Difference between an italic, an oblique, and a stub?
Different Approaches To Line-Width Variation
While all three of these customizations deliver line-width variation, their differences deserve mention. See our Nib Customizations page for samples and more detailed information.
Stub and Italic Customizations
A stub tip is cut straight across the top and is the easiest to use of the three, since it has somewhat rounded edges and corners. A cursive italic point is similar to a stub except sharper, giving more line-width variation between the vertical and horizontal strokes. It is also more position sensitive, however; the sharper and narrower the point, the less smooth it will feel on paper. By contrast, a rounder stub will feel smoother, but not have as distinct a difference between the thin horizontal and broader vertical strokes. See our Stub or Italic pages for samples and more detailed information.
The oblique tip is cut at an angle, usually about 15 degrees, normally from top right to lower left, looking like ones left foot from the top. This is usually called a Left Oblique. Unfortunately, some companies, including Parker Pen, call this a Right Oblique. A true Right Oblique point, also called a Reverse Oblique, has a slant exactly the opposite of a Left Oblique and is used by only a few right-handed writers.
An oblique delivers more subtle line-width variation than stubs and italics because the broadest stroke is the upper-left-to-lower-right diagonal, and if your writing style is typical of most right-handed writers, your characters will have few of these strokes. John loves a left oblique point, but he is also used to the rotation required (the pen must be rotated to the left in order to find the point’s “sweet spot”). See our Oblique page for samples and more detailed information.
Broader Nibs For Best Results
We don’t recommend starting with anything finer than a Medium nib for customization to either italic or oblique. A narrower point would be very position-sensitive, require an extremely light touch from a slow and deliberate hand, and would still tend to be scratchy and not show very much line-width variation. In general, the broader the nib that you start from, the greater is the line-width variation that can result from customization
Stub & Italic Nib Fountain Pens – Goldspot Pens
Stub & Italic Nib Fountain Pens – Goldspot Pens
Montegrappa Elmo Fountain Pen in Graffiti Turquoise
TWSBI Diamond 580ALR Fountain Pen in Prussian Blue Special Edition
Retro 51 Goldspot Exclusive Tornado Fountain Pen in Hot Coffee
Retro 51 Tornado Fountain Pen in Ombre Blue Lagoon
Conklin Duragraph Fountain Pen in Turquoise Nights
Leonardo Fountain Pen Replacement Nib in Stainless Steel
TWSBI Vac700R Fountain Pen in Iris Special Edition
TWSBI Diamond 530, 540, 580 Replacement Nib Unit
Sheaffer Calligraphy Mini Kit
Leonardo Momento Zero Fountain Pen in Delfino Swirl Acrylic Limited Edition
TWSBI Eco-T Fountain Pen in Mint Blue Special Edition
Retro 51 Tornado Fountain Pen in Corsair
Basic Grinds Explained
(This page revised June 23, 2020)
The most commonly asked question that we receive is, “What is the difference between your various nib grinds?”
We work with nibs for eight to ten hours a day, and we often forget that what we take for granted can be confusing to others. The basic purpose for any grind is to produce a nib shape that suits your needs. It might be to bring line variation to your writing, or it might be to make the nib write a finer line, or it might even be to make the nib write better for the way you handle the pen.
Round Nib Tip
The standard “out of the box” round nib will produce approximately the same width line on the cross stroke as it does on the down stroke. If this is what you want, but your pen is producing a line that is too broad, reducing the tip size will yield the finer line that you want, from extra fine down to triple extra fine.
But what about the specialty grinds, what kind of variation and writing experience do they offer? The grinds that we do vary in their smoothness and in the amount and type of line variation they do. Here’s the essential information about each of our grinds.
This grind gives you the least amount of line variation of the four grinds, but it is the easiest to use. It is thicker, with more rounding to the edges. Stub italics generally make for bold writing.
This is a specialty grind that Linda developed initially for a client who has a hand tremor. The client wanted to continue to write with a fountain pen that produced line variation but needed a nib that was more forgiving than a cursive italic. In term of its line variation, the DailyItalic falls somewhere between a cursive italic and a stub italic. It has become a favorite among our clients because of its forgiving nature with rotation or under pressure. If a cursive italic is too toothy for you but you want more variation than a stub offers, then this is the grind to choose.
This is the grind that most people who want a lot of line variation ask for. Like a crisp italic, it produces a distinct size variation between the down and cross strokes, but there is slightly less variation than with the crisp italic, and its corners are not as precise. The smaller size of this grind can still feel toothy if you rotate and press heavily.
A nib shape developed as an Arabic/Hebrew italic by Richard Binder and later discovered to exist on a single Sheaffer prototype pen from the 1960s; designed to create broad strokes in a generally sidewise direction (relative to the nib itself) and very thin strokes in a generally up-and-down direction. Note, however, that in general this nib is not useful for calligraphy in such styles.
A variation of crisp italic nib developed by John Mottishaw, in which edges are sharply defined as on a crisp italic; a calligrapher’s nib. To reduce the likelihood that the nib will dig into the paper upon rapid changes from up/down to sidewise motion, the outside corners — but not the edges — are slightly rounded (not to the same degree as on a cursive italic) as shown above.
A properly ground crisp italic will produce the most line variation of all the italics. The edges of a crisp italic are flat and almost knifelike to produce precise lines and sharp corners. This is not a typical daily use grind. Rather than for writing, it is most commonly used for calligraphy or for careful printing. Under even moderate pressure or with any rotation while writing, this nib will feel very toothy.
For reference on stroke width please refere to our Stroke Width Chart.
The images in this article are © RichardsPens.com. Used with permission.
Manuscript Master Italic Calligraphy Pen @CultPens
This pen was sent over by Cult Pens for me to check out. I’ve never used a Manuscript fountain pen before, and I quite enjoy italic nibs, so I was looking forward to checking it out!
Body Material: Plastic & Metal
Length (capped): 139.1 mm/5.47″
Length (uncapped nib-end): 123.6 mm/4.86″
Length (posted): 149.9 mm/5.90″
Barrel Diameter: 9. 1 – 12.3 mm/0.36″ – 0.48″
Section Diameter: 8.8 – 10.9 mm/0.34″ – 0.43″
Nib material: Steel
Weight (all): 24 g
Weight (cap): 4 g
Weight (body): 20 g
Fill type: Cartridge/Converter (converter not supplied)
Price: £14.99inc VAT (£12.49 ex VAT)
Where to buy: Cult Pens
The packaging for this pen is simple and useful. There is a cardboard sleeve wrapped around a rectangular metal tin. The tin is labelled Manuscript in the lower right hand corner. Inside, in a removable felt bed, is the pen. It was posted, sitting in the nest, and it came with two ink cartridges.
Tins like this are quite useful! I use tins like this for various purposes.
There is nothing particularly unique in the appearance of this pen. It’s a rubbery black torpedo-shaped pen. The finial is just a rounded cone. The chrome clip is attached externally, and is sort of shaped like a wave. There are no markings on the pen except for the Manucript logo below the clip. The clip and logo were misaligned upon arrival but were realigned by twisting the cap.
The end of the pen has a removable, threaded end plug. What purpose that serves, I’m not sure. The section is the one thing about this pen I don’t like. It’s fairly thin, narrowing towards the nib before flaring out slightly into a metal lip again. At the narrowest point, there are grooves in the metal, presumably to facilitate grip.
NIB & PERFORMANCE
The nib is a steel 1.1 mm italic. It has a single slit, no breather hole, and is marked with the Manuscript logo, as well as England. It’s on the smaller side, but it suits the pen.
Out of the box, the nib wrote well. It’s a nice, crisp, precise medium italic. With moderate pressure, some line variation is possible, aside from the natural variation. It’s a pleasant, expressive nib that doesn’t skip or hard start.
It offers some fun line variation to normal writing, and is a size that is usable for everyday writing. Since it’s not a gusher of a nib, that also makes it easier to use regularly as well.
The clip on this pen is springy and easy to operate. The section is the part of this pen that I dislike. It’s metal, slippery, and the grooves hurt to grip. It’s also quite thin, so although I can grip and use it, my hand cramped up pretty quickly. (Especially when focusing on learning a calligraphy style). Gripping it higher up on the section isn’t helpful because my fingers juts slip down anyway. The section makes this pen better for shorter writing sessions for me.
Unposted, the pen feels too heavy towards the front, where the large metal section outweighs the plastic barrel. The cap posts securely and adds more balance and weight to even out the balance.
PROS & CONS
I thoroughly enjoy this nib, so I’m disappointed the section is so uncomfortable. There’s nothing wrong with the pen – it works well and was well-adjusted upon arrival. The nib is expressive, fun, and writes well. Darn that section. It’s still a decent pen to try out the 1.1 mm italic nib though. Especially because with fountain pens, it’s inevitable you’ll acquire more than one anyway. If you have smaller hands, the section will likely work better for you than someone with larger hands.
Thank you to Cult Pens for sending this pen for me to review!
I received this pen free of charge for the purposes of this review. I was not compensated monetarily for my review. Everything you’ve read here is my own opinion. There are no affiliate links in this review.
FP Nib Details and Info
Franklin-Christoph features fountain pen specialty nibs, customized by the Japanese nib master Yukio Nagahara, along with S.I.G. nibs ground in house, and a host of various factory formed nibs. Our High Performance Steel (HPS) and 14K specialty nibs include many choices achieve exquisite distinction in performance for your handwriting style. All pens that we ship have been tuned and tested, and sometimes ink tested, so you may at times find traces of ink residue or more likely a little remaining water within the nib and feed.
Smaller F-C pens use the #5 size nibs, while larger pens use the #6 size nibs. The nib units (nib, feed, and housing) unscrew and are interchangeable between #5 pens and between #6 pens.
#5: Models 14, 25, 26, 26, 28, 29, p40, 45, 45L, 55, and 65.
#6: Models 01, 02, 03, 17, 19, p20, 20, 31, 33, 40, 46, p66, and 66.
- Classic Italic nibs consist of a flat tip with flattened bottom iridium. Italics are typically used more for slow calligraphic writing, with stark edges for broad down strokes and very thin side strokes. These Italic nibs are sometimes called “Sharp Italic” are best suited for calligraphers, or the otherwise trained hand, unless made as “cursive” – see below.
Franklin-Christoph Italic nibs are customized on the smoother cursive side as described below.
- Cursive Italic nibs – you might hear the word “cursive” used when describing a kind of italic nib. This is usually where the nib master smooths the contact line of the nib and the corners so that what is contacting the paper is a little smoother and more forgiving for normal cursive writing. The bottom of the iridium is still sharper than a stub, however, making the portion of the tip that is in contact with the paper thinner than a stub. These nibs usually offer mild feedback. Our Fine C. Italics are round to approximately .55mm. Medium C. Italics are ground to approx. .7mm. Broad Cursive Italic nibs are ground to approx. .9mm
- Stub nibs are similar to cursive italics but with the bottom iridium left more rounded though flatter than a stock medium or broad nib, so that a larger vertical surface touches the paper. What you give up in line sharpness of the italic, you gain in smoothness with the stub. A Stub nib still gives you line variation but is easier to write with in your everyday handwriting. Our Medium Stub nibs are ground to approx. .7mm. Broad Stub nibs are ground to approx .9mm.
- Needlepoint nibs are carefully ground to a smaller tip. Needlepoints are commonly used in printing and numbering with small clean lines. We recommend these nibs for this kind of specialty writing/drawing. Our needlepoints are ground to approx .25mm. Try our extra-fine for a more ideal nib for use in script writing which has a .35mm – .4mm.
Nagahara Customized #5 and #6 line width estimates:
N = Needlepoint .25mm
FI = Fine Italic .55mm
MI = Medium Italic .7mm
MS = Medium Stub .7mm
BI = Broad Italic .9mm
BS = Broad Stub .9mm
F-C Ground by Audrey Matteson
- S.I.G. Nibs are our in house nib grind, the S. I.G. for Stub. Italic. Gradient. – the smooth feel of a stub with the line variation closer to a cursive italic. Gradient – means that it offers similar line variation at different angles from steep to shallow – more versatile for various angles of handwriting. This nib variation was originally developed by the late Jim Rouse.
Factory Shaped Nibs
- Cursive Calligraphy nibs – these are actually factory made nibs which are very much like the stub nib tips, but are outside of the normal nib tip range so warrant reviewing here. The 1.1cc is very much like a broad stub, while the 1.4cc (on #5 nibs) and the 1.5cc (on #6 nibs) are like double broad stubs. These are not iridium tipped, which is not particularly needed on large HPSteel italicized nibs, and write smoothly with stub like line variation.
- The Christoph nib is a factory produced nib exclusive to Franklin-Christoph. It has a two slit / three tine design commonly known as a music nib. This nib has a broad downstroke and thin sidestroke like any italic. The thickness of the lines can be controlled with angle as well. It’s a versatile nib with a smooth feel – used for cursive writing, lettering, gothic printing, calligraphic writing and of course for creating music notes. To create music notes, the proper way to angle the nib is with the broad edge perpendicular to the page line, creating a thin downstroke and thick sidestroke. This allows for the thin vertical lines and easy filling in of the ball shapes on music notes. The two nib slits spread the ink nicely for a consistent level of ink on the paper, with the feed designed for the ink to spread amongst its comb. As popular as this nib is, if you have really small handwriting it might be too broad for you. Otherwise, it can be a joy!
- Extra-Fine, Fine, Medium, and Broad Nibs are more rounded on the end and are more forgiving. These are designed for everyday handwriting. They don’t typically give you line variation, but they are more forgiving with rolling the nib tip, and thus are very popular. See handwriting samples below.
Nib tip tips:
- If this is your first foray into trying an italicized nib, we recommend you try a stub over a cursive italic. The stub or cursive calligraphy nibs are more forgiving and smooth feeling than the sharper italics while training yourself to write with this type of nib, or just for faster writing in general.
- If you are new to fountain pens or tend to write with more hand pressure with your normal rollerball or ballpoint, we recommend a steel nib over a gold. The gold is soft and will spread too wide with too much hand pressure. Steel nibs are more likely to retain their shape and position over time.
- The Needlepoint is a highly specialized nib and doesn’t work well with most cursive handwriting. It is mainly for lettering, character drawing and fine printing. It will naturally feel scratchy (lot’s of feedback) when making more circular cursive motions.
Factory #5 and #6 line width estimates:
XF = Extra-FIne .4mm
F = Fine .5mm
M = Medium .6mm
B = Broad .8mm
1.1 = Cursive Calligraphy
1.4 Cursive Calligraphy (#5 only)
1.5 = Cursive Calligraphy (#6 only)
1.9 C= Christoph Nib (#6 only)
Use left/right arrows to navigate the slideshow or swipe left/right if using a mobile device
Ludwig Tan – Grinding your Own Nibs
STEP 1: FLATTENING THE BASE OF THE NIB
The first step is to flatten the base of the tip. We wish to take away the shaded area below:
The base should be ground as horizontally as possible, not at an angle, because a horizontal base minimizes contact with the paper, giving a sharper hairline:
Place the Arkansas stone flat on the cutting mat, and align it to one edge. Hold the pen with your palm facing downwards, and with the base of the nib’s tip resting on the Arkansas stone. Press upon the top of the nib section with your forefinger to apply pressure while grinding. Begin grinding the base with short left-to-right motions, with only your elbow resting on the table and acting as a pivot of movement. The following illustrates this from your point of view:
Grinding with short strokes makes it easier to keep the pen at a constant angle. In the beginning you may use a moderate to heavy pressure to flatten the base. but as you get to the ‘decisive stage’ of the grinding, when the nib is assuming its final shape, you should release your pressure to a light to moderate pressure to avoid over-grinding it. At this stage it \would help to apply a drop of water on the Arkansas stone to act as a lubricant (or, simply dip the nib in water).
When you have reached (as your unaided eye suggests) the end of this grinding process, rinse the nib in water to get rid of any metal shavings, and wipe it dry with the serviette. Placing the nib against a light background, and with the tip of the nib illuminated by the table-lamp, use your magnifying glass (avoid staring into the lamp) to check that the base is completely flat, and not wavy. If the nib is unsatisfactory, repeat the grinding process as above.
There are two good reasons for avoiding excessively heavy grinding pressure. One is the danger of breaking the iridium tip off from the nib, a very real risk if you are working on an older pen. The other is that the tines of the nib will flex under heavy pressure, resulting in a wavy, uneven base. This most seriously affects highly flexible gold nibs, but the rigid steel nibs of the Parker and Sheaffer are rather less susceptible. Nevertheless, a lighter pressure is always well advised since the changes to your nib will come about more gradually, and costly mistakes brought about by enthusiastic over-grinding can be avoided.
STEP 2: FLATENING THE TOP
This is performed in exactly the same way as in Step 1 above, except of course that the pen is now facing downwards upon the grinding surface. As the top gets flatter, continue grinding it at a slight angle towards the writing edge. Your nib should look thus:
STEP 3: FLATTENING THE WRITING EDGE
(OR, ACHIEVING, OR CHANGING, AN OBLIQUE ANGLE)
The object of this step is to wear down the rounded protrusion, shown as the shaded area in Fig. 8a below, to achieve a square tip or writing edge as in 8b:
This is the trickiest step of the grinding because of the difficulty in keeping the pen upright and at a constant angle to the Arkansas stone. Hold the pen upright with your thumb, forefinger and middle finger, with your wrist resting (on the table, but again with your elbow – as the pivot of movement. Grind only in one direction – that of a broad down stroke – using light to moderate pressure, applying a drop of water on the Arkansas stone to smooth the action. If the top of the nib faces you, then you will be grinding with the pen moving away from you. The pen should be held completely vertically if you are grinding a straight Italic, but at an appropriate angle to achieve an oblique edge:
As in Steps 1 and 2, release the pressure when you find that you are getting your desired edge. The time to stop is when you have both tines perfectly straight and aligned, and the writing edge has met both the flattened top and base to create a square chisel. Check the result with the magnifying glass, after having rinsed and wiped the nib. Ensure that the corners are square, not rounded:
You have now finally created your chisel edge and your nib has a generally Italic I, form. After inking your nib, try \writing on the progress sheet, beginning with crosses and zig-zags, then whole words. Your nib will be very scratchy, especially on upstrokes, and you should use only a very light writing pressure to avoid pulling fibers out from the paper and jamming the nib. Check that the writing line is clean and consistent (not jagged at the sides), and that the nib is writing at an angle suitable to your hand (i.e., straight or oblique). You will now have a fairly good idea of how the finished nib will write. However, if you find the nib too broad, you can grind it to a finer width following Step 4 below.
STEP 4 (OPTIONAL): GRINDING A NIB DOWN TO A FINER WIDTH
A nib can be made finer by grinding down both sides of the nib. The pen should be held as in Steps 1 and 2, but with the nib now resting on its side on the Arkansas stone:
As in Step 3, grind the nib in the direction of a down stroke. Use roughly the same pressure and number of strokes for either side of the nib. After every few strokes, ink your nib and writing a few words to check that the width is correct.
Having now ground your nib to an ideal width, you will probably wish to sharpen your nib further to ensure that it writes sharply for longer, following Step 5 below. However, this process is not strictly necessary and you can choose to do so only when your nib gets blunt, or when you have gained confidence and experience in grinding your own nibs.
STEP 5 (OPTIONAL): SHARPENING THE CHISEL POINT (OR, SHARPENING A BLUNT NIB)
This is done by holding the pen at a constant angle of approximately 30 degrees. from the horizontal and with the nib facing downwards, and dragging the pen along the Arkansas stone in long strokes. You should begin grinding with moderate pressure. As the grinding nears completion, however, use a light pressure.
This is admittedly a very delicate process as it is extremely difficult to grind both tines equally, thus making a light grinding pressure necessary when the nib is taking shape. Check your results with the magnifying glass after every two or three strokes. You should end up with a sharpened chisel, as follows:
Your nib is now almost ready for writing. But first its rough edges will have to be polished off before it becomes smooth enough for everyday use.
An Introduction to Nib Customization — The Gentleman Stationer
I’ve wanted to write a piece about custom nibs for a while. As the “pen world” explodes in popularity (well, at least relatively speaking), more and more people are discovering the world of nib customization. And at the same time, more people who have been tuning and grinding their own nibs at home have begun to transition their hobby into a small business. Only a few years ago, There were but a handful of reliable people who performed nib modifications. (Mike Masuyama, Richard Binder, and John Mottishaw, to name a few.) Today, there are even more, including Mark Bacas, Tim Girdler, Linda Kennedy, Dan Smith, and Shawn Newton. There’s enough demand to support multiple people plying their trade, and I know of several individuals experimenting at home who may “go public” in the future.
What exactly is a custom nib?
The majority of fountain pen manufacturers offer nibs in four standard sizes: extra-fine, fine, medium, and broad. These “factory” nibs have round tipping material and produce a uniform line of writing that has little variation, meaning that the pen writes with a consistent line width in all directions. While it’s become increasingly common for manufacturers to offer stub nibs (discussed further below) in 1.1mm and 1.5mm widths as part of their standard line, and certain manufacturers offer double or triple-broads, ultra-extra fines, obliques, crisp italics, and other specialty nibs. But even these are not truly “custom”.
As I consider it, true nib “customization” involves sitting down at a table with the nib technician (or “nibmeister”, as some might call them, though I prefer “nib technician” and will use that term here for simplicity’s sake), having him or her watch you write, and adjusting the nib specifically to your writing style, accounting for various factors. Of course, this process often involves a nib “grind,” (i.e., changing the shape of the tipping material using a grinding stone, wheel, or a rotary tool) but it can also involve smoothing the nib on sandpaper and/or mylar sheets, increasing or decreasing ink flow to the writer’s preference, resetting the nib and feed, or aligning the tines. When you walk away from an appointment with a nib technician, you should have a pen that writes perfectly for you and your writing style.
That said, part of what I love about nib customization is the ability to get unique nib grinds. I’ll briefly walk you through a few of my favorites:
Cursive Italic. A traditional “true italic” nib has little-to-no tipping material, is cut square across the tip, and has very sharp edges. I’ve found sharp italic nibs very difficult to use for daily writing (as opposed to calligraphy) because the sharp edges snag the paper, and the lack of tipping material makes the nib prone to skipping unless the nib is held at exactly the proper writing angle. A cursive italic nib captures most of the excellent line variation of an italic nib, but slightly rounded edges and a bit more tipping material makes it a better choice for daily writing. The cursive italic has become one of my favorite nibs for use at work, in part because it’s not as wet as a stub and therefore works better on cheaper grades of paper. I have cursive italic nibs in various widths, ranging from .4mm (a fine) to 1.0mm (a broad).
Master class “Calligraphy with a fountain pen. Business Italic “. Lesson 1
Greetings to everyone who decided
try yourself in the study of business cursive – a very beautiful style of writing ordinary
fountain pen, which came to us from the United States at the end of the 19th century.
My name is Anastasia Minaeva,
I am a calligrapher, founder of the Figaro school of calligraphy and teacher of the Calligraphy course
fountain pen. Business Italic “. And over the next 5
lessons, I will show you the basic principles of style, you can grasp its beauty and
ease, and the result of your learning will be a beautiful self-written
What tools do we need
need for work?
A huge plus of learning the “Business Cursive” style (especially for beginners in calligraphy) is that you don’t have to spend a lot of money right away.
money for tools.Here’s what we need:
- Fountain Pen . If you do not want
buy an expensive instrument right away, but if you just want to try yourself in learning
style, I recommend trying a disposable fountain pen from
If you want to take a tool for long-term use, then I suggest taking a closer look
to the company handles
Lamy and Platinum.
Use an EF (very thin) or F (thin) nib.
- cartridges or converters .Most fountain pens come with a
ink cartridge, after it runs out, you can either buy
necessary cartridges, or buy a converter and refill the pen with any
ink – the choice is yours, most importantly, buy a converter exactly for the pen that
at you, do not confuse the firm or model.
- ink . Fountain pen ink
there is a huge variety – here you can endlessly try and search for what
will please you personally.On my own I recommend taking a closer look at the ink.
Diamine, Lamy, Pelikan are great for beginners.
- paper . The recipes given in this
course, I recommend printing on IQ Selection Smooth paper (90 g), Komus Business or any
good office paper (80-100 g). Most importantly, do not take glossy or coated paper.
Now – let’s move on to training!
We will study the “Business Italic” style using the example of the wonderful creative word “Inspiration”.It
contains various elements showing the principles of writing, thanks to which we
we will be able to study them in practice.
Take a look at the picture below.
The word “Inspiration” is written here and all the details for which we need are indicated
Here are the basic concepts we need to know:
- base string . This is the height
writing lowercase letters – we build on it when we write capital letters
and letters with outlines – such letters will occupy two more base letters
lines up or down.
- Slope . The slope in the “Business Italics” style varies from 55 to 52 degrees for different calligraphers, but we will
stick to a 52-degree slope. All rulers are already marked for this
incline. Also, in some elements of the letters, you can find an additional slant.
at about 30 degrees.
- Outriggers . They have
letters that “do not fit” in the baseline, and their “sticks” and “loops”, as it were
moved outside the baseline.
- arcs . The basis of the “Business Italic” style.
Almost all letters are built on two types of arcs – concave and convex. When
in the correct rhythm, their alternation adds the spelling to the most beautiful calligraphy.
Let’s start our practice with some basic exercises. Without completing them, it will be impossible to go to
correct spelling of letters. All exercises are given on the sheet below – you can try first
your strength, circling the translucent spelling, and then train
yourself (use the ruler for this).Green arrows show the direction of movement, dots –
the place where the hand was torn off when writing. It is very important to take your hand off the paper in the indicated
places so your calligraphy will be written more correctly.
1. Sticks. Just try like
writes a fountain pen – try to draw a straight line down. Repeat like this
at different heights – in one, two and three baselines.
2. Now connect the sticks in a zigzag fashion.
Do not forget to tear off your hand in the indicated places.First lead the line down, then
tear off your hand, return it to the paper, draw a line up and so on.
3. Convex arc. Element, by something
resembling teeth is the basis of our style. We write “tooth” after “tooth”, do not forget
tear your hands off the paper.
4. The same thing, only now we write to
the width of not one distance between the oblique lines, but two.
5. Concave arc. Another basic
element, we repeat everything that was written to point 3.
6. We repeat what was written to
7. We connect both arcs into one smooth
8. Loop up. Trying to write
loop in one base line up, do not forget about the separation of the hand.
9. Loop down. Everything is the same as
in clause 8.
That’s all for today. Be sure to dedicate
enough time for these exercises – and feel free to move on to the next lesson!
Everyone can learn calligraphy.Even if you think your handwriting is disgusting, there is someone who wants you to sign wedding invitations with a fountain pen. People especially like modern calligraphy because it blatantly ignores traditional rules and emphasizes individuality.
Fake Calligraphy is a great italic font that you can use to learn how to use a fountain pen. Although, to be honest, it is technically not “fake”.It’s still calligraphy, it just doesn’t need a fountain pen. It doesn’t matter if you are an experienced calligrapher or just starting out, fake calligraphy is a very important technique with which you will learn how to write on any surface.
This type of calligraphy is more time consuming than fountain pen calligraphy. However, if you need to write a simple phrase, then this technique will seem fun to you and you will love the excellent result that you can achieve with it.
So, first write your phrase in plain italics. Don’t worry if you don’t write in the way shown in the sample below – just write as good as you can. This technique works with almost all connected letters.
Then you need to draw lines to indicate the bulges. They appear when your hand moves downward to create a piece of the letter. For example, in the letter “a,” the first curve on the left is a thickening, then you drag your pen to the right and down again to indicate the right leg of the letter “a,” and another thickening appears there.
When you have marked all the bumps, just fill in the empty spaces.
Fake Calligraphy is a fun and easy way to understand calligraphy. By the way, people often cannot tell fake calligraphy from real one.
Straight pen holder and nibs themselves
For beginners, it is better to use a plastic or cork holder, it will be more cost-effective.
Then you need feathers.
These are the three nibs best suited for beginners:
- Feather Brause Steno
- Feather Brause Rose
- Nib Brause Extra Fine 66
The pen should now be inserted into the holder
You will need to carefully make a wedge, as shown in the photo above, which will be located between the outer metal circle and the petals inside.It seems to you that the pen should be in the middle, but it is not.
Always grip the middle of the nib and avoid the teeth as they are sharp and can hurt you, just as you can bend them if you inadvertently squeeze them harder than necessary.
You can use sketch paper or any paper that is suitable for calligraphy because of its ink absorption quality. If the paper absorbs too much, then you will end up with an ink web around the letters.
For beginners, Speedball India ink or Sumi ink is best. Many people try Higgins, but they give that awful cobweb effect mentioned above.
Water for washing the pen
You must clean the water every couple of minutes.
How to hold the pen
To create modern calligraphy, you can hold the nib just like a normal pen.Only the fountain pen needs to be held tighter. Hold it with your thumb and forefinger, use your middle finger for support and a stronger grip, and use your ring and pinky fingers for support.
You are now ready to write! Dip your nib into the ink up to the middle of the hole (the hole is that hole in the middle of your nib).
The most important difference between fountain pens and regular pens is that the nib should slide on the paper, you don’t need to press on it like you do with a regular pen.Otherwise, the nib will catch on the paper and you will get ink splashes. Watch a few videos on how to hold a fountain pen and handle ink.
As a beginner, you may find yourself in a situation where the ink refuses to transfer from pen to paper. There is a simple trick to persuade him to do this: simply “kiss” the tip of the feather on the water and try again. The ink should now behave just fine!
If the ink is old and clogs the nib, let it sit in the water for a few seconds, then wipe it off with a soft cloth that leaves no thread behind.
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Frequently asked questions
How do I know which nib I have on the pen now?
Each nib is marked with a unique identification code located in a small indentation about halfway along the end of the nib.Use the information below to determine which of the 14 pen sizes you have.
What are the types of nibs on fountain pens?
Nibs of various sizes have been designed to provide a better writing experience for everyone. With a range of 14 different nibs to suit all writing styles, from very good, regular and wide to straight, italic and oblique, you will find your perfect nib:
EEF: extra extra fine
EF: extra fine
EB: extra broad
EEB: extra extra broad
FO: fine oblique
MO: medium oblique
RMO: medium reverse oblique
BO: broad oblique
FI: fine italic
MI: medium italic
BI: broad italic
Why is there ink residue in the new fountain pen, but there are drops of water in the converter?
All expensive pens pass the so-called OTK (technical control department) at the factory, they are dipped a little in ink (do not refill) and try how the pen writes, this only applies to expensive pens.
As for the drops inside the convector, these are not drops of water, but a special lubricant for silicone, from which the movable part of the piston is made.
What is the hole on the pen cap hidden under the clip?
The hole has two functions. Technical – in production to determine the cap’s cape, and also fulfills the safety requirement to ensure ventilation of the cap in case of swallowing.
Are all handles engraved?
Application is not possible on some surfaces.Most often, this is not possible to do with the complex composition of varnish, texture or drawing on the handle. It is also taken into account that the engraving will not look aesthetically pleasing.
For example, a Parker Sonnet, Lacquer Intense Red GT pen cannot be applied. The chemical composition of the varnish and the red discoloration cause the varnish to chip, resulting in jagged lines.
If drawing on the handle is not possible, then in the product card on the site there is an appropriate functionality for choosing personalization.
How is the engraving on the body and cap of one pen rated?
When engraving is done both on the cap and on the body of one pen, then these are two separate services, the cost of which, respectively, is summed up in the order.
About phrases for engraving
Below you will find the most complete list of phrases, quotes, engraving ideas on the Internet – many of them brought by our customers to engrave on their products. You can choose directly from the list, modify them to suit your personal needs, or simply use them as inspiration to come up with your own unique engraving lettering.The possibilities are endless!
On the handleGood Thoughts for a Good Day Favorite Surname I.O. For the most important and wisest thoughts Surname I.O. Birthday Your well-being depends on your decision Director True professional Beloved spouse! Write your dreams and goals To new achievements! Remember your uniqueness! Success in business Always…Everywhere … Yours … To an important person for important records Write your destiny When thoughts cannot be stopped … Per aspera ad astra Brand Identity, Customer Insight Listen to your heart For royal decrees and clever thoughts Cross out the past, write the future Be happy today … now … Click! I am the only one you have I am always with you Fortes fortuna adjuvat For successful business! Best Doctor ab imo pectore Veni, vidi, vici Write from the heart Lucky handle Success and bright ideas! Pen of a successful man F.AND ABOUT. Today is about Tomorrow From Moscow with love Forever in your hands! Favorite teacher from students 1 “A” Happy birthday to your beloved director! Best friend Good luck for a beginner Happy Birthday! Best friend 30 years old Good luck always and in everything! Write your stories As a keepsake on the birthday of MD. Omnia vincit amor et nos cedamus amori Tu es le mien! A linea… Follow your dreams, they know the way Coolest Scriptum – adimpleretur Happy birthday to your beloved director! Best chief accountant You’ll Never Walk Alone To dear friend To the doctor who improves the world. To beloved dad Audaces fortuna juvat For my queen! from team for academic success Just forever in love For Profitable Deals! New victories! Your team! You are our faithful helmsman
On diary or nameplateIf you decide to act, close the doors to doubt. Friedrich Nietzsche. The only way to do something really well is to love what you do. Steve Jobs The hardest part is getting started, everything else depends on persistence. Amelia Earhart. You become what you believe in. Oprah Winfrey. If money can solve a problem, it is not a problem. These are just expenses. G. Ford. To reach your goal, you must first go. Honore de Balzac. Determination of purpose is the starting point of all achievements. William Clement Stone. Birds climb higher when flying against the wind. Winston Churchill. The only difference between rich and poor is how they use their time. Robert Kiyosaki. Learn from the experience of yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. Albert Einstein. The road called “then” leads to the country called “nowhere”. Confucius. Only those who do not try anything new never make mistakes. Albert Einstein. It’s time to stop waiting for unexpected gifts from life, and make life yourself. L.N. Tolstoy. Our consciousness is everything. You become what you think about. Buddha. If you want to succeed and prepare for failure, then you will get exactly what you are preparing for. Florence Sheen. Nothing destroys a person more than prolonged inactivity. Aristotle. It is better to be confident in a good result than to hope for a great one. Warren Buffett. Failure is simply an opportunity to start again, but wiser. Henry Ford. Customer friendliness is at the heart of every successful transaction. Brian Tracy. Objections are like steps on a ladder leading to a successful deal. Tom Hopkins. The only happiness in life is the constant striving forward. Emile Zola One has only to believe that you can – and you are already halfway to the goal. Theodore Roosevelt. Happiness is not something ready-made. Happiness depends only on your actions. Dalai Lama.
Where are PARKER handles manufactured?
Parker products are manufactured in France, China and Germany depending on the collection.
Duofold – France
Premier – France
Sonnet – France
Ingenuity – China
Urban – China
IM – China
Vector Stainless Steel – France
Vector Standart (pen) – France
Vector Standart (ballpoint) – China
Jotter XL – China
Jotter Premium – France
Jotter SE London Architecture – France
Jottes Stainless Steel – France
Jotter Core – France
Consumables, refilling mechanisms, accessories for writing instruments – France
Parker 5th Rods – Germany
Does the country of production affect product quality?
Our company monitors the quality of its products in all factories.We are grateful to our customers for their feedback regarding the quality of our products, which allows us to constantly improve them. Over a long period of Parker’s sales, the scrap rate is minimal and is less than 1%.
Production of high-demand items was moved to a factory in China, which reduced production time while maintaining the same quality. Regardless of the country of manufacture, the voluntary manufacturer’s warranty is 2 years from the date of purchase.There is no division into “more branded” and “less branded”, materials and mechanisms of the same quality are used everywhere.
Which collections are limited?
There are special editions – limited, with a limited number. Most often they are indicated in the description with the letters LE or SE.
The pen was purchased much cheaper than it is now. Why?
It is important that the store where you purchased the pen is an Authorized Parker Dealer.Otherwise, it is possible that it is a fake.
But also the price during this time could have changed. Changes in prices are associated with an annual increase in production costs and the volatility of the national currency, which we cannot ignore.
Please note that we raise prices for products no more than once a year.
The price on another site is much less. It’s a fake?
It is important that the store is an authorized Parker dealer, otherwise it is most likely a fake.You can send us a request by clicking on the [FIND CHEAPER] button in the product card and we will check everything.
To return an item, including a discounted item, contact the store with a return claim, a sales receipt or cashier’s receipt, and an identity document.
Download a sample application for a good quality product
According to the Consumer Protection Law, the seller must return the money to you within 10 days after receiving the goods.
When returning or exchanging goods of good quality, the following must be preserved: complete set, presentation of the product, presentation of packaging. There should be no traces of exploitation on the product.
You bought the product on the store’s website
You can return the product:
Shipping charges will not be refunded if the product is returned of proper quality. If the seller paid for the return shipping, they may request a refund.
You bought the product directly from the store
Exchange a good quality product for a similar one within 14 days after receiving.
If a similar product is not on sale on the day of circulation, you can demand a refund.
Have any defects appeared during operation?
It must be remembered that you need to take care of the handle coating without the use of chemicals.If you try to erase dried ink stains with strong cleaning agents, the paintwork may be damaged and the defect will be irreversible.
But in any case, if you find deterioration in the operation of units or the manifestation of coating defects, you need to contact our specialized Service Center. They will check your pen and tell you exactly what it is and how to be.
Service center in Moscow
Moscow, st. Petrovka 20/1, entrance 3, floor 5
Tel.: +7 (499) 390-48-08, email: [email protected]
Opening hours: Tue-Fri: 11.00-20.00, Sat: 11.00-18.00, Sun-Mon: closed
Service center in St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg, st. Savushkina, house 141, TRK “Mercury”, 1st floor
Tel .: +7 (812) 981-75-14
Working hours: 10.00-22.00 (seven days a week)
If, within 28 days of purchase, you realize that your fountain pen nib does not quite match your writing style, we offer you a free replacement for any nib of the same value as long as it is intact and in perfect condition.
* if the nib is gold – then the nib is exchanged free of charge
** We draw your attention to the fact that there are not always nibs in stock of the size you need, according to the availability in the warehouse, we can tell you after you tell you which pen model you have and which nib you need.
About online payment
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Some Clients experience difficulties making payments on the Yandex website. During the payment process, a message like “Something went wrong, try again later” appears.Problems often arise when paying from mobile devices. Yandex specialists confirm the problem on their side and recommend doing the following:
For security reasons, Yandex accepts bank cards with 3D-Secure authorization for payment. This is when, after entering the card data, confirmation by the code from the SMS is required. If this authorization method is not enabled for your card, then you will not be able to pay with this card.
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Some browsers have a limit on the length of the address bar and the link in such a browser is truncated, which causes the error. Try using a different browser. As a rule, the preinstalled browser does not have such restrictions.
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What is a fountain pen feeder and what it is for – Company Product Brief
This is a series of articles on fountain pens. To date, five have been written, here is the list:
There will be more. Don’t switch.
In my article on the design of fountain pens, I casually mentioned the feeder.I think now is the time to figure out what this magic thing is.
Feeder is a plastic or ebonite bushing of a special shape with capillary channels and collector ribs cut out in it.
Principle of operation
Imagine milk in a soft tetra pack. If you make a small cut of the corner and overturn the bag, then without the flow of air, the milk will not flow well into the coffee (tea), gurgle, interrupt and splash around the mug.This is because low pressure builds up inside the bag. To avoid this, I put the milk bag in a special holder and cut it on both sides. Now, on the other side, air enters the bag, and there is normal pressure inside it.
In a fountain pen, this scheme was simplified, made, as in a glass bottle or a bag of juice. The air supply and ink supply channels were combined into one.
Different sizes of nibs require different amounts of ink.Their supply is regulated by the channel cross-sectional area: its width and depth. Ink is fed to the nib along the bottom of the channel, and air is supplied along the upper part through the air hole in the nib. This compensates for the pressure difference in the ink reservoir.
A very schematic diagram of the movement of ink and air through the feeder channel
The most common reason a fountain pen won’t write is a clogged channel. In simple cases, it is treated by flushing, in severe cases – by a service center or by replacing the feeder.After purchasing and before using the fountain pen for the first time, I recommend rinsing it.
The collector is a buffer, a microreservoir between the ink tank and the nib. A certain amount of ink is held on its edges to compensate for the speed of their supply. It’s all about the capillary effect. When writing slowly, excess ink is drawn onto the edges of the collector, preventing the pen from blotting. With fast writing, the accumulated ink on the edges of the collector is fed through the channel to the nib, ensuring even writing without gaps.
Another scheme for the distribution of ink along the edges of the collector
From old-timers-handlers I often hear: “In ancient times, pens were completely different.” That’s right, and the grass was greener, the sky was blue, and the sausage was real. But fountain pens were much worse, especially domestic ones. They wore out quickly, broke, cracked and leaked in bags and briefcases. There was no question of flying with a fountain pen on board.
Based on my experience and the experience of my hobby colleagues, I can say that modern fountain pens can be taken on an airplane. You just need to fulfill a few conditions:
The pen should be in a bag or case vertically with the feather up.
The pen should be tucked in to the eyeballs or (paranoid-style) not tucked in at all: the ink is separately in cans or a bottle, and the pen is also separately.So everyone will be calmer.
The pen does not have to be Chinese.
Fountain pens have gone through a lot of flights with me, and every time at home or in a hotel I opened them only over the sink or bathtub. So Europeans, Japanese and American women easily survived any flight. But the Chinese are steadily “sick” of ink in the cap, or even in a case with other pens. I admit that there are happy exceptions, but I haven’t come across such ones yet – the Chinese random as it is.
Not saying goodbye.
Roman “Kantsmen” Belopukhov
Small gallery of photos of feeder close-up:
Feeder. View from above
Feeder. Bottom view
Feeder in perspective
Lamy Company Blog
The Lamy 2000 fountain pen was created in 1966. It is still produced today without any significant changes from the original version, is one of Lamy’s bestsellers and has a reputation for being a Bauhaus style icon.
In 2013, in addition to several existing design awards, the pen received the most prestigious prize – the title of the Fountain Pen of the Century in the category of the German Brands of the Century award. What makes this pen worthy of such a high-profile title?
About the history of creation
In the mid-1960s, with the arrival of Manfred Lamy, the son of the company’s founder, at the Lamy factory, an active search for new ways of developing the enterprise began, which had already existed on the market for 30 years and this market still has nothing special. surprised.Manfred Lamy believed that Lamy should find his own style and move away from the traditional classical design that reigned in the writing instrument market in those years. On his initiative, a collaboration took place with one of the most influential industrial designers of that time – Gerd Alfred Mueller, who became famous for his developments for Braun, the trendsetter in industrial design in those years.
Braun were truly the pioneers of modern industrial design.Lamy was influenced directly by Gerd A. Müller. It is also known that this design was inspired by Steve Jobs, who emphasized that Apple products will be simple and functional: “We plan to produce high-tech products, the design of which will immediately make it clear what it is and why. … The products themselves will be white and beautiful, like Braun electronics. ”
There were two leading designers at Braun: Gerd A. Müller and Dieter Rams. Dieter Rams was the head of the audio engineering department, and everyone knows the “principles of good design” formulated by him (https: // readymag.com / shuffle / dieter-rams /), which have become a true manifesto of modern industrial design. Gerd Müller was responsible for the development of household appliances at Braun, and thanks to him, many of the things we used to use every day look exactly the way he once thought of them. Müller and Rams were close partners and like-minded people, and it is not surprising that the very principles of good design were subsequently embodied by Müller in the Lamy 2000 pen: innovation, functionality, aesthetics, close attention to detail.
Müller’s original design techniques for the Lamy 2000 are the interplay of smooth curves and a combination of metal and plastic.
The shape of the Lamy 2000 has been praised by users many times – thanks to the light roundness of the body, the handle is very comfortable in the hand. It’s simple: this writing instrument was created specifically for the human hand, no matter how trite it may sound. Aesthetics and convenience here merged into one.
Ideal proportions of metal and plastic: the “working” part of the pen is made of metal, while the plastic light body contains the internal working organs: a container for ink and a refueling mechanism.This is a direct reference to Rams’ principles of good design: “Design should focus on the most important aspects and emphasize product usability and avoid anything that might detract from that usability.”
Separately, it should be said about the choice of material from which the body of the Lamy 2000 is made – it was Makrolon – the trade name of Bayer polycarbonate. This is a transparent material with high strength – in terms of impact resistance it has no equal among light-transmitting analogs. Fiberglass-reinforced Macrolon is not subject to deformation.
The choice by Gerd A. Müller and Lamy of a completely new, one might say, revolutionary material in the production of writing instruments was not accidental and quite justified – the pen had to be light and durable.
If you have never held a Lamy 2000 in your hands, then the chance that you know about polycarbonate is still great, because it is everywhere: CDs, DVDs, transparent Lego bricks, protective glass of hockey stadiums, motorcycle helmets, glasses, lenses, etc. .d. etc.
Macrolon provides the Lamy 2000 with the well-known strength and lightness (not quite typical of a premium pen), and unpainted transparent “windows” are used to control the ink level.
Lamy’s collaboration with Gerd A. Müller initiated the brand’s design orientation, and the Lamy 2000 made Lamy a well-known brand and laid the foundation for the success of this venture, making it one of the world’s leading writing instrument manufacturers. Lamy’s tradition of attracting the most famous designers to the creation of its products continued – among them were such world stars as Richard Sapper, Franco Clivio, Mario Bellini, Naoto Fukasawa and others.
About the filling system
The fountain pen has a piston system refueling, t.That is, ink is drawn from the can directly through the nib. This “old” way of refilling has its advantages: the ink tank has a large volume (equal to about three ink cartridges) – the pen does not require refilling for a long time. And also, with each refueling, the entire system seems to be self-cleaning – the need to rinse the handle occurs very rarely in such a model.
The nib is made of 14 carat gold (585 assay value). Since the design of the Lamy 2000 is based on the Bauhaus canons, gold has only a utilitarian function here – it is extremely soft to write with such a pen.So that the “loud” color of gold does not come into dissonance with the metal parts of the handle, it is platinum. The width of the nib can be chosen in almost the entire spectrum that exists with Lamy: EF, F, M, B, OM, OB, BB, OBB.
Many reviews and articles have been written about the softness of writing with the Lamy 2000 pen. American science fiction writer Neil Gaiman described this writing instrument as nothing more than “the pen used to write novels.” Indeed, he writes drafts of his novels with fountain pens, among which Lamy is his beloved.
Lamy 2000 is, without exaggeration, the pride of the company, they take great care in controlling the quality of production of this pen. The most important technological processes are still carried out by hand: for example, gold nibs are polished exclusively by hand. Also, after assembly, the entire body is manually polished, but the polishing is special here – brushing. After being brushed with a stiff brush, the housing acquires microscopic longitudinal grooves, which give it an extremely pleasant roughness to the touch.Also, brushing-polishing completely hides the joints of the body parts – visually, the body is a single whole.
Another important operation is done manually: a strong steel spring is inserted under the clip (it is also in the Bauhaus style), which allows it to firmly attach the pen to a pocket, folder or diary.