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St. Patrick’s Day Costumes | Costumes.com.au

St. Patrick’s Day costumes, accessories, and party supplies

It’s almost time to spread some well wishes, luck, and cheer for March 17th, also known as St. Patrick’s Day! In traditional history, St. Patrick’s Day was observed on the death day of Saint Patrick, the most well known patron saint of Ireland. St. Patrick’s Day was observed by many churches as a day of feast. Traditionally, the day is seen as a celebration of the arrival of Christianity in Ireland, and also as a celebration of Irish heritage and culture in general.

In more modern times, it is common for many people to wear green for St. Patrick’s Day, and if you don’t, you might get a pinch or two! St. Patrick’s Day is also associated with Australia’s favourite drink, beer! Whether you’re just after something green to wear on the actual day, or if you need a costume for a St. Patrick’s Day party, we have something for you!

You don’t have to be Irish in order to celebrate this fantastic holiday! Why not host your own St. Patrick’s Day Party and have all your friends dress up in a St. Patrick’s Day outfits? Don’t forget to grab yourself some St. Patrick’s Day decorations and St. Patrick’s Day party supplies to make your event truly memorable!

Our awesome range of St. Patrick’s Day costumes and accessories is sure to suit your needs. We have items to fit the whole family, even your pet, so there is no need for anyone to miss out on the fun this year! From Lady Luck and beer mug costumes to green hats, bow ties, suspenders, glasses, hair accessories, and more, you can’t go wrong. We have a huge selection of St. Patrick’s Day themed costumes and accessories to choose from, including cute and funny leprechaun and shamrock costumes, not to mention all of the other great green-themed items we have available! Our range of adult St. Patrick’s Day costumes are sure to be a hit, since who wouldn’t want to spend the day at the pub, dressed up with all their mates and a beer in their hand?

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Costumes Inc.

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Donna Halloran

Irish Inspirations

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The Best Dressed

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Troy Designs

Watson Design

St Patrick’s Day & Irish Parties

Although St Patrick’s day was originally to commemorate Saint Patrick and the arrival of Christianity in Ireland, it has become a secular celebration of Irish culture.

Everyone must wear something green on St Patty’s Day! You can either keep it simple with green ribbon, a hat or badges or check out the costume shops below to go all out as a cheeky leprechaun or lucky Irishman.

  • Costumes.com.au is based in Melbourne and delivers costumes and accessories (including shoes, hats, wigs, party supplies and more) with flat rate delivery Australia-wide. Options for same day to Melbourne metro, order online and pick up from their warehouse in Kilsyth, Victoria. See their St Patrick’s Day costumes.
  • Costume Box – Thousands of fancy dress costumes for adults and children for all occasions. All costumes displayed are in stock and most are dispatched within 24 hours. Based in Sydney with flat rate delivery Australia wide. See their St Patrick’s Day costumes for wigs, shoes, hats and full costumes.

Green food ideas

  • Green fruit salad – cut up some green fruit and mix with a dash of fruit juice to prevent browning. Green fruit includes kiwi fruit, green apples, green grapes, honeydew melons, and starfruit.
  • Make green jelly.
  • Serve desserts with green custard, cream, or yoghurt dyed with green food colouring.
  • Choc chip mint icecream and pistachio icecream are already green.
  • Biscuits, cakes, and muffins with pistachio nuts have a green tinge.
  • Green eggs and ham – add a few drops of green food colouring to scrambled eggs and mix in some diced ham.
  • Snack on celery and cucumber sticks dipped in guacamole or other green dip.
  • Spinach and cheese pie – if you make your own pastry you could dye that green too.
  • For a side dish serve green vegetables – zucchini, asparagus, peas, green beans, spinach, broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts.
  • Eat green pasta – it contains spinach which adds more colour than flavour. You could serve it with some green vegetables and basil pesto.
  • Drink green tea or green cordial. Put a couple of drops of green food colouring in a glass before pouring in milk and watch it magically turn from white to green. Cocktails including Creme de Menthe or Midori will be green. Browse Dan Murphys for spirits and liqueurs delivered around Australia.

Dancewear

​Practice Dress
Approved practice dress is required at all classes, no exceptions:

  • black bike shorts or black shorts, black skorts (skirt/shorts combined), black ¾ pants (or in winter black tights).   
  • official black/orange polo shirt of the Adelaide Academy OR
  • singlets/tank tops or approved Irish dance merchandise tops (for OPEN dancers).
  • white sox and dance shoes are to be worn at all classes.
  • hair is to be tied up off faces.

         Polo Shirt                                                                                                               Team Jackets

Black team jackets are available for cooler weather.
Polo Shirts and Team Jackets are available in a variety of sizes, through the studio’s costume store. 

Shoes  

Soft shoes and hard shoes are required for all competitions, displays and demonstrations.
For practice classes, we suggest the use of flexible dance sneakers.  By using these shoes it will save soft and hard shoes for competition/display use whilst also ensuring all dancers have footwear on at all classes.   The dance sneakers/practice shoes are priced at around $40-$50 a pair (available through the Studio or at feiseanna).

Second Hand Shop

Adelaide Academy offers second hand dance wear at very reasonable prices.
The second hand shop is managed by Mrs. Therese Lee and all items for sale and all requirements should be directed through her.   There may not be all sizes in stock at all times but Mrs. Lee will do her best to equip all dancers with their dress requirements at all times.
Items regularly in stock include white sox,  soft and hard shoes for Irish; ballet, tap and jazz shoes; school polo tops; leotards, wrap-round skirts; team jackets etc. ​
A deposit of $10 is required at the time of purchasing second hand shoes, clothing.
If you have any item to sell it can be sold on a consignment basis through the second hand shop.   Details are taken and recorded and when the item is sold then you are paid the money for the sale.     
 
Costume Hire

Many Irish dancers may need the loan of a costume for competition and display, if they do not have their own.  
All beginner Irish dancers must wear the school team costume for competitions.  
Dancers in more advanced grades may wear a school team costume or school-owned or second-hand dance dress.   
School team costumes are very valuable and are maintained by Mrs. Lee to a high standard, for a small hire fee.   In the past hire fees have been very hard to enforce, however, from 2016 this will be enforced as follows:-
School team costume – beginners for feiseanna/competitions – annual fee $20.00  
(A team costume will be allocated for use at every competition during the year).​
The school will provide costumes for dancers who are representing the school at events such as Australia Day and St. Patrick’s Day celebrations at no charge.

Celtic Tots, Celtic Kidz, Performing Arts
Celtic Tots – black leotard, black wrap skirt, pink ballet tights, or a ballet/fairy costume of your dancer’s choice.
Celtic Kidz – black leotard, black wrap skirt, pink ballet tights, pink ballet shoes, tap shoes, hair tied back off faces.
Under 10 and over 10 – black leotard, black wrap skirt, or dance shorts, ballet tights, ballet shoes, tap shoes and jazz shoes.    A school polo top is being planned for this group of dancers.
We are in the process of organising Black Polo Tops for these classes.    These will be available to order on line in the very near future.

Fancy Dress Costume Hire

We also have a large selection of fancy dress costumes for use by our dancers, including clowns, pirates, fairies, animals, nursery-rhyme characters, Disney characters etc.
​Whilst there is no set hire charge for these, it would be appreciated if a donation be made to the Costume Account via Mrs. Lee.

 

15 Surprising Countries That Celebrate St. Patrick’s Day

Have you ever noticed that almost anywhere you go in the world, there’s an Irish pub?

When St Patrick’s Day comes around, chances are you’re going to be in close proximity to somewhere celebrating with cheer and beer, even though you might not know it!

St Patricks Day is celebrated in more countries around the world than any other national day. What started out as a Christian celebration honoring Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland, has turned into festivals and celebrations across the globe, so you might be surprised by who celebrates St Patrick’s Day.

It’s held on the 17th of March every year and involves parades, festivals, the wearing of green colors, shamrocks, dances, music, you name it!

Although it began with Irish people celebrating all over the world nowadays, even non-Irish people claim to be “Irish for a day” and take part in the celebrations!

In Ireland, St Patrick’s Day is not a national day, although it is a public holiday. The biggest celebration is held in Downpatrick, where St. Patrick is said to be buried. However, there are a number of countries that celebrate St Patrick’s Day, and you might even be surprised by some of them.

15 Countries You Might be Surprised Celebrate St. Patrick’s Day

Montserrat

Montserrat is the only other country in the world where St Patrick’s Day is actually a public holiday. The tiny island nation celebrates their independence after colonization in the 17th century. Many of the island’s inhabitants have Irish ancestry, and St Patrick’s Day is celebrated as part of a week of independence festivities.

USA

In the United States, St Patrick’s Day is not a legal holiday but is still widely recognized and festivities include big displays of the color green and celebrations of the Irish-American culture. New York, Boston, and Chicago all have large-scale St Patrick’s Day parades. Even the river is Chicago is turned green for the occasion!

Argentina

Argentina is one of the most surprising countries that celebrate St Patrick’s Day. Buenos Aires is home to the largest St Patrick’s Day celebration in South America. A number of festivals and events take place across the city, including a party in the city center.

United Kingdom

Ok so maybe this one isn’t so surprising since the United Kingdom is Ireland’s closest neighbor, and England, Scotland, and Wales are home to many Irishmen.  Many cities hold parades, the biggest one being in Birmingham, and the third biggest parade in the world after Dublin and New York.

As St Patrick’s Day draws near you’ll notice signs appearing in many pubs across the country, advertising St Patrick’s Day parties and specials. Irish Whiskey’s and Guinness will be the drink of choice, sometimes even with green dye in it!

Norway

Oslo holds its very own St Patrick’s Day Fringe Festival, with Irish related cultural events taking place, as well as a St Patrick’s Day parade.

Turkey

Bars across the country, from Istanbul to Izmir, Ankara, and Bodrum gear up to celebrate St Patrick’s Day. Live music features heavily, with celebrations continuing well into the early hours of the morning. Just make sure you wear something green!

Japan

Tokyo has put on a St Patrick’s Day parade since 1992, and it has only grown bigger. While it was started out by Irish expats as a way to introduce Irish culture to Japanese people, it has now caught on and become a mixture of Irish and Japanese costumes and dress-up.

Australia

Given the large amount of Irishmen who immigrated to Australia, it’s perhaps not so surprising that it’s another place where St Patrick’s Day celebrations are in abundance. Expect it to be much like the UK, with pubs and restaurants offering traditional Irish fare and drinks, and planned parties across the country from Perth to Sydney.

Croatia

St Patrick’s Day celebrations have taken place in Zagreb for several years now, including concerts and even a parade. While it may be on a smaller scale than other places, it’s definitely catching on!

New Zealand

Although it’s almost exactly across the world from Ireland, New Zealand is still one of the countries celebrating St Patrick’s Day, thanks in part to so many of its citizens claiming Irish heritage. A parade is held in Auckland during the day, and the Auckland Sky Tower is usually lit with green lighting for the night. Across the rest of the country, Irish pubs are packed with people dancing to Irish music and often drinking Guinness!

India

In Mumbai, the Gateway of India is turned green for St Patrick’s Day. India loves to celebrate, and St Patrick’s Day comes not long after the Holi festival, which celebrates spring and love. Irish pubs around the country are busy on St Patricks Day too!

United Arab Emirates

The Irish Village in Dubai has long been a place to celebrate St Patrick’s Day in the UAE, although other Irish Pubs around Dubai are getting in on the act too. Family-friendly activities, dancers, and live music are usually on offer, to get you into the Irish spirit!

Canada

The city of Montreal has one of the longest-running and largest St Patrick’s Day parades in North America, occurring since 1824. Many Canadians have Irish ancestry, but even those who don’t join in on the fun as everything from cooking classes to whiskey tasting to parades and pub parties take place.

Russia

Moscow also began holding a St Patricks Day parade in 1992. St Petersberg also has a music and dance festival, and pubs across the country have caught on to St Patrick’s Day celebrations.

Singapore

Singapore has it’s own St Patrick’s Society, mostly formed of expats, who host an annual St Patrick’s Day ball. There’s also often music events and parades, with many people dressing up in green for the day.

These are just a few of the countries that celebrate St Patrick’s Day across the world, as in reality, anywhere you can find an Irish pub (which is almost anywhere!) will be having some kind of celebration!

Irish Dancing Shoes Australia | Irish Dancing Shoes

Discover the delight of Irish dancing living inside you with our premium range of professional and functional Irish dancing shoes in Australia. Here at First Class Dancewear we comprehend the importance of dance shoes and we take immense pride in administering the finest and utmost respected Irish dancing shoes Australia. From a wide range of designs to choose from all the way to various sizes and distinctions to suit, we are your leading option when it comes to choosing that fine Irish dance shoe you have been seeking.

 

As Townsville’s finest value dancewear specialists, First Class Dancewear’s owner, Jenny Skeggs, opened her business to an appreciative North Queensland dance community in early 2005. With extensive first-hand knowledge of the local dance scene, First Class Dancewear’s commitment to excellence has earned us the reputation of the best value dance wear and apparel supplier in North Queensland. Experience, knowledge, reliability and overall professionalism are the key pylons utilised to erect this business and ensure Australian’s are provided with state of the art Irish dancing shoes Australia.

 

Our mission statement is that a dancer of any age needs to be comfortable and secure whether they are purchasing a tiny little tutu just for fun or a pointe shoe for that special performance or audition. Customers shop with us because they want a variety of styles and fabrics to try on and staff that care about finding them the best fit. We stock all major brands including Bloch, Capezio, Fiesta Legwear, Strut Stuff, Paul Wright, Energetiks, Studio 7 and more!

 

When you hear the phrase “Irish dancing shoes Australia” your mind should pinpoint to one and only one company, the industry leaders here at First Class Dancewear. Reliability and dedication towards all our products are synonymous to the way we work. For additional information on our products, feel free to browse our contemporary online marketplace. Alternatively, for inquiries please do not hesitate to contact us directly for a friendly chat.

FAQ’s « Elevation Design

Frequently Asked Questions

How do I pay the deposit and balance for my Irish Dancing Dress?

You can pay for your Irish dancing dress by Visa, Mastercard or Switch through our secure website.

Pay your deposit*

We will email you to confirm receipt of any payments for your record.

How will I send my measurements and preferences through?

We will e-mail you for measurements and design preferences at the appropriate  time i.e. 2 months before your agreed dispatch date.

How long does delivery take?

For the Republic of Ireland and UK delivery we offer a 24hr and 48hr service. For USA and the rest of the world delivery of your Irish dancing dress normally takes 4-5 working days. *Canada and Australia deliveries can take 1-2 days longer.

How much does delivery cost?

ROI and UK delivery is approximately £40 (including insurance)
USA, Canada and the rest of the world is approximately £150 (including insurance).

How do you ship the Irish dancing dresses?

To ensure safe delivery we pad each dance costume well with foam and place it in a large cardboard box.

Will I receive any accessories with my Irish dancing dress?

You will receive kick pants and spare crystals with your dress. A headpiece can be purchased at an additional cost.

When will my Irish Dancing costume appear in the gallery?

We aim to update the website with new styles on a weekly basis.  To view our collection of Irish dancing dresses click here.

Are any of the Irish dancing dresses in the gallery for sale?

No. All of the Irish dancing dresses shown in the gallery are past Elevation Design customer costumes – each Irish dancing dress, like its owner – is unique. We do not remake or copy any of the old costumes. However you can take inspiration from the colour choices or designs to create your own perfect Irish dancing dress.

Do the prices differ from style to style?

Yes – refer to the style pages for details..

Where can I purchase pre-owned elevation costumes?

You can purchase pre-owned costumes at Kennedy Irish Dance.

How should I take care of my Elevation dress?

When you receive your Elevation dress, included will be your ‘dress care kit’ flyer which has all the information you need to take care of your dress. You can also view that information here.

* Deposit of GBP £300 payable by major Credit Cards (Not American Express) or Paypal. The deposit for the vest is £100 and the deposit for the class costumes is £150. Tonal ties can be made to match the vests for £30

90,000 national costume and clothing, wedding customs, how they celebrate the New Year and Christmas, briefly about the features of the holidays

The modern cultural life of Australia was formed not so long ago. The mosaic of Australian traditions is interesting: on the one hand, multiculturalism and specific lifestyle on the coast; on the other, the continuity of the customs of Europe.

National costume and clothing of the peoples of this state

Until the first European set foot on Australian soil, local residents were not particularly worried about clothing.The men wore a belt of human hair decorated with a shell.

Women’s clothing consisted of an apron. The hot sand gave rise to the invention of sandals.

The modern traditional attire of Australians is practical and free, has a free character. Exceptions are only for special occasions.

If you are interested in the unusual and exotic traditions of the inhabitants of this region, we recommend the article on Vanuatu.

National dance

Australian dance – a wide range of styles and trends.These include aboriginal dances, the bush dance, and even classical ballet. The country has an Australian Dance Council created to support dancers.

The bush dance was once copied from the peoples of England and Ireland. Thanks to the enthusiasm of immigrants, dances of completely different nations have appeared in Australian families. Melodies for the “bush” were also very diverse: some of them were sung by settlers from other lands, others were borrowed from concert halls during the tour of visiting musicians.Locals even specially sat near music venues to overhear a new melody for the “bush”. The Spanish waltz called “My father was a Dutchman” became especially popular.

Festivals and major cultural events

Australia Day is considered 26 January – a national holiday declared a day off. During the festive week, it is customary to meet with friends, prepare barbecues, fireworks, attend musical events.During this period, cities are decorated with national flags. An important date calls to remember the Australian colony of Britain – New South Wales, from the lands of which the development of Australia began.

At the end of April, on the 25th, Anzac, or the Day of Remembrance of Soldiers, is celebrated. On this day, they remember the participants in those hostilities in which Australia took part. The holiday was named in honor of the soldiers of the army corps, which participated in the First World War and was included in the British army.ANZAC is the abbreviation for the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps.

On the first Tuesday in November, the Melbourne Cup takes place in Australia. The cup itself is a race on which almost every resident places bets. At 3 o’clock in the afternoon, a special signal is heard: the townspeople leave their affairs and rush to the opening of the holiday.

The spectacle will not leave anyone indifferent, because in addition to the festive atmosphere, an obligatory prize fund is raffled off on this day.The current monetary remuneration of Australian horse racing is approximately A $ 4.5 million.

How are New Years and Christmas celebrated?

Due to its geographical location, Australia has had the honor of celebrating the New Year as the first among the countries of the entire continent. It is customary to celebrate it outdoors at music festivals. Numerous tourists every year bring with them interesting traditions and bring a special flavor to the atmosphere of what is happening.On the central square of Martin, the main Christmas tree is installed, decorated with light garlands.

And in Sydney there are light shows and a parade of lights. Ships and yachts flare up with bright colors of illuminations. At midnight, the chimes are replaced by the ringing of bells, and the townspeople blow their whistles and shout loudly, inviting good luck to visit.

REFERENCE! It is customary to display steaks and pies on festive tables. The housewives put surprises inside the cake: nuts, predictions. coins. A traditional Australian dish is a float pie.It is a closed meat pie served with pea soup.

To raise funds for an event, Australia uses the pie tent tradition of selling only the finest quality homemade food. These charity tents are sponsored by the Rural Women’s Association.

Christmas in Australia takes place in December and is reminiscent of a European holiday. Australians love to sign postcards, decorate houses and the Christmas tree, and the children are waiting for Santa Claus to visit.

Many Australian plants bloom during the Christmas season, which the early settlers happily used for holiday decorations. Popular among them are the Christmas bell, the Christmas bush, and the orchid.

In June, Australians traditionally celebrate the Queen’s Birthday. Australia has become politically independent from Britain since 1942, but Queen Elizabeth II is still the monarch for Australians. During her reign, she visited Australia 15 times.

IMPORTANT! The real date of birth of the Queen of England falls on April 21, but the tradition of celebrating this significant date in the summer was laid back at the beginning of the 20th century and has never changed.

Briefly about wedding traditions and customs

Most Australian weddings take place in the spring or fall. Since this country is multinational, it is quite difficult to single out such a phenomenon as an Australian wedding.

The bride prefers dress most often white or other light shade.On a key day, the girl should be wearing “something new, something old, something borrowed and something blue.” This tradition came to the Australian people from England.

Great attention is also paid to the uniformity of the color design of the wedding. The groom, bride, bridesmaids and friends of the groom should all adhere to the same style of dress.

An equal number of bridesmaids and friends of the groom are invited to the ceremony. Bridesmaids create the same hairstyle and makeup, order flowers similar to the bridal bouquets.

On the appointed day, several rooms are booked in hotels – separately for the groom’s fees and for the bride’s fees. The ceremony itself is carried out in a church or in some picturesque place (park or square). There is no tradition of buying a bride in Australia. The girl is accompanied to the altar by her father or both parents. Also, frequent companions of the newlywed are a girl under 5 years old who sprinkles the path to the altar with rose petals, and a boy carrying wedding rings.

There is no such thing as a toastmaster at an Australian wedding banquet.More often one of the guests has to fulfill this role. Its task is to announce the highlights of the evening: a toast from parents, first dance, cake cutting. At the end of the holiday, all the guests stand in a circle, and the newlyweds personally say goodbye to each and thank for their presence.

Features of the culture of this country

Today’s culture in Australia can be called urban, as 85% of the population lives in cities. The city of Melbourne is considered the cultural capital of the country. We also recommend articles written about other cities in Australia and its capital.

With its architecture, it resembles an English city, carefully preserves the echoes of history and is famous for an interesting attraction – trams with wooden benches.

But in Sydney, on the contrary, everything that happens is directed to the future. The symbol of the city is the Sydney Opera, which resembles large shells washed up on the seashore. Among the city transport there are catamarans and ferries. Every year, a festival is held here with themed performances, in their storyline of the history of the first Australian settlers.

Australia has a wide variety of genres and styles. The so-called “Australian sound” is known all over the world, a sound that draws rhythms and melodies from the source of the surrounding nature and from the life of aborigines. Classical music is represented by sonatas and symphonies, each state has its own symphony orchestra.

Useful video

Learn more about the specifics of an Australian wedding by watching this video:

Conclusion

A striking feature of the Australian is cheerfulness and lack of ceremony in communication.Jokes and nicknames are the norm here. However, there are differences between the life of Western and Eastern Australia. You can find out about them here.

The distinctiveness of Australian culture shines with a variety of facets, reflected in the ancient and modern traditions of the mainland. The customs in the country are still young, the most important thing in them is the voluntary participation of all those present.

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90,000 Australian national dress. National costumes of the peoples of the world

5.8k (124 per week)

Austrians are one of the few modern Europeans who wear a national costume. In German, the name of their clothes sounds like “Trachten” and you can see it everywhere: in shops, on the streets, in entertainment venues, restaurants.
It cannot be said that modern national clothing looks like several centuries ago, today’s residents of the Alpine republic have improved the appearance of the costume, added relevance to it. Blouses with wooden buttons, a coat with embroidered edelweiss, a Tyrolean hat or a wedding dress with luxurious sleeves look beautiful.Despite the fashion trends, history is emanating from such colorful clothes.

Typical Austrian costume

“Dirndl” is considered the distinctive classic clothing in Austria
, which is a long dress with an apron and puffed sleeves. Men’s outfit for a fashionista
– elegant jacket in noble gray with green trim. Both things emphasize individuality, are a sign of excellent taste and came to the Austrians from their ancestors who lived in the era of romanticism.For centuries, urban and rural clothing traditions have influenced each other, the costumes were never decorated and were made from poor quality coarse cloth. It was forbidden to wear embroidery, chains, red silk ribbons. From the 30s of the 18th century, it was allowed to decorate a costume with white and black lace. The main types of Austrian clothing include:

  • Leibkittel (sundress)
    , with a narrow top and a wide pleated bottom;
  • leather pants
    knee-deep;
  • mens loden suits
    with bold lapels;
  • women’s fur caps
    linen with silver or gold filigree.

Loden

The main material for making peasant clothes was Loden in gray, brown and black; on holidays, small red accessories were attached to the costume. A legend is connected with the invention of Loden that a Tyrolean peasant washed his clothes in boiling water, the wool matted, sat down and a new fabric appeared.
– practical, wearable, waterproof, which made it possible to use it for the manufacture of raincoats for shepherds, who in any bad weather had to drive the herd out to graze.

Popular style propaganda

Clothing in Austria was a kind of “visiting card”
, by which it was possible to determine what a person does, what his social status is, his level of well-being, religion, profession, marital status. The costumes of the inhabitants of the Alpine foothills stood out especially against the background of traditional clothing; they wore clothes made of linen, leather or wool.
The idea of ​​making the folk style commonplace came from the monarchs. Charlemagne liked the national dress very much, but his courtiers preferred to wear costumes made of fine Byzantine silk. Then the king gathered his retinue and went hunting with them, where he chased them in the rain and wind until sunset. By the end of the day, the thin material had turned into rags, and the king, who wore a loden, looked like a spine.

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James Cook’s expedition with an unprecedented number of scientists on board the ship “Endeavor” came to a previously unknown land at the end of April 1770.Scientists were amazed at what they saw and incredibly happy (after all, they did not know that they were equipping the expedition specifically to search for unknown southern lands). Thus began the history of Australia, which was written by representatives of Western civilization.

James Cook – Discoverer of Australia

Prior to this historic landing, the Australian continent was inhabited by about three hundred thousand local residents. These are about half a thousand different tribes that lived throughout Australia. The eastern and southern coastal zones, characterized by an abundance of game, fish and a mild climate, were populated slightly more densely than the rest of the land.The first colonists wanted to use the locals for their own purposes (to put it simply, to make them slaves), but to no avail. The Aborigines were pushed inland, where harsh conditions led to the hunt for white-bred sheep. This was all that the settlers needed to start a massacre of the aborigines.

Australian Aboriginal Traditions

Today about fifty thousand Aboriginal people live in Australia. Most of them exist in specially designated settlements for them.Lifestyle and culture are no different from their ancestors.

Aboriginal Traditional Occupations

Wood and stone is the basis for the manufacture of hunting weapons and tools for everyday activities. The ancestors of today’s indigenous people of Australia were skilled hunters and fishermen. This is evidenced by the world famous boomerang, which was invented by the Australian aborigines. And what are the national dances … Modern civilization pressed the natives hard. The descendants of the witnesses of the first white people on their continent wander from place to place on their reservations and are busy gathering.

Since the Australian aborigines do not differ in settledness, their dwellings are temporary. But there are still differences. Tradition and time of year makes its own adjustments to designs. If the campsites are short-lived, then the “shelter” is a hastily constructed wind barrier made of branches, in which there is a recess for spending the night. Bonfires are made between such dwellings.

During the sedentary period lasting several months, the aborigines build more solid huts using the bark of trees, covering them with clay for a fortress.Sometimes huts are decorated with drawings. In desert areas, dwellings are sheltered using stone slabs. Individual tribes in the past made their dwellings in caves.

Clothes

Before the first European set foot on the land of Australia, the indigenous people did not care about what to cover the body with. The indigenous male inhabitants of the center of the Australian continent wore a belt made of human hair with a shell in a characteristic spot. For women, clothing consisted of an apron. To the credit of the inhabitants of the Western part of the Australian continent, the invention of sandals should be noted.And it’s all the fault of hot sand. But the scarcity of clothing is not at all the scarcity of the mind. It’s just that the living conditions of these people did not push them to design national costumes.

Indigenous Arts

The aborigines of Australia are representatives of the oldest earthly culture. And one of the most unexplored. What has survived to this day is represented by rock carvings, wood carvings, wax moldings or drawings on the skin. Ancient myths formed the basis of the plots of such works.The natives tried to bring themselves closer to their beliefs with the help of the visual arts.

Important !!!

Australian aborigines in their visual activities were guided not by the similarity of drawings with reality, but by an ideological, spiritual principle, therefore, to the uninitiated, what was drawn seems meaningless.

People of the Stone Age gave special ritual meanings to ocher drawings. Rocks and eucalyptus bark served as the basis for creativity. The natives believed that if the drawings were not followed, it could cause drought with all the ensuing consequences.The aborigines of the north of Australia were especially generous with masterpieces. They painted in color everywhere from rocks, to household items and the interior of their huts. Particularly interesting are the images of animals showing internal organs (the so-called “X-ray”).

An interesting physiological feature of the aborigines of Australia, developed in the course of evolution, to see the world around them “faster” than Europeans, has become the reason that they take their drawings for realism, and the films on the screen are perceived as a set of separate pictures.And white people in Australia consider Aboriginal drawings to be something akin to the avant-garde.

Family and parenting

Before entering into a marriage relationship, a young man and a girl, like the entire younger generation of the tribe, must go through a series of tests.

How do Aboriginal couples form?

The Council of Elders is to discuss candidates for the creation of a family. And the brother of his mother chooses a wife for the young man.

Wedding ceremonies are held at large tribal celebrations.Sexual relations are very strictly limited. To be considered an adult, children are tested by hunger, fear, pain. Children from an early age are taught all the knowledge that the tribe possesses. Despite the diversity of cultural traditions and linguistic ramifications, in general they are similar throughout the continent.

Culture and traditions of the descendants of the colonists

The descendants of the first settlers created their own culture, which is mainly based on the traditions of Great Britain. Separately, we can celebrate the Day of Remembrance of the Veterans of all the wars in which modern Australia took part, with parades and grandiose celebrations in major cities.Traditionally, you can add Christmas and New Year to this. Another feature of the country is religious and racial tolerance.

The Melbourne Cup is one of the traditions of modern residents. The attention of their country is riveted on these races with the obligatory rates of every inhabitant. Family traditions with picnics in nature are highly appreciated.

Conclusion:

Australia is the richest country in terms of cultural heritage, which intertwines ancient traditions of Aboriginal, British settlers and traditions that have arisen during the modern history of the country.

Wedding traditions in Australia.

The other world of Aboriginal Australia. What Australian Aborigines believe.

National costume is an important part of the country, telling about its history, culture, traditions and way of life of local residents. We may know something superficial about this or that part of the world, but when it comes to unfamiliar countries, for example, about Japan, we immediately think of a kimono or a checkered kilt when it comes to Scotland.

In some countries, part of the national dress has turned into an anachronism: in Russia you can see the costume only in a museum or at a performance by a folklore ensemble.And in India it is part of everyday life: women learn to wear saris from an early age.

In this article we will tell you about the most colorful and interesting national clothes.

National costumes of Japan

Kimono is sewn according to one pattern, not related to someone’s specific figure and its features. Only the length varies. The silhouette emphasizes only the waist and shoulders. Included with them are zori slippers, similar to modern flip flops on a small platform.

True, they are made of wood, which greatly deforms the foot in the future (they are still worn during rest or in summer when there is no rain).

Women wearing kimonos can still be found in the thousands of Tokyo street crowds. Although the Japanese have recently complained that the national costume is gradually fading into oblivion. But just because such clothes hinder movement, it will not work to rush in them.

If you are lucky enough to be in Japan, you will be amazed at how devoted the people are to the clothes of their country.

Even after the Second World War and the American occupation, there was an inexplicable revival of the national costume.

National dress in Scotland

This is the first country with which we associate the phrase “national costume”. Scottish cage (tartan) is not just a cage. The width of the intersecting stripes and their color will tell about a certain clan inhabiting a particular area. This tradition is important to the Scottish people.

Men’s kilts and women’s skirts are made of tartan of a certain color, corresponding to their clan.

Nowadays in Scotland you rarely meet someone in a national costume, it is often a matter of special occasions: national holidays, festivals, weddings, football matches, meetings of the Scottish diaspora in other countries, and so on.

National costumes of Bhutan

Bhutan is the only country in the world where the local population is required to wear national clothes.The national dress code (Driglam Namzha) is worn by everyone, without it they will not be allowed into any state institution
or some other decent place is a violation of public etiquette. This, of course, does not apply to tourists.

The national costume is a belted robe – gho. In addition to it, a special scarf is worn. For commoners it is white, for the king it is yellow. Someone takes off the top of the robe when it’s hot outside, or they pull on trousers or sports tights when it’s cold.In general, local residents are satisfied with this.

After all, Bhutan has a happiness index instead of GDP.

Clothes in India

This is a multinational country. After all, 447 languages ​​and 2000 dialects are spoken here.
Therefore, the national costume and its features differ from state to state. Even the influence of the European mass market, its cheapness and practicality could not reduce the popularity of the sari, patiala, dhoti and shervani.

A sari is a wide strip of fabric (usually 5-10 meters)
, which is draped around the woman’s body in a special way.As a rule, the fabric is wrapped several times around the waist, and the remaining “tail” is thrown over the shoulder, exposing the belly.

Special detailed schemes are sold for tourists on how to “roll up a sari” correctly. True, you don’t look like a foreign woman in such a suit, it is only suitable for photo shoots.

The art of graceful wearing of this national pride, Indian girls are taught from 10-12 years old.

Salwar-kameez is another popular dress among Indian women.Fashion for it originated in Afghanistan and eventually migrated to India. This beautiful, practical outfit is still popular today, simplifying its look a little. Salwar – silk trousers, kameez – tunic that reaches mid-thigh.

Working-class men wear the dhoti, an elaborately draped loincloth. The richer gentlemen prefer shervani (a long, embroidered coat) in combination with trousers and a turban (this headdress is especially popular among those who practice Sikhism).

What is worn in Peru

It is the poncho that is the basis of the national costume of the Peruvians. It is comfortable and simple, keeps the body warm for a long time. Made from alpaca yarn. These clothes are very light, warm and amazingly wearable. The poncho pattern is not just a decoration, but a special sign
, which will tell you which village or community the Peruvian belongs to. The edges of the poncho are decorated with fringes. It was from Peru that the poncho migrated to American and European mass-market stores, although such a factory item has greatly lost its functionality.

A woman’s image is unthinkable without a funny hat with concave brim – liklya.

Bolivian national costumes

More than half of the population of this South American country wear national clothes. The revival of the traditional costume was initiated by the current president, Evo Morales. By origin, he is an Aymara Indian.

Mandatory elements of the Aymara women’s costume are a layered skirt, a white blouse, a massive shawl and a bowler hat (similar to those worn by English gentlemen of the beginning of the last century).Despite the apparent simplicity, the cost of one set can reach several thousand dollars.

The story of how a bowler hat became a must-have of a woman’s image deserves a whole book. But in short, in the early 20s of the last century, an enterprising merchant brought a large batch of men’s bowlers. But the product was not in market demand. In order to somehow get rid of the party at least to zero, the businessman instilled in local women that hats bring fertility. Such advertising became effective, since then the hat has become the basis of the costume.The image is complemented by jewelry made of gold and silver, massive beaded brooches and earrings.

The country of Australia is the only state that fully occupies the territory of the continent of the same name. Here is the Great Barrier Reef – the largest in the world. Australia has the largest and most unique natural bay with stunning views. This state has a unique flora and fauna. The symbol of this country can be considered kangaroos, which are found here in abundance, in natural conditions.Overall, Australia is one of the most developed countries in the world.

Transport

Australia’s public transport network is well developed. While in one of the Australian cities, tourists can get to any part of it using a number of public transport modes. Buses and city railways are popular – electric trains that are familiar to us. Australian electric trains are more mobile, modern and comfortable.

There are trams in Australia, but they are found only in two cities – Adelaide and Melbourne.It is one of the inexpensive means of transport, although trams do not travel as fast as buses.

If you wish, you can also use the ferry service. There is a ferry service in cities such as Sydney, Brisbane, Newcastle, Perth, Melbourne.

Australia does not have a full-fledged subway; surface rail transport is used as a subway. There are several underground stations in cities such as Sydney and Melbourne. The authorities are eagerly discussing the issue of creating a larger underground network in the form of a subway.

In Australia, public transport is on the upswing as high fuel prices and endless congestion force Australians to switch to buses, ferries, and trains to get to their destination faster.

Electricity in the country

The voltage of the electrical network in Australia is 220-240 Volts with an alternating current frequency of 50 Hertz. Australia has 3-prong plugs, so regular 2-prong plugs will not work.Tourists can easily use a special adapter – an adapter that can be bought at any home appliance store, both in Australia and in the domestic household appliance network. By the way, the adapter can be requested from the hotel administrator at the reception.

Australian Holidays

February 13 – Royal Regatta. Every year on February 13, a grand spectacle is held in Australia – the royal regatta. A large number of Australians, as well as tourists, come to see this spectacle.The event is the oldest in Australia. The first races were held in 1838. Regatta participants must complete a series of competitions, rowing, sailing, water skiing, swimming (1.6 kilometers), boat races. Traditionally, during the festival, the contest “Miss Regatta” is held, during which the most beautiful girl at the festival is chosen. In recent years, in addition to professional yachtsmen, ordinary residents are also preparing for February 13, since on this day the festival organizers invite everyone to try their hand and take part in a race or swim for amateurs.

March 12 – Canberra Day. Australians celebrate this folk holiday in order to pay tribute to the capital of the state. Canberra Day is a cultural festival that anyone can take part in. Translated from the language of the local tribe, the name of the capital of Australia is translated as “meeting place”. The city is landlocked, but it has attractive architecture, unique geometry and lush green gardens that adorn Canberra. On this day, state flags are raised, parades and entertainment shows for the residents of the capital are held.

March 21 – Harmony Day in Australia. This day is national in Australia. The holiday coincides with the day of the fight against racial discrimination, which was established by the UN. Because Australia is a multinational country, Australia’s Harmony Day is celebrated as a celebration of the fight against racism. The traditional symbol of this day is an orange ribbon. Australians wear orange clothes for the holiday, from a scarf to a jumpsuit. Traditionally, Australians should say “we” more often, referring to the multiculturalism of Australia, instead of “I”.Schools and universities run social programs to show that racism is bad. The townspeople, according to custom, go out into nature for a picnic.

National dress in Australia

There is no national dress in Australia as such. Australia is a multinational country, and there are practically no indigenous people here – the entire population consists of immigrants and visitors. There are indigenous aborigines in Australia who are the only inhabitants who lived on the continent before the arrival of foreign conquerors.Aborigines are part of the country’s culture, therefore, the authorities in every possible way protect and preserve the aborigines, who continue to lead their usual way of life.

In everyday life, Australians wear comfortable clothes, shorts, T-shirts, jeans – something that does not hinder movement, and it is not a pity to wrinkle, sitting in the park on the grass, being a participant in a picnic. Of course, when it comes to visiting a decent restaurant or a business meeting, then Australians observe the rules of etiquette and dress in business suits.

Generally all clothing comes from China. But, brand companies also use the services of Chinese masters, therefore, if you buy jeans from Calvin Klein in Australia, then they can be worn for years and washing will not adversely affect them. But there is a tangible difference, if you buy cheap things for $ 5, then after the first wash they will shrink, or stretch, or completely lose color. But if you buy the same T-shirt for $ 50, then you can wear it for at least a year, and such a thing will not be afraid of washing.By the way, 50 Australian dollars = 1,645 Russian rubles. In general, the prices are quite similar, but the quality …

Modern youth dress in a rather loose style. Girls wear pants over which they put on a skirt. Moreover, the pants are not narrowed, but straight. The T-shirt is usually higher than the navel, and over the T-shirt there is a jacket, which is fastened only with the top button. Young guys dress almost the same way, only without skirts, and their T-shirts are longer. The jacket is worn with a belt tied.

When leaving Australia, tourists cannot do without souvenirs.It is recommended to buy clothes made of fine wool, as well as handmade clothes and accessories, which are made by local aborigines.

National cuisine in Australia

Australia’s national cuisine can rightfully be called one of the most “colorful”, as it has absorbed the culinary traditions of different countries, from England and Ireland to Japan. Meat plays one of the key roles in the national smithy. Local chefs use the meat of various animals. And the meat of lamb, chickens, as well as the meat of crocodiles, ostriches, emu, kangaroos and so on.

With such a wide variety of meat and dishes from them will not give in to count. Seasonings, methods of roasting, cooking, raisins as side dishes, it can be argued that the national cuisine of Australia is created for gourmets.

Fish and sea products – on a par with meat, are integral products. There are more than enough cooking methods. However, fish, mussels, shrimps and other seafood are cooked in an Asian way. Those. eaten almost raw, or cooked in such a way that it is almost impossible to recognize what is on the plate, due to the abundance of seasonings and savory sauces.Rice is served as a side dish for the fish dish.

Thanks to its climate, Australia is home to a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, from blackberries to avocados. However, only 20% of Australia’s plants are classified as edible – so you should not walk in forest areas without a guide, as you can confuse edible berries with inedible ones, and some poisonous plants and berries are deadly and their poison acts quickly.

There are also traditional delicacies for those with a sweet tooth.The national dessert is kiwi in meringue with cream. Top of the meringue is doused with chocolate, and sprinkled with nuts and coconut. For dessert lovers, oat cookies with coconut flakes are suitable.

Typically Australia produces local wines and beers. Experts assure that Australian alcoholic products are not inferior in quality to European brands.

Religion and customs of the country

Australians are an open and sociable people. No wonder they celebrate the Day of Harmony, which involves the rejection of racism.Foreign tourists arouse curiosity among Australians, they are interested in foreign culture, because the entire population of the state is multinational. I eat no less. The tourist will not be bombarded with questions or harassed by offering services – Australians are not intrusive or annoying. In a conversation, they love to joke, they often use a sharp word and kindly motivate the interlocutor, thereby enlivening the conversation. Of course, in the business arena, ethical rules are paramount.

Every Australian fights for his individuality, therefore even a certain eccentricity of a person is a positive personality trait.If you try to be different from everyone else, it deserves respect and praise.

Australians don’t say “I’m Australian”, they call themselves “Ozzy.” Ozzy is pretty critical of conceit. As soon as the interlocutor starts to “turn up his nose” and put himself above others, he is immediately condemned. Self-esteem in Ozzie culture is extremely bad taste.

Chatting with strangers is common in Australia. There are rarely queues in shops and service companies, but if they do form, then a conversation will surely be struck up between the “waiting” ones.

The Australians greet each other with the phrase “where”, it was formed from the English wish for a good day “good day” – so as not to burden themselves in conversation, the Australians decided to shorten this phrase so that the dialogue was built as simple as possible.

There is a rather interesting trend in the Ozzy culture. It is not customary to lie, cheat and cheat here. Of course, the country does not do without crime, but in general, the overwhelming part of the population is simple and open people. The most honest way to make a big fortune is to win the lottery.Ozzy is calm about money, they do not boast of their fortune. As a rule, on the street it is difficult to distinguish a rich person from a poor person; most wear comfortable and comfortable clothes, since the country’s climate is quite hot.

Australian Code of Conduct

Australians may appear to foreigners to be unceremonious in their communication. Nicknames, humorous insults, and immodest questions are accepted here. Australians love to laugh at themselves, but if a foreigner starts to make fun of and criticize them for the sake of enthusiasm, then this can be perceived with hostility.It is also not customary here to refer to each other as “mister” or “miss”, only names and nicknames are accepted here. If you don’t know how to contact, go up and ask a name, and then clarify your question.

The local people are extremely practical, therefore what is appreciated here is that you are able to convey information concisely and specifically. Even in stores, price tags indicate a brief description of equipment and other goods.

Australians who live in the countryside, first of all, praise their courtyard, pond, pool, manicured lawns.If you are visiting or renting a room in a country house, prepare to listen carefully to all the information about every nook and cranny of the yard. Be kind and compliment the Australian’s efforts, otherwise you may be offended.

Men must open the door for the ladies, and the owner of a cafe or bar can make guests feel welcome by opening the door to the establishment. All these expressions of courtesy are done with pleasure, with a smile. If you find yourself in a situation, go in first or open the door for someone, then remember about the ethical tradition, otherwise Australians will think that you are badly brought up.

Australians love to chat, and if a queue suddenly forms, which is extremely rare, then there will certainly appear “spontaneous” dialogues between those waiting. Tourists should not be surprised if they suddenly start talking to them – this is a common occurrence. Since Australia is a multicultural country, the locals show an interest in foreign culture, which is why they are so sociable.

Contacts between people are physically limited. Those. holding hands, hugging, or sitting very close is not accepted.Even if you are on good terms with an Australian, you shouldn’t give him another slap on the shoulder.

Entertainment in Australia

An entertainment in Australia, first of all, can be called a beach vacation. There are more than 10,000 of the cleanest sandy beaches here. Australia as a whole is loved for the fact that there is where to relax without drowning in the flow of tourists that are located on the entire beach area.

One of the most popular beaches is Bondi Beach. This beach has the most developed infrastructure, there are shops, cafes and restaurants.On weekends, there is a market where you can buy souvenirs and various goodies.

If tourists are attracted to picturesque places, then you should go to Cable Beach, this is one of the most beautiful beaches with thriving vegetation. The Australians themselves come here to admire the stunning views of sunrises and sunsets.

For those who wish to feel away from civilization on vacation, enjoy solitude, tranquility – the Carramoin beach is ideal. There are always few tourists here, and the space allows you to find the most secluded place, where there will be no one nearby.

Serfes Paradise Beach is an elite holiday destination. Some of the most expensive hotels and apartments are located here.

In addition to lazy recreation in Australia, you can practice active water sports. Yachting, surfing, water skiing, diving – these sports can be enjoyed on Magnetic Island.

Time difference

The time difference often plays a big role in the choice of a resort. Since the change of time zones undoubtedly affects the human body, many tourists try to choose a recreation area where the difference was felt softly, and the adaptation process was quick.One or two hours are practically not felt, and four or 6 hours already make a significant difference. The usual regime gets lost, and travelers have to spend more time adapting to a new place. The planned rest may suffer from this. According to the plan, tourists will plan entertainment tours, excursions, but in practice they will spend a day or two to get enough sleep and enter a new regime.

Time difference Australia (Sydney) – Moscow is -7 hours
Time difference Australia (Sydney) – Novosibirsk is -4 hours
Time difference Australia (Sydney) – Vladivostok is 0 hours
Time difference Australia (Sydney) – Samara is -7 hours
Time difference Australia (Sydney) – Yekaterinburg is -5 hours

Flight time to Australia

Are you planning a vacation in Australia? Get ready for a long journey to the land of kangaroos and lemurs.There are no direct flights from Moscow to Australia, therefore, to get to your destination, you will have to make a number of transfers in European and Asian countries. So how long to fly to Australia – an average of 18 – 24 hours. This trip will not be easy for those who do not like to fly for so long. But this also has its advantages – you can increase the impressions of your trip due to the fact that during transfers, you can visit many cities of the world.

Such a trip, of course, will not be cheap, but if you go on vacation with the help of a tour operator, then experts will be able to calculate all your monetary costs for the trip.

Australia is well worth the distance. Only here you can see Australian kangaroos and emu in their natural environment. The blue mountains, the Great Barrier Reef, which is the largest concentration of coral in the world, will surprise you with its landscapes. In addition, tourists can visit the Aboriginal tribe and get to know their culture and customs.

It’s no secret that Australia is one of the craziest places on Earth. But what else can we expect from a continent that was once inhabited by exiled prisoners, and until the moment of its discovery, it remained completely isolated from the rest of the world for 40 million years!

If you need more proof, here are some unique photos that fully prove Australia’s great madness.

Huge crocodile

Take a look at this monster, which was caught and captured on film in salt water. According to experts, its length reached five and a half meters. Of course, not all crocodiles on the continent reach this size, but believe me, they are all really huge. And if dinosaurs became extinct long ago, humanity still has the opportunity to witness unimaginable monsters with their own eyes.

Terrible prey

Moreover, crocodiles are not afraid to leave the reservoir, feeling quite comfortable on land.In the water, predators prefer to hunt, and on land they seek to explore nearby territories, demonstrating their inquisitive mind. However, outside of their native element, crocodiles often encounter people, who, in turn, will not fail to boast of their prey in front of others. Would you feel safe knowing that a terrible predator is walking around the neighborhood?

The detachment of flying foxes

But the Australian land is remarkable not only for crocodiles. The continent is home to a sufficient number of unique animals, including flying foxes.True, purely theoretically, this animal belongs to the class of bats, but in fact it has dimensions that are decent for their usual counterparts. So, the wingspan of this outlandish creature reaches three pounds. Despite the fact that animals prefer to settle in desert areas, sometimes they can fill the daytime sky somewhere over Sydney with their flock. This sight can scare any city dweller or tourist.

A snake swallows a bat

And now let’s turn our attention to snakes that make their way into the city limits and can go hunting somewhere in the park.Today the bat has become the prey of the snake. Who knows, maybe tomorrow the same fate will befall a small pet walking alone. This photo acts as a warning to the owners of cats and dogs that pets in the area need to be monitored.

A snake has come to visit

If people are careful and try to avoid contact with snakes, this does not mean that the meeting can be avoided. The snake itself can unexpectedly “come to visit”.This photo of a 6-meter python was taken as it fell through an open hatch on the roof of a thrift store in Queensland.

They are everywhere

We continue to study the craziest photos sent from the Green Continent. And again we will talk about snakes. If you think that on board an airplane you will find yourself out of reach, you are deeply mistaken. This python was found on the wing of an aircraft cruising from Australia to Papua New Guinea in January 2013.After an hour-long flight, the crew and passengers were surprised that the python was able to survive in such conditions. And if for someone this story may seem charming, someone will find it terrible for themselves. Indeed, you will never know what else these snakes are capable of.

What is hidden by the oncoming wave?

Adventure tourism often includes water adventures. Surf lovers from all over the world have chosen the coastlines of Australia. However, we advise them once again not to think about what the oncoming wave is fraught with.This photo clearly shows how the surfer’s path is about to intersect with the path of a great white shark. Yes, ignorance is sometimes sheer bliss.

Giant jellyfish

Australian waters are home to not only sharks and crocodiles, but also giant jellyfish. And if earlier this species was not particularly studied, now scientists have a good chance to fill the gap.

Stonefish

Continuing the list of unusual marine life. Next in line is the stonefish, one of the most dangerous sea creatures on the Australian coast.Perhaps the most dastardly aspect of a predator hunting strategy is masterful disguise. The camouflage of this fish gives it the ability to fit into any underwater reefs, giving an undeniable advantage in the fight with prey. And for people, a meeting with such a fish can end with a trip to the hospital. One careless movement, and a prickly thorn will claw into the leg.

Blue-ringed octopuses

But observing this marine life is a real aesthetic pleasure. True, if you do not know about their ability to attack people from hiding.These beautiful creatures hide in tiny crevices in the coastal waters and are responsible for at least 20 known deaths, including children. The most terrible fact for people is the realization that an antidote for the bite of a blue-ringed octopus has not yet been invented, and death after an attack occurs in about 2 hours.

Fire Tornado

If you think dangerous predators are the continent’s biggest misfortune, you are deeply mistaken. There are no less dangerous natural phenomena.That is why tourists are advised to closely monitor the weather before heading to the Australian coast. Tornadoes are pretty scary. And fires caused by the elements are not uncommon on the continent. This is a classic example – the Australian fire tornado.

Miss Australia’s silly outfit

Now let’s look at the “madness” of the Australians themselves. Miss Australia, participating in an international beauty pageant, presented an unusual national costume to the public.This glamorous competition option was approved by a whole group of people. Of course, the idea was good: to pay tribute to the female ground forces that took part in World War II. Can you imagine such a fighter?

National costume, which does not exist

Climb one step higher and demonstrate an even crazier outfit. And again, an Australian beauty appears in our eyes at a competition of a universal scale. And again we see the “national costume”.However, if you want to know about the history of this dress, you will hardly be able to find anything. One can only guess what kind of idea the contestant was trying to convey to the public with her appearance.

Australian stereotypes

If you are not yet familiar with what labels are put on Australians all over the world, in the following photo they are all brought together. We can only hope that the poor dog came out of the “meeting” with the real Australian safe and sound.

15 minutes of fame

Anyone who spent time on the Internet at the dawn of the new millennium must know this teenager.16-year-old Australian named Corey got his 15 minutes of fame. And for this, during the absence of his parents in the house, he threw a party, the guests of which were more than 5,000 people. The noisy event forced the neighbors to call the police, but the teenagers threw bottles and stones at law enforcement officers. The total damage from the pogrom, which spread to neighboring houses, according to some estimates, is estimated at $ 20,000.

Vehicle

So we got to the overall picture of Australian madness.Do you also think that ordinary Australians ride kangaroos past the Sydney Opera House?

90,000 Irish – Vicky

Irish , people of Ireland (Irish Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil / Gaeilgi) – Celtic people, the indigenous population of Ireland (3.6 million people), live in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland … They also live in Great Britain (1.8 million people), the USA (about 33 million people) [1] , Canada (4.3 million people), Australia (1.9 million people) and other countries.

The national language is Irish, but most of the population, except for a few isolated areas in the west of the country (Galtakht), uses English as the main language.

History

Beginning of settlement on the island

Research by historians claim that the first people settled on the island of Ireland about 9000 years ago. The earliest settlers are practically unknown. They left behind several unique megalithic structures. The longest pre-Indo-European population was held in the south-west of the island.The Irish name of the province of Munster – Muma is not explained from the Celtic language and it is believed that the ethnonym of the early inhabitants of the island is preserved in it.

Ancient authors did not leave detailed information about the Emerald Isle. It is only clear that by the beginning of AD. e. the island was completely inhabited by the Celts. Irish medieval literature, on the other hand, contains a huge amount of mythical and legendary information about various waves of migrants: Fomorians, Fir Bolgs, Danu tribes, etc. According to mythology, the last wave of newcomers, the Milesians, arrived under the leadership of Mile from the Iberian Peninsula.This is indirectly confirmed by modern genographic projects, indeed the Irish and Basques have the largest number of representatives of the R1b haplogroup.

Early history

In the initial period of history, the entire territory of Ireland was divided into independent Tuats, areas inhabited by one tribe. Tuat roughly corresponds to the modern barony (in Ireland there is such an unofficial administrative division, the barony is a part of the county that unites several parishes.Typically, each county includes 10-15 baronies). The leaders of the clans were connected with each other by a complex system of vassal relationships. In the early Middle Ages, the Tuats of Ireland were united in five fives, led by the high king “ard-riag”: Lagin (modern Leinster with the royal dynasty McMurrow / Murphy), Muman (modern Munster with the royal dynasty of O’Brien), Ulad (modern. Ulster with the O’Neil royal dynasty), Meade (modern Counties of Meath and Westmeath with adjacent territories, the MacLaughlin royal dynasty) and Connaught (the O’Connor royal dynasty).

In the IV-V centuries A.D. e. the ancestors of the Irish undertook active pirate raids. Wales suffered greatly from them. During the expansion of the Irish kingdom of Dal Riada, the Picts and Stratclyde Britons were conquered, which marked the beginning of the migration of the Irish Scottish tribe to Scotland and became the starting point for the formation of the Scottish nation. As a result of one of the pirate raids, Saint Patrick came to Ireland.

During the 5th century, Ireland adopted Christianity. This process proceeded quite peacefully, apparently due to the fact that the priestly class of the Druids, after numerous defeats of the Celts from the Romans on the continent and in Britain, had largely lost their authority.As a result of this non-violent process of adoption of Christianity, Ireland turned out to be one of the few cultures where the pagan heritage was not rejected, but carefully collected in Christian monasteries. It is thanks to this that the ancient myths and sagas of the Celts have come down to us. Ireland itself for several centuries turned into a center of learning.

The golden age in the cultural and economic life of Ireland was interrupted by massive Viking invasions in the 9th-11th centuries. The Vikings took over the coastal cities.Viking rule was overthrown after the Battle of Clontarf in 1014. This victory was achieved by High King Brian Boru, the ancestor of the O’Briens, who fell in this momentous battle. In 1169, the second massive Norman (Vikings) invasion of Ireland began. Earl Richard Strongbow’s expedition, at the request of King Leinster Dermott McMurrow, exiled by High King Rory O’Connor, landed near Wexford. Over the next few centuries, the Normans became more Irish than the Irish themselves.The Normans fully assimilated the Irish culture and merged with the native population of the island.

Although formally Ireland has been part of the Kingdom of England since the time of Henry II, the active colonization of Irish lands began after the conquest of Ireland by Oliver Cromwell in 1649. In the course of English colonization, the English landlords (who usually did not even live in Ireland) became the owners of almost all the land on the island, and the Irish Catholics became disenfranchised tenants.The Irish language was persecuted and the Celtic culture was destroyed. The rich cultural heritage of the people was preserved mainly by wandering bard poets.

The Great Famine

The Great Famine was of decisive importance in the historical fate of the Irish people. A poor crop of potatoes, which became the staple food of the poor Irish, led to the death of about 1 million people. People were dying of hunger, and from the estates belonging to the British, they continued to export food: meat, grain, dairy products.

Masses of Irish poor people rushed to the United States and the overseas colonies of Great Britain. One immigrant, at the very least settled in a new place, pulled the whole family with him. Since the Great Famine, the population of Ireland has been steadily declining, this process going on with varying intensity until the 70s of the 20th century. The most affected by famine were the Gaelic-speaking areas inhabited by the Irish poor. As a result of increased mortality and mass emigration of the Irish, the scope of the Gaelic language has significantly narrowed, a large number of active native speakers have moved overseas.

At the same time, a large Irish diaspora developed on the east coast of the United States. For example, there are more descendants of Irish immigrants in New York than there are Irish people in Ireland proper.

Current state

In the 20th century, the territory of the original residence of the Irish ethnic group was politically divided, most of the island became part of the Irish Republic, and part of Ulster (with the exception of the counties of Donegal, Fermanach and Monaghan) was left in the United Kingdom.In this part of Ulster, English colonization was carried out differently, with land allotments distributed to small farmers of English and Scottish descent, which led to the fact that the percentage of Protestant colonists outnumbered Irish Catholics. The Irish of Ulster waged a long struggle for liberation against the British government, not avoiding terrorist tactics. The intensity of the confrontation in Ulster began to subside only towards the end of the 20th century.

Irish culture has a significant impact on popular culture around the world.This, in particular, is facilitated by American cinema, which eagerly touches on topics one way or another related to Ireland. In many countries, St. Patrick’s Day is celebrated, the fantasy genre has absorbed many layers of Irish mythology, the dance and musical culture of the Irish is widely known. Among people who are seriously interested in Irish culture, even the term celtomania has appeared.

As for the Irish language, only about 20% of the inhabitants of Ireland are fluent in it. English speech dominates.Irish is native to only a small minority of the Galtakht (Gaelic-speaking areas on the western outskirts of the country). Most of the speakers of the Irish language are city dwellers who deliberately mastered it in adulthood. The Galtakhts do not represent a single array, and each of them uses dialects that are very different from each other. About 40% of Gaelic Irish mothers live in County Galway, 25% in County Donegal, 15% in County Mayo, 10% in County Carrie.

There is a standardized literary language called “Kaidon”. His vocabulary is mainly based on the Connaught dialects. However, the Kaidon has one interesting feature: the language does not have a standard form of pronunciation. Therefore, native speakers of the literary language can have Mansteer, Connaught or Ulster pronunciation, depending on the basis on which the pronunciation of a particular native speaker is set, the same written text is pronounced differently.

The Catholic faith is fundamental to the Irish.For a long time, belonging to the Catholic Church was, as it were, a form of passive resistance to the English invaders. Therefore, even today, an Irish who professes a different denomination seems exotic.

During the second half of the 20th century, the Irish had the highest natural increase among the aboriginal nations of Western Europe, which was largely offset by unabated emigration.

Culture

National dances

Traditional Irish dances, formed in the 18th-20th centuries, include solo dances, Irish keili, Seth dances (social dances), Shangnos.All types of Irish dances are performed exclusively to traditional Irish dance tunes: reels, jigs and hornpipes.

National costume

Irish folk costume – orange knee-length kilt, long jacket, collarless shirt and beret. The costume is practically lost. Only musicians wear it.

Kitchen

Irish surnames

The Irish family system is complex and contains traces of turbulent historical events. The vast majority of Irish people carry ancient generic names as surnames, which come from the names of the Gaelic clans.This explains the fact that tens and even hundreds of thousands of people are united under one surname, the descendants of a clan that in the early stages of history inhabited a separate tribal territory – Tuat.

Traditionally, surnames starting with “O” and “Poppy” are considered Irish. “O ‘” comes from Gaelic Ó “grandson, descendant”, and Mac translates as “son”. In English, Gaelic prefixes are often omitted. For example, such common surnames as Murphy, Ryan, Gallagher practically do not occur in the O’Murphy, O’Ryan or O’Gallagher forms.On the other hand, royal surnames are almost always used in their original, full form: O’Brien, O’Connor, O’Neil. Other, less noble surnames exist simultaneously in different records: O’Sullivan – Sullivan, O’Reilly – Reilly, O’Farrell – Farrell. Loss of the Mac prefix is ​​much less common. This type of surname does not belong exclusively to the Irish and is also characteristic of the Highlanders of Scotland. Mac surnames are dominant in Ulster and more modestly represented in Munster (although the most common Irish surname for Mac is McCarthy from Cork and Kerry).Accordingly, there are more surnames on O ‘in the southwestern part of the island.

A huge number of clans formed around the descendants of the Norman conquerors: Butlers, Burkeys, Powers, Fitzgeralds, etc. The patronymic prefix Fitz is considered a sign of Norman surnames, but FitzPatrick, the ancient kings of Ossori, are Celts, whose original name was McGill. There were also reverse cases, when Norman families took purely Celtic names. An example of this is the genus Costello (Mac Oisdealbhaigh) (from the Gaelic os – “young deer”, “fawn” and dealbha – “sculpture”).This is how the Norman name Jocelyn de Angulo was reinterpreted. The Normans, who originally spoke Old French, brought to Ireland very French-looking surnames: Lacy, Devereux, Laffan (from French l’enfant “child”). Since the first Norman conquerors came to Ireland from Wales, the most common surname of Norman origin is Walsh (Welsh).

In the early Middle Ages, all of Ireland’s seaside urban centers were ruled by the Vikings. Many Irish clans carry the blood of northerners: McSweeney (son of Sven), McAuliffe (son of Olaf), Doyle (descendant of a Dane), O’Higgins (descendant of a Viking).

Irish Diaspora

Clash of Irish Catholics with Irish Protestants in New York in 1871

Today, 70 to 80 million people of Irish origin live in the world. Most of the descendants of immigrants from Ireland live in English-speaking countries: USA, Australia, Great Britain. The Irish took a somewhat smaller part in the formation of the population of Canada and New Zealand.

In the United States and Australia, the Irish are the second most important ethnic component, in the United States after German immigrants, in Australia after the British.The ancestors of American President John Fitzgerald Kennedy are from County Waterford, and Australian “Robin Hood” – Ned Kelly – the son of an immigrant from County Tipperary. The famous American industrialist and inventor Henry Ford was also born into a family of immigrants from Ireland.

Less well known are the contributions of the Irish to the history of France, Spain, Portugal and Latin America. Unlike the USA and Australia, it was not the poor Irish poor who moved here, but representatives of the Celtic clan nobility. In France – General Patrice McMahon, the personal physician of Napoleon-O’Mira (Hennessy family).In Spain – the Dukes of Tetuan – O’Donnells, in Portugal – the Viscounts of Santa Monica – O’Neila. The famous Che Guevara from his father’s grandmother – from the Irish Lynch family, the President of Mexico Alvaro Obregon – from the root of the Munster O’Briens. Well known: Mexican artist Juan O’Gorman, associate of Bolivar – Daniel O’Leary in Venezuela, President of Chile – Bernardo O’Higgins.

The Irish have also left their mark on the history of Russia. For several generations the counts of Brefne – O’Rourkes, among whom were several military leaders, have faithfully served the Russian throne.The most famous of them is Cornelius O’Rourke. Irishman Peter Lassi has been in the Russian service since 1700. In 1708 he commanded the Siberian infantry regiment, distinguished himself in the Battle of Poltava, member of the military collegium, Riga governor general, field marshal general of the Russian army (1736). The mother of the famous poet Vyazemsky was Irish from the O’Reilly family. Irish composer John Field, the founder of the nocturne, spent most of his life in Russia.

Notes

Literature

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English Holidays

All nationalities have their own national holidays, traditions and customs inherent only in their culture. Residents of each country love festive events, prepare for them, wait impatiently, celebrate with pleasure and part with regret until next year.English holidays are an integral part of the culture of the English-speaking world, a way of expressing themselves, a source of habits and behavior. Often, in order to understand the soul and character of the inhabitants of a particular country, it is necessary to get acquainted with their customs and traditions. Let’s take a look at the most famous holidays celebrated by residents of English-speaking countries.

Holidays in England

New Year, January 1st. The main custom of this winter holiday, which the British invariably revered, is the tradition of the first guest.If a dark-haired man comes into the house after midnight, then the next year will be successful for this family. The guest should bring a coal with him and, without saying a word, throw it into the fireplace, and only after that congratulate the hosts. This custom means that peace and prosperity will reign in the house.

Valentine’s Day, February 14th. One of the favorite holidays of the British, which is celebrated on a grand scale. Secret giving of gifts, making pairs by drawing lots, exchanging sweets and soft toys – this Valentine’s Day is full of surprises.And, of course, many different hearts.

Mother’s Day, March 22. Analogue of our March 8th. This holiday has its roots in the Victorian era, when children from an early age had to earn money through hard work, being far from home. And only one day a year they could spend with their family. Now it is a holiday in England, when children give mothers flowers and touching gifts.

Walpurgis Night, April 30. Witches Sabbat or Fertility Festival.According to the legend, at this time, all the witches gather together and the gates to the land of the elves open. The streets of England are filled with witches of all ages – not real, of course, but townspeople in carnival costumes. Also, this holiday commemorates the imminent arrival of summer.

Chimney Sweep Festival, 1st May. The British believe that meeting a chimney sweep is a very good sign that brings good luck and happiness. Therefore, they are very often invited to weddings. This tradition originated long ago, even from the time when the hard work of chimney sweeps was revered – they were respected at all times and considered noble people.

Street Entertainment Festival, 12 August. This holiday lasts for several days, the streets of cities are filled with noisy crowds. Carnivals, parades, concerts, theatrical performances, festivities, colorful fairs, contests and attractions – on this day, few people stay at home, everyone succumbs to the general noisy and cheerful mood.

Halloween, October 31st. Every year on this day the streets of England turn into a real fairy tale with witches in hats, devils with pitchforks, sinister pumpkins, and other “pretty” characters.Children in the outfits of fairy-tale heroes go home with baskets, and according to tradition, they should be treated to sweets, otherwise there will be no luck.

Christmas Day, December 25th. A favorite holiday not only for English children, but also for the older generation. By tradition, all the inhabitants of England hang stockings or socks on the fireplace so that Santa Claus can put gifts in them. If you believe the legend, once upon a time, Santa through a chimney accidentally dropped a gold coin into his sock, and since then there has been a custom to hang a stocking on the fireplace on Christmas Eve – what if something falls there?

Holidays Scotland

New Year, January 1st. In Scotland, this holiday is called Hogmanay, and is celebrated on a larger scale than Christmas. Here, just like in England, there is a tradition of the first guest to bring with him a cookie, whiskey or fruit cake. After midnight, the owners open wide the doors of their houses – to spend the old year, and processions with torches are arranged on the streets to expel evil spirits with fire.

Robert Burns Night, January 25. A very revered holiday in Scotland in honor of a popular and famous poet, whom the Scots are very proud of and honor his memory every year.This event is celebrated according to a certain scenario, in national costumes, with scenes, poetry readings, songs, dances and a gala dinner.

Whiskey Festival, May 3. There are no definite origins for this holiday, on this day the Scots just gather to have fun. Noble alcohol flows like a river, and contests with prizes are organized, which are rare sorts of whiskey.

Independence Day, June 24. As the story goes, on this day in 1324, Robert the Bruce (King of Scotland) defeated the English king, restoring his country’s independence.Today this holiday is celebrated “on a grand scale” – with festivities, concerts, festivals, national songs and dances.

Bagpipe Championship, 14 August. This event takes place annually in Green Park (Glasgow city) throughout the day. An indispensable condition: each participant must wear a national Scottish costume with a mandatory kilt skirt.

Andreev’s Day, November 30. Day of the patron saint of Scotland, St. Andrew, the country’s official holiday.It is celebrated very widely: with performances, fairs, music and dancing. Only traditional food is on the tables on this day.

Holidays Ireland

New Year, January 1st. The oldest holiday in Ireland, celebrated mainly in the family circle at the festive table. On New Year’s Eve, the Irish traditionally open their doors for good luck, prepare national dishes (pudding and caraway seed pie), and wait for any guests who, according to tradition, should bring bread and salt to the hosts.Salutes and fireworks in Ireland, alas, do not exist, since they are prohibited by law.

St. Patrick’s Day. March 17. Saint Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland, therefore this holiday is considered very important among the Irish. Only in this country is it celebrated on a grand scale and commemorates the arrival of spring. On this day, residents put on red wigs and green suits, and, not forgetting to grab pots of clover (the symbol of Ireland), rush to the parade, where dancing, music and fireworks await them.

Harvest Festival, August 1st. In Ireland, the imminent arrival of autumn is celebrated with the holiday of Lugnasad, which means “the wedding of the Meadow”. Its essence is gratitude to the gods for a good harvest. On this day, the Irish eat a loaf of grain from the new crop, light bonfires on the hills, bake traditional blueberry pies and make straw dolls.

Christmas Day, December 25th. Considered the most important holiday in Ireland. Children decorate the Christmas tree, hang red socks on the fireplace, leave pies for Santa’s reindeer, adults stuff turkey and make dried fruit pudding, hang bells and holly wreaths on the door.Artists of different genres perform on the streets, choirs sing Christmas songs and trade fairs are held.

St. Stephen’s Day, December 26. A holiday celebrated only in Ireland. On this day, all Irish boys dress up as chimney sweeps, smear soot on their faces, sing hymns and collect money, which then goes to charity. Races are also held on this day, since St. Stephen is the patron saint of horses.

Australian Holidays

New Year, January 1st. New Year comes to Australia before everyone else. This holiday is celebrated violently with music shows and magnificent fireworks. After the clock has struck midnight, all festivities are traditionally interrupted by the ringing of bells and the hum of car horns, after which Australians continue to celebrate at picnics, rodeos, beach parties, costume carnivals, etc.

Australia Day, 26 January. The most favorite holiday of the inhabitants of this country. Parades and regattas are held throughout Australia, and beautiful fireworks take off in all regions.Music festivals, cricket matches, presentation of the honorary award “Australian of the Year” – the local population celebrates this holiday on a grand scale. Houses are decorated with flags and balloons, and all Australians give each other gifts.

Royal Regatta, 9 February. This holiday lasts three days, a huge crowd of spectators gathers to watch it. The regatta includes jet skiing, rowing, boat races, sailing and a colorful event in which the most beautiful girl receives the title of “Miss Regatta”.There are also exciting shows – swimming competitions and performances by sky diving professionals.

Mardi Gras Festival, February 24. Carnival parade of gay people. It is the largest festival in the world with an almost iconic flavor. Every year, the event attracts crowds of spectators to watch dancers in erotic costumes, exotic cabaret, theatrical performances and music shows. Celebrities from all over the world visit this festival every year.

Harmony Day, March 21. In Australia, this is not so much a celebration as a social event. On this day, every Australian attaches an orange ribbon to their clothes, thereby protesting against racism and racial discrimination. Schoolchildren wear an orange badge and sticker depicting happy people of different races, and students paint flyers and distribute to passers-by – this is how Australians say no to racism.

Father’s Day, September 6. The essence of the holiday is to emphasize the important role a father plays in raising his child.In Australia, this day is celebrated with great joy, children enthusiastically draw postcards for their dads, uncles and grandfathers, make crafts with their own hands, and give the most popular gift – a tie. Father’s Day is a home holiday, where the whole family gathers and arranges exciting intellectual games.

Christmas Day, December 25th. This holiday is held in Australia in a very colorful and original way. Sellers, drivers and ordinary employees put on hats with reindeer horns, and Santa Claus walks around shopping centers and takes pictures with children.On the night of Christmas, life on the streets of cities freezes – everyone gathers at the festive table. The traditional dishes of the holiday are turkey, fruit salad and seafood.

Boxing Day, December 26. The day when all the inhabitants of Australia traditionally exchange gifts. What’s interesting: if the present is not pleasant, then the donor can exchange it in the store for something else. A gift is given without fail in a box so that it can be unpacked for a long time – for intrigue. This is the whole essence of this Australian holiday.

Holidays USA and Canada

New Year, January 1st. In Canada and in many US states, it is customary to celebrate the New Year in fancy dress and masks, which are removed at midnight. In other states, people just gather with the whole family at a festive table with traditional New Year’s dishes. Also, a large number of people specially come to New York to watch a grand festive concert with fireworks in Times Square.

Groundhog Day, February 2. A very favorite annual holiday of Americans. They believe that the marmot knows how to predict the approach of spring, you just need to observe its behavior. According to legend, if a marmot calmly crawls out of its hole, then winter will soon end. If he looks out and hides again, then the cold will last at least another month. Very often Groundhog Day is celebrated with festivals, which attract many tourists.

Valentine’s Day, February 14th. A traditional holiday in the USA and Canada, accompanied by valentine hearts and chocolates.Recently, on Valentine’s Day in these countries, it is customary to give modern gadgets and other practical and useful things. It is on February 14 that the largest number of wedding ceremonies falls.

Grandparents Day, 5 September. This holiday was invented by a housewife from West Virginia. But the Americans liked the idea so much that it was decided to make the holiday nationwide. On this day, the whole family comes to their old people with flowers and gifts to play old-fashioned games and revise yellowed photographs, and grandparents treat their children and grandchildren with sweet pies.

Halloween, October 31st. The most popular holiday in the USA and Canada, which is also called All Saints’ Day. It’s almost a fabulous sight when kids dressed in “scary” costumes knock on the doors of houses with the words “Trick or Treat!” in the hope of making sweets. Residential buildings are decorated with pumpkins with “burning eyes”, figurines of black cats, witch dolls, and other mystical creatures and symbols.

Thanksgiving, November 26. Also a very popular holiday among Americans.Many traditions are associated with it, which residents sacredly revered – they always go to church services and gather with the whole family at the festive table. On this day, charity flourishes – gifts are distributed to the homeless and the needy. The most important attribute of the holiday is the stuffed turkey.

Christmas Day, December 25th. For this holiday in the USA and Canada they are preparing in advance – they buy gifts and Christmas tree decorations, decorate houses with tinsel and garlands. All states are full of festive illuminations and colorful lanterns, and the president himself lights the main Christmas tree in America.Children disguised as angels go around the surrounding houses and sing Christmas carols, for which they traditionally receive sweets and sweets.

90,000 Irish, People of Ireland – Celtic people, indigenous to Ireland, residing in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. They also live in Great Britain, school

4.1. Irish names Irish surnames

The Irish family system is complex and contains traces of turbulent historical events.The vast majority of Irish people carry ancient generic names as surnames, which come from the names of the Gaelic clans. This explains the fact that tens and even hundreds of thousands of people are united under one surname, the descendants of a clan that in the early stages of history inhabited a separate tribal territory – Tuat.

Traditionally, surnames beginning with “O” and “Poppy” are considered Irish. “O” comes from the Gaelic O “grandson, descendant”, and Mac translates as “son”. In English, Gaelic prefixes are often omitted.For example, such common surnames as Murphy, Ryan, Gallagher, Kenny practically do not occur in the forms of O’Murphy, O’Ryan, O’Gallagher or O’Kenny. On the contrary, surnames of royal dignity are almost always used in their original, full form: O’Brien, O’Connor, O’Neil. Other, less noble surnames exist simultaneously in different records: O’Sullivan – Sullivan, O’Reilly – Reilly, O’Farrell – Farrell. Loss of the Mac prefix is ​​much less common. This type of surname does not belong exclusively to the Irish and is also characteristic of the Highlanders of Scotland.Mac surnames dominate Ulster and are more modestly represented in Munster, although the most common Irish surname on McCarthy is from Cork and Kerry. Accordingly, there are more surnames on O in the southwestern part of the island.

A huge number of clans formed around the descendants of the Norman conquerors: Butlers, Burkes, Powers, Fitzgeralds, etc. The patronymic prefix Fitz comes from fr. fils de is the son of someone and is considered a sign of Norman surnames, but the Fitzpatrick, the ancient kings of Ossori, are Celts, whose original name is McGilpatrick.There were also reverse cases, when Norman families took purely Celtic names. An example of this is the Costello family. This is how the Norman name Jocelyn de Angulo was reinterpreted, Jocelyn de Angulo. The Normans, who originally spoke Old French, brought to Ireland very French-looking surnames: Lassie Lacy, Devereux Devereux, Laffan Laffan, from fr. l’enfant “child”. Since the first Norman conquerors came to Ireland from the territory of Wales, the most common surname of Norman origin Walsh is English.Welshman.

In the early Middle Ages, all of Ireland’s seaside urban centers were ruled by the Vikings. Many Irish clans carry the blood of northerners: McSweeney or Sweeney is the son of Sven, McAuliffe is the son of Olaf, Doyle is a descendant of a Dane, the O’Higgins is a descendant of a Viking.

90,000 How it is celebrated in the UK, USA, Canada, New Zealand and Australia: costumes, paraphernalia, rituals:

Halloween ?! Save yourself who can!

In the last two weeks of October, unusual preparations are underway in many countries of the world: pumpkins are bought (the larger the better), skulls and skeletons (fortunately, made of plastic) are removed from the attic, costumes are sewn and other attributes of the holiday are made.A holiday? Of course, someone will look condescendingly, but for millions of people in the English-speaking world (Great Britain, Ireland, USA, Australia, New Zealand, Canada) October 31st is Halloween ( Halloween ), the eve of All Saints’ Day.

The process of globalization has expanded the boundaries of the holiday, and now it is also celebrated almost all over the world:

in Singapore, Japan, South Korea, Mexico and most European countries.

But back to the holiday itself. On the streets of cities and in small villages, small ghosts ( little ghosts ) and goblins ( goblins ) appear, in small groups they follow from house to house, from an entrance to an entrance.There is a call or a knock on the door, and you hear the familiar “ Trick-or-treat “. An ultimatum is put in front of you: sweets or some harmless joke or trick on their part. Of course, more often than not, “goblins” and “ghosts” get a treat. The very tradition of costumed processions for the sake of receiving sweets goes back to the Middle Ages. Think of Christmas parades with chants. But the very phrase “ Trick-or-treat ” appeared in the United States in the mid-30s of the twentieth century.

The night on the eve of All Saints Day is a night of bonfires, haunted houses, scary stories, films, horror ghosts.The picture would not be complete without a pumpkin lamp with eyes, nose and mouth cut into it ( Jack-o’-lantern ). In short, save yourself who can! ( Run for your lives! ) Halloween is coming! ( Halloween is coming! )

And what is behind the outside of the holiday? Surely it’s not just ghost costumes and sweets? Of course not. This holiday has a very interesting history. We will talk about it now.

Vocabulary

Word / phrase Transfer / Value
Halloween Halloween
Little ghosts Little Ghosts
Goblins Goblins
“Trick-or-treat” “Trick or Treat”
Jack-o’-lantern Pumpkin lamp with slit eyes and mouth
Run for your lives! Save yourself, who can!
Halloween is coming! Halloween is coming!

Samhain

Halloween (another name “All Hallows ‘Eve” or “All Saints’ Evening”), according to historians, appeared along with the Celtic pagan holiday Samhain ( Samhain ).In ancient sources, the first mentions of it date back to the 10th century. In Old Irish, the word “Samhain” means “the end of summer.” Celebrations among the Celts began shortly before the beginning of November, so later the Irish began to call November by the word “Samhain”. The Samhain holiday was popular not only among the Celts, but also among other peoples inhabiting the British Isles in those ancient times. In Scotland it was called Oidhche Samhna , in Ireland – Oiche Samhna . By the way, even now in certain regions of Ireland and Scotland you can hear these ancient names, here on the night of October 31 they tell stories about long-dead relatives, carry out ritual actions to calm the souls of people who have left this world.

Initially, the holiday was purely seasonal in nature and meant the completion of agricultural work and harvesting. According to the few surviving sources, the dead were remembered on the same days. It was believed that on Samhain the souls of the dead passed on to the other world.

With the development of Christianity and, in particular, Catholicism, Samhain is replaced by All Saints Day. At this time, Celtic traditions are intertwined with Catholic rites, and as a result of this process, Samhain is gradually replaced by Halloween.

According to anthropologists and historians, Samhain made it possible in a playful and safe way to approach the concept of death, the afterlife. Although scholars do not have sufficient information to confirm that one holiday passed into another, but since they were celebrated at about the same time, then somehow All Saints ‘Day ( All Hallows’ Mass ), celebrated on November 1, and Samhain influenced each other.

Vocabulary

Word / phrase Transfer / Value
All Hallows’ Eve All Saints’ Evening
Samhain In Old Irish meant “end of summer”
All Hallows’ Mass All Saints Day

Costumes, traditions

Let’s go back to the paraphernalia of the holiday and traditional actions.Face-masked processions became popular in the 16th century, and not only children, but also adults took part in them. Not having received treats (usually, these are sweets), they could have committed some kind of prank.

Later, at the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th centuries, it became customary to wear role-playing costumes. The main function of the costume was to hide its appearance, to become unrecognizable. Interestingly, straw was the most popular material. The participants in the processions acted out scenes, entertained the owners of the houses, and only then asked for sweets or money.At the same time, it became customary to carry a Jack-o’-lantern made of pumpkin.

The suit has evolved over time. Today, the theme of costumes is very diverse – from ghosts and fantastic creatures to vampires and sorcerers. In the United States and other English-speaking countries, a whole industry of carnival costumes has been created for every taste and budget. Although many still make them with their own hands.

Interesting fact

The tradition of begging dates back to All Hallows’ Mass, when the poor, including children, knocked on the doors of wealthy citizens and asked them for food, and for this they promised to pray for the departed relatives of the nobility.This rite was called “Souling”. The subtext of the tradition has changed, but the tradition itself has remained.

Halloween made its way to the United States thanks to a massive influx of immigrants from Ireland and Scotland. But the “Trick-or-treat” tradition was not particularly popular until World War II. The fact is that a similar tradition already existed in the United States, when on Thanksgiving Day ( Thanksgiving Day ) children also go home and ask for a treat ( Thanksgiving begging ). But this, however, did not prevent them in the end from acquiring another one.

Vocabulary

Word / phrase Transfer / Value
Thanksgiving Day Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving begging Asking for a Thanksgiving Treat

Games, jokes, jokes

It wasn’t so much fun before

When you hear “trick-or-treat,” don’t be afraid that your home will be damaged in any way.All threats are comic. But it was not always so.

For example

At the end of the 19th century in the USA and Canada, the tricks of disguised children, adolescents, whose faces were hidden by masks, were not at all comic. They could easily rob outbuildings, open the door to the chicken coop, let the horses out of the stable, etc.

In the 1920s and 1930s, celebrations were transformed into processions of a violent crowd of young people committing acts of vandalism. To return the holiday to a more peaceful course, the authorities, the public began to promote costumed events and processions and “Trick-or-treat” as an alternative to violent antics of youth.

Apples

But Halloween still was and remains a holiday, with its inherent games and treats. Take apples. Apples are associated with Halloween in two ways: firstly, it is one of the treats, as well as an attribute of the game called “bobbing for apples” (catching apples out of water with your mouth). The game is ancient, existed in the colonial era, but was used only in fortune telling . According to legend, the one who is the first to get an apple from a bucket filled with water will be the first to marry.

Divination

There is another fortune-telling for Halloween. At the moment when the clock strikes midnight, the girl must peel the apple from the peel (the length of the peel is important!) And throw it over her shoulder. It is believed that the fallen peel takes on the shape of the first letter of the groom’s name.

In the past, another Halloween ritual for girls was popular. The girl, left alone in the dark house, climbed the stairs with her back forward. Once upstairs, he conducted candles in front of the mirror.It was believed that the face of the groom would appear in the mirror. Well, if instead of a man’s face a skull suddenly appeared, then the girl was destined to die. Of course, the majority never took these fortune-telling seriously, but there were also exceptions …

Vocabulary

Word / phrase Transfer / Value
Bobbing for apples Catching apples out of water with your mouth
Fortune telling Divination

Symbols

What’s Halloween without Jack-o’-lantern ?! This is the main symbol of the holiday.On All Saints Day, you need to drive away evil spirits. How? Pumpkin (pumpkin) is taken, eyes, nose, mouth are carved on it, twisted in an evil smile, and the expression of this face should be terrifying. A lighted candle should be placed inside. The pumpkin is left near the dwelling. In the distant past, when Halloween had not yet come to American soil, and when a lot of money had to be paid for a pumpkin, both turnip (turnip) and rutabaga (wild turnip) were used. Fortunately, now everyone can afford to buy a pumpkin (or even more than one!).Therefore, since the middle of the 19th century, lamps have been made, as a rule, of pumpkins. And in the United States, pumpkin has a special attitude in general – it is with this fruit that Americans have always celebrated the harvest.

On Halloween, many people decorate their homes according to the principle – the scary the better. Skeletons, cobwebs (which can be purchased in stores) are the necessary attributes of the decor. In general, everything depends on the imagination, so you can see coffins, black crows and black cats, garden scarecrows. Decor colors range from orange to brown and black.

By the way, sweets and other sweets for the procession participants (Trick-or-treat) can be left in special pots near the house, thereby depriving the “ghosts” of the need to pronounce the coveted phrase, leaving them only “treat” . True, now it has become popular to ask children to do something simple for a sweet reward.

Vocabulary

Word / phrase Transfer / Value
Pumpkin Pumpkin
Turnip Turnip
Wild turnip rutabaga
Treat Treat

That’s all

Here you can put an end.

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