natural and synthetic rubber – Students | Britannica Kids
Over 200 years ago, the British chemist Joseph Priestley received an intriguing bouncy ball from an American friend. It was made of a material he had not seen before. Priestley noticed that it could rub away pencil marks, and he named the material rubber. Not only has the name stuck, but since then rubber has become so important to modern society that it is hard to imagine life without it.
The flexibility, elasticity, and durability of natural and synthetic rubbers have made them choice materials for products that cushion shocks, soften blows, dampen vibrations, transmit power, and perform in many other ways. Tires, automotive components, the Goodyear blimp, electrical insulation, conveyor belts, theater seats, building materials, caulkings, footwear, rubber bands, tennis balls, surgical gloves, artificial hearts and refrigerator linings—these are only a sampling of a huge and growing list of products that are completely or partly made of rubber.
All rubbery materials are composed of millions of long, tangled polymeric molecules. Polymers are huge chainlike molecules composed of many smaller molecular links. Natural rubber is known chemically as polyisoprene. It consists of tens of thousands of linked isoprene molecules, each one a simple 13-atom combination of carbon and hydrogen. Synthetic rubbers, or elastomers, are made of a variety of molecular links, some of which include atoms of fluorine, chlorine, silicon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur.
At the molecular level, rubber might be compared to a tangled mass of cooked spaghetti. If the polymer strands anywhere in this clumped mass are tugged, they tend to straighten, or uncoil, then re-coil when the tugging stops. It is this property that makes rubber bands stretchable and rubber balls bouncy.
More than 200 plant species produce a milky, viscous sap—called latex—that contains natural rubber, but only two of these species have become commercially important. The Hevea brasiliensis tree provides more than 99 percent of the world’s supply of natural rubber. Originating in Brazil, the Hevea tree now is cultivated in many tropical countries, among them Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and parts of India and China.
The other major source of natural rubber is the guayule bush of Mexico and the southwestern United States. Although it now accounts for only a small fraction of natural rubber production, guayule may become more widely cultivated in the future for its rubber and other natural chemicals.
Collection of latex.
The latex of Hevea trees flows in vessels found in the thin layer closest to the cambium, a region of the tree trunk where rapid cell division and growth occurs. The latex vessels spiral up the trunk, forming a right-handed helix.
Hevea trees mature at five to seven years of age and can be tapped thereafter for up to 30 years. Rubber yields range around a ton per acre on the larger plantations, but yields four times as much are theoretically possible. Trees often are rested for a period after heavy tapping.
To harvest the latex, a worker shaves off a slanted strip of bark halfway around the tree and about 1/3 inch (0.8 centimeter) deep. The latex then bleeds out of the severed vessels, flows down along the cut until it reaches a spout, and finally drops into a collection cup that will later be drained of its latex.
Tapping is repeated every other day by making thin shavings just below the previous cut. When the last scar created by the cuts is about 1 foot (0.3 meter) above the ground, the other side of the tree is tapped in similar fashion while the first side renews itself.
A tapper first collects the cut lump, which is latex bled from the vessels after the previous collection and coagulated in the cup, and tree lace, which is latex coagulated along the old cut. Next, the tapper makes a new cut. The latex first flows rapidly, then declines to a steady rate for a few hours, after which it slows again. By the next day the flow has nearly stopped as the severed vessels become plugged by coagulated latex.
To prevent most of the liquid latex from coagulating before it can be conveniently pooled and transported, the tapper adds a preservative such as ammonia or formaldehyde to the collection cup. The latex, cut lump, and tree lace are taken to factories for processing either into rubber stocks or final products.
Rubber growers continually develop new techniques to increase tree yields and to reduce labor. Chemical stimulants, for instance, can boost yields or maintain the same yield with less tapping. Puncture tapping is another innovation in which the bark is quickly pierced with sharp needles, enabling the same worker to tap more trees in a day.
Making crude rubber from latex.
As it emerges from the tree, latex is a complex liquid mixture. The rubber component accounts for about 30–40 percent of the mixture’s weight. At the factory the latex is sieved to remove large particles and blended with water to produce a uniform product as it coagulates.
About 10 percent of the latex is processed into a concentrate by removing some of the water. This is achieved either by spinning the water out of the latex through centrifugal force, by evaporation, or by a method known as creaming.
In this method, a chemical agent is added to the latex that causes the rubber particles to swell and rise to the liquid’s surface. The concentrate is shipped in liquid form to factories where it is used for coatings, adhesives, latex thread, carpet backing, foam, and many other applications.
Most of the latex, cut lump, and tree lace is processed into crude rubber stocks that are shipped to factories for further processing. Ribbed smoked sheets, for instance, are made by first diluting the latex and adding acid. The acid makes rubber particles bunch together above the watery serum in which they are suspended. After several hours, roughly 1 pound (0.5 kilogram) of soft, gelatinous rubber coagulates for every 3 pounds (1.4 kilograms) of latex.
The rubber is allowed to stand for one to 18 hours, then the slabs are pressed into thin sheets through a system of rollers that wrings out excess liquid. The final set of rollers leaves a ribbed pattern on the sheets that increases the surface area and hastens drying. The sheets are dried for up to a week in smoke-houses before being packed into bales and shipped to factories as crude rubber stock.
By using latex of different viscosities and pigment contents and by varying the curing and drying conditions, various stocks can be made. Three of the most common are pale crepe, smoked sheet, and skim rubber. Each of these is suited for specific end products. For example, pale crepe is especially viscous and low in pigment content. It is widely used by the footwear industry to make shoe soles.
Modern Manufacturing Process
Raw natural rubber is soft, easily deformed, and clammy when warm, but brittle and rigid when cold. In its natural or untreated state, it is vulnerable to attack by chemicals, heat, and light, and it will degrade over time. By mixing the crude natural or synthetic elastomer with other ingredients, manufacturers can overcome the material’s limitations.
Reinforcing fillers such as carbon black strengthen, color, and extend the original material and reduce the cost of producing rubber compounds. Calcium carbonate, clay, and titanium dioxide are nonblack fillers that reduce cost and increase hardness but do not affect product strength.
When cost is a primary consideration and strength is not crucial, manufacturers can use recycled rubber. Rubber mats, inner tubes, and some parts of car and truck tires are partly made of recycled rubber.
Softeners enhance mixing of the rubber compound or help in later processing steps. Other ingredients add color, odor, or abrasive particles to the rubber compound. Most modern rubber products are made using a combination of many of these ingredients.
In processing natural rubber, the stocks first are physically and chemically masticated (shredded) before being mixed with fillers and other ingredients. Shortening the polyisoprene molecules makes the rubber softer and more malleable. Most synthetic rubbers do not need the mastication step because they are made of shorter molecules. Mixing and blending are still required, however, to combine all ingredients used in the rubber compound.
To begin the process bales of rubber first may be cut into pieces. Chemicals called peptizers are then added to soften the rubber. This mixture is placed into machines that both masticate the rubber and blend the compounding ingredients. This step is often done in a Banbury internal mixer, which consists of rotating knives inside a closed barrel. Manufacturers also sometimes use large open mills in which the rubber compounds are mixed and kneaded between rollers.
In 1839 the Connecticut hardware merchant Charles Goodyear discovered a process that has made rubber one of today’s most useful materials. He accidentally dropped a mixture of rubber and sulfur into a fire. When he retrieved the material, it was no longer sticky. It did not get brittle in the cold. If stretched, it snapped back to its original shape. Recalling Vulcan, the Roman god of fire and craftwork, Goodyear coined the word vulcanization to describe the process of heating rubber in the presence of sulfur.
In vulcanization, chemical agents such as sulfur are used to create strong chemical cross-links between the intertwined polymers of some rubbers. This chemical transformation results in a network structure far stronger and more elastic than that of the starting material. The rubber also becomes insoluble.
Chemicals such as aniline that increase the rate of vulcanization are called accelerators. To make these chemicals more efficient, accelerator activators such as zinc oxide sometimes are added. Agents that slow down degradation in rubbers are called age-resistors or antidegradants. These chemicals block up the sites along polymer molecules that usually are attacked by light, other chemicals, and heat.
Vulcanization is an irreversible process during which the polymeric molecules of the rubber develop cross-links. (For this reason reclaimed rubber never can be completely recycled into “virgin” rubber.) Although sulfur works for vulcanizing natural rubber, it cannot be used for vulcanizing many synthetic rubbers. Chemists have developed alternative vulcanizing agents for these purposes.
Finished rubber stock can be formed into many shapes. When large, thin sheets of rubber are needed for products such as conveyor belts, a calendering machine is used. This machine is like a mill but has more rollers. The gap between the rollers determines the thickness of the final sheet. By incorporating engraved rollers in the machine, sheets with specific embossed designs can be produced. Calendering also is used for impregnating fabrics with rubber in a process called frictioning.
Extrusion is another way to shape rubber. The rubber compound is forced through a hole, or die, of a particular shape and emerges in long, thin strips like sausages. These strips, shaped like the die, have many applications, among them cable coverings, weather strippings, and gaskets.
Some product shapes are unusual or impossible to achieve through calendering or extruding; the rubber is then formed by using molds. This is an efficient process in which the heating and pressure required for vulcanization also can serve to shape the rubber compound in various mold forms.
Thin-walled products such as surgeons’ gloves and balloons are made in a process called dipping. Glass, porcelain, or metal formers are repeatedly dipped in rubber solutions, which allows successive films of rubber to harden on a former’s surface.
Rubber stocks with foamy textures are made by introducing bubbles into the rubber compound before vulcanization occurs. In the Talalay process, liquid rubber compound is mixed with hydrogen peroxide, which is then catalytically degraded into water and oxygen. The oxygen gas forms tiny gas-filled cavities in the liquid rubber, which is then cured. In the Dunlop process, compounded latex is whipped into a froth mechanically by beaters. The froth is then shaped and cured.
The most familiar application of foam rubbers is in household products such as sponges, pillows, and mattresses. Such rubbers are also well suited to be made into packing materials, car and theater seats, and carpet padding or the undercoating on the carpet itself. The latex used to make these products may be either a vulcanized natural rubber compound or a synthetic self-curing compound.
Although only one chemical type of natural rubber exists, there are many different chemical types of synthetic rubber, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Among the most widely used are styrene-butadiene rubbers, ethylene-propylene rubbers, butyl rubbers, acrylic elastomers, and silicone rubbers.
The basic materials of synthetic rubber are the monomers that make up the polymer chains. By choosing which monomers to use and the chemical microstructure of the resultant polymer, researchers have produced a variety of synthetic rubbers.
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More than half of the world’s synthetic rubber is made from the monomers styrene and butadiene. They are abundant in petroleum, which is one reason styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) has become so popular. Three quarters of all the SBR made goes into tires, the world’s major rubber product. The rest goes into products such as footwear, sponge and foamed products, waterproofed materials, and adhesives.
SBR is produced through a series of processing stages. Styrene, a liquid, and butadiene, a gas stored in liquid form under pressure, are pumped continuously into reactors and mixed with water, soap, and catalysts. Polymerization of the styrene and butadiene into latex takes place in the reactors. After the short-stop stage, during which the reaction is stopped, unconverted butadiene and styrene are recovered and reused. The stripped latex is then accumulated for blending, if required. Latex is coagulated into particles called crumb and is screened, washed, and filtered. The crumb is dried in a hot-air dryer. In the final stage, the dry rubber is weighed out into 77-pound (35-kilogram) bales and wrapped in polyethylene bags.
Ethylene-propylene rubbers—introduced commercially in the United States in 1962—emerged from new research into polymer chemistry. These rubbers are now among the fastest-growing elastomers. They are used in rubber membranes for roofing, agriculture, and water distribution. Modifications of these rubbers are used in radiator and heater hoses, brake components, pond and ditch liners, agriculture silos, tank linings, wire and cable, gaskets, and faucet washers.
Butyl rubbers were developed into commercial products in the 1940s by Exxon Research and Engineering Company. They are used in inner tubes and other products that require a good barrier against gases. The thermal stability of these rubbers makes them suitable for use in automotive radiator hoses. Their ozone resistance makes them appropriate for electrical insulation and for weather resistance. Their ability to absorb shock is earning them wide application in automotive suspension bumpers. These rubbers also have a few disadvantages: they are incompatible with many natural and synthetic rubbers, they tend to pick up foreign matter and impurities, and they lose elasticity at low temperatures.
Acrylic elastomers are used in applications such as spark plug boots, ignition wire jacketing, and hoses where oil resistance is crucial. They are not suited for normal tire use, however, because they have little resistance to abrasion at low temperatures.
Silicone rubbers perform exceptionally well in O-ring and sealing applications. Many types of wire and cable are insulated with these rubbers, which will burn to an ash yet still function as an insulator. Their resistance to moisture makes them good for outdoor applications. Because they are odorless, tasteless, and nontoxic, they are used for gas masks, food and medical-grade tubing, and some surgical implants. Their use is limited by the high cost of manufacturing these rubbers.
History of Rubber Production and Use
Rubber came from the New World to the Old. The Indians of Central and South America knew about rubber as early as the 11th century, but it was not until the French scientist Charles de la Condamine visited South America (1736–44) that the first samples were sent back to Europe. Rubber was given its present English name by the British chemist Joseph Priestley in about 1770. The first modern use for the substance was discovered in 1818 by a British medical student named James Syme. He used it to waterproof cloth to make the first raincoats, a process patented in 1823 by Charles Macintosh. In the mid-19th century Charles Goodyear discovered vulcanization, and Thomas Hancock introduced mastication. In 1882 John Boyd Dunlop was granted a patent for his pneumatic tire. As the demand for tires began to deplete natural rubber supplies, the British cultivated huge rubber plantations in India, Malaya, and Ceylon.
By the early 1900s, various countries sought ways to improve rubber compounds and to develop synthetic materials. In 1910, sodium was found to catalyze polymerization. When the Germans were cut off from natural rubber supplies during World War I, they used this discovery to make about 2,500 tons of methyl rubber—made of dimethylbutadiene.
During World War II, the Japanese gained control of the major sources of natural rubber in Asia. In response the United States synthetic rubber industry increased its production by an astonishing 10,000 percent from 8,130 metric tons in 1941 to more than 1 million metric tons in 1944. Following the war, other countries developed their own synthetic rubber factories to avoid having to rely on overseas rubber supplies. As a result world production of natural and synthetic rubber has increased from less than 4 million metric tons in 1960 to more than 13 million metric tons in 1987.
Researchers in the synthetic rubber industry continue to seek new ways to make specific processes more efficient, less costly, and less pollutive. They are developing new additives, processes, rubber compounds, and technological applications. By applying rubber cushioning to railway wheels and tracks, for example, city transportation systems are becoming quieter and smoother. Impact-resistant bumpers, shock-absorbing interiors, and crash-resistant fuel tanks on cars and trucks help prevent highway deaths and injuries. Rubber linings in reservoirs and waste ditches reduce ground and water pollution. Latex is even being used to help stabilize desert soils to make them suitable for agricultural uses.
In addition, researchers are studying the fundamental relationships between chemical structures and the features of rubber’s macroscopic materials. Such knowledge will enable researchers to design and create specific rubber compounds rather than rely on the time-consuming methods of trial and error.
Eirech, F.R., ed.
Science and Technology of Rubber (Academic Press, 1978).
Rubber Processing and Production Organization (Plenum Press, 1985).
Grayson, Martin, ed.
Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (Wiley, 1978).
International Institute of Synthetic Rubber Producers, Inc.
Synthetic Rubber: The Story of an Industry (IISRP, 1973).
Mortin, Maurice, ed.
Rubber Technology, 3rd ed. (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1987).
Reclaiming Rubber and Other Polymers (Noyes Data Corp., 1983).
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Rubber Facts for Kids | KidzSearch.com
Rubber is a material, which can stretch and shrink. It is a polymer. It can be produced from natural sources (e.g. natural rubber) or can be synthesised on an industrial scale. Many things are made from rubber, like gloves, tires, plugs, and masks. A few things can be made only from rubber. Sometimes the word means only natural rubber (latex rubber). Natural rubber is made from the white sap of some trees such as the Hevea brasiliensis (Euphorbiaceae). Other elastomers, called synthetic rubbers, are made by chemical processe
- Rubber can stretch and shrink.
- Rubber can contain gases.
- Rubber can fetch off lightning And/or electricity.
Hevea brasiliensis is the tree that most rubber comes from. Other plants that have the special sap (called latex) are figs (Ficus elastica), Castilla (Panama rubber tree), euphorbias, lettuce, the common dandelion, Taraxacum kok-saghyz (Russian dandelion), Scorzonera tau-saghyz, and Guayule.
In the 1800s, most sap to make rubber came from South America. In 1876, Henry Wickham got seeds from rubber trees in Brazil, and took them to Kew Gardens, England, and sent them to Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Indonesia, Singapore and British Malaya. Later, Malaya (now Malaysia) made the most rubber. People tried to grow rubber in India, in year 1873 at the Botanical Gardens, Kolkata. The first Hevea farms in India were made at Thattekadu in Kerala in 1902. The Congo Free State in Africa also grew a lot trees for rubber at the start of the 20th century, and most of the people who worked on those farms were forced labor. Liberia and Nigeria also started growing trees to make rubber.
Charles Marie de La Condamine presented samples of rubber to the Académie Royale des Sciences of France in 1736. In 1751, François Fresneau read a paper to the Académie (eventually published in 1755), which described many of the properties of rubber. This has been referred to as the first scientific paper on rubber.
In 1770, British chemist Joseph Priestley noticed that rubber was very good for removing pencil marks on paper. Natural rubber melts in heat and freeze in the cold.
In 1844, Charles Goodyear found a way to improve natural rubber, in a chemical process known as vulcanization, which made it useful in many more products including, decades later, tires.
In the 20th century, synthetic (artificial) rubbers such as Neoprene began to be used. They were much used when World War II cut off supplies of natural rubber. They have continued to grow because natural rubber is becoming scarce and also because for some uses they are better than natural rubber.
Uses of rubber
Rubber moulded products are widely used industrially (and in some household applications) in the form of rubber goods and appliances. Rubber is used in garden hoses and pipes for small scale gardening applications. Most of the tyres and tubes used in automobiles are made up of rubber. Therefore, rubber plays a very important role in the automobile industry and the transportation industry. Rubber products are also employed in matting and flooring applications.
- ↑ 1.01.1 Untitled Document
- ↑ “How the Auto Industry is Driving Toward Sustainable Natural Rubber”. https://www.wetpour-surfaces.co.uk/.
Is Rubber Mulch a Safe Surface for Your Child’s Playground?
The public playground in Bandon, a small town on the blustery coast of Oregon, has everything a kid could want. Swings and an orange, twisting slide, even a bright blue boat.
But after the playground was installed in 2009, some mothers became concerned about the springy black stuff beneath their children’s feet. In addition to the new equipment, the playground was outfitted with the latest in safety surfacing: a pool of shredded rubber from old tires, also known as “rubber mulch,” which can cushion kids’ falls better than gravel or wood chips.
Vanesza Farmer said she struggled to keep her daughter –- who was learning to walk at the time — from putting tire crumbs in her mouth. “My kids would just be tainted in black,” she said. “Their clothes would be black. And I just knew, this isn’t healthy.”
Farmer and a handful of other parents started to research rubber infill, the recycled crumbs and shreds of old tire that in various forms have become an increasingly popular option for cities, schools, and day cares looking for a safe play surface for kids. What they found, they said, launched them on a campaign to replace the rubber.
“We know that there are chemicals in tires, and we know that they are most likely not removed just by shredding and putting them on a playground,” said Bandon resident Shayla DeBerry-Osborne, who has four children under the age of 6. “I feel that if we know about these potential risks to our children, it’s our responsibility as parents to limit the risk.”
Rubber mulch from the playground in Bandon City Park in Bandon, Oregon.NBC News
The U.S. government, however, is sending parents like those in Bandon mixed messages about rubber mulch.
The rubber mulch in Bandon is made of the same recycled tire rubber that is used as infill in crumb rubber artificial turf. A previous NBC News investigation raised questions about the safety of crumb rubber turf, which has been rolled out in thousands of U.S. parks, soccer fields and stadiums. More than two dozen studies have attempted to measure the potential health risks of crumb rubber surfaces. While many have found no negative health effects, some doctors and toxicologists believe these studies are limited and insufficient to establish conclusively that shredded rubber surfaces are safe.
Click Here to Read the Original NBC News Investigation
The difference between rubber mulch and crumb rubber artificial turf is that the federal government actively promotes the use of mulch -– despite conflicting signals from the agencies charged with protecting children’s health and ensuring consumer product safety. The Environmental Protection Agency acknowledges that more studies of crumb rubber need to be done, and has retracted an earlier assurance that crumb rubber turf is safe. Both the EPA and the Consumer Product Safety Commission, however, recommend and promote rubber mulch. The EPA has worked with industry representatives and state officials to increase the use of tire mulch in playgrounds, and the CPSC recommends mulch in the “Bible” it provides to playground planners across the country.
Proponents of rubber mulch say it protects kids from injuries, and that studies have proved crumb rubber to be safe. Made of fragments that can be peppercorn-sized or as big as pine mulch, the product is now showing up at day care centers, schools, even the playground at the White House.
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But as rubber infill moves from the soccer field to the playground, some are asking whether that same rubber presents a greater threat to young children, whose organs, muscles and nervous systems are still developing.
“Children go to playgrounds almost daily,” said Dr. Philip Landrigan, dean of global health at New York’s Mt. Sinai Hospital and a top expert on the effect of chemicals on children. “And gifted athletes are on the soccer field almost every day. That sort of cumulative exposure results in a buildup in their body of these toxic chemicals, and can result in a buildup of cellular damage that’s caused by these chemicals, that can then result in disease years or decades later.”
“Little children should not be put in a situation where they’re forced to be in intimate contact with carcinogenic chemicals,” Dr. Landrigan added.
“It Was the Safest Thing for a Kid to Fall Onto”
Since the 1970s, advances in playground safety have focused on improving the impact attenuation of surfacing — or how much impact a surface can absorb — and the safety of play equipment. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, emergency rooms treat over 200,000 kids, aged 14 and under, for playground-related injuries every year.
Wood chips and pea gravel infill became typical sights at playgrounds. But over the years, recycled tire rubber — both shredded and ground into round pieces — has become popular. No official count of playgrounds with recycled tire infill exists, but state grant programs, federal efforts to promote tire infill and effective marketing by manufacturers have made ground rubber one of the most-recommended surfaces on the market today.
Michael Blumenthal, former vice president of the Rubber Manufacturers Association and now an independent consultant for the industry, said that studies have shown tire infill to have higher impact attenuation than other surfaces, such as pea gravel. “In other words,” he said, “It was the safest thing for a kid to fall onto.”
Consumers, like town officials in Bandon, like rubber infill for various reasons. In addition to its bounce, tire is cheaper to maintain in the long run, some say, because it doesn’t degrade like wood chips or other organic materials.
Some states, in an effort to recycle and repurpose old tires, incentivize the material. Kentucky, one of several states that give grants to municipalities, school districts and other entities to use crumb rubber, has funded 287 rubber-filled playgrounds since its program began in 2004.
The town of Bandon looked “long and hard” at what infill it would choose for the playground, said Michelle Hampton, Bandon’s city planner. Federal and independent safety manuals, Hampton added, all point to rubber mulch as a safe surface for playgrounds.
“All of them say the same thing,” said Hampton. “This is an appropriate material to be used in a playground.”
The playground at Bandon City Park in Bandon, Oregon.
Parents interviewed in Bandon, Oregon, and others from around the country who wrote to NBC News gave similar testimonies about their young children putting tire in their mouths, and ending up covered in black after playing on playgrounds filled with tire crumb.
Alisa O’Brien, a grandmother and a registered nurse from Ft. Myers, Florida, had the same concerns as other caregivers. “I would pick up my grandson from daycare each afternoon to find his hands and arms up to his elbows covered in black,” she said.
According to the EPA, benzene, mercury, styrene-butadiene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and arsenic, among several other chemicals, heavy metals and carcinogens, have been found in tires. Studies have found that crumb rubber can emit gases that can be inhaled. When the material gets hot, it can increase the chances that volatile organic compounds, or VOCs, and chemicals can “off-gas,” or leach into the air.
A previous investigation by NBC News found that while many studies concluded that the crumb rubber in artificial turf fields did not present acute health risks, they often added the caveat that more research should be conducted.
One study that analyzed rubber mulch and rubber mats, published in the scientific journal Chemosphere in 2013, concluded that “Uses of recycled rubber tires, especially those targeting play areas and other facilities for children, should be a matter of regulatory concern.”
When the group of parents approached the town with their research, Hampton said she and other concerned officials also set out to learn more about the rubber. “It was difficult,” she said. “There was never one study that’s done that says, ‘This is absolutely safe, or this is toxic. ’ Basically it says, ‘There needs to be future studies, but at this particular time, it meets all of the standards necessary for it to be considered safe.’”
“What’s Low for a Child?”
Dr. Landrigan, whose research in the 1970s on children exposed to lead by a smelting company, is credited with spurring the widespread regulation of the heavy metal, said that currently available studies on rubber infill are “inadequate.”
There is not one study, he said, that attempts to measure the effects that long-term, repeated exposure to tire shreds or ground rubber could have on young children.
While the International Agency for Research on Cancer says that, at low levels of exposure, carcinogenic chemicals are safe, Landrigan said the repeated exposure of children to such carcinogens and chemicals put them at greater risk than adults, even at low levels.
“My concern as a pediatrician when somebody says that the levels are low is to ask the counter-question, ‘What’s low for a child?’ ” Landrigan said. “I think for little children who play right down with their faces on the ground, who pick up stuff and put it in their mouths, who get crumb rubber on their skin in ways that adults would almost never get it on their skin, that any level of exposure to a known human carcinogen is too much.”
Behavioral traits unique to children, like putting things in their mouths, increase their risk of exposure. They breathe, eat and drink more relative to their body weight than adults. They also have many more years of life in which to develop disease triggered by early exposure to a carcinogen.
“Children’s cells and organs are rapidly growing and developing,” Landrigan said. “Developmental processes are very complex. They’re easily disrupted.”
Several substances found in tires are concerning, Landrigan added. “Butadiene is a known human carcinogen,” he said. “Styrene is a neuro-toxic chemical. It can cause injury to the brain and nerves. Truck tires also contain other toxic chemicals. All of these chemicals that are part and parcel of the tires get into the crumb, which goes into the field.”
Industry representatives and manufacturers say that crumb rubber is safe for children to play on because the manufacturing process binds the various components of tire, including carbon black and solvents, into a “matrix” that makes it impossible for them to leach out.
“Most people look at the raw materials going into tires and say, ‘This is a suspected causer of cancer, this could be an endocrine disrupter,” said Blumenthal, the consultant. But after the manufacturing process, he said, “None of the raw materials that go into a tire are available.”
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“We Will Carefully Review Any New Findings”
Coordinated efforts to recycle tires have helped push scrap rubber into playgrounds. In 2003, the EPA launched a “Scrap Tire Workgroup,” that gathered together industry representatives, state and EPA officials to advance voluntary efforts to recycle scrap tires. Often discussed by the workgroup was how to promote the use of ground rubber.
One report, issued by the workgroup in 2007, cited various factors that stood in the way of ground rubber’s success: toxicological and environmental concerns, as well as ground rubber producers’ lack of effective quality controls. It recommended that the EPA take charge of a national effort to promote the material.
But while the EPA has helped coordinate efforts to recycle tires and move crumb rubber onto playgrounds and fields, it has not coordinated efforts to study the material — even though, years after its one study was published in 2009, the EPA retracted its assurances that crumb rubber artificial turf was safe, calling the study “limited in scope.”
The EPA declined to speak to NBC News, but said in a statement that it does not plan to commission further studies because it considers the safety of crumb rubber to be a “state and local issue.”
“Our highest priority is protecting public health and the environment, and we will carefully review any new findings or information,” said Liz Purchia, press secretary for the EPA.
The Consumer Product Safety Commission also has no plans to create standards for the chemical composition of tire mulch used in playgrounds.
Contractors and municipalities use the CPSC’s Public Playground Safety Handbook, also known as the “Bible” of playgrounds, before planning new playgrounds, said Scott Wolfson, spokesperson for the agency. The handbook recommends using tire mulch.
The agency tested crumb rubber turf fields for lead in 2009, but declared that its tests were “limited,” and that “The exposure assessment did not include chemicals or other toxic metals, beyond lead.”
Since its initial tests, according to the CPSC, the agency has worked with the industry to develop voluntary standards for lead content for artificial turf.
While safety standards regulate the depth and impact attenuation of playground infill, there are no standards that regulate the chemical makeup of playground equipment and infill.
Wood mulch and wood equipment treated with chromated copper arsenic, also known as CCA, have been phased out and are no longer used in playgrounds. The CPSC spent nearly two years researching CCA-treated wood and determined that the material posed an increased cancer risk to children. But Wolfson said the agency has no plans to act on crumb rubber “at this time.”
“We are a small agency,” Wolfson said. “Our toxicologists already have much on their plate regarding other congressionally-mandated action.”
Citing the cost, a lack of definitive research, and support from many other local parents for the playground, Bandon officials recently voted to keep the infill around.
For now, concerned parents like Jennifer Head, who opposed the rubber infill, said they will have to take their kids elsewhere. A nearby elementary school has a playground filled with pea-gravel. The beach, with its beautiful rock formations, is another option.
In the meantime, Head said, parents will have to make their own decisions. As long as rubber infill remains unregulated and unstudied by government agencies, she said, “We have to be independent thinkers. … If they’re not going to do it, then we have to put the dots together ourselves.”
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90,000 Synthetic rubbers – from creation to TAIF – Real time
TAIF Group of Companies produces almost half of the world volume of isoprene rubbers and about 18% of butyl rubbers
Photo: Roman Khasaev
From chewing gums to car tires and components of high-impact plastics – it is simply impossible to imagine the modern world without rubbers: surgical gloves and watering hoses are made of them, rubbers are found in medical equipment, cars, airplanes, ships, space and computer equipment, military-industrial products complex, oil production and oil refining equipment, footwear, clothing, you cannot do without them in road and residential construction, in agriculture and in chemical industries . .. It’s easier to say where they are not, than to list all the industries where they are used.And the demand for rubbers is constantly growing. If in 2005 the total global consumption of natural and synthetic rubbers barely exceeded 21 million tons, then in 2018 it reached 29.3 million tons and, according to experts, in 2019 it will grow by another million, where natural rubbers will have 14.23 million tons, for synthetic – 15.8 million tons. According to the data presented at the recent general meeting of shareholders, last year TAIF Group produced almost 725 thousand tons of synthetic rubbers, thereby once again confirming the right to be included in the top 10 world’s largest IC manufacturers.About how the world rubber market has changed over the past fifteen years, and with it the rubber production of TAIF has been developing – in the material of Realnoe Vremya.
From the history of rubbers
The process of vulcanizing natural rubber – that is, obtaining rubber from it, was patented back in the 1840s by Charles Goodyear. And in 1846, Scottish scientist Robert Thompson invented and patented the pneumatic tire. True, at that time the invention did not receive further development, since there was not enough thin rubber needed for such more comfortable tires in the world.The lull did not last long. 1888 – Another Scotsman, John Dunlop, introduced to the public first a pneumatic tire for bicycles, then for carriages, then for cars, and the world was swept by a rubber fever. The material turned out to be so in demand that seekers of happiness, ready to risk their lives and health in search of rubber plants and the opportunity to get rich, reached into the rainforests of Brazil. The demand for rubber was growing at an unprecedented rate. By hook or by crook, hevea seeds were exported from Brazil, despite the ban of the country’s government.In Southeast Asia, rubber plantations grew, but there was a shortage of rubbers. And inventions followed one after another:
– 1891 – the Michelin brothers patented a removable tire;
– 1894 – E. J. Pennington introduced the balloon tire;
– 1903 – Goodyear patented a tubeless tire, as the story is described in the Popular Petrochemistry special edition.
Production of pneumatic tires at Goodyear – late 19th century. Photo from the site trans.info
The shortage of natural rubbers forced scientists from all over the world to look for an alternative. There were many attempts.In the late 19th century, Gustave Bouchard, a French chemist, treated isoprene with hydrochloric acid. The result is something similar to rubber, but poorly suitable for producing rubber. At the very beginning of the 20th century, Ivan Kondakov, a Russian citizen, managed to synthesize an elastic polymer. Later in Germany, on the basis of his developments, a trial batch of synthetic rubber was released. In 1909, another German – Fritz Hoffmann – patented the manufacturing process for the SK. But Russia still has more rights to claim authorship in the invention of an artificial analogue of natural rubber. Professor Lebedev in the same 1909 at a meeting of the Chemical Society presented a report on the thermopolymerization of hydrocarbons such as divinyl and provided the scientific community with samples of synthetic rubber. It is worth noting that on the basis of this invention, the industrial production of synthetic rubbers was created for the first time in the world. The professor continued his work in this direction after the 1917 revolution, was awarded the Order of Lenin and was elected to the USSR Academy of Sciences. And synthetic rubber began its triumphant march around the world, making a worthy competitor to natural rubbers, and in a number of parameters, for example, stability of characteristics, and seriously surpassing it.
The tires for the world’s largest trucks are also made of synthetic rubber from TAIF. Photo Yandex.ru
Everyone knows that there is petrochemistry, but few people think about how many things created by this industry surround us. For example, synthetic rubbers. In Russia, their largest manufacturer is PJSC Nizhnekamskneftekhim, which is part of the TAIF Group of Companies.
Scientists have calculated that at the moment about 40 thousand.items of rubber and rubbers for all areas of industry and just life. Almost every family today has a car, and sometimes more than one. Numerous cars and buses roam the roads, cyclists pedal, trucks hurry to deliver goods, tractors and combines work in the fields. In the tires that are on the wheels of all this transport, there is a share, and a significant one, of Nizhnekamsk rubber. And not only in Russia.
BelAZ giants are also “shod” in Nizhnekamsk rubber.Tires for the largest trucks in the world, capable of lifting up to 450 tons at a time, are manufactured by Belshina, which has long been purchasing rubbers of the SKI, SKD-N, GBK brands from PJSC Nizhnekamskneftekhim. Also a large consumer of synthetic rubbers of SKI, SKD-N, GBK and BK brands from TAIF Group is the Altai Tire Plant, whose truck tires and wheels for agricultural machinery are well known throughout the post-Soviet space, as well as in Romania, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Guinea. … 7.5 million tires produced per year by three factories of the public company Cordiant are sold not only throughout Russia, but also in more than 50 countries of the world, including Western and Eastern Europe, the USA, and seriously compete both in Russia and abroad. markets with the products of the largest tire manufacturer in the Russian Federation – PJSC “Nizhnekamskshina”, which annually produces more than 11 million tires for cars and trucks, agricultural, construction and special equipment.Both Cordiant and Nizhnekamskshina also produce their products from synthetic rubbers SKI, SKD-N, GBK and BK from Nizhnekamskneftekhim. Almost all tire manufacturers in Russia and the CIS are among the consumers of synthetic rubbers from NKNK. TAIF GC notes that they are ready to fully meet the growing demand for high-quality synthetic rubbers of Russian tire manufacturers. The production capacities of the Group of Companies are enough for this.
Among the key consumers of PJSC “Nizhnekamskneftekhim” products are such giants of the car tire market with world names as Michelin, Pirelli, Continental, Bridgestone, Goodyear. The fruitful cooperation of the parties has been going on for many years.
“I thank you for your cooperation, for the technological efforts that you have made,” Pirelli CEO Marco Tronchetti Provera turned to the TAIF management, when in 2017 the companies signed another long-term cooperation agreement, within the framework of which PJSC “Nizhnekamskneftekhim” also At least 5 years will be guaranteed to supply the synthetic rubbers produced by him to the factories of the Italian concern.
In 2017, Pirelli and TAIF signed another 5-year cooperation agreement. Photo from the site auto-motor-und-sport.de.
Tatarstan rubber wins the Formula 1 races and passes the Dakar stages, conquers off-road terrain and rustles on the smooth surface of high-speed autobahns. And the roads themselves are not complete without rubbers: thermoplastic elastomers are special additives to the asphalt pavement that provide roads with greater strength, resistance to abrasion and temperature extremes, contain rubber and, largely thanks to it, acquire such properties. TAIF plans to establish production of such bitumen. The thermoplastic elastomers produced by Nizhnekamskneftekhim are going to be included in TAIF-NK special bitumen. The component is useful not only in Tatarstan. The Russian climate is harsh, and high-quality, durable roads are needed everywhere.
Buying chewing gum in a store, no one suspects that 20% of it consists of … synthetic rubber. There are not many companies in the world that have a special recipe and are ready to guarantee that special very strict sanitary conditions are observed during its manufacture.Since 2014, PJSC “Nizhnekamskneftekhim” has established the production of such rubber on an industrial scale and today supplies its products to the American multinational company Mondelez International, which produces food products and, in particular, chewing gum under the Dentyne brand.
Chewing gum is 20% synthetic rubber. Photo from find.myge.city
By the way, chewing gum is not the only product on the shelves of grocery stores that is related to the products of Nizhnekamskneftekhim. Packaging for yoghurts and disposable dishes are made of styrene plastics with the inclusion of SC.
Styrene plastics are also used to make CDs, interior parts and housings of household appliances, children’s toys and travel suitcases, food containers, containers for household chemicals and huge containers for storing oil products, acids, alkalis. Such plastics are used in the manufacture of electrical appliances and medical equipment, and in addition, parts of the interior decoration of cars, including dashboards, a number of structural elements, for example, radiator grilles.
Synthetic rubbers are indispensable in the space industry and aircraft construction. In addition to special tires, each airliner has about 10,000 rubber parts. We can safely say that almost every plane has a piece of TAIF.
Each plane has a little TAIF. Photo from the site yandex.ru
The fact that Tatarstan rubber is in medical devices has already been mentioned above. But the rubber band holding the disposable mask on the face is also synthetic rubber. And suction hoses.And elastic bandages, and bandages that help to recover faster after an injury … In any operating room, in the ward, in the emergency room of every hospital, polyclinic, you can easily count dozens or even hundreds of items where synthetic rubber is used. And if we take into account that more than half of its total volume in Russia was produced by TAIF, it would not be a mistake to say that the Group of Companies is also directly related to the success of the country’s healthcare industry.
You can go on endlessly: elements of baby carriages, special toys that give babies to gnaw, whose teeth are erupting, and nipples on feeding bottles are also synthetic rubber.This means TAIF.
June 2018 PJSC Nizhnekamskneftekhim put into commercial operation an isobutylene production with a capacity of 160 thousand tons per year. Photo by Roman Khasaev
When others reduced production
The chemical complex is one of the basic segments of the Russian industry. And PJSC Nizhnekamskneftekhim (part of TAIF Group) is its key player. This is evidenced by the numbers: if in a relatively prosperous 2005, all Russian manufacturers of synthetic rubbers issued 1,141.5 thousand rubles.tons of products, of which 333.3 thousand tons, or 29.2% of the total synthetic rubber produced in Russia, fell to the share of NKNK, then in the crisis year of 2009, when Russian manufacturers of synthetic rubber were forced to reduce volumes and the whole country produced only 976.7 thousand tons of rubbers, Nizhnekamskneftekhim reported on the production of 425 thousand tons, or 43.5% of all Russian rubbers, and continued to increase capacity. As, however, and in subsequent years. In 2012, with an all-Russian volume of 1253.3 thous.tons, the share of TAIF Group of Companies already accounts for 589 thousand tons. In 2014, out of 1148.4 thousand tons in the country as a whole, PJSC “Nizhnekamskneftekhim” produced 618.5 thousand tons, or almost 54% of all Russian rubber. By the end of 2018, all Russian manufacturers of synthetic rubber produced only 1,044.1 thousand tons of products, and NKNK’s share in these volumes reached a record 69% of the total volume of all synthetic rubbers produced in Russia, or 724.9 thousand tons. By its own result 13 years ago – more than a twofold increase.
For 13 years, TAIF Group has more than doubled the production of synthetic rubbers. Photo by Roman Khasaev
“In 2004, we were the third in the world to launch halobutyl rubbers. Prior to that, only SKI and BK were released. As regards the GBK, we started with a capacity of 35 thousand tons per year, and now we are already producing a total of 220 thousand tons of BC and GBK. The development went on rather slowly, but we were seriously engaged in rubber production. At first, the main direction was the production of rubber for the manufacture of truck tires, and later, along with the development of Nizhnekamskneftekhim, the production of rubbers for passenger tires began to grow actively. These SCs were mainly based on cobalt-based polybutadiene. Back in 2003, together with the scientific and technological center, work began on the creation of “green” rubber on a neodymium catalyst. Even then, the issues of environmental friendliness of tires were raised quite harshly. And since 2004, we have launched the production of 40 thousand tons per year of synthetic rubbers on a neodymium catalyst – SKDN. And quickly enough they reached 180 thousand tons per year. These were all domestic developments. Our STC is generally very strong in the rubber industry.From the very beginning, he participated in all launches with us, actively helped in bringing the rubbers to the required condition, in improving the quality. We gradually increased both the branded assortment and production volumes “, – Khamit Gilmanov, head of the department for management and strategic development of the Nizhnekamskneftekhim Group, gave a brief excursion into history for the journalist of Realnoe Vremya.
Khamit Gilmanov: “Gradually we increased both the branded assortment and production volumes”. Photo from the site nknh.ru
Nizhnekamskneftekhim has always been one of the largest producers of synthetic rubbers in the world.Our share of the SKI market increased from 30.8% in 2004 to 47.5% in 2018. For butyl rubbers, we grew from 10.3% in 2004 to 17.9% in 2018. For butadiene rubbers – from 1.1% in 2004 (at that time we were taking the first steps in the synthesis of polybutadiene and produced rubber on a cobalt catalytic system) to 5.6% in 2018. Now we are confidently entering the top 10 global manufacturers of insurance companies, ”Azat Bikmurzin, Director General of Nizhnekamskneftekhim PJSC, emphasized in an interview with Realnoe Vremya.
Conditions cannot be called comfortable for production.
in general, which means the saturation of the market with offers and the activity of the production of rubber products.Even the political environment, where economic leverage remains one of the most effective methods of influencing opponents, directly affects world markets.
From 2002 to 2012, the global demand for rubbers grew rapidly. For 10 years natural rubbers have increased in price by 266%, to which the producers reacted: the areas for rubber plants were expanded and planted with new trees. In the wake of growing demand, the production of synthetic rubbers also began to actively expand and increase the volume and range.
New plantings of rubber plants began to yield crops after 7 years, the market began to receive more natural rubber and, having ceased to experience hunger, reacted by stabilizing prices. By 2012, the demand for natural rubber in China – the largest consumer of this raw material – slowed down and then began to fall. Similar trends were observed in the global market. Since 2019, the demand for new cars began to decline and the growth of the global economy as a whole began to weaken. The largest producers of natural rubber in the world Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia – at that time they accounted for 70% of all natural rubber – agreed to reduce the supply of raw materials, as well as to cut down old rubber plants. Nevertheless, prices continued to fall. From 2011 to the present, the cost of natural rubbers has fallen by more than 3.5 times. On this wave, certain difficulties have arisen for the producers of synthetic rubbers:
“In recent years, economic conditions cannot be called comfortable for the production and sale of synthetic rubbers. Since about 2013-2014, the global synthetic rubbers market has been characterized by overcapacity. The wave of new projects that were launched in the world (mainly in Asia) at the peak of prices in 2010-2011, by 2013-2014 made the global IC market excessive.The commissioning of new production facilities fell on a period of falling prices and demand for synthetic rubbers. Unfortunately, the negative situation is still observed today: the market is in a state of chronic oversupply. Therefore, there is an intense competition between manufacturers on two fronts at once: technological (this is competition between technologies and quality) and costs. Those who can offer interesting scientific and technical solutions and at the same time remain competitive in terms of price survive in this struggle, ”explained Azat Bikmurzin.
Azat Bikmurzin: “Those who can offer interesting scientific and technical solutions at a competitive price survive in the market competition.” Photo courtesy of the press service of NKNK
The trade war between the United States and China, which resulted in a decline in the production and sale of vehicles, led to a drop in demand for tires, which negatively affected the consumption of both natural and synthetic rubbers. In 2019, the economies of the leading rubber consumers continued to decline: in India, the production of motor vehicles fell by more than 18% to the level of 2018, in China – by almost 14%.Experts expect noticeable positive trends in the natural rubber production market not earlier than in 3-5 years.
“This change should have a positive impact on the global synthetic rubber market. Demand will increase, prices will start to rise. We understand the cyclical nature of the synthetic rubber market and know that our trading partners will need more of our rubber than we currently supply. Therefore, we try to use this time to prepare for a period of high demand.We are modernizing our synthetic rubber production chains with two goals: optimizing our own costs and increasing production. We are working on expanding the range of produced rubbers, relying on special rubbers that can give our partners advantages in the performance characteristics of their tires, ”Azat Bikmurzin emphasized.
New production facilities and expansion of the range – in the annual mode
“Every year, without exception, TAIF Group launches new production facilities at PJSC“ Nizhnekamskneftekhim ”or takes measures to expand the brand range at existing facilities.So, in the period from 2004 to 2007, a ceremonial launch of rubber production took place: GBK (2004), SKD-N (2004) and SKD-L (2007). From 2003 to 2014, we consistently put into operation the production of plastics: four lines of polystyrene, ABS plastics, polypropylene and polyethylene. In 2016, the production of linear alpha-olefins, including those used in the production of linear PE grades, was mastered. Starting from 2019, a new brand of neodymium polybutadiene rubber SKDN 44M1 has been produced, which is characterized by a narrower polydispersity, which has a positive effect on the performance of automobile tires, ”said the General Director of PJSC“ Nizhnekamskneftekhim ”.
Annually TAIF Group introduces new capacities or expands the branded range of products. Photo by Roman Khasaev
In 2020, it is planned to commission a unit for the production of styrene-butadiene rubber (DSSK) with a capacity of 60 thousand tons per year.
“Creation of the production of solution styrene-butadiene rubber (DSSK) is one of the most significant projects of PJSC“ Nizhnekamskneftekhim ”in the field of development of rubbers. This type of rubber is an indicator of the development of the rubber industry in the world.All leading manufacturers of synthetic rubbers Asahi Kasei, JSR, Kumho, Trinseo, Arlanxeo, Versalis, Michelin, etc. have styrene-butadiene grades produced in solution in their portfolio. At the same time, today DSSK brands are increasingly shifting towards special-purpose rubbers, and functionalized DSSK brands are in great demand in the world. The use of such rubbers in the manufacture of a tire tread provides an optimal balance of rolling resistance, grip on a wet road and wear resistance, ”explained Azat Bikmurzin.
At the pilot plant of PJSC “Nizhnekamskneftekhim” a technology has already been developed for producing three new grades: DSSK-621, DSSK-628 and DSSK-610. All developed grades correspond to the fourth and fifth generations of rubbers in terms of performance and environmental friendliness. With the launch of the DSSK unit, PJSC “Nizhnekamskneftekhim” will become one of the few factories in the world that produces all the main types of solution synthetic rubbers for the tire industry.
But they do not plan to stop there: TAIF has already launched projects for the production of the catalyst for the dehydrogenation of KDI-M, MPEG, TPEG, new, even larger-scale ones are being implemented: the construction of an ethylene complex and a complex for the production of methanol, by 2021 it is planned to complete the construction of its own CCGT with a capacity of 495 MW.
It should be noted that expanding production capabilities and the range of produced rubbers, the companies of TAIF Group pay close attention to environmental issues. Thus, a methanol production complex with a capacity of 500 thousand tons per year, which is planned to be built at the industrial site of Nizhnekamskneftekhim, will be built on the site of three other outdated production facilities. The use of reliable modern equipment, closed cooling systems and a number of innovations, which the company’s representatives spoke about at the public hearings held in July, will allow three times to reduce the burden on the environment: the volume of emissions into the atmosphere, the intake and use of river water, etc.in comparison with the production facilities, in the place of which the complex will grow.
“Nizhnekamskneftekhim needs its own methanol production. Now it is imported. This is both a hazard during transportation and evaporation during unloading and washing of tanks (more than 4 thousand methanol tanks are delivered to the Nizhnekamsk production per year). After all, the effluent after flushing also requires thorough cleaning. The recently reconstructed bio-treatment facilities of NKNK are up to the task and will continue to do so. But if the volume of wastewater is reduced, it will be even better.Again, it is necessary to store sufficient volume for uninterrupted production. And with the opening of our own complex, the required amount of methanol will be produced right on the spot. No open areas: natural gas comes through a pipe, the required amount of methanol is produced, which immediately goes to processing. You don’t need to take anything, ship anything, create stocks that need to be stored. What could be better? It is also safer, ”Khamit Gilmanov expressed his opinion.
TAIF Group plans to increase the production of synthetic rubbers to one million tons per year.Photo by Roman Khasaev
With the commissioning of the methanol production complex, TAIF Group will be able to fully provide itself with everything necessary for the production of synthetic rubbers. The company produces four main types of monomers – isobutylene, butadiene 1-3, isoprene and styrene used in the technologies of PJSC “Nizhnekamskneftekhim”. Some shortage of butadiene, which is formed with the launch of the DSSK complex in 2020, will be compensated for with the launch of the new complex. With the commissioning of these facilities, the total annual volume of synthetic rubbers produced by NKNK will increase.Negotiations are under way to acquire a license for the production of MDI and TDI isocyanates, with the subsequent mastering of the technology for the production of polyurethanes. Nobody in Russia makes them yet. The main components for these industries will also appear in the product line with the launch of a new ethylene plant.
Khamit Gilmanov: “Our rubbers have always been considered good”
Currently, the branded assortment of synthetic rubbers of TAIF Group includes eight areas:
- isoprene rubber SKI-3 is used in rubber, tire and other industries;
- butyl rubber BK-1675 is intended for the manufacture of car chambers, diaphragms for vulcanizer shapers. In addition, it is actively used in construction, rubber-technical, light industry, effective for the manufacture of anti-corrosion, sealing and waterproofing coatings, various mastics, pastes, sealants and adhesives;
- bromobutyl rubber BBK is used in the tire and rubber industry, as well as in the manufacture of medical products;
- Chlorobutyl rubber KhBK, like BBK, is used in the tire and rubber industry and for the manufacture of medical products;
- butadiene rubber on the neodymium catalytic system SKD-N is used in the tire industry and in the manufacture of a wide range of rubber products;
- Butadiene rubber on the lithium catalytic system SKD-L is used in the modification of styrene plastics, increasing the impact strength of high-impact polystyrene;
- styrene-butadiene rubber (block copolymer) DSSK 2012 is intended for use in the production of plastics and industrial rubber goods.
The branded assortment of synthetic rubbers of TAIF Group includes eight directions. Photo by Roman Khasaev
The main consumers of TAIF Group rubbers are European, American and Japanese tire companies: Michelin, Goodyear, Pirelli, Continental, Bridgestone, Belarusian Belshina and others. The fact that the world’s leading companies prefer Nizhnekamsk rubber can be easily explained: PJSC Nizhnekamskneftekhim is always customer-oriented. Creating new and modernizing existing production of synthetic rubbers, TAIF Group always strives for one thing: to produce and offer its partners only high-quality products.
“All the world’s leading companies have always considered and still consider the rubber produced by Nizhnekamskneftekhim to be one of the best. We have never had any problems with implementation. Moreover, it was often lacking. A large part of our products was shipped to Tatarstan and Russian tire manufacturers, the rest was exported. Those several types of DSSK that have already been developed and produced on our pilot plant, by the way, the best in Russia, are intended for tire production, for the construction industry, in particular, as an additive that increases the wear resistance of the roadway, as well as for modifying plastics, already they were sent in small batches for testing at the leading specialized firms of the world and received positive feedback. Our rubbers have always been considered good, and we value and do our best to maintain this reputation, ”explained Khamit Gilmanov.
“Why do the world’s largest tire manufacturers choose our rubber? This question is better to ask themselves. I myself think that in many ways this is a combination of a number of factors: high quality, extensive experience in the production of synthetic rubbers and the professionalism of the production and commercial team, the convenience of working with us, since we are ready to offer almost the entire range of synthetic rubbers necessary for the tire industry at all stages of production – from the tread to the hermetic layer.TAIF Group has a high level of vertical integration of production facilities, which makes it possible to implement the entire production chain from monomers to rubbers. In addition, we are distinguished by competitiveness and responsibility: we do not change the terms of already concluded contracts. So, even suffering a strong loss, we fulfilled all obligations for isoprene rubber to our partners last year and continue to fulfill this, ”Azat Bikmurzin emphasized.
The products of the rubber industries of TAIF Group, such brands as SKDL and DSSK-2012, are actively used in the production of modified plastics, both shock-resistant and those used in the manufacture of food packaging, toys and other consumer goods.Having provided its own capacities for the production of such plastics, Nizhnekamskneftekhim sells the produced SC for export. The products are in demand in Saudi Arabia, China, Taiwan, Brazil, Malaysia and a number of other countries.
Rubbers of TAIF Group are in demand in 50 countries of the world. Photo by Roman Khasaev
NKNKh consumers of synthetic rubbers are world-famous companies. And they open their factories all over the world. And along with this, the geography of supplies is expanding. At the moment, there are about 50 countries.However, TAIF Group sees opportunities for expanding sales not only in conquering new markets. The manufacturer is sure that even wider opportunities are opening up in the development of new niches for the use of synthetic rubbers.
IndustryPetrochemistry Tatarstan NizhnekamskneftekhimTAIF
90,000 The owner of the destroyed building of the kindergarten of the synthetic rubber plant may face administrative office | 27.05.19
The Yarkuba correspondent assessed the capabilities of the modern garbage can cleaning system, which has been used in the region since 2019.
Every year residents of Yaroslavl pay more and more attention to solving environmental problems.The townspeople carry their waste for recycling, collect and hand over waste paper, batteries and plastic covers.
The heroes of our today’s material are the crew of the car wash. The workers told Yarkub how the garbage cans cleaning system works.
How are containers washed?
Every day more than 100 cars remove garbage from the streets of Yaroslavl. During one working shift, the drivers of garbage trucks several times pick up waste from all container sites and take it to the “Clean City” waste sorting station.
A special washing machine is regularly connected to the work of the garbage truck. It is designed to clean the bins of sticky debris that accumulates inside the container.
The driver of the car wash told how it works. The first step is to manually bring the trash can up to the machine and set it on its feet. Then, thanks to the automatic control, which is regulated by the remote control, the container is lifted and turned over. Then it is rinsed with a powerful jet of water with a disinfectant.
How is the system for cleaning waste containers in Yaroslavl. Photo & Video
– The remote control is located on the right side of the body, – says Ivan Khlopin. – This is done so that I do not have to climb into the cockpit every time. There are 11 buttons on the control panel, but I only use two. The first brings up the washing mechanism, and the second starts the wash cycle. Note that our containers are cleaned not only inside, but also outside.
The water supplied to the high pressure system of the washing machine is poured into the Charter station.Before processing the tanks, the disinfectant “A-DEZ” is added to it. It is safe for people, animals and the environment.
How is the system for cleaning waste containers in Yaroslavl. Photo & Video
Unfortunately, the automated process does not always completely empty the containers. Sticky debris that remains inside, drivers scrape off the walls by hand.
– After we have scraped off the remaining waste, the tank goes through the cleaning system again, – said Ivan Khlyupin.- We carefully monitor the cleanliness of containers, since decomposing waste is very dangerous for the environment and humans. They contain toxic chemicals that destroy live microorganisms and negatively affect air quality.
The container cleaning system is installed on a regular MAZ truck. Perhaps its only drawback is the increased noise level that is heard during rinsing the tanks. But this is how all such high-pressure systems work.The company is trying to form a container washing schedule in such a way that in the morning hours, sites located slightly away from large yards are served.
The working day of the driver of the car wash begins at six o’clock in the morning. Together with other employees of LLC “Charter” at the beginning of the shift, he receives a schedule of tasks for the day and goes to the sites. It should be noted that the fulfillment of the tasks of all Charter employees is monitored using the Glonass system.
– Every car is equipped with the Glonass system in order to track the movement of drivers around the city, – said Sergey Sushkov. “In addition, the logistics center allows you to control the execution of tasks. The cleanliness of the containers is recorded by the drivers on the phone. This is done in order to confirm the result of the work, including for residents who ask the question: “Why is it not removed?” We explain in such cases that the cleaning was done on time in full and we confirm this with a photo report indicating the exact time.
It is important to take into account that the machine leaves for washing containers only at freezing temperatures. In the winter season, containers are removed from the sites for service work and put in order on the basis of LLC “Charter”.
Every day a team of two people works with the washing machine. They transport dirty dumpsters and even climb inside the tank to scrape off sticky waste.How can you keep your appearance neat and your clothes clean in such conditions? The fact is that the form is regularly sanitized.
– My uniform is always clean, even my shoes shine! – Ivan Khlopin smiles. – There is no unpleasant smell from clothes or in the car. It all depends on the person, on how clean he is. The uniform must be washed on time, in the machine do regular wet cleaning, then you even start to forget that you are working with waste!
How is the system for cleaning waste containers in Yaroslavl.Photo & Video
The set of clothes for each employee includes summer and winter semi-overalls, a jacket, boots, gloves, a raincoat and a hat. The shoe has an iron sole that allows stepping on glass and other sharp objects.
At the end of each shift, all waste generated during the cleaning of the container tanks remains inside the machine. Then they are taken to the base, where the remaining liquid passes through special filters many times and is disposed of properly.
High-quality provision of services to the population is ensured by our own modern fleet of garbage trucks and auxiliary equipment that meets the environmental standards Euro-4 and Euro-5, which significantly reduces the emission of exhaust gases during waste disposal.
All garbage collected in the city is sorted at the Waste sorting complex of CJSC “Clean City”, which allows us to select useful waste for recycling.
How is the system for cleaning waste containers in Yaroslavl.Photo & Video
Employees admit that it is important for them that people do not treat the ecology of the city with indifference.
– Every day I observe the residents of Yaroslavl and I can say that they care about the preservation of the environment, – Ivan Khlopin shared his opinion. – Many people separate their waste and hand it over for recycling. Of course, I want to express my gratitude to such people! It is doubly pleasant for them to work. I believe that in a couple of years Yaroslavl will be one of the cleanest cities in the Central Federal District!
Rubber flooring for playgrounds Moscow.
There are all conditions for creating children’s playgrounds today. They ennoble such territories in the city. You can and should be engaged in their improvement and near private cottages, in summer cottages, in backyard territories. Moreover, it is possible to select both materials and equipment that will meet the needs of customers, but at the same time it is pleasant to please with their cost. For example, rubber flooring shows itself remarkably in this particular area. Most importantly, it provides one hundred percent protection for the child from injury.But this is not its only advantage. Since the rubber coating for playgrounds Moscow knows as a very durable and practical solution. It is capable of serving under active conditions for decades. At the same time, its repair is almost never needed, not to mention the fact that there is no need for special maintenance.
More about the composition of the material.
As can be concluded from the name of the coating, its main component is rubber. But rubber reveals all its most valuable qualities, thanks to the fact that it is supplemented with polyurethane glue.Rubber raw materials are crushed to particles of a certain size. And then they need to be connected together to get a monolithic and even floor. And this is exactly what a polyurethane-based binder is used for. Such a composition retains the special properties of rubber and helps them to open up to the fullest. Plus, pigments are added to the material during production. They allow you to paint coatings in different shades. Naturally, for such purposes, dyes are acceptable, which are completely harmless. By the way, the entire composition of the material has been tested for safety.After all, that is why it is permissible for use in those places where children are in direct contact with it.
It is worth emphasizing that the composition of the coating may vary in terms of the ratio of components to each other. Thanks to this, there are changes in its technical and operational characteristics. But in any case, the rubber coating for playgrounds is highly valued by Moscow because it is practically not subject to destruction. Such surfaces remain invulnerable to the effects of various factors.They are durable and very durable.
These qualities are also due to the composition of the coating. Let’s remember that the main component is rubber, but not any, but only selected ones. Moreover, such raw materials as used rubber products show themselves best of all. For example, rubber from old car tires is ideal. After all, it is extremely durable. But when recycling tires, manufacturers also take care of protecting children from possible impurities. More precisely, when grinding, the rubber must be cleaned.
As for the glue, a one-component composition is used. This means that it does not need to additionally introduce solvents or other chemicals. The glue is immediately applied: rubber crumb is introduced into it, kneading the mass until smooth.
Types of coatings.
To equip children’s play areas, you can choose a rubber floor of your choice. After all, it is presented in different forms. There is the simplest solution – to buy rubber tiles. These are modules that come in various sizes, shapes, colors and thicknesses.They are selected for a specific project, taking into account its specifics. Next, it remains to lay the tiles on the territory, having previously aligned the base. If we talk about quick and easy installation, then you can also buy whole rolls of rubber. But paving platforms look very impressive. It gives the territories a unique and inimitable look. At the same time, in terms of practical properties, the paving stones are still happy.
However, a technology such as seamless filling is no less popular. It is not just that Moscow recommends rubber coating for playgrounds in this form.By choosing this method of installation, you can fill the territory of any area with a rubber mixture in a short time. At the same time, it practically does not matter what configuration it has. The technology allows you to make floors different: in color, surface texture, thickness of the fill. It’s great that it is possible to combine different shades on one object. When equipping a playground, you can depict pictures on it, make inscriptions.
Rubber coating for playgrounds Moscow.
The buyer is free to choose between different rubber-based flooring options.It is worth emphasizing that in terms of technical and operational properties, no installation method can be considered the best or worst. Another thing is that the laying of ready-made modules or rolls is simplified to the maximum. But high-quality filling is difficult to do with your own hands. But at the same time, the result exceeds all expectations.
The ISTIMPEX company is ready to help with the organization of a comfortable and safe play area. We have been dealing with such projects for many years. During this time, the installation technology has been worked out. Our coatings have shown themselves to be successful in operation.They are guaranteed to last for decades. Moreover, they do not need to buy special equipment or products for their care. The simplest cleaning in any convenient way is the only thing that is needed. But the playground will be able to withstand all the tests, and more than one generation of children will grow up on it.
Rubber and rubber coverings
LIK-Sport ›Catalog› Rubber and rubber coverings
Floor covering for gyms
EVERLAST Classic rubber coating consists of black SBR rubber crumb with 10% to 30% addition of contrasting EPDM granules in one or more colors.Color solutions are presented in a wide range of standard programs, but they can also be chosen according to an individual order. Coverings in different colors can be easily combined with each other.
EVERLAST Classic is available in a range of thicknesses to suit a wide variety of individual requirements.
The coating is extremely durable, wear-resistant and easy to maintain.
Total thickness 4; 6; eight; 10 mm
(other thicknesses on request)
Roll width 1.22 m Tile size 61 x 61 cm
(58 x 58 cm on request)
Volumetric weight 1020 kg / m³ Tensile strength 2.35 N / mm² Tensile strength 16.0 N / m Elongation at break 130% Hardness Shore A> 56 Wear resistance <0.35 gms Slip coefficient > 0.9 Slip resistance R 10 Thermal conductivity 0.059 W / m2K Temperature range – 40 … +115 ° C
- Color selection
806 – Bedrock
808 – Gravel Rock
807 – River Rock
811 – Sharin ‘Stone
701 – Coffee & Cream
EL00 – Basic Black
EL01 – Buff Blue 10
EL02 – Grippin Gray 10
EL05 – Rippin Red 10
EL04 – Buff Blue Gray 10
EL06 – Rippin Red Gray
EL07 – Yellow Surge
EL09 – Pumpin Purple
EL23 – Goin for Gold
EL21 – Brick Red
EL30 – Gym Brown
EL32A – Green Tea 2
EL97A – Whey Protein 2
EL36A – Peanut Crunch 2
EL34 – Top Guns
EL45 – Buff Blue 20
EL46 – Grippin Gray 20
EL47 – Rippin Red 20
EL38A – Blue Steel 2
EL40A – Protein Shake 2
EL15A – Steel Appeal 2
EL43A -Mocha Latte 2
Free-Lay Gym Slabs
UltraTile boards, with their patented system of bonding the upper wear-resistant layer to the base, offer unlimited freedom of imagination in the design of a room designed for extreme loads, for example, a gym with professional equipment.At the same time, the slabs can be installed on an existing floor, without costly repairs to the base. You don’t need to glue anything, the plates are fixed to each other with a special system of fasteners. Under the plates, you can freely and safely place cables or leads to equipment. This system also allows the slabs to be freely moved, depending either on the need to replace a slab for repair, or simply out of a desire to change the design.
Size 610 x 610 (mm) Thickness 25 mm Weight 19.5 kg / m²
- Color selection
EL00 – Basic Black
EL45 – Buff Blue 20
EL46 – Grippin Gray 20
EL47 – Rippin Red 20
EL97A – Whey Protein 2
EL100A – Wildcats 2
EL101 – Vikings
EL102 – Lions
EL103 – Blue Jays
EL104 – Cardinals
EL105 – Devils
EL106 – Tigers
EL107A – Gators 2
EA502 – Dark Gray
EL15A – Steel Appeal 2
EL43A – Mocha Latte 2
EL500 – Blue
Floor tiles for gyms
The rubber coating in EVERLAST Interlock tiles consists of black rubber SBR granules with the addition of 10% to 30% contrasting EPDM granules in one or more colors.The standard Interlock program is available in 3 colors (EL00, EL01, EL02) and includes three types of tiles – center tiles (with jigsaw joints on 4 sides), curb tiles (with jigsaw joints on 3 sides), corner tiles (with puzzle joints on two adjacent sides).
The color solutions for the center tiles can also be chosen from 4 other colors (EL08, EL32, EL34, EL45). EVERLAST Interlock can be installed both on glue and freely – different colors can be easily combined with each other.When laying loosely, the design of the flooring can be easily changed if necessary, as well as replacing damaged tiles.
Strong, durable and easy to maintain, EVERLAST Interlock is available in the most versatile 8 mm thickness.
Size 580 x 580 (mm) Thickness 8 mm Weight 8.16 kg / m²
High impact rubber flooring
Rubber flooring with increased shock resistance.Designed for rooms with very high loads and special requirements: gyms, ice rinks, golf clubs, stables, etc.
Total thickness 9.0 mm Tile size 1002 x 1002 mm Residual dent 0.25 mm Hardness Shore A 72 Abrasion ISO 4649 Method A – 90ccmm Resistant to cigarette heat surface does not burn Anti-static <2.0 kV Sound absorption 17 dB
High impact rubber flooring
Rubber flooring with increased shock resistance.
Designed for rooms with very high loads and special requirements: gyms, ice rinks, golf clubs, stables, etc.d.
Total thickness 9.0 mm Tile size 1002 x 1002 mm Residual dent 0.25 mm Hardness Shore A 72 Abrasion ISO 4649 Method A – 90cc mm Resistant to cigarette heat surface does not burn Anti-static <2.0 kV Sound absorption 17 dB
Anti-ricochet coating for shooting ranges
Cover with 3 mm rubber top layer specially designed for protection and safety in shooting areas.
This anti-ricochet floor covering for shooting ranges ensures the safety of shooters and reduces noise in the room. The material has good fire-fighting properties.
Coating is largely composed of rubber products.
Total thickness 22.0 mm Tile size 1000 x 1000 mm Residual dent 0.25 mm Hardness Shore A 72 Abrasion ISO 4649 Method A – 90ccmm Resistant to cigarette heat surface does not burn Anti-static <2.0 kV Sound absorption 17 dB
Plates covering for playgrounds with a thickness of 30-40-45 mm
Trauma-resistant slabs of various thicknesses made of soft rubber crumb are ideal for covering playgrounds, kindergarten playgrounds, covering sports grounds in recreation areas, etc.
Covering slabs provide protection against injuries in case of falling from a height of 1.0 – 1.5 m (depending on the thickness of the slab).
Elastic and non-slippery coating absorbs noise and vibration well, it is resistant to temperature extremes and other environmental influences.
Installation of protective plates can be done both loosely and with secure connection with plastic pins.
Size 500 x 500 (mm) Thickness 30 mm / 40 mm / 45 mm Fall protection 1.0 m / 1.3 m / 1.5 m
Plates covering for playgrounds with a thickness of 65-80 mm
Trauma-safe plates of increased thickness are intended for covering the playgrounds of kindergartens, school playgrounds for younger age groups, coatings in the play areas of children’s sanatoriums, etc.
Covering slabs provide protection against injuries in case of falls from a height of 2.0 – 2.4 m (depending on the thickness of the slab).
Elastic and non-slippery, traumatic coating absorbs noise and vibration well, it is resistant to temperature extremes and other environmental influences.
Installation of protective plates can be done both loosely and with a connection with safety pins made of plastic.
Size 500 x 500 (mm) Thickness 65 mm / 80 mm Fall protection 2.0 m / 2.4 m
Elastic plates with pattern insert
Elastic slabs made of soft rubber crumb with an insert of a 4 mm high artificial grass pattern allow you to diversify children’s games, decorate the surface of a sports playground, or equip the playground with marking elements.These safety slabs are available in a wide range of thicknesses and can be matched with any other Conradi Kaiser rectangular elastic slabs for playgrounds or sports fields using additional fastening means.
Size 500 x 500 (mm) Thickness 30 mm / 40 mm / 45 mm / 65 mm / 80 mm Insert diameter 310 mm
Elastic boards in the form of “puzzles”
Elastic boards with a “puzzle” connection system allow you to create a playground covering without the use of additional fastening means, they successfully combine safety and design.
The resulting injury-free coating, in addition to high protective properties, also has an excellent appearance, decorating playgrounds for children. This cover allows you to lay out amazing color patterns, awakening and inspiring creativity in children.
Size 400 x 400 (mm) Thickness 45 mm
Plates for outdoor playgrounds, whether schools or recreational areas, provide a durable and safe resilient surface.Slabs 40 mm thick are made of specially treated rubber crumb pressed under high pressure, very resistant to abrasion and climatic influences.
Size 500 x 500 (mm) Thickness 40 mm
Coating for outdoor sports grounds
Game Court is a multipurpose coating made from a blend of rubber, mineral fillers and UV stabilized pigments for versatile outdoor sports fields, available in rolls.
Topcoat – textured and non-porous, resistant to impact, footwear and weather. The lower layer has good shock absorption, absorbs loads well and reduces muscle fatigue in athletes.
Sports flooring can be of various thicknesses, with the required depreciation rates to meet the exact requirements of the Customer.
GB-06 / GR-08 / GG-10 Total thickness 6.0 mm / 8.0 mm / 10.0 mm Roll width 1.3 m / 1.3 m / 1.3 m Roll length ≥ 25 m.p. / ≥ 25 lm / ≥ 20.0 m.p.
Covering for treadmills
Super Track is a treadmill roll coating made of a mixture of rubber, mineral fillers and UV stabilized pigments.
Top layer – textured and non-porous, resistant to impact, shoe spikes and abrasion, weather resistant. The bottom layer of the honeycomb structure absorbs loads well and reduces muscle fatigue in athletes.
This treadmill cover is available in a variety of thicknesses to meet customer requirements.
IAAF certified (for 13mm thickness).
TR06 / TR08 / TR10 / TR12 / SUPPER TRACK Total thickness 6.0 mm / 8.0 mm / 10.0 mm / 12.0 mm / 13.0 mm Roll width 1.0 ∼ 1.3 m / 1.0 ∼ 1.3 m / 1.0 ∼ 1.3 m / 1.0 ∼ 1.3 m / 1.0 ∼ 1.3 m Roll length ≥ 25 m.p. / ≥ 25 lm / ≥ 25.0 m.p. / ≥ 20 lm / ≥ 15.0 m.p.
Floor coverings for gyms
SPORTEC color, SPORTEC splash and SPORTEC giga floor coverings allow you to maximize the variety of design in gym premises with the use of sports flooring of consistently high quality.
Both the carefully thought-out combinations of inclusions of various colored EPDM granules in SPORTEC color and SPORTEC splash, as well as the innovative SPORTEC giga, with their particularly large juicy color splashes, awaken imagination and open up endless possibilities in interior design.SPORTEC color, SPORTEC splash and SPORTEC giga coverings can be perfectly combined with each other, which allows designers to create original and fresh solutions in the visual zoning of the sports hall space.
Safe, comfortable and easy-care SPORTEC color, SPORTEC splash and SPORTEC giga create a pleasant atmosphere in the room.
Total thickness color – 4; 6; eight; 10 mm
splash – 4; 5; 6; eight; ten; 12 mm
giga – 6; eight; 10 mm
Roll width 1.50 m Roll length (m / at mm thickness) 30/4, 24/5, 20/6, 15/8, 12/10, 10/12 Volume weight 1050 kg / m³ Tensile strength, min 1.5 N / mm² Elongation at break 80% Hardness Shore A 60 Friction coefficient > 0.3 Slip resistance R 10 Sound absorption 17 dB (at 6 mm)
18 dB (at 8 mm)
Temperature range – 30 … +80 ° C
- Color selection
color 15 blue
color 15 blue gray
color 15 bright orange
color 15 bright yellow
color 15 dark gray
color 15 green
color 15 gray
color 15 lilac
color 15 red
splash black blue
splash black green
splash black orange
splash black red
splash black yellow
giga black blue
giga black green
giga black yellow
Multifunctional resilient floor covering
SPORTEC purcolor flooring is well suited for various fitness center environments due to its comfort and sound absorption characteristics.The rich color from the high content of colored granules in the material and the choice of thicknesses will allow you to choose the most suitable coating for different rooms. An important factor for choosing this coating is its high fire safety characteristics.
The SPORTEC purcolor material is simple and unpretentious in maintenance, which significantly reduces the cost of its operation.
Total thickness 4; 6; 8 mm Roll width 1.25 m Roll length (m / at mm thickness) 30/4, 20/6, 15/8 Volume weight 1250 kg / m³ Tensile strength, min 0.7 N / mm² Elongation at break 70% Hardness Shore A 60 Friction coefficient > 0.3 Slip resistance R 9 Sound absorption 16 dB (at 6 mm)
18 dB (at 8 mm)
Temperature range – 30 … +80 ° C Flameproof Cfl-s1 (B1) DIN EN 13501-1
Custom color coatings
SPORTEC variant has four basecoats in attractive colors, in addition to this, it is possible to select individual colors from the EPDM palette.
Wide choice of color combinations and fire-fighting properties make SPORTEC variant flooring a good solution for the design of fitness centers, other sports and public spaces.
Total thickness 4; 6 mm Roll width 1.25 m Roll length (m / at mm thickness) 30/4, 20/6 Volume weight 1250 kg / m³ Tensile strength, min 0.7 N / mm² Elongation at break 70% Hardness Shore A 60 Friction coefficient > 0.3 Slip resistance R 9 Sound absorption 16 dB (at 6 mm)
18 dB (at 8 mm)
Temperature range – 30 … +80 ° C Flameproof Cfl-s1 (B1) DIN EN 13501-1
EPDM multifunctional coating
SPORTEC UNI classic coatings are 100% EPDM granules.Their uniform surface color, clearly contrasting with the sports markings, creates an excellent playground experience for athletes. It is not only easy for athletes to navigate during the game, but also very comfortable and safe, thanks to the high shock-absorbing properties of this coating and excellent noise absorption.
High comfort when moving on the surface of the pavement and good noise absorption characteristics make it possible to successfully use SPORTEC UNI classic not only in sports, but also in other premises.UNI classic coatings will perfectly fit into office interiors, their durability and fire safety are suitable for retail space, and noise absorption is suitable for the atmosphere of exhibition halls. In residential areas, these coatings will also be very comfortable.
Total thickness 4 mm Roll width 1.25 m Roll length (m / at mm thickness) 30/4 Volume weight 1310 kg / m³ Tensile strength, min 0.7 N / mm² Elongation at break 70% Hardness Shore A 60 Friction coefficient > 0.3 Slip resistance R 9 Temperature range – 30 … +80 ° C Flameproof Cfl-s1 (B1) DIN EN 13501-1
Multifunctional sports floor covering
SPORTEC UNI classic sandwich coverings combine all the advantages of the unpretentious and durable SPORTEC UNI classic cover with the comfort and shock absorption of the elastic SPORTEC standard base layer.
The combination of two layers allows to obtain a wear-resistant sports flooring with high elasticity, which prevents the possibility of injury during sports. The coating is perfect for sports halls in schools, multifunctional halls for outdoor activities and sports activities.
Both layers are supplied in rolls, the sports flooring is laid sequentially – first, an elastic SPORTEC standard layer is glued to the base as a backing, then a colored SPORTEC UNI classic top layer is glued to it.
Top layer thickness 4 mm Roll width 1.25 m Top layer weight 5.2 kg / m² Bottom layer thickness 4 mm Roll width 1.50 m Bottom layer weight 3.1 kg / m² Roll length (m / at mm thickness) 30/4 Total weight 8.3 kg / m² Tensile strength, min 0.7 N / mm² Elongation at break 70% Hardness Shore A 60 Friction coefficient > 0.3 Slip resistance R 9 Ball bounce 100% Temperature range – 30 … +80 ° C Flameproof Cfl-s1 (B1) DIN EN 13501-1
Plates to protect the base under the coating from damage
SPORTEC style slabs are designed to protect the subfloor from impacts when various loads fall, which is possible in weightlifting rooms, in areas of fitness centers for training with dumbbells or strength exercises.In the event of an impact from the fall of the load on the flooring, damage to it itself may not occur – sports floors are usually very durable. However, the base under the coating – the concrete screed – can be damaged, which will require expensive repairs.
SPORTEC style slabs avoid this kind of damage due to their excellent shock absorption and they also provide excellent sound absorption.
Plates can be laid freely without the use of glue; special rods are used for their strong connection to each other.The top layer for SPORTEC style boards can be any Kraiburg coatings from the SPORTEC color, SPORTEC purcolor or SPORTEC UNI versa programs.
Overall thickness 30 mm Total weight 27.0 kg / m² Slab size, mm 500 x 500
500 x 1000
Slab weight 6.8 kg (500×500 mm)
13.6 kg (500×1000 mm)
Tensile strength, min 0.7 N / mm² Elongation at break 70% Hardness Shore A 60 Friction coefficient > 0.3 Ball bounce 95% Temperature range – 30 … +80 ° C
- Color selection
dark gray black
middle gray black
uni versa beige
uni versa blue
uni versa dark gray
uni versa green
uni versa light gray
uni versa red
Anti-ricochet protection of floor, walls and ceiling in shooting ranges
The SPORTEC shooting anti-ricocheting slabs are specially designed for floors, walls and ceilings in shooting range rooms.This provides comprehensive protection against dangerous ricochets on all surfaces.
If the boards are used as a floor covering, it is recommended to apply a layer of polyurethane with fire resistance class Bfl-s1 (according to EN 13501-1) over the boards to seal the joints on the surface and to make it easier to clean the traces of gunpowder.
SPORTEC shooting boards do not need to be PU coated on the ceiling and walls of the shooting range. The use of plates to protect the walls and ceiling of the shooting range eliminates the danger of bullets ricochet.In addition, the elastic rubber does not leave large entry holes when hit by bullets.
Color: red (on request – gray, black or green).
Overall thickness 40 mm Total weight 27.0 kg / m² Slab size, mm 500 x 500
500 x 1000
Slab weight 6.8 kg (500×500 mm)
13.5 kg (500×1000 mm)
Tensile strength, min 0.2 N / mm² Elongation at break 50% Hardness Shore A 60 Temperature range – 30 … +80 ° C Flameproof Efl (B2) DIN EN 13501-1
Universal covering for outdoor sports grounds
The UNI versa outdoor sports flooring is truly universal in use due to its high strength and material resistance to various loads.
This moisture resistant rubber flooring works safely and reliably in outdoor sports fields for basketball, volleyball, futsal, handball, badminton or tennis.
For increased comfort, the UNI versa sports flooring can also be used in combination with the SPORTEC standard cushioning underlay – more on this in the SPORTEC UNI versa sandwich system description.
Total thickness 4 mm Roll width 1.25 m Roll length (m / at mm thickness) 30/4 Weight 4.4 kg / m² Volume weight 1095 kg / m³ Tensile strength, min 0.3 N / mm² Elongation at break 40% Hardness Shore A 60 Friction coefficient > 0.75 Slip resistance R 10 Temperature range – 30 … +80 ° C Flameproof Cfl-s1 (B1) DIN EN 13501-1
Durable and safe surface for outdoor sports fields
SPORTEC UNI versa sandwich coverings combine all the advantages of a durable and moisture-resistant SPORTEC UNI versa cover with the comfort and cushioning of an elastic SPORTEC standard base layer.
The combination of two layers allows to obtain a wear-resistant sports flooring with high elasticity, which will prevent damage to joints and the possibility of other injuries during sports. The coating is perfect for sports fields in schools, multifunctional playgrounds for outdoor activities and sports activities.
Both layers are supplied in rolls, the sports flooring is laid sequentially – first, an elastic SPORTEC standard layer is glued to the base as a substrate, then a colored SPORTEC UNI versa top layer is glued to it.
Top layer thickness 4 mm Roll width 1.25 m Top layer weight 4.4 kg / m² Bottom layer thickness 4 mm Roll width 1.50 m Bottom layer weight 3.1 kg / m² Roll length (m / at mm thickness) 30/4 Total weight 7.5 kg / m² Tensile strength, min 0.7 N / mm² Elongation at break 59% Hardness Shore A 60 Friction coefficient > 0.8 Slip resistance R 10 Depreciation 20% Ball bounce 100% Temperature range – 30 … +80 ° C Flameproof Cfl-s1 (B1) DIN EN 13501-1
Treadmill Roll Cover
TOPTrack treadmill flooring is available in rolls of high quality natural rubber used in the top layer and in the cushioning layer.
The coating is suitable for both competitions of any level and training, it is distinguished by high resistance to shock loads, resistance to the effects of spiked shoes and wear resistance. The lower layer has good shock absorption, absorbs loads well and reduces muscle fatigue in athletes.
TOPTrack sports flooring can be provided in 2 types – harder (depreciation 35%) and softer (depreciation 40%), which are used respectively for competition and training.
IAAF certified (for 13mm thickness).
Total thickness 9 – 13 mm Roll width 0.9 – 1.27 m Roll length 10 – 25 m Tensile strength 1.58 MPa Elongation 321% Depreciation 35% – 40% Deformation 1.2 mm Friction 68%
Treadmill Roll Cover
PROTrack-S treadmill flooring is available in rolls with a high content of environmentally friendly natural rubber in the top layer and in the cushion layer.
The coating is suitable for both professional competitions and training, it is durable, resistant to the effects of spiked shoes and wear resistance. The coating is well suited for a budget, not only for treadmills, but also as a coating for sports fields in sports facilities, universities and schools.
PROTrack-S sports flooring can be provided in 2 types – harder (depreciation 35-38%) and softer (depreciation 38-40%), which are used respectively for competition and training.
IAAF certified (for 13mm thickness).
Total thickness 9 – 13 mm Roll width 0.9 – 1.27 m Roll length 10 – 25 m Tensile strength 1.02 MPa Elongation 221% Depreciation 35% – 42% Deformation 1.5 mm Friction 52%
Roll flooring for treadmills and sports fields
PROTrack treadmill and sports flooring is available in rolls with a textured top layer and a very soft cushioning layer, making it ideal for kindergartens, schools, social facilities and rehabilitation centers.
The coating is environmentally friendly, durable, wear-resistant and resistant to the effects of spiked shoes. The coating is well suited for a budget, not only for treadmills, but also as a coating for sports fields in schools, kindergartens, social institutions.
The PROTrack sports surface has a shock absorption of 38-49%, which makes it as safe as possible for both children and older people.
IAAF certified (for 13mm thickness).
Total thickness 9 – 13 mm Roll width 0.9 – 1.27 m Roll length 10 – 25 m Tensile strength 0.8 MPa Elongation 201% Depreciation 38% – 49% Deformation 1.7 mm Friction 55%
Universal sports flooring
Top coating layer 1.5-2mm has high density, elasticity and wear resistance. To meet the requirements of various sports grounds, this coating can be made in two versions with different coefficients of friction. The cushioning layer has a porous elastic structure that provides perfect vibration and shock absorption.
The versatile rubber sports flooring is highly durable with a tensile elongation of more than 250%. Even if cracks appear in the base, the coating will remain intact.
The coating can be applied both in professional stadiums and on training grounds, on sports grounds of universities, schools and kindergartens.
Total thickness 10 mm Roll width 0.9 – 1.27 m Roll length 10 – 25 m Elongation ≥ 250% Depreciation 38% – 49%
Rubber sports surfaces are deservedly considered one of the most durable and durable surfaces for both outdoor sports grounds and indoor halls
The general director of the Ufaorgsintez plant resigned ahead of schedule
Dudnikov submitted an application of his own free will, Interfax reports.He headed the plant since September 2018 and was appointed to this position for three years. Prior to that, in 2010-2018, he headed the regional department of Rosprirodnadzor.
His first deputy for production, deputy of the State Assembly of Bashkortostan Nikolay Kashirin was appointed as the acting general director. .
Nikolai Kashirin is 48 years old, a native of Ufa. Graduated from the Ufa State Oil Technical University. He began his career in 1995 at OJSC Ufaorgsintez, where he rose to the position of head of synthetic ethyl alcohol production.In 2011-2015, he worked at the Omsk Polypropylene Plant and at the Novokuibyshevsk Petrochemical Company. In 2015-2017 – Head of the Petrochemistry and Gas Chemistry Development Department, ANK Bashneft PJSC. In 2017, he was appointed First Deputy General Director for Production of Ufaorgsintez PJSC.
Ufaorgsintez is one of the largest Russian enterprises producing products for organic synthesis of polymer materials. The plant is the only Russian manufacturer of EPDM rubber (triple synthetic ethylene-propylene rubber), one of the key producers of phenol and acetone, as well as high-pressure polyethylene, polypropylene, bisphenol A (DPP).
As a reminder, on January 25, 2021, a fire broke out at the Ufaorgsintez plant. It was extinguished for about 12 hours. According to eyewitnesses, the fire was preceded by the explosion. A 50-year-old man died in the fire. Another victim was hospitalized.
The West Ural Department of Rostechnadzor came to the conclusion that the cause of the incident was the excess of the level of oil products provided for by the regulations. In addition, no changes were made to the technological scheme in the project documentation.
Cases were initiated against Ufaorgsintez and its management on violation of industrial safety requirements (Article 9.1 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation), the investigation materials were transferred to law enforcement agencies