J essential: Immortelle Absolute for Natural Perfumery

Hinoki Wood

Overview

Hinoki Wood Essential Oil

Our sustainably grown Hinoki Wood (aka Japanese Cypress) essential oil is made from the wood, not the leaves of this highly revered tree. The aroma is dry, fine woody, and has light terpenic nuances with soft herbal/lemony overtones and a peculiar warm, sweet, somewhat spicy undertone. One word that springs to mind when describing this arboreal aroma is ‘clean’ – and perhaps it is this quality that makes it important in purification rituals in the Shinto religion.1 For a single batch of Hinoki essential oil, 300 kilos of branches and young growth unsuitable for lumber or pulp are placed in a distillation unit specially designed for timber, producing roughly 6 kilos of oil in one production run.2

Hinoki is grown for its very high quality timber in Japan where it is used as a material for building temples, shrines, traditional Noh theatres, ritual baths and even table tennis paddles. It is also used in traditional Japanese stick incense for its light, earthy aroma.3 However, it should be mentioned that Hinoki is categorized as a near endangered species, but this is in reference to old growth Hinoki, of which very little is left.4 The Hinoki now being culled under the auspices of the Japanese government is plantation grown. Our manufacturer utilizes the leftover wood unsuitable for lumber to distill this essential oil.5

As Hinoki essential oil has appeared only recently in aromatherapy collections, very few scientific papers may be found. However, botanists have studied what are known as phytoncides, the volatile substances (including essential oils) emitted from and used by plants for protection against insects and microbial and fungal pathogens. In contrast to their negative effects on microorganisms and insects, phytoncides have been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. One application that has been studied is its use as a human-friendly insect repellent. 6 Chemical analysis of Hinoki Leaf shows a broad variety of aromatic monoterpene molecules – a signature of healthy coniferous forest air7 – and this can explain why Hinoki is one of the main species of tree featured in the often-referenced scientific papers on Japanese “forest bathing” or shinrin-yoku and the positive implications it has for humans.8

Hinoki has been embraced by perfumers and is a central ingredient in several noteworthy perfumes. Perfume House Comme des Garçons’ perfumer, Antoine Maisondieu, describes his ‘Scent One: Hinoki’ as a “…scent inspired by Japanese hot-spring baths and Scandinavian forests.”9

For information regarding the aromatherapeutic attributes of Hinoki Wood essential oil please see:

  • “Hinoki Wood,” Salvatore Battaglia, https://salvatorebattaglia.com.au
    /essential-oils/48-hinoki-wood
  • “The effects of Chamaecyparis obtusa essential oil on pain-related behavior and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in carrageenan-induced arthritis in rats,” H R Suh, H J Chung, et al. , Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, January 2016, 80(1): 203-209, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09168451.2015.1075864
  • “Monoterpenoid and Sesquiterpenoid Constituents of the Essential Oil of Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.),” B Shieh, Y Iizuka, Y Matsubara, Agric Biol Chem, June 1981, 45(6): 1497-1499, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00021369.1981.
    10864734
  • “Inhaled essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtuse ameliorates the impairments of cognitive function induced by injection of β-amyloid in rats,” D Bae, H Seol, et al., Pharm Biol, 2012, 50(7): 900-910, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/13880209.2011.642886
  • “ß-Thujaplicin modulates estrogen receptor signaling and inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells,” J Ko, C Bao, et al., Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, June 2015, 79(6): 1011-1017, http://www.tandfonline. com/doi/full/10.1080/09168451.
    2015.1008978

For information regarding the use of Hinoki Wood in natural perfumery, please see:


Aromatic Profile: Dry, fine woody, light terpenic aroma with soft herbal/lemony overtones and a peculiar warm, sweet, somewhat spicy undertone.


Appearance: Very pale yellow, transparent, mobile liquid.


Use: Aromatherapy / Natural perfumery.


Blending Suggestions: Dilute and add drop by drop to your blends until the desired effect is achieved.


Blends Well With: Bergamot, Cedarwood (Virginia), Cistus, Clary Sage, Cypress, Fir Balsam, Ginger, Jasmine, Juniper, Labdanum, Lavender, Lemon, Mandarin, Myrrh, Neroli, Orange, Rose, Rosemary, Tangerine, Vetiver, Ylang Ylang. Employed in perfumery applications in the countries of origin where it finds use in soaps, personal care products, deodorants, insecticides, detergents, etc. 10


Safety Considerations: None known.11 Dilute before using. A patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin.


2 Industry communication.

4 Farjon, Aljos. A Natural History of Conifers, 2008, p. 209.

5 Industry communication.

10 Arctander, Steffen. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin, 1960, pp. 153-4.

11 Tisserand, Robert and Rodney Young. Essential Oil Safety, 2nd ed., 2014, p. 302.


The FDA has not evaluated the statements on this website. No claims are made by Eden Botanicals as to the medicinal value of any products from Eden Botanicals. The information presented here is for educating our customers about the traditional uses of essential oils and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. You are responsible for understanding the safe application of these products. If you have any questions, please call or email us for further information.

Immortelle Absolute for Natural Perfumery

Immortelle Absolute

The aroma of our Immortelle Absolute is very sweet, herbaceous, hay-like and honeyed, with a smoky tobacco and musk-like undertone; it has an extraordinary ability to round off and ‘bouquet’ a composition that may need ‘life’ and naturalness.1

Helichrysum italicum means ‘golden sun of Italy’ and is evocative of the stunning habitat of this plant in its bright maize-colored meadows. Immortelle is French for ‘immortal’ or ‘everlasting’ and refers to the straw-like flowers that appear living when, in fact, dried – in a bright yellow color as if frozen in time. This plant is part of the Asteraceae (daisy) family and is often called the ‘curry plant’ due to the unusual and pungent odor of the leaves. It is also the source of Helichrysum essential oil, a perennial staple for many of aromatherapy’s first aid applications.

While Helichrysum essential oil is associated with injury and wound healing, one wonders if the energetics of this plant used in natural perfume compositions will offer a metaphorical healing to the unavoidable wounds of life and love.

In perfumery, Immortelle has traditionally been used in chypre, floral, and amber compositions; its warm, tobacco, tea, liqueur, and wood notes blend well with woody, oriental, fougère, or leathery accords, and its warmth can be used to illuminate compositions.2 Perfume blogger N. further states that “Immortelle [absolute] is akin to the assoluta voice with the rich darkness of a contralto and the ringing bells of a soprano – it simply pierces through the thickest of compositions.”3 Elena Vosnaki, also a perfume blogger, notes “the more the oil warms up on the skin, the more it reveals human-like, supple nuances of honeyed notes, waxy, intimate…”4

PLEASE NOTE: Immortelle Absolute is not recommended for aromatherapy; it is intended for use in perfumery only. If you are interested in using Immortelle for aromatherapeutic purposes, please see our high-quality Helichrysum essential oil that we offer.

For information regarding the use of Immortelle Absolute in natural perfumery, please see:

  • Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin, Steffen Arctander, 1960, pp. 237-8.
  • Artisan Perfumery or Being Led by the Nose, Alec Lawless, 2009, p. 72.
  • “Perfumery Material: Immortelle/Helichrysum/Everlasting Flower,” Elena Vosnaki in Perfume Shrine, January 2012, http://perfumeshrine.blogspot.com/2012/01/perfumery-material-immortellehelichrysu.html
  • “Immortelle l’Amour,” Ayala Moriel in Smellyblog, September 2007, http://ayalasmellyblog.blogspot.com/search?q=immortelle
  • “When the Post Office Smells of Corsica…,” N. in I Make Scents, December 2016, https://imakescents.wordpress.com/tag/eau-noire/
  • “Annick Goutal Sables : Fragrance Review,” Victoria Frolova in Bois de Jasmin, January 2007, https://boisdejasmin. com/2007/01/annick-goutal-sables-fragrance-review.html#more-661

Aromatic Profile: Very sweet, herbaceous, hay-like, honeyed aroma with a smoky tobacco and musk-like undertone.


Appearance: Dark amber, very thick material that is solid at room temperature; will require special use instructions to blend. Soluble in 190 proof alcohol, not soluble in fixed (vegetal) oils.5


Use: Natural Perfumery.


Blending Suggestions: Dilute and add drop by drop to your perfume blends until the desired effect is achieved.


Blends Well With: Balsam of Peru, Beeswax, Bergamot and other citrus oils, Boronia, Chamomile, Clary Sage, Cinnamon, Clove, Frankincense, Geranium, Jasmine, Labdanum, Lavandin, Lavender, Lemon, Mimosa, Myrrh, Oakmoss, Patchouli, Rose, Spikenard, Tobacco, Tonka Bean. Immortelle is used in chypre, fougère and other fragrance types. 6 “Its effect in rose bases and heavy-floral Oriental fragrances can be quite unique and successful.”7


Safety Considerations: None known.8 Dilute before using. A patch test should be performed before use for those with sensitive skin.


1 Arctander, Steffen.  Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin, 1960, p. 238.

5 Industry communication.

6 Curtis, Tony and David G Williams. An Introduction to Perfumery, 2nd ed., 2009, p. 258.

7 Arctander, Steffen.  Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin, 1960, p. 238.

8 Tisserand, Robert and Rodney Young. Essential Oil Safety, 2nd ed., 2014, p. 217.


The FDA has not evaluated the statements on this website. No claims are made by Eden Botanicals as to the medicinal value of any products from Eden Botanicals. The information presented here is for educating our customers about the traditional uses of essential oils and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. You are responsible for understanding the safe application of these products. If you have any questions, please call or email us for further information.

J-Essential – Remedy Lyrics | Genius Lyrics

[Hook: J-Essential]
Shop at DeMoulas
Rock with the truest cats on your block, then bop to this
Come on, yeah, shop at DeMoulas
Rock with the truest cats on your block, then bop to this
Come on, yeah, shop at DeMoulas
Rock with the truest cats on your block, then bop to this
Come on, yeah, shop at DeMoulas’
Y’all know who this is, they can’t fuck with the rudest kid

[Verse 1: J-Essential]
It’s the ill poet, legend swooping down to your town
In my area, renowned, I said it and never forget it
Incredibly, cat’s vocab, that’s elementary
Limited word structure, blurred, with no intensity
The energy combined with sheer intelligence
These MC’s metaphors, that’s mere irrelevance
To the truth and topic, pop, lockin’, fiber optic
Preaching without a prophet, profected my target
Aim, fire, shoot, like T Mc, I’m making your knees crack
Ease back (J), about to seize that
Opportunity, the top, where we soon to be
All ya mothafuckin’ haters might as well be on the moon to me
I’m on the map, and blaze a track rather foolishly
Setting off alarms in your dorm, so you knew it’s me
Call the fire safety, hasty, never hazy
Clear vision of lately, no listening to “Crazy Maze”
Amongst a Maine phase that pays to play these
Wack tracks, like big hairbands in the Eighties
Well, I max that level of bomb, settled then gone
Compete for every prize, the medal and bronze
Stay up on a monumental status, rebel a song
What we do here is rap, heavy metal beyond
Undefinable, making unknown parts combinable
Creating what you got in your ear, and what I’m ridin’ to

[Hook: J-Essential]
Shop at DeMoulas
Rock with the truest cats on your block, then bop to this
Come on, yeah, shop at DeMoulas
Rock with the truest cats on your block, then bop to this
Come on, yeah, shop at DeMoulas
Rock with the truest cats on your block, then bop to this
Come on, yeah, shop at DeMoulas’
Y’all know who this is, they can’t fuck with the rudest kid

[Verse 2: Spose]
Well, I’m essential, like J, mad potential, mic slay
Preferential treatment from my speaking Peters by day
By night, like a lance, I’m enhanced without the silicone
I wrote an iller poem and gave my girl the D like Dilla’s home
Shop at Hannaford, self-made, no manager
But money up and down like it’s hands on the banister
Calls from unknown numbers, debts I’m paid, I’m not a Lannister
Dutch elixir sipper, cop a sixer of the canisters
Nobody sicker in my jurisdiction, I’m like royalty
Sick of paying taxes instead of rap and paying lawyer fees
When I was broke, they gave me nothing, now I’m paid, they spoil me
Funny how that works now that the people have anointed me
My hands dirt, logo on my damn shirt
On my dome, all caps like I hit “shift,” like a standard
I’m the man, word, sentence, paragraph and chapter
I pray for peace then killed the show and care a basset after
I shop at Shaw’s, I finish rockin’ then the block applauds
Hit the doorbell, kick in the door until you knock it off
Fuck the rest, at best I think their quest is just forgettable
How they kept the dream alive so long, well, that’s incredible
In the wrong pace in the long race, when the dawn breaks
See it on your aunt’s face, even your mom hates
I could make a strong case that I been the truest
Rewind the track back and me and J could walk you thru it, yo

[Hook: J-Essential]
Shop at DeMoulas
Rock with the truest cats on your block, then bop to this
Come on, yeah, shop at DeMoulas
Rock with the truest cats on your block, then bop to this
Come on, yeah, shop at DeMoulas
Rock with the truest cats on your block, then bop to this
Come on, yeah, shop at DeMoulas’
Y’all know who this is, they can’t fuck with the rudest kids
Nah, they can’t fuck with the rudest kids
Yeah, so just shop at DeMoulas’

Journal of Medical Internet Research

Introduction

Access Barriers to eHealth

What if we created tools to promote health and deliver health care that were inaccessible to over half of the population they were intended for? Consumer-directed eHealth resources, from online interventions to informational websites, require the ability to read text, use information technology, and appraise the content of these tools to make health decisions. Yet, even in countries with high rates of absolute access to the Internet, such as the United States and Canada, over 40% of adults have basic (or prose) literacy levels below that which is needed to optimally participate in civil society [,]. A multi-country study of information technology use and literacy found that as literacy skill levels rise, the perceived usefulness of computers, diversity and intensity of Internet use, and use of computers for task-oriented purposes rise with it, even when factors such as age, income, and education levels are taken into account []. If eHealth is to realize its potential for improving the health of the public, the gap between what is provided and what people can access must be acknowledged and remedied.

Greater emphasis on the active and informed consumer in health and health care [] in recent years has led to the realization that ensuring the public has both access to and adequate comprehension of health information is both a problem [] and an achievable goal for health services [,]. A recent report from the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) entitled Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion looked at the relationship between health and literacy and found that those with limited literacy skills have less knowledge of disease management and health promoting behaviors, report poorer health status, and are less likely to use preventive services than those with average or above average literacy skills [].

Health Literacy

The IOM report focuses largely on health literacy, using the following definition (originally proposed by Ratzan and Parker []): “the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions” [].

This definition underscores the importance of contextual factors that mediate health information and the need to consider health literacy in relation to the medium by which health resources are presented. Within a modern health information environment, this context includes the following: interactive behavior change tools, informational websites, and telephone-assisted services, which are all being deployed globally to promote health and deliver health care (eg, [-[]). However, even among North American adolescents, the highest Internet-use population in the world, many teens report that they lack the skills to adequately engage online health resources effectively []. There is a gap between the electronic health resources available and consumers’ skills for using them. By identifying and understanding this skill set we can better address the context of eHealth service delivery [].

As we witness the impact that basic literacy has on health outcomes, questions arise about how literacy affects eHealth-related outcomes and experiences []. But unlike literacy in the context of paper-based resources, the concept of literacy and health in electronic environments is much less defined. Consumer eHealth requires basic reading and writing skills, working knowledge of computers, a basic understanding of science, and an appreciation of the social context that mediates how online health information is produced, transmitted, and received—or what can be called eHealth literacy. A definition and model of eHealth literacy is proposed below that describes the skills required to support full engagement with eHealth resources aimed at supporting population health and patient care.

eHealth Literacy Model

The Lily Model

Eng (2001) defines eHealth as “the use of emerging information and communication technology, especially the Internet, to improve or enable health and health care []; this is one of many published definitions currently in use []. Taken in the context of the IOM’s definition of health literacy stated above, the concept of eHealth literacy is proposed. Specifically, eHealth literacy is defined as the ability to seek, find, understand, and appraise health information from electronic sources and apply the knowledge gained to addressing or solving a health problem. Unlike other distinct forms of literacy, eHealth literacy combines facets of different literacy skills and applies them to eHealth promotion and care. At its heart are six core skills (or literacies): traditional literacy, health literacy, information literacy, scientific literacy, media literacy, and computer literacy. The relationship of these individual skills to each other is depicted in . Using the metaphor of a lily, the petals (literacies) feed the pistil (eHealth literacy), and yet the pistil overlaps the petals, tying them together.

Within the lily model, the six literacies are organized into two central types: analytic (traditional, media, information) and context-specific (computer, scientific, health). The analytic component involves skills that are applicable to a broad range of information sources irrespective of the topic or context (), while the context-specific component () relies on more situation-specific skills. For example, analytic skills can be applied as much to shopping or researching a term paper as they can to health. Context-specific skills are just as important; however, their application is more likely to be contextualized within a specific problem domain or circumstance. Thus, computer literacy is dependent upon what type of computer is used, its operating system, as well as its intended application. Scientific literacy is applied to problems where research-related information is presented, just as health literacy is contextualized to health issues as opposed to shopping for a new television set. Yet, both analytic and context-specific skills are required to fully engage with electronic health resources.

eHealth literacy is influenced by a person’s presenting health issue, educational background, health status at the time of the eHealth encounter, motivation for seeking the information, and the technologies used. Like other literacies, eHealth literacy is not static; rather, it is a process-oriented skill that evolves over time as new technologies are introduced and the personal, social, and environmental contexts change. Like other literacy types, eHealth literacy is a discursive practice that endeavors to uncover the ways in which meaning is produced and inherently organizes ways of thinking and acting [,]. It aims to empower individuals and enable them to fully participate in health decisions informed by eHealth resources.

‎Figure 1. eHealth literacy lily model View this figure

‎Figure 2. eHealth literacy analytic model View this figure

‎Figure 3. eHealth literacy context-specific model View this figure

The six components of the eHealth literacy model are briefly outlined below.

Traditional Literacy

This concept is most familiar to the public and encompasses basic (or prose) literacy skills such as the ability to read text, understand written passages, and speak and write a language coherently[]. Technologies such as the World Wide Web are still text dominant, despite the potential use of sound and visual images on websites. Basic reading and writing skills are essential in order to make meaning from text-laden resources. A related issue is language itself. Over 65% of the World Wide Web’s content is in English[], meaning that English-speakers are more likely to find an eHealth resource that is understandable and meets their needs.

Information Literacy

The American Library Association suggests that an information literate person knows “how knowledge is organized, how to find information, and how to use information in such a way that others can learn from them” []. Like other literacies, this definition must be considered within the context of the social processes involved in information production, not just its application []. An information literate person knows what potential resources to consult to find information on a specific topic, can develop appropriate search strategies, and can filter results to extract relevant knowledge. If one views the Web as a library, with search tools (eg, Google) and a catalogue of over eight billion resources, the need for Web users to know how to develop and execute search strategies as well as comprehend how this knowledge is organized becomes imperative.

Media Literacy

The wide proliferation of available media sources has spawned an entire field of research in the area of media literacy and media studies. Media literacy is a means of critically thinking about media content and is defined as a process to “develop metacognitive reflective strategies by means of study” [] about media content and context. Media literacy is a skill that enables people to place information in a social and political context and to consider issues such as the marketplace, audience relations, and how media forms in themselves shape the message that gets conveyed. This skill is generally viewed as a combination of cognitive processes and critical thinking skills applied to media and the messages that media deliver [].

Health Literacy

As discussed earlier, health literacy pertains to the skills required to interact with the health system and engage in appropriate self-care. The American Medical Association considers a health literate person as having “a constellation of skills, including theability to perform basic reading and numerical tasks required to function in the health care environment. Patients with adequate health literacy can read, understand, and act on health care information” []. Consumers need to understand relevant health terms and place health information into the appropriate context in order to make appropriate health decisions. Without such skills, a person may have difficulty following directions or engaging appropriate self-care activities as needed.

Computer Literacy

Computer literacy is the ability to use computers to solve problems[]. Given the relative ubiquity of computers in our society, it is often assumed that people know how to use them. Yet, computer literacy is nearly impossible without quality access to computers and current information technology. For example, it is not helpful to learn PC-based commands on a Mac, to learn Windows 98 if one requires Windows XP, or be trained on a laptop when a personal digital assistant (PDA) is required for a task. Computer literacy includes the ability to adapt to new technologies and software and includes both absolute and relative access to eHealth resources. To illustrate this, Skinner and colleagues found that while nearly every Canadian teenager has access to the Internet, far fewer have the quality of access or the ability to fully utilize it for health [,].

Scientific Literacy

This is broadly conceived as an understanding of the nature, aims, methods, application, limitations, and politics of creating knowledge in a systematic manner []. The latter-mentioned political and sociological aspects of science are in response to earlier conceptions of science as a value-free enterprise, a position that has been vigorously challenged [-]. For those who do not have the educational experience of exposure to scientific thought, understanding science-based online health information may present a formidable challenge. Science literacy places health research findings in appropriate context, allowing consumers to understand how science is done, the largely incremental process of discovery, and the limitations—and opportunities—that research can present.

The Six Literacy Types

Taken together, these six literacy types combine to form the foundational skills required to fully optimize consumers’ experiences with eHealth. A profile of each literacy type with examples of the problems patient-clients might present is summarized in . Also included is a list of resources, many of them Web-based, that can be consulted to help health practitioners support patient-clients in improving their literacy skills across each domain. Although it would not be unexpected to find that older adults and those from nonindustrialized countries report greater difficulties in certain domains, particularly those that are context-specific, it is the authors’ experience that few assumptions about which groups or individuals are likely to encounter difficulties can be made. As work with highly Internet-connected populations (like North American adolescents) shows, many of whom we would expect to be skilled users, there is a lack of skills, opportunity, and environments to use eHealth to its fullest potential [,,].

Table 1.
Profile of literacy skills as related to health care practice

Identifying Problems Potential Resources
Analytic Analytic literacy skills can be generically applied to a number of sources and circumstances. These are foundational skills that are required to participate in daily informational life. Training aids are commonly found in many countries.
Traditional Literacy and Numeracy
  • Inability to read simple language
  • Difficulty understanding printed materials in day-to-day interactions (eg, street signs)
  • Inability to perform basic mathematical functions such as addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication with small whole numbers
  • Difficulty in balancing a check book or calculating bank balances
  • Difficulty reading maps or understanding simple charts
  • Many countries have national organizations that can provide free services for learners and professionals. Some examples include the following:
    • Frontier College (Canada) []
    • the National Literacy Trust (UK) []
    • National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy (UK) []
    • National Center on Adult Literacy (US) []

Media Literacy
  • Lack of awareness of media bias or perspective
  • Inability to discern both explicit and implicit meaning from media messages
  • Difficulty in deriving meaning from media messages
  • The Office of Communications strategy for enhancing media literacy (UK) []
  • The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) media literacy guide (UK) []
  • The Media Awareness Network (Canada) []
Information Literacy
  • Inability to see connections between information from various sources such as books, pamphlets, or Internet websites
  • Lack of familiarity with libraries and other information repositories available in the community
  • Inability to frame search questions in a manner that produces desired answers
  • The American Library Association has a resource page including toolkits and reference sources to aid in instruction and research [].
  • Local libraries can provide support for information searches and self-directed learning; details are available through The Chartered Institute of Library and Information (UK) [].
Context-Specific Context-specific literacy skills are centered on specific issues, problem types, and contexts. These skills often require more specialized training than analytical literacy skills. Finding local resources may require more focused searches.
Computer Literacy
  • Unfamiliarity with basic computer terms such as email, mouse, keyboard, and so forth
  • Inability to use a mouse or other input devices
  • Lack of exposure to computers in everyday life
Computer training courses are widespread; however, accessibility is an issue for those on fixed incomes. Many libraries offer special programs to teach patrons both computer and search skills for little or no cost. Some countries have job training centers that provide basic computer courses as part of their core mandate.
Science Literacy
  • Lack of understanding about the cumulative impact of scientific knowledge
  • No awareness that science can be understood by nonscientists
  • Unfamiliarity with science terms, the process of discovery, or the application of scientific discoveries to everyday life
Few widespread resources exist to teach people science literacy. The most common approach to learning about science is through formal education; however, many science institutions such as universities and colleges have open lectures and educational events for the public on a regular basis. In Canada, the Royal Institute for the Advancement of Science holds monthly lectures on science topics to educate the public, as does the Royal Society in the UK.
Health Literacy
  • Difficulty following simple self-care directions or prescription instructions
  • Fear of taking medications without assistance
  • Unfamiliarity or lack of understanding of basic health care terms
Two instruments have been developed and validated for use in assessing health literacy: The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) and the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). Both have been widely used and are designed to assess health literacy within 30 minutes. The TOFHLA has 67 items and includes a numeracy component (the ability to read and understand numbers) and a reading comprehension component. The REALM has 66 items. Fostering health literacy is a challenge; however, attending to people’s media preferences (text, video, audio) and using plain language in interactions is a place to begin.

These six skill types illustrate the challenges that eHealth presents to those with low literacy in any one area. Although one need not have mastery in all these areas to benefit from eHealth resources, it can be argued that without moderate skills across these literacies, effective eHealth engagement will be unlikely. Using a specific health-related issue (smoking prevention and cessation) as an example, illustrates how these literacy issues may present within the context of primary care while suggesting possible intervention strategies. Unlike other areas of health care, there is no “best practice” solution to addressing problems of literacy that fits into a single session or neatly packaged brief intervention. Rather, improving literacy is a process that requires coordinated remediation and education, involving partnerships among patient-clients, practitioners, educators, and community health organizations over time. It is as much a process as it is an outcome.

Table 2.
Case scenarios: tobacco use and the six literacy types

Case Study Literacy Type(s) Required
A group practice has decided to provide smoking prevention resources for teens and their parents on its website. The resources are to be approved by a patient advisory committee. The three sites put forward are Phillip Morris USA’s smoking prevention material site [], The Smoking Zine by TeenNet at the University of Toronto [], and Health Canada’s Quit4Life program []. Media Literacy: Teens need to know the difference between the perspectives presented on each site to make an informed decision. One site belongs to a tobacco company with a vested interest in selling cigarettes, and it advocates prevention strategies not supported by the best evidence. The other two sites are from a teen-focused research project at a public university and from a government health agency. These three sites together encourage discussion about media issues and allow for exploration with patient-clients the ways in which information on one issue can be presented differently. The Media Awareness Network [] has resources for working with children and youth in enhancing media literacy that can aid in fostering this discussion.
A 60-year-old man with little formal education and no experience using computers presents with concerns about continuing to smoke. He has made many unsuccessful quit attempts and has been told there are Internet resources available that can help him. He is interested in trying something different to help him stop using tobacco. Traditional Literacy: A basic literacy assessment should be undertaken before recommending use of the Internet as a resource. This may be done by having the patient read a few simple text passages from consumer health materials or the newspaper or by asking the patient directly if he has difficulties reading. If basic text materials are difficult, the person is likely to require assistance in using the Web or other Internet resources even at a rudimentary level.
Computer Literacy: If the man has limited experience with computers, specific training through a local library, community center, or other community program might be necessary to provide him with the means to use Web-assisted tobacco interventions. This requires that the practitioner arrange and assist the patient in connecting with one of these community resources or inquire if there are family members or friends who can assist him in getting online.
A 35-year-old woman presents with an interest in finding information on smoking to share with her teenage daughter. She uses email at work and regularly visits a local website for news, but otherwise does not surf regularly and does not know how to find Internet resources easily. Information Literacy: A referral to the local library or on-staff librarian (if available) is the simplest strategy. A short tutorial on the use of search engines, search strategies, and health databases can provide the basics on how to navigate the Internet for health information. Once basic search strategies have been established, the patient may wish to use evidence-supported resources for evaluating consumer health information, available through tools such as the DISCERN Project websites [,].
A 24-year-old mother of two small children and current smoker challenges the claim that second- hand smoke is harmful to her children, citing research she found on the Internet. Science Literacy: This scenario presents a teachable moment to outline some of the issues that address science literacy, such as how evidence changes over time and issues of quality. In this case, it may be useful to direct the patient to reference sources outlining contrary views and encourage a dialogue around what makes good science. It is possible the research she has referred to is out of date, contested, or heavily biased (eg, tobacco-industry sponsored).
A 45-year-old patient has been prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) using an inhaler. The patient is unsure when to use the inhaler and under what conditions and reports behaviors that indicate he is not using the inhaler as originally prescribed. Health Literacy: The presenting patient is following the product instructions. It is worth exploring the context around this behavior to see if it is a matter of fit between the NRT delivery method and the person or whether it is an issue of literacy. Patient instructions should be reviewed to ensure that they are written in plain language. Practitioners may also wish to explore whether there are other media tools available from the manufacturer or local health unit that can be used to supplement the written instructions, such as visual aids or videos to reduce the amount of required reading.

Discussion

Literacy is as much a process as an outcome and requires constant attention and upgrading. The key is to reach a level of fluency at which one can achieve working knowledge of the particular language (or skill), enough to function at a level conducive to achieving health goals. Knowledge, information, and media forms are context-specific, and context dictates what skills and skill levels are required to access health resources. For example, technical jargon may be appropriate in academic discourse provided it allows for a more precise explanation of certain concepts. However, when directed at nontechnical consumers or those outside of a particular research or practice culture, technical language may need to undergo a translation process in order to convey a message properly[]. Whereas a scientist may be interested in acetylsalicylic acid, a patient requiring pain relief knows this substance only as Aspirin or ASA.

As the World Wide Web and other technology-based applications become a regular part of the public health and health care environment, viewing these tools in light of the skills required for people to engage them becomes essential if the power of information technology is to be leveraged to promote health and deliver health care effectively. The eHealth literacy model presented here is the first step in understanding what these skills are and how they relate to the use of information technology as a tool for health. The next step is to apply this model to everyday conditions of eHealth use—patient care, preventive medicine and health promotion, population-level health communication campaigns, and aiding health professionals in their work—and evaluate its applicability to consumer health informatics in general. Using this model, evaluation tools can be created and systems designed to ensure that there is a fit between eHealth technologies and the skills of intended users. By considering these fundamental skills, we open opportunities to create more relevant, user-friendly, and effective health resources to promote eHealth for all.

The authors thank Oonagh Maley for her feedback on the development of this model and the many youth affiliated with the TeenNet Research Program for the inspiration for this work. This study was supported by research grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care, Health Canada, and the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit.

None declared.

Edited by G Eysenbach;
submitted 05.01.06; peer-reviewed by B Ronson, M Simms; comments to author 16.05.06; revised version received 18.05.06; accepted 03.06.06; published 16.06.06

© Cameron D Norman, Harvey A Skinner. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 16.06.06. Except where otherwise noted, articles published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, including full bibliographic details and the URL (see “please cite as” above), and this statement is included.

Essential Medical Statistics, 2nd Edition

Part A. Basics.

1. Using this book.

2. Defining the data.

3. Displaying the data.

Part B. Analysis of numerical outcomes.

4. Means, Standard Deviations and Standard Errors.

5. The Normal Distribution.

6. Confidence Interval for a Mean.

7. Comparison of two means: confidence intervals, hypothesis tests and P-values.

8. Using P-values and confidence intervals to interpret the results of statistical analyses.

9. Comparison of means from several groups: analysis of variance.

10. Linear Regression and Correlation.

11. Multiple Regression.

12. Goodness of fit and regression diagnostics.

13. Transformations.

Part C. Analysis of binary outcomes.

14. Probability, risks and odds (of disease).

15. Proportions and the binomial distribution.

16. Comparing two proportions.

17. Chi-squared tests for 2 × 2 and larger contingency tables.

18. Controlling for confounding: stratification.

19. Logistic regression: comparing two or more exposure groups.

20. Logisitic regression: controlling for confounding and other extensions.

21. Matched studies.

Part D. Longitudinal studies: Analysis of rates and survival times.

22. Longitudinal studies, rates and the Poisson distribution.

23. Comparing rates.

24. Poisson regression.

25. Standardisation.

26. Survival analysis: displaying and comparing survival patterns.

27. Regression analysis of survival data.

Part E. Statistical modelling.

28. Likelihood.

29. Regression modelling.

30. Relaxing model assumptions.

31. Analysis of clustered data.

32. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis.

33. Bayesian statistics.

Part F. Study design, analysis and interpretation.

34. Linking analysis to study design: summary of methods.

35. Calculation of Required Sample Size.

36. Measurement error: assessment and implications.

37. Measures of association and impact.

38. Strategies for analysis.

APPENDIX: Statistical Tables.

Bibliography

Essential Workers

Over the past 6 months, an epidemic unlike anything seen in a century has swept the world. While no nation has entirely escaped the carnage, thus far the United States has been the most severely affected. More Americans have already died in this epidemic than in the Vietnam War and the casualties are not a representative subset of our country; the impact is far worse on minority populations, the poor, and the elderly. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted some of the best attributes of the American character, but it has also brought our country’s longstanding social, racial, and economic inequities into clear focus. Our day-to-day lives have been fundamentally altered and it seems unlikely that things will ever return to normal. Maybe that is not such a bad thing.

The pandemic has separated America into two groups: those who are deemed essential workers and those who have been asked to stay at home during the crisis. The essential workers are hailed as heroes. Their stories are shared on national television and quarantined citizens take to their windows to cheer them. Online concerts are dedicated to them. This is true for health care workers, but it is also true for many others including grocery workers, police, firefighters, first responders, and those tasked with supplying us with accurate and timely information. On the one hand, this appreciation is genuine and much appreciated. But there is also something deeply disturbing at work. Many essential workers have died from COVID-19 while privileged executives and managers have remained safely at home.1 Congress rushes to deliver financial aid to businesses large and small, but thus far resists calls to help the state and local governments that employ many of those deemed essential. When the pandemic finally abates, how long will it take before we again hear disparaging comments about the evils of big government, intolerable tax burdens, and greedy public employee unions?

Just like the country as a whole, American medicine is divided into essential and the nonessential workers. Elective surgeries are canceled. Many specialized health services have been put on hold during the crisis and physicians in highly remunerated specialties and administrative positions have spent the pandemic quarantined at home with the rest of the country. But other specialty groups have been working nonstop. Primary care, emergency medicine, hospitalists, intensive care medicine, mental health professionals, public health workers, and infectious disease specialists have been overwhelmed with work. The onslaught of sick and dying patients has inflicted a once-in-a-lifetime professional trauma on many of us. We are faced with fear and tragedy on a daily basis and we work in a setting of personal risk that few of us have experienced previously. And the hardest part of this experience is that patients die without family members present and with doctors and nurses hidden behind masks, gowns, and face shields, and unable to touch them. Funerals cannot be held. Grief is robbed of public outlet and is experienced in solitude rather than in community. It is as though death has become anonymous and grief itself is quarantined.

In this issue of Family Medicine, we feature three papers that all address the issue of medical student specialty choice. On the face of it, this might seem to have little to do with the COVID-19 pandemic. But these three papers paint a clear picture of the inherent mendacity of our early 21st century system of medical education. They show us clearly how miserably our medical schools have failed to create the essential workforce our country needs. Evans and colleagues examine the prevalence of targeted admissions programs in 133 allopathic medical schools aimed at increasing the number of graduates who ultimately care for underserved populations.2 Deutchman and colleagues propose a new metric to illustrate how badly medical schools are failing to produce primary care physicians based on the practice patterns of graduates after residency.3 Finally, Prunuske and colleagues examined the attitudes about primary care of graduates from 16 medical schools.4 These three papers present a picture of American medical education prior to the arrival of COVID-19. It was not a flattering picture then, and it is even more problematic now. None of these studies report findings that should surprise any reader of this journal.

Not long after the World Trade Center attack on September 11, 2001, a speaker at a rural health meeting in Oregon contrasted the scene that must have taken place in the stairwells of those buildings before they ultimately collapsed. He compared the people who were coming down the stairs to escape the unfolding disaster to those going up the stairs to confront it. Those evacuating the buildings were stock brokers, attorneys, investment bankers, and office workers in some of America’s most successful companies. Those going up the stairs were police, firefighters, and emergency medical technicians. Some of these people survived. Many did not. But consider for a moment how our culture values these two groups. Consider their average incomes. Consider the disparity in social standing between them. And while we promised to never forget 9-11, consider how quickly the old social order returned as soon as everyone again felt safe.

During this pandemic, we have once again deemed some of the lowest paid among us to be essential while many of our more affluent neighbors remain safely home. This is actually fine. Heroes need people to save just as much as people need heroes to save them when a real threat arises. Of course, heroism is not limited to just essential workers. In fact, everyone is essential in his or her own way, a fact that becomes clearer each day as we wait for barbershops, churches, and restaurants to reopen. Being quarantined during the pandemic does not mean that specialty care and elective surgery are unimportant. It just means these services can be safely delayed, but there certainly is disagreement about what is and is not essential. If you carefully study the protests being carried out by those who want to reopen the country quickly, it is not hard to understand the resentment from many of those deemed unessential.

At this time in history, we all need one another, essential and nonessential workers alike. This is as true in medicine and it is in society as a whole. The pandemic reminds us that essential work is valued in a crisis. This is fine. But it is not fine to go back to the old normal when the pandemic is over. During normal times, nonessential work generates more profit and esteem than essential work and this is both unjust and dangerous. Such a system disrespects the work being done now on the frontlines of the pandemic and leaves us unprepared for the next crisis. It is far too early to say whether COVID-19 will cause a permanent change in our social order. It is clear, however, that such change will not happen on its own. In the months ahead, we will surely hear calls to never forget COVID-19. But what are the lessons we will pledge not to forget? Will we attend to our porous public health, mental health, and primary care infrastructures? Will we confront the bloated excesses of our health care system and shore up depleted social services? Committing here and now to changing these systems is the only meaningful way to memorialize the work and sacrifice of today’s heroes. And all of us, essential and nonessential alike, can be heroes in the work to come.

Why I Started Using Essential Oils

Important Essential Oil Information

Today, I’m going to share with you why I started using essential oils. I am an oily newbie, but we all have to start somewhere. Back in January, I was invited to an oil party and we learned the basics of how to use and diffuse these incredibly powerful little bottles. I had heard about essential oils before, but there seemed to be a lot of them and I never knew what they could actually do for you.

The first thing that I learned was not all essential oil companies are the same. There are non GMO/organic/therapeutic essential oils like Young Living and then there are cheap oils with fragrance and fillers that you can often find at the checkout counters of local stores. I had a big ah ha moment and immediately went home and threw away any lingering oils I still owned.

The second thing I learned was that essential oils can be diffused, applied directly to your skin or ingested. You always want to make sure that you are using a great product, but when you are diffusing, applying directly or especially ingesting you need to make sure that it is the best of the best like Young Living. Nobody has time for uncomfortable adverse reactions.

The class was super helpful and it took the overwhelming factor of where do I begin and what do I buy first to a close.  Young Living has a premium starter kit that starts you off with 12 starter oils. Five of the oils are from their vitality line which means you can use them for cooking, dropping into your water, etc. You can also use any of the vitality oils to diffuse or apply topically too. It was a no brainer to get the kit and start using them in my home.

The Reason Why I Started Diffusing

Essential oils have a million remedies, but the one I was most interested in was better sleep and immunity! I have always been able to fall asleep fine, but getting into a deep restful sleep is another story. I have THE most active dreams. Every morning I tell my husband what happened the night before and he just shakes his head and laughs. My mind never felt like it turned off and it’s like I was living a whole other life in my dreams. That’s exhausting!

I decided to buy a diffuser for our bedroom and each of the girls rooms.  I had tried diffusing essential oils in years past, but the crappy ones on Amazon always leaked or broke. So, I bought a desert mist diffuser (bottom pic right side) for each of our bedrooms and then an extra pretty one (bottom pic left side) for our kitchen.

My Kids Are Sleeping Better

I thought well, if nothing else it at least smells good! Well, let me tell you what! Last month, I asked my husband (who is a pessimist) if he thought the kids slept better and stayed in their beds more after we started diffusing. He said YES! What?! Do I have a believer?! AMEN! Two of our kids are like boomerangs, you put them in bed and they return back to you at some point in the night. I’m not saying that a kid will never crawl in bed with you ever again, but I will firmly say that my kids sleep better and longer with the oils diffusing.

My kids also haven’t missed a day of school from sickness since I started diffusing.  I also attribute that to the probiotics and supplements that they are on too. A little extra thieves at night with the occasional roll on application seems to help too.

I am Sleeping Better

As for me, my sleep has definitely improved. I started just diffusing at night, which got me into a calm and relaxed state. My mind was still pretty active at night so I decided to take it a step further and roll on Stress Away and Roman Chamomile onto the bottoms of my feet and behind my ears…sometimes on my wrists too. I definitely noticed a more calm mind and feeling rested for the first time in a long time.

Essential Oil Sleep Blend

I played around with the oils in the starter kit and I have a few recipes that I love, but I’m constantly mixing it up. For the kids I used  5 drops of lavender +5 drops of thieves + 5 drops of peace and calm for the longest time. Then as I ventured out of the starter kit I decided to try the kidscents sleepyze + thieves combo and right now that seems to do the trick. If they seem to have too much energy at bedtime, I will put a few drops of sleepyze on the bottoms of their feet to calm them. Plus, they giggle and love the bedtime foot rub. For our master bedroom I am constantly changing it up. thieves + stress away are always in the diffuser and some nights I’ll add in frankincense, another night I’ll add peace and calm (my FAVE) and sometimes I’ll do all the above with a touch of lavender. All of the oils I just mentioned besides the sleepyze  are in the starter kit. If I feel like I need extra immune support, I’ll do 10-20 drops of thieves!!

There isn’t one oil in the PSK that I haven’t used:

Digize – I used for an upset tummy. Two drops under my tongue and I was back in business.

Lemon – I have added this to freshen my water or to my dryer balls in lieu of dryer sheets.

Panaway – For my sore muscles after a workout.

Peppermint – Gluten free peppermint brownies, YASSSSS.

Citrus Fresh – I diffuse this in my kitchen + thieves.

Thieves – I’ve made tea with this for a sore throat and diffuse for immunity every night in every bedroom.

Peace and Calm – My fave scent and a total chill pill.

Valor – I rub it on my wrists and on my kids for a boost of courage.

Stress Away – Vacation even when you’re not on vacation. It’s always in my diffuser.

Raven – Full respiratory support.

Frankincense – I’ve added this to my diffuser and a drop to my night cream. It’s all anti-viral and calming.

Lavender – Diffusing at night for relaxation.

What is included in your PSK

The starter kit comes with your 12 oils, 1 thieves hand sanitizer, 1 diffuser, 2 packets of the Ningxia and a Thieves cleaner. This PSK gives you a great way to sample oils and clean living all in one. The hand sanitizer doesn’t have any xenoestrogens…google that because it’s terrifying. I have a whole blog coming next week on that topic. My family drinks the Ningxia every day to get our antioxidants and the Thieves cleaner packet will make a 16 ounce bottle of spray cleaner that’s chemical free. I use thieves all over my house, and I’m happy to say that we are a chemical free house now!

How to Purchase your PSK

To purchase your kit, just click here and it will take you to my enrollment link. I am growing my tribe of people who want to get oily, healthy and chemical free and I would love to have you in the tribe. When you join, not only do you get an awesome kit, but you will get plugged into our private FB community for oil recipes, latest news, questions and support. Young Living is a global organization, so even if you follow me from Europe, etc you can still be a part of my tribe. I will of course be blogging about things I’m discovering and loving, but you will have direct access to me and the community in our FB group. I recommend you watching this video I made first, it will answer any questions that you might have about completing your order. If you still have questions, feel free to email me at [email protected]

More About Young Living

If you want to learn more about Young Living, how they distill, where their farms are located and the quality of their oils watch this video. Young Living is the leader of the essential oils industry and they set the industry standard!

90,000 IV. On the concept of “a significant shortage of goods (work, services)” / ConsultantPlus

The Law “On the Protection of Consumer Rights” (see the preamble) gives signs of classifying the shortcomings as essential. Essential are the shortcomings of the product (work, service) that make it impossible or inadmissible to use the product (work, service) in accordance with its intended purpose, or which cannot be eliminated, or which appear again after elimination, or the elimination of which requires high costs. , or as a result of which the consumer is largely deprived of what he had the right to count on when concluding the contract.Clause 2 of Article 475 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation also defines the signs of classifying the deficiencies identified in the product as essential, which are similar to those established in the Law “On Protection of Consumer Rights”. At the same time, the Law “On Protection of Consumer Rights” contains additional signs, which does not contradict the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, since the list provided in the Civil Code of the Russian Federation is not exhaustive (it also provides for the presence of other similar shortcomings).In particular, a deficiency that makes it “impossible or unacceptable to use the product in accordance with its intended purpose” can be classified as “material” according to the Law “On Protection of Consumer Rights”. One of the options “impossibility and inadmissibility” is such a drawback that makes its use as intended dangerous to the life, health or property of citizens. The signs specified in the legislation must be guided in each specific case when deciding whether to classify the drawback identified in the product as significant.If a dispute arises on this issue, an examination is carried out in the manner prescribed by paragraph 4 of paragraph 5 of Article 18 of the Law “On Protection of Consumer Rights”. If necessary, the dispute is resolved in court.


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Notices of material facts – Bank Khlynov

07/02/2021

Information about the disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on a page on the Internet

17.06.2021

Announcement of disclosure on the Internet of the annual report

06/17/2021

Announcement of approval of the annual financial statements

05/13/2021

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders

05/13/2021

Announcement on the disclosure of annual (accounting) statements on the Internet

04/02/2021

Information about the disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on a page on the Internet

thirty.03.2021

Announcement on the disclosure of annual (accounting) statements on the Internet

11/01/2021

Information about the disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on a page on the Internet

10/30/2020

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders

02.10.2020

Notice of disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on the Internet page

09/08/2020

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders

02.07.2020

Notice of disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on the Internet page

06/18/2020

Announcement of disclosure on the Internet page of the annual report

06/18/2020

Notice of approval of the issuer’s annual accounting statements

05/15/2020

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders

04/02/2020

Notice of disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on the Internet page

thirty.03.2020

Announcement on disclosure of annual (accounting) statements on the Internet

January 10, 2020

Information about the disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on a page on the Internet

02.10.2019 year

Information about the disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on a page on the Internet

07/02/2019

Information about the disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on a page on the Internet

18.06.2019 year

Announcement of disclosure on the Internet page of the annual report

06/18/2019

Notice of approval of the issuer’s annual accounting statements

May 14, 2019

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders

04/02/2019

Information about the disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on a page on the Internet

03/28/2019

Announcement on disclosure of annual (accounting) statements on the Internet

10.01.2019 year

Notice of disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on the Internet page

02.10.2018 year

Notice of disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on the Internet page

07/02/2018

Notice of disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on the Internet page

06/29/2018

Announcement of disclosure on the Internet page of the annual report

29.06.2018 year

Notice of approval of the issuer’s annual accounting statements

05/25/2018

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders

05/04/2018

Announcement on the disclosure of the annual report on the Internet

04/03/2018

Notice of disclosure on the website of the issuer’s annual accounting (financial) statements

31.03.2018

Notice of disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on the Internet page

03/30/2018

Notice of disclosure on the website of the issuer’s annual accounting (financial) statements

03/29/2018

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders of the joint-stock company

02/26/2018

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders of the joint-stock company

01.02.2018

Information about the disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on a page on the Internet

10.01.2018

Information about the disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on a page on the Internet

30.09.2017

Notice of disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on the Internet page

15.09.2017

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders of a joint-stock company

04.08.2017

Announcement of the announcement of the general meeting of participants (shareholders) of the issuer invalid

04.07.2017

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders of the joint-stock company

Resolutions of general meetings of participants (shareholders)

Notice of disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on the Internet page

30 June 2017

Notice of approval of the issuer’s annual accounting statements

Announcement of disclosure on the website of the annual report

23 May 2017

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders of the joint-stock company

31 March 2017

Notification of approval of the issuer’s annual accounting statements

24 June 2016

Annual Report Disclosure Notice

Notice of approval of the issuer’s annual accounting statements

May 20, 2016

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders of a joint-stock company

Notice of disclosure on the website of the issuer’s annual accounting (financial) statements

01 April 2016

Notice of non-disclosure within the established period of the annual accounting (financial) statements for 2015

23 November 2015

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders of a joint-stock company

13 October 2015

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders of a joint-stock company

07 May 2015

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders of a joint-stock company

30 June 2014

Annual Report Disclosure Notice

Notice of approval of the issuer’s annual accounting statements

May 26, 2014

Notice of disclosure on the Internet page of the annual financial statements

23 May 2014

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders of a joint-stock company

03 July 2013

Notice of disclosure on the Internet of the annual report

03 July 2013

Notice of approval of the issuer’s annual accounting statements

01 July 2013

Information about the disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on a page on the Internet

May 28, 2013

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders of a joint-stock company

May 27, 2013

Announcement on the disclosure of annual financial statements on the Internet

01 April 2013

Information about the disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on a page on the Internet

05 February 2013

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders of a joint-stock company

1 October 2012

Information about the disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on a page on the Internet

31 August 2012

Notification of a change in the address of the Internet page used by the joint-stock company for information disclosure

03 July 2012

Notice of approval of the issuer’s annual accounting statements

02 July 2012

Announcement of disclosure on the website of the annual report

May 25, 2012

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders of a joint-stock company

May 24, 2012

Notice of disclosure on the website of the annual accounting (financial) statements

April 2, 2012

Information about the disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on a page on the Internet

11 January 2012

Information about the disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on a page on the Internet

October 4, 2011

Information about the disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on a page on the Internet

November 16, 2011

Notice of holding a general meeting of shareholders of a joint-stock company

September 20, 2011

Statement of material fact “On the decision of the federal executive body for the securities market to release the issuer from the obligation to disclose information”

September 12, 2011

Notice of material fact “On holding a meeting of the issuer’s board of directors (supervisory board) and its agenda, as well as on decisions made by the issuer’s board of directors (supervisory board)”

31 August 2011

Notice of material fact “On holding a meeting of the issuer’s board of directors (supervisory board) and its agenda, as well as on decisions made by the issuer’s board of directors (supervisory board)”

18 August 2011

Notice of material fact “On holding a meeting of the issuer’s board of directors (supervisory board) and its agenda”

12 August 2011

Notice of material fact “On holding a meeting of the issuer’s board of directors (supervisory board) and its agenda, as well as on decisions made by the issuer’s board of directors (supervisory board)”

12 August 2011

Message on the procedure for accessing the information contained in the quarterly report

4 August 2011

Notice of material fact “On holding a meeting of the issuer’s board of directors (supervisory board) and its agenda, as well as on decisions made by the issuer’s board of directors (supervisory board)”

3 August 2011

Notice of material fact “On holding a meeting of the issuer’s board of directors (supervisory board) and its agenda, as well as on decisions made by the issuer’s board of directors (supervisory board)”

26 July 2011

Notice of material fact “On holding a meeting of the issuer’s board of directors (supervisory board) and its agenda, as well as on decisions made by the issuer’s board of directors (supervisory board)”

6 July 2011

Statement of material fact “Information on the facts that entailed a one-time increase in the issuer’s net profit by more than 10 percent”

4 July 2011

Information about the disclosure of the list of affiliated persons on a page on the Internet

30 June 2011

Statement of material fact “Information on decisions of general meetings”

May 24, 2011

Notice of information that may have a significant effect on the value of the joint-stock company’s securities “Information on the decision taken by the Board of Directors of the joint-stock company to convene the annual general meeting of shareholders, including the approval of the agenda of the general meeting of shareholders, on recommendations on the amount of dividend paid on shares and the procedure for it payments ”

May 24, 2011

Statement of material fact “Information on the date of closing the register of the issuer’s shareholders”

13 May 2011

Message on the procedure for accessing the information contained in the quarterly report

90,000 Messages on material facts and information that may have a significant impact on the value of securities

On certain decisions made by the Board of Directors of the issuer
(thirty.04.2021)

On holding a meeting of the Board of Directors of the issuer and its agenda
(29.04.2021)

On certain decisions made by the Board of Directors of the issuer
(29.04.2021)

Disclosure of the quarterly report by the issuer
(28.04.2021)

Disclosure of the quarterly report by the issuer
(28.04.2021)

On disclosure by the issuer of the quarterly report ”
(28.04.2021)

On disclosure by a joint stock company on the Internet page of the issuer’s interim financial statements and the procedure for accessing them
(28.04.2021)

On certain decisions made by the Board of Directors of the issuer
(28.04.2021)

On holding a meeting of the Board of Directors of the issuer and its agenda
(27.04.2021)

On holding a meeting of the Board of Directors of the issuer and its agenda
(23.04.2021)

On certain decisions made by the Board of Directors of the issuer
(23.04.2021)

On paid income on the issuer’s equity securities
(21.04.2021)

On certain decisions made by the Board of Directors of the issuer
(21.04.2021)

On paid income on the issuer’s equity securities
(20.04.2021)

On holding a meeting of the Board of Directors of the issuer and its agenda
(19.04.2021)

Convocation and holding of the general meeting of participants (shareholders) of the issuer
(sixteen.04.2021)

On certain decisions made by the Board of Directors of the issuer
(16.04.2021)

On the date on which the persons entitled to exercise rights under the issuer’s equity securities are determined, including the date on which a list of persons entitled to participate in the general meeting of the issuer’s shareholders is drawn up
(16.04.2021)

On holding a meeting of the Board of Directors of the issuer and its agenda
(fourteen.04.2021)

On holding a meeting of the Board of Directors of the issuer and its agenda
(14.04.2021)

Notice of the disclosure by the joint-stock company on the Internet page of the text of the list of affiliated persons of the joint-stock company
(02.04.2021)

On the procedure for access to insider information contained in the document of the Company: information constituting the interim consolidated financial statements of the issuer
(28.05.2021)

On the disclosure of the consolidated financial statements by the issuer, as well as on the presentation of the auditor’s report prepared in relation to such statements
(28.05.2021)

On certain decisions made by the Board of Directors of the issuer
(28.05.2021)

Notice of disclosure by the joint stock company on the website of the annual report
(26.05.2021)

On holding a meeting of the Board of Directors of the issuer and its agenda
(25.05.2021)

On the date on which the persons entitled to exercise rights under the issuer’s equity securities are determined, including the date on which a list of persons entitled to participate in the general meeting of the issuer’s shareholders is drawn up
(25.05.2021)

On accrued income on the issuer’s equity securities
(25.05.2021)

On decisions adopted by the general meeting of shareholders of the issuer
(25.05.2021)

On certain decisions made by the Board of Directors of the issuer
(21.05.2021)

On certain decisions made by the Board of Directors of the issuer
(19.05.2021)

Disclosure of the quarterly report by the issuer
(17.05.2021)

On holding a meeting of the Board of Directors of the issuer and its agenda
(14.05.2021)

On paid income on the issuer’s equity securities
(13.05.2021)

On holding a meeting of the Board of Directors of the issuer and its agenda
(11.05.2021)

90,000 Notices of significant events August 2021 – News for investors – CREDIT BANK OF MOSCOW

12.08.2021

Date of occurrence of the basis for publication – from 12.08.2021

10.08.2021

Date of occurrence of the basis for publication – from 10.08.2021

09.08.2021

Date of occurrence of the basis for publication – from 09.08.2021

09/08/2021

Date of occurrence of the basis for publication – from 09.08.2021

09.08.2021

Date of occurrence of the basis for publication – from 09.08.2021

08/06/2021

Date of occurrence of the basis for publication – from 05.08.2021

05.08.2021

Date of occurrence of the basis for publication – from 04.08.2021

08/04/2021

Date of occurrence of the basis for publication – from 04.08.2021

04.08.2021

Date of occurrence of the basis for publication – from 04.08.2021

08/03/2021

Date of occurrence of the basis for publication – from 02.08.2021

03.08.2021

Date of occurrence of the basis for publication – from 02.08.2021

08/02/2021

Date of occurrence of the basis for publication – from 02.08.2021

02.08.2021

Date of occurrence of the basis for publication – from 02.08.2021

08/02/2021

Date of occurrence of the basis for publication – from 30.07.2021

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90,000 media outlets reported En + ‘significant progress’ in the sanctions negotiations :: Business :: RBC

En + has made “significant progress” in the US Treasury’s negotiations on an agreement to lift the sanctions.Earlier, Washington extended for a month the period during which foreign investors need to get rid of En + securities

Oleg Deripaska

(Photo: Sergei Karpukhin / Reuters)

The En + group of billionaire Oleg Deripaska reported “significant progress” in negotiations with the US Treasury to lift sanctions.Bloomberg reports.

At the same time, the company noted that “there is still a lot of work to be done to reach an agreement.” En + did not provide details on the negotiations.

The agency, citing sources familiar with the situation, notes that the company is discussing a new plan to get out of the sanctions. The agreement implies a reduction in Deripaska’s stake in En +, but excludes the buyout of part of the company’s shares by VTB Bank, as previously assumed.

A company spokesman declined to comment for Bloomberg.

On Friday, September 22, the US Treasury moved the deadline to November 12, before the expiration of which American investors must get rid of the shares and debt obligations of En + and UC Rusal Deripaska. The US department reported that Russian companies have approached the US government about significant changes in corporate governance, which in the future could lead to significant changes in their ownership structure.

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