, that’s all. The only pity is that there will be no one to translate those wonderful things that, for various reasons, do not have an official license outside of Japan.


It seems to me that this is done exclusively by otaku. Which, at first glance, is rather strange. Especially considering that such a close, if not ideologically, then technically occupation, like making remixes, is not indulged nowadays except that people who are musically gifted (in the traditional sense), and photoshopping has long become the most important of the arts belonging to the people.

It is even stranger that the computer subculture did not exert any specific influence on this kind of creative initiative.Despite the fact that its very existence became possible solely due to the reduction in price and personalization … in short, the progress of digital technologies, the demoscene has absolutely nothing to do with it.

But, it would seem, everything is extremely simple: you take your favorite song, take a video sequence from your favorite anime (already digitized: “grabbed” from DVD with your own hand or borrowed from fansubbers), all this is loaded into Adobe Premier, finely chopped and mixed until ready, special effects to taste.The result is called Anime Music Video, abbreviated as AMV, and in our opinion – “funklip”, compressed by popular codecs and posted on the Internet. In the case of a particularly strong confidence in their talents, they are sent to some festival-competition (which happens quite often not in this country). Well, that’s all. Fanclipmakers cannot count on anything more than being widely known in narrow circles (yes, banalities are also appropriate) … but this is more than enough for a much more significant waste of time and effort.

So why is nothing but laughter provoking an attempt to imagine a fan clip with a video sequence from, say, The Lord of the Rings? Not because the Goblin and “They won’t catch up with us.” And certainly not because the potential audience is small – both in number and in organization, the pushed ones, perhaps, are not inferior to anime people (and in Russia they are generally superior). By the way, both those and others are fond of costumed performances of varying degrees of improvisation … and fans of “Star Wars”, who have registered their faith in the Force as a full-fledged religion (so far only in Australia), as far as I know, too.Well, let’s say that everything available for cutting anime by footage overtakes “Star Wars” with all the director’s bonuses, it is understandable how many times – but there are also loyal fans of “Disney” ?!

In fact, a fan clip is not just a consumer’s admission of a selfless and devoted love for a product. A good fan clip can replace a dozen good reviews because the author makes the source material speak for himself. But not necessarily – about yourself. It happens that as a result of a thoughtful selection of personnel and due to the forcible mixing of incompatible cultural environments represented by music and video, a result is achieved completely unexpected, unthinkable … and sometimes completely not pleasing to the eye, but tempting to think about the meaning.Like that scene to the song from Singing In The Rain in “A Clockwork Orange” (also kind of anti-funklip) … but what am I scaring you! This is already extreme, this rarely happens. More often clip-makers realize their secret fantasies: for example, they “shoot” a short love story of characters, in the original at least indifferent to each other. Or make your favorite supporting character look the coolest. In the end, they just share their purely personal associations and experiences about. In general, whoever has a heartache about what cuts his AMV about.

It turns out that the whole point is that otaku’s love for anime is … like the relationship of the sexes in a liberated society. Allows all sorts of different forms and postures besides the standard missionary kama checklist. And what new can you afford in relation to, for example, my respected Professor in every possible way? Unless, of course, you are not Nick Perumov, who owns all sorts of tricks and are not a privileged client of a highly paid lawyer, a specialist in copyright? I don’t know, and, frankly speaking, I don’t have any desire to try .

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