Pilot Falcon Pens – Pilot Falcon Fountain Pens from Goldspot Pens
Pilot Falcon Pens – Pilot Falcon Fountain Pens from Goldspot Pens
Pilot Metal Falcon Ballpoint Pen in Black
Pilot Falcon Fountain Pen in Resin Blue – 14K Gold Soft Flexible Nib
Pilot Falcon Fountain Pen in Resin Purple – 14K Gold Soft Flexible Nib
Pilot Metal Falcon Fountain Pen in Black – Soft Flexible
Pilot Metal Falcon Fountain Pen in Burgundy – Soft Flexible
Pilot Metal Falcon Fountain Pen in Brown – Soft Flexible
Pilot Metal Falcon Fountain Pen in Sapphire – 14K Gold Soft Flexible
Pilot Falcon Fountain Pen Replacement Nib 14K Gold/Rhodium
Pilot Falcon Fountain Pen in Red & Rhodium – Soft Flexible
Pilot Falcon Fountain Pen in Black & Rhodium – Soft Flexible
Pilot Falcon Fountain Pen in Black & Gold – Soft Flexible
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Pilot Falcon Metal Black | Nibs
The Metal Falcon is slightly heavier and longer than its resin cousin. It has a more substantial feel between the fingers. At the same time, it still offers a comfortable and easy grip, with its added quarter inch of length providing balance for the extra weight. It also allows this pen to use the high-end Pilot premium converter, which holds considerably more ink than the standard filler.
Pilot Namiki has given new attention to the barrel and cap of this already compelling design. The trim on this shiny metal barrel is a bright rhodium, which provides a marked contrast to the black-and-gold look of the resin pens. While the resins fountain pens offer the look of a classic workhorse pen, the metal series suggests something different – sportier, distinctive, and more substantial. But what the both the resin and the metal pens have in common is the unique flexing properties of the Falcon nib.
Available in black, brown, burgundy, and sapphire, the color range for this pen series employs metallic lacquers to make the colors truly come alive.
The shape of this nib is ideally suited for flexibility. With moderate pressure, the tines spread, making a wider line. The broad nib pictured can be customized to a flexible left oblique, a great point for correspondence which allows for considerable line-width variation. Another favorite customization utilizes the extra fine point. We take it down to an extra-extra fine and add more flexibility, making it a very good contemporary nib for flowing Spencerian script. Only the Pilot Custom 912 with the Falcon nib is a better candidate for Spencerian customization.
Below is a sample from customer Kirk Edelman demonstrating the use of a Falcon Resin with our Spencerian modification. The level of ability seen here requires skill, patience, and practice – we recommend Eleanor Winters’ book “Mastering Copperplate Calligraphy” for those wishing to learn this technique.
F-16 | Description & History
See how F-16 Fighting Falcon performs a control-surface check before takeoff
U. S. Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcon performing a control-surface check before takeoff.
NASA/Dryden Research Aircraft Movie CollectionSee all videos for this article
F-16, also called Fighting Falcon, single-seat, single-engine jet fighter built by the General Dynamics Corporation (now part of the Lockheed Martin Corporation) for the United States and more than a dozen other countries. The F-16 originated in an order placed in 1972 for a lightweight cost-effective air-to-air fighter. Current models are also all-weather capable and effective for ground attack as well. The U.S. Air Force took first delivery in 1978.
The F-16 is 49 feet (15 metres) long and has a wingspan of 31 feet (9.45 metres). It is powered by a single Pratt & Whitney or General Electric turbofan engine, which, with afterburning, can generate 23,000 to 29,000 pounds (102 to 130 kilonewtons) of thrust, accelerating the aircraft to more than twice the speed of sound. Weaponry includes a 20-mm rotary cannon as well as attachments under the wings and fuselage for a wide variety of bombs and missiles. With a typical combat load, the F-16 weighs approximately 23,000 pounds (10,000 kg), which is less than half the weight of the previous-generation F-4 Phantom II.
U.S. Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcon, with two Sidewinder air-to-air missiles, one 2,000-pound bomb, and an auxiliary fuel tank mounted on each wing. An electronic countermeasures pod is mounted on the centreline.
Ken Hackman/U.S. Department of Defense
See two F-16 Fighting Falcons flying in formation
Two U.S. Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcons flying in formation.
NASA/Dryden Research Aircraft Movie CollectionSee all videos for this article
The fuselage of the F-16 flares out at its juncture with the aluminum-alloy wings, giving the aircraft greater lift and stability at steep angles of attack. A computerized “fly-by-wire” stabilizing system issues continuous commands to control surfaces in the tail and wings, and a “heads-up-display” instrumentation system projects flying and combat data onto a transparent screen in front of the pilot. In addition, a highly sophisticated bomb-aiming system, using a laser range-finder and high-speed digital data processing, permits ordinary “dumb” bombs to be dropped with precision accuracy from low altitudes. Such structural and electronic innovations made the F-16 a highly capable and versatile aircraft. It has been built under license in Belgium, the Netherlands, Turkey, and South Korea and is the basis for Japan’s FS-X fighter. It has been sold to U.S. allies in the Middle East, where it proved very effective in air-to-air combat and ground attack in the Israeli-Syrian conflict of 1982 and in the Persian Gulf War of 1990–91.
This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:
Dassault’s New Falcon 10X Jet Has the Largest Interior in Its Class – Robb Report
The Falcon 10X has become the ultra-long-range business jet to beat in terms of luxury and internal volume. French jet manufacturer Dassault debuted its new flagship today in Paris.
CEO Eric Trappier called it a “new benchmark in business aviation,” during its Dassault YouTube channel launch. “The Falcon 10X will offer an unrivaled passenger experience over both short- and long-duration flights, along with breakthrough safety features,” said Trappier. “We have optimized every aspect of the aircraft with the passenger in mind and established a new level of capability for ultra-long-range aircraft.”
The Falcon 10X has the largest interior among ultra-long-range jets, with 3,300 square feet of space that includes a 9’1” cabin width and 6’8” headroom. Depending on owner preference, that translates to as many as four lounges, including a bedroom with sitting area and private bathroom with full shower. To enhance the sense of openness, four large windows pour natural light into this private living area.
The 3,300-square-foot interior can be divided into four lounge areas, along with a private bedroom.
Thirty-eight windows across the 10X’s cabin ensure that every nook and cranny receive inbound light to help passengers transition multiple time zones. Owners will be able to customize the interior seating and layouts, working with either outside designers or Dassault’s team.
The French aerospace company also placed passenger comfort as one of the 10X’s top priorities. Cabin air is fully refreshed up to 10 times faster than most modern-office buildings with the same type of filtration system found in most hospital ICUs. While the aircraft’s flight ceiling is 51,000 feet, onboard pressurization feels more like strolling around a mountain resort. Those comfort factors were considered non-negotiable since flights on the 10X could last more than 15 hours.
The Falcon 10X’s interior isn’t as spacious as converted commercial jets from Airbus and Boeing, but it’s going mano a mano against the current big boys of the business jet world—Bombardier’s Global 7500 and Gulfstream’s G700. All three aircraft share the same maximum speed of Mach 0.925, which they can achieve 30 minutes into flight after reaching cruising altitude. They also have the same high-speed cruise of Mach 0.90, and a long-range cruise of Mach 0.85.
With its twin Rolls-Royce Pearl engines, the Falcon 10X can fly nonstop for 15 hours with a maximum range of 8,631 miles.
The 10X will be able to fly nonstop from New York to Hong Kong, or Los Angeles to Sydney. Its maximum range of 8,631 miles came in 230 miles shy of the Global 7500’s 8,861 miles, but it matches the reach of the Gulfstream G700 down to the mile. Dassault credits a portion of the aircraft’s performance to its lightweight carbon-fiber wings and increased wing sweep.
The 10X was designed with two engines, as opposed to Dassault’s trijet tradition, which ended after its most recent 6X was powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PurePower engines. For the Falcon 10X, Dassault chose Rolls-Royce Pearl 10X powerplants. The twin-engine design speaks to passengers’ demand for more sustainable solutions in propulsion as well as materials like its carbon-fiber wings. “We changed the material with which we built the wings from metal to carbon fiber, something we already did on the Rafale fighter jet,” says Dassault’s Carlos Brana. That allows both high- and low-speed flying.
Dassault also invested in fly-by-wire technology, which in addition to making flights as smooth as possible, now includes “power control” for maximum efficiency, especially flying in inclement weather. With a single push of a button, the aircraft will self-stabilize if situational awareness deteriorates. Dassault also added a smart touch for the pilots: The cockpit seats fully recline into flat beds for either pilot to rest during low workload phases, while the other flies the plane.
The private bedroom also includes a separate ensuite, with an almost-unheard of luxury on a business jet–a full standup shower.
Requiring less than 2,500 feet of runway, the 10X will be able to operate in smaller airports where large aircraft typically cannot operate. With the added benefit of its composite wings, the 10X’s low-speed steep approach capability is complemented by the FalconEye—the industry’s first combined vision system—to achieve safe, low-speed performance.
Trappier said the Falcon 10X will enter service at the end of 2025.
Honeywell Avionics Power Dassault’s New Falcon 10X
Honeywell’s proven flight deck technologies will act as core systems on Dassault’s all-new Falcon 10X jet. The newest model from Dassault features a range of 7,500 nautical miles, which allows it to fly from Los Angeles to Sydney or Hong Kong to New York with nary a stop. Along with the extended range, the aircraft will offer enhanced comfort and safety to optimize the passenger experience. Furthermore, Honeywell’s advanced flight deck technologies will bring a user-friendly experience for future pilots of the Falcon 10X.
“Honeywell is proud to equip the new Dassault 10X aircraft with its next-generation Primus Epic technology that brings the safety and situational awareness of the aircraft to an unprecedented level,” said Stevan Slijepcevic, president, Electronic Solutions, Honeywell Aerospace. “Honeywell and Dassault collaborated since the inception of the 10X development program to create unique Human Factors and Pilot Interface experiences. The result is a flight deck packed with the industry’s best safety technology, and flight displays that don’t just look better, but contain an array of powerful features such as Honeywell’s 3D Airport Moving Maps and Runway Overrun Awareness and Alerting System.”
“Consumer-like” touch capabilities enter the cockpit
The 10X will be one of the first to feature Honeywell’s new touchscreen technology throughout the cockpit. This technology is aimed at making displays more intuitive, integrated and user-friendly, thus easing workload and improving communications in the cockpit. The integrated touchscreens will be used for operating system controls, viewing flight management information, communications, checklists, and monitoring weather and flight information
Honeywell Advanced Avionics and Mechanical Products on the Falcon 10X:
Enhanced SmartView Synthetic Vision System
Enhancements add approach symbology to improve situational awareness during the approach phase. This provides a visual reference of the arrival runway’s approach course at distance, and along with the 3D Runway Extended Centerlines, provides a visual reference of the arrival runway’s orientation.
Next-Generation Integrated Navigation (NG INAV)
The multi-function display (MFD) capability and user interface has been enhanced to an unmatched level. The INAV received a contemporary and elegant look with spherical projections of flight plans, and an updated design language library along with reduced clutter. Enhanced VSD (Vertical Situation Display) is an impressive addition with Graphical Flight Planning capability on the VSD and Airspace Depictions.
2-D Airport Moving Maps and Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI-SURF)
Items such as runways, taxiways, airport structures, signs, taxiway lines and more are now clearly visible on the MFD. The information is kept up to date on the map database, and this technology makes taxiing at unfamiliar airports much easier by increasing the pilot’s situational awareness. CDTI-SURF also presents flight crew with the position of ADS-B aircraft when airborne on the flight deck MFD.
3D Airport Moving Maps (AMM)
The information now available to pilots on the Primary Flight Display with the Situational Awareness Package enhances the Honeywell SmartViewTM Synthetic Vision System (SVS) with 3D Airport Moving Maps. The SVS environment display now starts on the ground with a 3D rendering of the airport environment. The 3D airport moving maps option can be used to complement the standard 2D moving maps feature on the multifunction display, or as a standalone tool when the display is needed for other tasks. Items such as hotspots, runway hold short lines and taxiway signage increase a pilot’s situational awareness to unprecedented levels.
Runway Overrun Awareness and Alerting System (ROASS)
This system analyzes the landing runway, compares it with published aircraft performance data and identifies potential situations that might result in a runway overrun such as a high and fast approach. Once a potential situation is identified, the system alerts the pilot using visual and aural alerts. These alerts are provided in real time and prompt the pilot to take corrective action immediately.
HGT400 Auxiliary Power Unit
The HGT400 gas turbine auxiliary power unit (APU) is an integrated system that supplies pneumatic and electric power for the 10X while on the ground or in-flight. This is Honeywell’s newest large-cabin business aviation APU, and is approximately 30 pounds lighter than the average APU in its class. It is also equipped with the latest in electronic controller technology, allowing for smooth communication with the integrated flight deck.
The Dassault Falcon 10X, along with the Honeywell avionics onboard, will enter service at the end of 2025.
Dassault Falcon’s New $58 Million Falcon 8X Business Jet Is Cleared for Takeoff
The $58 million Dassault Falcon 8X, the upgrade of the Falcon 7X, has ascended to its place as the flagship of the Dassault Falcon fleet, with full certification in hand from both U. S. and European regulators. The French aircraft manufacturer company is now preparing to start deliveries of the ultralong-range business jet, and the first examples are expected to be in owners’ hangars early this fall.
The Falcon 8X provides every traveler with what they crave—a bigger cabin and a longer range—and aims to keep flight crews happy with a state-of-the-art fly-by-wire cockpit that relieves pilots of repetitive tasks and lets them focus on flight management instead. Like several Falcon jets, the 8X is equipped with three turbofan engines, which provide the flexibility needed to take off from short runways and to operate at airports in high elevations or hot climates. New winglets also reduce drag, increasing efficiency.
The cabin of the Falcon 8X stretches almost 43 feet long and 7.6 feet wide, with 30 possible layouts to choose from. Every passenger’s need—from a full galley to a comfortable workspace to a restful night’s sleep and a shower—can be accommodated. In all configurations, passengers benefit from a low noise level (just 52 dB or less) and a low cabin altitude of just 3,900 feet, even while cruising at up to 40,000 feet. (The jet has a certified flight ceiling of 51,000 feet.) The Falcon 8X can travel up to 7,422 miles nonstop and reach speeds of up to 425 mph. (dassaultfalcon.com)
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Pokryshkin about Aircobra
Pokryshkin about Aircobra
The strengths of this machine were reliability, very powerful armament, high speed and maneuverability, excellent visibility from the cockpit. On the other hand, the main drawback of the aircraft was its tendency to spin, as well as the difficulty of aiming fire from a large-caliber gun.”Airacobra” was intended for professional pilots who could cope with complex controls and realize the high potential of the aircraft. For this reason, this machine in the Soviet aviation was equipped, first of all, guards fighter regiments, manned by highly qualified pilots. Was in service with five countries: USA, Great Britain, USSR, Portugal and Australia.
It was on the P-39N Airacobra fighter with side number 100 that Alexander Ivanovich Pokryshkin ended the war.
“Airacobra” I liked its shape and, mainly, powerful weapons. There was something to shoot down enemy planes – a 37-millimeter cannon, two large-caliber rapid-fire machine guns and four normal caliber machine guns, a thousand rounds per minute each. My mood did not deteriorate and after warning the pilots about the dangerous feature of the aircraft, I would go into a tailspin due to the rear alignment. I had to be convinced of this shortcoming with my own eyes the next day. “
“Before leaving for the front, the regiment’s navigator performed difficult aerobatics at low altitude. The plane suddenly went into a tailspin. There was not enough height for the withdrawal, and the “Airacobra” crashed into the ground. Looking at the smoking funnel, in which the wreckage of the plane was burning down, I thought that the “Airacobra” does not forgive mistakes in piloting. This disaster confirmed the opinion of the American pilots. They were afraid of the “Aircobra” and reluctantly fought on it. ”
Nizhny Novgorod Aircraft Building Plant Sokol celebrated its 89th birthday
February 2, 2021, AEX.RU – February 1 Nizhny Novgorod Aircraft Building Plant Sokol, a branch of JSC RSK MiG, celebrates its birthday. A solemn meeting was held at the enterprise, during which 91 employees of NAZ “Sokol” were awarded with industry, regional and corporate awards.
The plant’s director Vladimir Semyonov, the chairman of the primary trade union organization Alexander Leontyev and the chairman of the council of veterans of the plant Leonid Belev congratulated the aircraft manufacturers on this significant date.
In his congratulations, Vladimir Semenov noted that despite the difficulties and limitations caused by the spread of coronavirus infection, the Sokol NAZ team successfully completed all its production tasks: the repair and modernization of a batch of MiG-31 aircraft was completed, a line for the production of fuselage compartments of the Il -114-300, a new topic for the enterprise was mastered – the repair of MiG-29 aircraft, work continued on the further development of the production system and the reconstruction of areas.V.M. Semenov expressed confidence that in the coming year the staff of NAZ “Sokol” will adequately cope with all the challenges of the time.
The history of the aircraft plant began with the release of aviation equipment developed in the experimental design bureaus of N.N. Polikarpov (aircraft I-5, I-16) and S.A. Lavochkin (La-5, La-7 fighters). 19.2 thousand aircraft produced in 1941-1945 are the contribution of the Gorky aircraft plant to the victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War. Since 1949, the plant has been cooperating with the A.I. Mikoyan, produces MiG fighters. The name of the legendary test pilot Hero of the Soviet Union V.P. Chkalov, who was its chief pilot in the 1930s. Four times the enterprise was awarded government awards: in 1936 and 1970 – the Orders of Lenin, in 1941 – the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, and in 1982 – the Order of the October Revolution. On April 29, 2016, the Nizhny Novgorod Aircraft Building Plant Sokol became part of JSC RSK MiG.
90,000 Aviation sports competitions Nizhny Novgorod – August 16, 2021
From August 12 to 15, the All-Russian competition in aviation races for the Cup of the Hero of the Soviet Union test pilot Valery Chkalov took place over the Strelka water area in Nizhny Novgorod.For the first time in world history, air races were held in two classes of aircraft at once: jet and piston – no one has ever done this. 17 best pilots of the country had to play five sets of awards and determine the strongest in individual, team and overall standings on the Yak-55, SP-55, L-29 Dolphin and L-39 Albatross aircraft.
On the first day, official training took place, but the pilots were awaited by unforeseen tests – the meteorological conditions were not favorable for flights, the wind exceeded the permissible limits, and therefore the airway gate installed in the morning, between which the distance passes, had to be removed.The athletes had to fly, focusing only on the marks on the ground, and later the flights were completely stopped due to the onset of a thunderstorm – as a result, some of the pilots were not able to rise into the sky at all.
“The training was carried out by 70%, I managed to orient myself on the terrain, get acquainted with the new track, evaluate the ergonomics of the equipment and its behavior in the wind. Despite the difficult conditions – the absence of pylons and bad weather – all the pilots showed a high level of safety “, noted judge of the all-Russian and international category Lyudmila Zelenina .
Later it turned out that the lack of pre-competition flights in full did not break the spirit of the pilots, especially since the organizers decided to continue training the next day. However, on Friday the 13th, on the day of qualification, the weather again gave an unpleasant surprise, and it was not possible to climb into the sky on schedule, the pilots were waiting for their start at the Sokol airfield. In the end, the heavenly forces stopped joking with the race participants, and the flight program of the V.P. Chkalova started.Fans came to support the pilots, who watched the serious struggle that took place over the water area of Strelka, from the Volzhskaya embankment.
According to the results of the qualifying stage of the competition, eight of the best racers on piston aircraft and six of the fastest pilots of jet cars won the tickets to the finals. The qualifying round was won by the representative of the Voronezh region, 22-year-old Ivan Barsov , who drives the Yak-55. The youngest competitor showed the result 1.20.41. The best time on the jet L-39 Albatross was demonstrated by the pilot from the Tula region Vladimir Moskalenko (1.24.65).
On the final day of the V.P. Chkalov, the pilots finally managed to agree with the weather: the final began under the most comfortable conditions, in complete calm. The first to enter the fight was the winner of the qualification Barsov, who from the very beginning set the highest bar for his rivals, improving his own result by three seconds (1.17.04). In the course of the race, this time was never surpassed by any of the eight contenders for the main trophy in the piston class, and a representative of the Voronezh region got the individual gold.The closest pursuer of , Sergey Gurov from the Perm Territory, lagged behind the winner by five seconds 1.22.56. The three strongest were closed by the Petersburger Sergey Zakharov (1.22.84).
As for the team classification, Barsov became the best again, who, together with Vladimir Anguladze , brought another gold to the collection of the Voronezh region team. The second place was taken by the team of the Perm Territory, and the team of the Moscow Region received the bronze medal.
In the jet class, the result was almost sensational, the reigning champion of Russia Anton Varekha demonstrated the impossible: in his L-29 he managed to surpass the time shown by Barsov on a piston aircraft, covering the distance of four kilometers in 1.15.76. “Despite the more complex and heavier aircraft, Varekha managed to outpace the result of Barsov in the Yak-55,” Dmitry Motin , President of the National Aviation Racing Association , commented on the winner’s performance.
A real struggle was played out for the silver between Moskalenko, representing the Tula region, and the Muscovite Vladimir Rodnishchev , where everything was decided by four hundredths, which the leader of the qualification brought to his opponent, representing the capital region.
The team of the Moscow region as part of Varekha and Vladimir Lisnyak won in the team competition. The second step of the podium was taken by Motin and Moskalenko, playing for the Tula region, the three winners were closed by Muscovites Rodnischev and Anton Pavlov .
In Nizhny Novgorod, for the first time in the history of air races, the absolute standings were played among the participants performing in both aircraft classes, where Varekha again became the first. Thus, the pilot from the Moscow region managed to show one hundred percent result and record three awards of the highest dignity and the title of the absolute winner of the B Cup.P. Chkalov in aviation races. It should be noted that at the competition in Nizhny Varekha made his debut in the piston class. The second was Motin, and the third place was won by Alexey Ivanov . It should be noted that the winner of the bronze medal in the overall standings also for the first time in his career completed the race distance on an aircraft of another class – L-29 “Dolphin”.
At the end of the competition program, the organizers prepared a real show for the audience. For Nizhny Novgorod residents and guests of the city, aerobatic teams “Swifts” performed on MiG-29 fighters, “Reactors” on aircraft L-29 “Dolphin” and L-39 “Albatross”, as well as the “Russian Aviation Races” team, which demonstrated group aerobatics on piston planes.An individual performance on the Yak-55 was shown by first class instructor pilot Vladimir Nikolaev . All this was accompanied by an entertainment program from musical groups on a specially equipped area.
The award ceremony took place on Saturday, August 14, at the Nizhnevolzhskaya embankment. Before the start of the “Capital of Sunsets” festival, medals and cups were presented to the winners and prize-winners by the Deputy Governor of the Nizhny Novgorod Region Andrey Betin and the representative of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise of the Ministry of Sports of the Russian Federation “National Aero Club of Russia named after Chkalov” Ekaterina Bushueva .
“The people of Nizhny Novgorod liked the race. We will consider the possibility of holding air races in our city on an ongoing basis. The pilots arranged a real holiday for every citizen of Nizhny Novgorod, it will be remembered for a long time “, – Deputy Governor Betin shared his impressions.
After the official part for the pilots, the Eurovision-2021 participant, singer Manizha and musician Kirill Richter , accompanied by a string orchestra and a choir performed. The celebration of the winners and prize-winners ended with a festive fireworks display from the Nizhny Novgorod team “Magic of Fire”.
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Easier than easy | Jets.ru
Towards the end of 2006, on December 31, the first serial “extra-light business jet” (VLJ) Eclipse 500 acquired its owner. Rather, the owners. The aircraft was transferred to the joint ownership of the Jet Alliance and private entrepreneur David Crowe. While Crowe is going to use the plane mainly for recreation, the company-operator intends to “test” the car for business transportation.The co-owners have a great responsibility: their opinion about the world’s first VLJ will be decisive for many. In the meantime, the pioneers are optimistic. David Crowe says the purchase of the Eclipse 500 will not only provide convenient access to your favorite hobbies and hobbies, but also “plenty of time to enjoy them.” Jet Alliance CEO Randall Sanada said, “The Eclipse 500 is creating exciting new opportunities for travel and jet ownership, and our customers have been as excited as we are.”In general, the new year at Jet Alliance was a success. Let’s try to figure out why the glasses were raised.
In the world of business aviation there are probably few people who would never have heard of the Eclipse 500 business jet. Eclipse Aviation advertised the new strike project so aggressively that even before the first flight of the prototype, the whole world knew about the unusual “pocket jet” , and only then there was such a “promotion” that just right to envy the star of show business.Nevertheless, it will not be superfluous to once again inspect the plane from all sides and critically evaluate it from the point of view of the Russian consumer. Here it is in front of you – the smallest of the existing business jets. The length of the plane is only 10 meters. For comparison: the single-engine turboprop M-101T “Falcon” has the same length and weighs even more, although it is one of the most compact and lightweight passenger “turboprop”. The interior of the Eclipse 500 is so narrow and short that in its individual version it can accommodate only three seats with a single table, and only in the shuttle version (air taxi) the number of passengers increases to four (the fifth one can take the co-pilot’s seat).However, it is logical to believe that if the creators of the Eclipse 500 had a desire to accommodate more passengers, they would have made the plane more impressive. But the goal was just the opposite, therefore it is worthy of surprise how three passenger seats and two pilot’s seats fit into such dimensions. Imagine that you bought the L-39 Albatros two-seater combat trainer (military pilots are learning to fly with them) and asked to convert it into a business jet, adding three or four more passenger seats. It’s good if it works out the same way as Eclipse Aviation.But, most likely, it will turn out worse. We use such unusual comparisons on purpose so that you appreciate the complexity of the task and do not reproach the designers of the Eclipse 500.
But not only diminutiveness distinguishes our hero from other business jets. First, the technology of its construction is interesting. The aircraft is made entirely of “winged metal” duralumin, which contradicts the current fashion for composite materials. But all-metal structures have an advantage – a more sophisticated production technology, which played a role, especially when you consider that the manufacturer intends to master robotic conveyor assembly as an automobile industry and produce at least four aircraft a day.A new method of joining airframe parts using friction welding (friction) should also contribute to such a rate of production, which has already made it possible to abandon 60% of rivets, reduce weight and increase the strength of the structure. In addition, according to Eclipse Aviation, composite structures do not give a gain in weight when it comes to an aircraft with a pressurized cabin. The aircraft has clean aerodynamic shapes and looks very harmonious from the outside. A small straight wing, due to its modest size, turned out to be rather thin, therefore, in order to fit a sufficient amount of kerosene in it, the designers had to install drop-shaped fuel tanks at the ends of the wing – a solution that is not uncommon in the practice of creating light aircraft.The leading edges of the wing and the horizontal tail are equipped with pneumatic anti-icing protectors.
But perhaps one of the most interesting parts of the plane is its engines. The Pratt & Whitney Canada PW601F dual-circuit turbojets are unusually small – just over 30 cm in diameter. The PW601F is one of the smallest turbojet engines in the world, and was originally designed for a cruise missile. The successful development of small-sized turbojet engines in terms of efficiency was the revolution in aircraft construction that predetermined the appearance of especially light business jets.History repeats itself: in 1903, the Wright brothers made the world’s first successful flight in an airplane, in no small part due to the fact that they equipped it with a revolutionary gasoline engine with an aluminum crankcase for that time.
Let’s weigh in on broodershaft!
NBAA – National Business Aviation Association of the USA – gives the following typical definition for the class of extra light business jets (VLJ): these are aircraft with a maximum take-off weight of up to 4.5 tons, equipped with one or two jet engines with thrust up to 900 kg, capable of flying at an altitude of 12 , 5 thous.m, adapted for operation from runways with a length of not more than 1 km and certified to operate one pilot. A civilian jet aircraft certified to operate one pilot must be automated, equipped with the most modern “unloading” avionics, which provide the pilot with maximum visual information about the flight route, terrain, weather conditions, air conditions, and the operation of onboard systems. This is especially important for private pilots who have to climb their VLJs to the heights where mainline airliners, piloted by experienced professionals, fly.
Our hero fully meets all these requirements. Moreover, Eclipse Aviation plans to equip the Eclipse 500 with a “return button”. The on-board flight and navigation system remembers the route and flight profile, and if at some point the pilot becomes unwell, he activates the automatic return mode. The airplane, giving a distress alert, will automatically go on a return course, return to the departure aerodrome and land on its own (or on commands from the ground).Similar functions have already been implemented in military aviation, in particular, on the Russian Ka-50 helicopter, known as the Black Shark.
But progressive construction also has prosaic aspects. One of the highlights is the lack of a toilet on board the Eclipse 500. Discussions about the need for a toilet for VLJs flying relatively short distances have been going on in the United States for a long time, and the decisions are different. Experts from Eclipse Aviation, studying the statistics of demand and the nature of the intended operation, decided to abandon the “private room”.It is still impossible to equip it according to all the rules (there is no place), and they will rarely use it. And where have you seen a taxi with a toilet? The second point common to all VLJs is the sensitive dependence of the flight range on the payload mass. Simply put, the more passengers on board, the less fuel in the tanks.
These two features are caused by a kind of scaling effect that occurs when the size and weight of the aircraft is reduced. The dimensions of the aircraft can be reduced, which entails a reduction in the mass of the structure, fuel reserve and engine power.But it is impossible to make a person smaller: the average passenger weighs 80 kg, regardless of whether he is flying a Boeing or a hang glider with a motor. It is also impossible to fundamentally reduce the amount of fuel required to carry one passenger per 1 km of range. Therefore, if for large business jets a difference of 4-6 passengers has a noticeable effect on the range, then for VLJ literally every person on board is important. It’s the same with the toilet: we may one day see a turbojet the size of a fountain pen, but we will never see a toilet the size of a coffee cup.
However, despite the fact that the Eclipse 500 does not fit some of what the Russian business aviation client is used to, this aircraft is quite distinctive and deserves respect. It is important for us to evaluate it correctly. We are talking about a very small aircraft, which in terms of size, weight and, so to speak, the ideology of use, most of all corresponds to light single-engine propeller-driven aircraft, which still form the basis of general aviation, and, therefore, aviation as a whole. It was into the world of propeller-driven “grasshoppers” that a fast-moving jet plane, capable of flying at high altitudes, came.In fact, this is the same “grasshopper”, but jumping fast and high.
If you fly a propeller-driven aircraft over a distance of 200-300 km, you will be quite satisfied with a speed of 150-200 km / h. If you have to fly 500-700 km, it will be enough to accelerate to 300-400 km / h. But if the length of the route exceeds a thousand kilometers, you will estimate the difference between 400 km / h (turboprop) and 700 km / h (VLJ of the same dimension). However, this is only a theory. Practice is different everywhere, and here it should be borne in mind that the Eclipse 500 was created primarily for the US market.
Habit to fly
The aforementioned David Crowe, the happy co-owner of the first Eclipse 500, is not accidentally calculating the gain in time that his plane will give him. Crowe is one of those people who cannot afford a large business jet or scheduled flights based on fractional ownership or commercial business travel. The propeller-driven aircraft does not suit him because of insufficient speed, and only the economical and affordable Eclipse 500 flight hour makes it possible to taste the advantages of business aviation.An especially light business jet will significantly save time in flights between small airports, of which there are many thousands in the United States and where regular airlines do not fly.
The secret of interest in VLJ in the USA is quite simple: the main loss of time when flying around America is the loss of time directly in flight. In conditions when the procedure for the departure of a private or corporate jet is simplified to the limit, it remains only to catch up at the expense of the flight speed. It was this circumstance in the 1960s that led to the emergence of business jets, which overtook twin-engine propeller-driven machines.And now the revolution in aircraft engine building and on-board electronics has made it possible to miniaturize jet aircraft so much that it has come close to the line of practical use from small airfields, over relatively short distances and at very affordable prices. America has long been flying “on propellers” the way the whole world drives cars. In the near future, it will become jet-powered as usual. Dialectics of development, nothing can be done.
What about Europe? And Russia? Alas, the “especially easy revolution” will not come to us soon.The bulk of the Eclipse 500 will begin next year, and the first thing Eclipse Aviation will do is develop a sales and service network across the United States, which is understandable. Europe and the Middle East will be “spud” in the second place, although there are already some leaders – for example, Turkey, whose authorities have been implementing the slogan “every Turk will fly” for many years. But this is Turkey, where the establishment of flight training centers for private pilots and the support of private aviation are considered a national priority.We have our own pride, as they say, and every private pilot or aircraft owner can only rely on himself.
In this sense, the overseas Eclipse 500 is of no significant interest to Russian private and business aviation. And the point here is not in the dimension, but in the range and price. If the price of the Eclipse 500 kept at the promised figure of 0 thousand, maybe there would be something to talk about. But buying a plane with a range of a much cheaper “turboprop” for a million and a half is unreasonable by Russian standards.In our practice of organizing flights of private and business aviation, the high speed of the Eclipse 500 will not bring any benefits, and the practical flight range will not exceed 1000 km. In these conditions, it is more logical to fly a propeller-driven aircraft, and somewhere in a helicopter, since there are fewer problems with basing. And we just haven’t grown to such luxury. Of course, many dream of changing to a private jet, and the price issue is important in this matter. But there is no mass consumer audience for VLJ yet. In Russia, we should first get out of the habit of zigzag driving and acquire a good habit of flying.And we’ll think about speed records in sky-high heights later.
Jet Magazine, October 2007
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90,000 Stealthy fighters and universal spacesuits: new MAKS-2021 items
We tell about the most interesting aerospace developments presented at MAKS-2021
New technologies in the field of aviation, mock-ups of modern spacesuits and stations, demonstration flights – all this was shown by Russian companies at the International Aviation and Space Salon MAKS-2021, which takes place in Zhukovsky near Moscow from 20 to 25 July.Following in the footsteps of the RBC Trends exhibition, we have compiled a selection of developments that very soon may conquer heaven and outer space.
“Checkmate”: Russian fifth generation fighter
One of the main exhibits of the exhibition is the prototype of the fifth-generation Checkmate light tactical aircraft created by Sukhoi, which, according to the developers, can compete with the American F-35 fighters.
The creation of the aircraft was kept secret: the first mention of Checkmate appeared on the network a week before the International Aviation and Space Salon.Rostec, which includes the developer of the fighter, has published a photo showing partially how the Checkmate should look. Bloggers showed images of the new aircraft covered with black cloth from a closer angle on their social networks.
(Photo: Andrey Lyubimov / RBC)
Checkmate is the first aircraft in Russian history without built-in cannons and with logistic support from Matreshka – an analogue of the American ALIS and ODIN systems – which will be able to assess the Checkmate status throughout the entire service life of the fighter.In addition, the aircraft is invisible in the air: it is equipped with a modern airborne electronic suppression and defense system and a radar with an active phased antenna array.
Lack of built-in cannons is an advantage for fighter export. They will be replaced by suspended weapons weighing up to 7400 kg. The plane will be able to cover 2,900 km without refueling.
Video presentation Checkmate
Checkmate is almost entirely digitally designed, according to the developers.So far, static tests of the aircraft are coming to an end. The plans are to raise Checkmate to the skies in 2023, and start mass production by 2026.
Yak-40LL: electric motor
CIAM named after Baranov and the SuperOx company have created a hybrid and more environmentally friendly scheme for the Yak-40 flying laboratory. A propeller was installed on the nose of the aircraft, which starts moving due to an electric aircraft engine with a power of 500 kW.
Flying laboratory based on the Yak-40 and its hybrid engine
(Photo: Andrey Lyubimov / RBC)
The scientists are planning to completely finalize the technology and create an aircraft based on hybrid technology by 2030.According to the current scheme, liquid nitrogen acts as a coolant in this engine, but the designers intend in the future to replace it with even more environmentally friendly liquefied hydrogen, which will also become a fuel. But this will hardly be possible before 2035.
“Paceman” and “Hunter”: shock drones
The exhibition was not without drones. Several companies presented their developments in the field of autonomous aircraft at once.
The Kronstadt company showed the Orion-E, or, as it is more often called in the armed forces, the pacer.The drone can stay in the air for up to 24 hours – it is a class of medium-altitude strike aircraft with a long flight duration.
(Photo: Evgeny Biyatov / RIA Novosti)
The pacer’s maximum take-off weight is 1,000 kg, while it can hold a payload weighing up to 200 kg.The drone is equipped with a complex of aviation weapons capable of destroying stationary and moving ground targets. These devices are already being supplied to the armed forces.
Another development is the Hunter unmanned stealth drone, which can work both in tandem with the Su-57 fighter, or independently. The Hunter was created to deliver missile and bomb strikes.
So far, an experienced pilot is flying the drone during testing. But soon he will switch to autonomous movement.
VRT-300: mail drones
Mail drones created by the Russian Helicopters holding can lift up to 70 kg of cargo at a maximum speed of 130 km / h.The use of such aircraft will allow delivering up to 245 tons of mail per year. VRT-300 can cover a distance of 325 km, the flight duration is 2.5 hours.
(Photo: Andrey Lyubimov / RBC)
Russian Post and Rostec signed an agreement at the exhibition on the use of drones to deliver postal cargo to Chukotka and 48 other regions.Test flights will be completed by the end of 2021.
Mi-171A3: the first helicopter for offshore companies
Ulan-Ude Aviation Plant presented a new “offshore” Mi-171A3 helicopter, which can not only carry people and cargo, but also, thanks to the installed search system, on-board winches and medical equipment, perform rescue operations.
(Photo: Andrey Lyubimov / RBC)
The helicopter differs from foreign analogues: it can accommodate up to 24 people (instead of 19), and its flight hour costs 20% less.The first flight is scheduled for early 2022.
Baikal, Airbus A220-300 and A350-1000: civil aviation
The company “Baikal Engineering” showed a prototype of the new aircraft LMS-901 “Baikal”, which by its potential will be able to replace the multipurpose “maize” An-2 developed in Soviet times and improve the transport accessibility of the Russian regions.
(Photo: Andrey Lyubimov / RBC)
The aircraft can accommodate up to nine passengers and will be able to reach speeds of 300 km / h, covering a distance of 3 thousand kilometers.km. The carrying capacity of “Baikal” is 2 tons, with such a load it will fly at least 1,500 km.
In 2024, the aircraft will receive a hybrid propulsion and electric propulsion system.
The market potential of Baikal is estimated at 190 aircraft until 2030.
Another novelty in the field of civil aviation is the Airbus A220-300 aircraft created by the Canadian aircraft manufacturer Bombardier (before the purchase of the project by the Airbus holding). Its capacity is 100-150 seats, and the space inside is organized so that passengers have much more space for a comfortable flight.
(Photo: Andrey Lyubimov / RBC)
During the creation of the aircraft, the developers use composite materials, and its noise level is the lowest among all produced jet aircraft, which significantly reduces the amount of unwanted emissions that are harmful to the environment.The liner will be able to cover distances of 6390 km.
Azimut Airlines signed an agreement to purchase six Airbus A220-300 until 2024.
The Airbus concern itself presented the A350-1000, the largest aircraft in the A350 family of long-haul airliners.
(Photo: Andrey Lyubimov / RBC)
Its capacity is 440 passengers.The aircraft is equipped with modern aerodynamics as well as technologies that reduce drag, thereby reducing fuel consumption. 53% of the materials in the A350-1000 are composite. Thanks to the installed Rolls Royce Trent XWB 97 engines, the aircraft’s power has increased by 15% – so it will be able to cover distances up to 16,100 km.
Airbus A350-1000 Flight Video
“Sokol-M”: universal space suits
Perhaps soon spacesuits for traveling to the moon aboard the Oryol spacecraft will become more versatile – the Zvezda research and production enterprise has presented a prototype of the Sokol-M reusable equipment, which can be adjusted to the parameters of the wearer (for example, the height and length of the arms).The company plans to release several sizes of spacesuits.
Sokol-M spacesuit prototype
(Photo: Andrey Lyubimov / RBC)
A distinctive feature of Sokol-M is a fundamentally new type of connection between the upper and lower parts of the space suit – using a rigid ring.In its shape, the new spacesuit is a shell with no inner contents. Knitted suits with tubes, in which the astronauts will be, will provide the required level of ventilation.
The Sokol-M cannot go into outer space. The spacesuit has a different task – to protect the astronaut in a vacuum for two hours. Equipment designers want to achieve the required level of safety in the event of a spacecraft depressurization.
90,000 Iranian “Falcon” – response to sanctions
A self-developed TCB will teach pilots with one Mach
A new Yasin (Falcon) jet trainer developed in Iran made its maiden flight over the Neje airbase in Hamadan province on 17 October.A prototype of this aircraft was presented by the Aviation Industry Organization in 2017 at MAKS in Zhukovsky near Moscow.
The specialists of the Ministry of Defense, in cooperation with representatives of the Air Force and the Department of Science and Technology of Iran, began to develop the project of a modern TCB in 2009, after the United States imposed sanctions on the country. But such an aircraft was needed in the Air Force. The first full-size mock-up of the new aircraft was tested in September 2014, three years later, in March-April 2017, a pre-production sample was rolled out from the final assembly shop.In 2019, after passing the final tests of the Yasin TCB in the presence of the Minister of Defense and Support of the Iranian Armed Forces Amir Khatami, the Air Force Commander-in-Chief Brigadier General Aziz Nasirzade, the Iranian Vice President for Science and Technology Sorena Sattari made the first official flight.
“Specific tail unit gives the best flight characteristics and maneuverability”
The appearance of the new aircraft fully complies with the design requirements for training jet aircraft. A comfortable and roomy cockpit has been designed for pilots, the glazing provides a good view – this will help pilots to carry out missions with ease.In addition, the special placement of seats at different levels allows the instructor to follow the cadet’s actions in flight.
The aircraft is 12 meters long and 4.7 meters high and weighs 5.5 tons. The ceiling is 12 kilometers.
The wingspan is more than 10 meters, their area is 24 square meters, which allows the jet plane to land and take off at a speed of at least 200 kilometers per hour. Good horizontal control at low speed is provided by the increased tail area.
“Yasin” is equipped with two turbojet non-afterburning engines Owj. They are produced in Iran based on the American General Electric J85 turbojet engine. The airframe of the new aircraft has an all-metal structure.
The minimum speed of the Yasin was announced at 200 kilometers per hour. However, it is not specified in open sources whether it means landing or stalling the aircraft. Maximum speed – up to Mach 1.
Another feature of the Yasin TCB, on which 500 specialists have been working for 10 years, is a specific tail with rotating elements (all-turning horizontal) tail.In contrast to the traditional one, it gives the best flight characteristics and maneuverability. This allows critical maneuvers such as a spin to be safely performed.
Creation by Iranian specialists of the Yasin TCB proves that scientists and designers have mastered the full design cycle.
“Military Industrial Courier” newspaper, published in issue No. 42 (805) of October 29, 2019
Moskovskaya Street – Stalin’s Falcon Nikolay Kosnikov
Nikolai Kosnikov was born in the village.Bazaar Karabulak of the Saratov province in a family of peasants. Having received his secondary education, Nikolai voluntarily becomes a cadet of the united military school named after. All-Russian Central Executive Committee (Moscow), and then, in
1933, enters the 2nd Military Pilot School in Borisoglebsk. This is where his road to aviation begins.
After graduating from the flight school, Nikolai Kosnikov was appointed flight commander of a light bomber squadron, and 2 years later – commander of a training squadron with the rank of senior lieutenant.
Kosnikov moved up the career ladder quite confidently: by 1938 he was already deputy squadron commander of the 10th light-bomber aviation regiment
(Krasnogvardeysk, now Gatchina). In 1939-1940. his regiment took part in the Soviet-Finnish war.
The Soviet Union preferred not to mention the war with Finland once again. Nikolai Kosnikov told the children about the Finnish campaign very sparingly. Only once did he mention that at the beginning of that war there were terrible frosts, machine guns and cannons were freezing grease.
The Finns still fired despite the cold temperature. Then the Soviet soldiers figured out to remove all the grease. The guns began to shoot dry. Parts quickly wore out, but it was possible to fight.
Nikolai Kosnikov’s “lantern” (the transparent part of the cockpit that protects the pilots) was broken in one battle. I had to fly back in the wind, in a forty-degree frost. “When I got off the plane, the skin on my face turned into a crust. And when I touched it, it cracked, ”Nikolai Kosnikov told his son.
Despite the fact that Soviet aviation had a tenfold numerical superiority over the Finnish, historians differ in assessing the effectiveness and skill of Soviet pilots who fought in 1939-1940. It is indisputable, however, that the Soviet aviation fulfilled its task – disrupted the work of the Finnish defense industry and hampered the military supplies of the Allies to Finland.
Nikolai Kosnikov flew in those years on the SB plane – a high-speed front-line bomber. During the campaign, he made 62 sorties and received the Order of the Red Banner for his services.
The Great Patriotic War found Nikolai Kosnikov in advanced training courses: he was a student of the courses for deputy commanders of air regiments for political affairs in Engels (Saratov region).
On June 24, 1941, he returned to his unit in Gatchina, Leningrad Region, and very soon entered his first battles with the Nazis. It was a completely different war, not like the Finnish campaign. One could forget about multiple air superiority, the thesis “with little blood, on foreign territory” also lost all practical meaning.
From July to October 1941, Nikolai Kosnikov took part in the battles of the Leningrad Front, until the middle of 1942 he fought on the Western Front, then ended up on the Stalingrad Front, and in 1943 – on the Central Front.
Alas, Nikolai Kosnikov’s memories of these battles and of this time are almost not preserved. Here is a rare exception to this rule – a combat episode recorded by Kosnikov himself for announcement at some performance.
“June 24, a clear, cloudless day, an area east of Dmitrovsk-Orlovsky – 10-12 km.We covered the leading edge of the 70 A [army] troops with three groups of 6 La-5 aircraft. After 20-25 minutes, a link of Ju-88 bombers appeared in the sky, accompanied by two pairs of Me-109.
Knowing the enemy’s habit of diverting our forces to small groups in order to strike with the main groups, we missed this group, although some of the pilots requested radio permission to attack.
Not more than 2 minutes passed, as the second group of 9 Ju-88 aircraft appeared under the cover of 12 Me-109. These were not to be missed.
I give the command over the radio: “O-2 – attack the right link
S-88, O-3 – the left link, I attack the leader.” O-2 was a squadron commander, Hero of the Soviet Union, Belarusian, Major Kozich. O-3 is also a squadron commander, Hero of the Soviet Union, Captain Tregubov, in the full sense of the word ace. Dared to the point of insolence, did not know fear, always cheerful and with puns. And his answer followed: “I realized there is something to frolic over. Attack the left one, cover the tail. ”
The attack was successful. From a 1/4 angle, the leading Ju-88 was at the crosshairs of my sight.A split second: I press the trigger, a sheaf of colored shells. Ju-88 nodded and went down. As can be seen, the pilot was killed. A group of bombers scattered, our La-5s began to peck at them one by one. In addition, it was necessary to fend off enemy fighters.
At this time, a group of our Il-2 flew below us. As you can see, they went to storm the enemy’s airfield, also under the cover of Yak-1 fighters, some of which got involved in the battle with the Me-109 in order to prevent them from reaching the attack aircraft. On command from the ground OP, the La-5 group was raised to intercept the first three Ju-88s, which we missed.There, too, an air battle began.
The enemy began to build up his forces. Another group of Me-109s approached, and it could have been a bit tough for us, especially since the fuel was running out. Group 18 La-5 also arrived to us. This group immediately got involved in the fight and, in fact, decided the outcome of the battle. And our group was forced to withdraw from the battle – the fuel was running out.
On the second day, we learned from the operational report that in this battle the enemy lost 6 Ju-88 and 5 Me-109. We lost two pilots, three planes, and one more wounded one landed on the fuselage.Our Il-2 successfully completed the mission of attacking the enemy airfield. ”
The son of Nikolai Kosnikov, Yuri Kosnikov, noted that his father was a pilot, but above all a commander. So from this episode, we see: yes, he flies himself, presses the trigger, destroys the enemy. But at the same time, the main guarantee of victory is different – to predict the actions of the enemy, outwit him, competently accumulate and distribute forces, and put them into battle in time. This art of war has been developed over the years and with heavy losses.
Yuri Kosnikov recalls that his father very rarely talked about the war. Usually he excused himself: “Why talk about this?” If he remembered something, then, as a rule, to emphasize his thoughts with an instructive story, for educational purposes.
Yuri Kosnikov: “For example:“ You, he says, do everything with a fire, you are sloppy. This can be expensive for a pilot. ” He had a case: an airplane overturned at a low altitude during takeoff. Either when he got into the cockpit, he caught his belt on the flap switch, or something else.In general, the plane turned over on takeoff. And the pilots have a reflex: if something is wrong, stick to yourself in order to gain altitude. In this case, it would be guaranteed death. But he realized, pushed the handle away from him, gained altitude, turned over. ”
Where exactly this incident occurred, you no longer know. Maybe in Russia, and maybe abroad.
After the liberation of the territory of the Soviet Union, Nikolai Kosnikov continued to fight. From 1943 he was the commander of the 721 Fighter Aviation Regiment and then the 805th Assault Aviation Regiment.
After liberating Belarus, Soviet troops advanced further into Poland. Nikolai Kosnikov later spoke about the Poles: they like to sit and drink “kava” (coffee), but do not like to work. He also remembered how he lived on a bed with the director of a local distillery. That Pole had a remarkable mustache curled up. And when Nikolai Kosnikov came to the director, he twirled his mustache and asked in a visceral and intriguing way: “Give the colonel a drink?”
Another episode from Poland, but not so funny. Soviet units stood at the edge of the forest.The soldiers lived in dugouts. Nikolai Kosnikov was with friends when the bombing began. He waited for a while, and then went to his dugout. Returned – no dugout. There is a funnel from which smoke comes out. Nikolay was upset – things were missing. He turned around, went back to his friends. Comes – their dugout is no longer there either, just a funnel and smoke.
Yes, in war, the experience and skill of the fighter plays an important role in matters of survival. But at the same time, a simple soldier’s luck is also of great importance. Nikolai Kosnikov could have easily died during that bombing.Instead, he went through the entire war without being injured.
However, there are discrepancies in the documents on this score. There is evidence that Kosnikov still had a slight wound.
Nikolai Kosnikov also fought in Germany. He took part in the storming of Berlin, and then was photographed at the Reichstag. But before taking this photo, the pilot had to work hard.
Once Nikolai Kosnikov, during a night flight, fell into the crosshairs of German searchlights. Usually, in such cases, the pilot goes blind, and the anti-aircraft gunners on the ground, on the contrary, perfectly see where to shoot.That time Nikolai Kosnikov escaped by dropping the gas and sharply “dropping” his plane down into the darkness. The attack aircraft on which he flew was, although heavy, but quite maneuverable.
The assault on Berlin began on April 25, 1945. On that day and the next night, more than 2,000 Soviet aircraft from the 16th and 18th Air Armies launched 3 massive strikes on the German capital. Nikolai Kosnikov served in the 16th Army.
The sky over Berlin was covered with smoke from conflagrations, which further complicated the work of Soviet pilots.Therefore, the best were sent on these flights.
Berlin Nikolai Kosnikov stormed already with the rank of lieutenant colonel, commanding 805 assault aviation regiment. For successful actions during the assault, his regiment received the honorary name “Berlin”
After the war
Yuri Kosnikov: “My father was a career soldier. Therefore, you yourself understand, we ran all over the Soviet Union. He served in Estonia, served on Sakhalin, on the Karelian Isthmus and in Armenia. He girded the whole country ”.
The list of aircraft names that were piloted by Nikolai Kosnikov makes it possible to study the history of Russian military aviation.He flew on Po-2, R-5, R-6, Ut-1, Ut-2, Uti-4, SB, Yak-1, Yak-7, Yak-7b, La-5, Il-2, Il -10, Yak-12, Yak-18, Yak-18u, Yak-18a, Mig-15, Mig-15bis.
The main raid of Nikolai Kosnikov was on piston aircraft, but in 1956-1957. he managed to fly and jet. In total, from 1934 to 1960. it had over 5,000 flights.
* * *
Yuri Kosnikov’s first memories of his father are associated with the Estonian period of his biography. Nikolai Kosnikov drove his son to the trophy “Opel Captain”, and he was delighted with such trips.
In the 1950s, the Kosnikov family moved to Moscow, where the five of them lived in one room allocated for the Academy student. It was in those years that television appeared, and Yuri Kosnikov recalls how his family watched KVN-49 television.
Then there was 1957, and the island of Sakhalin. Nikolai Kosnikov – Flight Division Commander. His family lived in a Japanese-built house, such as a plywood one. For the whole family – 2 rooms. On Sakhalin, Nikolai Kosnikov, however, did not serve for long.
His new appointment – g.Kamenka of the Penza region. Nikolai Kosnikov headed the Military Aviation School for the initial training of pilots. There he received the rank of major general, and there he found his famous Khrushchev reduction. The school was liquidated.
Nikolai Kosnikov had a choice: either go to the reserve, or go for a promotion to the post of lieutenant general, but to Central Asia. For family reasons, Kosnikov decided to retire. By this time he was 50 years old. In 1960, his military service ended.
Choosing a place of residence for his family, Nikolai Kosnikov gave preference to Penza. In those days it was a quiet green city, everything was normal here. And the Kosnikovs remained in Penza.
After retiring Nikolay Kosnikov worked at the letter plant “PO Box 200”, which produced flight simulators. He served there as deputy director, then went to the post of chief of civil defense. Later, when health began to deteriorate, Nikolai Kosnikov went to work at Gorpromtorg. Then he retired and lived on the street.Glory with his family until the end of the 80s.
“Shaman” and a man
Nikolai Kosnikov had the military nickname Shaman. Explaining this, Kosnikov said: “Firstly, when I took the pilots into battle, they always returned. And secondly, when I sent the award documents, they were always approved, the award came ”.
Yuri Kosnikov recalls that his father was a rather harsh person, both in the war and in peacetime. However, in one of the characteristics from the certification of Nikolai Kosnikov, it is indicated that he allows “conversations” into his regiment, I quote “… without stopping all violations with a firm hand, trying to show himself as a” good uncle “and thus attract people to his side.”And in the next characterization he is already called disciplined, demanding of himself and of his subordinates.
Presumably, Nikolai Kosnikov knew how to combine his sharpness with a human approach. As his son Yuri notes, Kosnikov Sr. served in aviation as a pilot, commander and commissar, and the commissar must always find a way to a person’s heart. This is one of his responsibilities.
I must say that Nikolai Kosnikov was a faithful Stalinist. Nikolai Kosnikov lived through the entire exposure campaign and the 20th Congress of the CPSU in silence.But later, when watching war films, Kosnikov sometimes said, it is not clear in whose address: “Yes, you are up to Stalin as to heaven!”
By the way, Nikolai Kosnikov knew the son of Joseph Stalin, Vasily. Perhaps it was an official acquaintance: Vasily Stalin also served in the aviation.
After military service, Nikolai Kosnikov often gathered guests – colleagues and acquaintances. Relations with them were the warmest. Apparently, Nikolai Kosnikov’s friends loved and appreciated him.
Kosnikov obviously did not run away from the awards, but he did not boast of them, did not take other people’s merits for himself.When the refrigerator in his house broke down, Nikolai Kosnikov had to be persuaded for a long time to put on a uniform and go to the Gorpromtorg to ask for a new unit. The refrigerator, by the way, was then given without further ado: after all, in those years there were only 2 generals in Penza – the head of the artillery school and Nikolai Kosnikov.
Nikolai Kosnikov was awarded the Order of Lenin, three Orders of the Red Banner of Battle, three Orders of the Red Star, the Order of the Patriotic War of the 1st degree, the Order of Alexander Nevsky, medals for the defense of Leningrad, for the defense of Stalingrad, for the capture of Berlin and, of course, for the Victory over Germany.And this is not a complete list, here are only his main awards.
In the last years of his life, Nikolai Kosnikov was ill a lot: the years of vibrations inside the cockpit had a bad effect on the heart and blood vessels. And the perestroika that took place in the late 80s and the general change in attitude towards veterans did not add optimism to the old pilot.
In 1988, he died after seeing his second granddaughter and, fortunately, not having time to see how the country for which he fought was falling apart.