An Intro to Malaysian Food: The Ingredients
[Photographs: Chichi Wang]
How to Make Sambal
Sambals are pastes in Malaysia that are the foundation for so many other recipes, as well as condiments to be served at the table. View sambal recipes here »
For the next few weeks, Seriously Asian will be Seriously Malaysian, a celebration of that little-known, under appreciated cuisine with tendrils that reach into so many other, more familiar Asian cookeries. Malaysian cooks employ techniques and ingredients that we’ve come to associate with the Chinese, Indian, and Thai, yet the balanced, sophisticated flavors that the cuisine offers are entirely novel to palates unaccustomed. The country spans more than one mass of land; given its complex political history, neighboring Singapore and Indonesia make culinary contributions that are sometimes mere influences, and more frequently, one and the same.
This week, we’ll be discussing the basic ingredients that are, relatively speaking, unique to Malaysian cookery. (For those cooks who’ve already amassed ingredients commonly used in Thai cuisine—for instance, lemongrass, coconut milk, galangal, and kaffir lime leaves—the transition to Malaysian cuisine will be considerably smoother. Refer to the primer on Thai curries for a refresher.) Read about six of these ingredients after the jump.
Belacan / Shrimp Paste
Belacan (pronounced buh-LAH-chan) is one of the most important, and by far, the most pungent ingredient in Malaysian cookery.
Though many have described belacan as pungent, I’d go so far as to describe its smell as stinky, like a gym bag, a sneaker, or whatever other foot-related image comes to mind. Belacan’s malodorous quality only intensifies when browned. To toast belacan, used your palm to compress a tablespoon or so of the paste wrapped in a small packet of foil. Place the foil over a gas stove burner and toast over low heat for 30 seconds to a minute on each side, until the edges of the disk of belacan are lightly browned and crisp.
A word of warning: The first time I toasted just a teaspoon of the block over a small gas flame, the belacan emitted such smoky, funky smells that even with the windows open and the exhaust fan turned on, the entire apartment became a petri dish for its insidious odors. Not having fully realized this until I left my apartment, I (and my neighboring classmates) spent the entirety of a yoga class inhaling the residual smell of belacan that had works its way into the fibers of my clothes.
Sweet Soybean Paste
Sweet soybean paste and sweet soy sauce.
Falling somewhere between the consistency of a paste and a sauce, this condiment of fermented soybeans, rice flour, sugar, and salt has the winey complexity of miso, but with a much sweeter undertone. Halved soybeans are suspended throughout the sauce; the nubby texture and beany flavor pair well with many stir-fried noodle dishes and stews.
Indonesian Sweet Soy Sauce
Though it’s mostly used in Indonesian dishes, Malaysian cooks will employ the sweet, smoky syrup known as kecap manis, or sweet soy sauce, in various sambals and simmering dishes. Thick and syrupy, this dark-brown mixture of palm sugar and soy sauce has an addictive sweet-savory, honeyed taste.
Native to Indonesia, candlenuts are distantly related to macadamia nuts, though they’re larger with a rougher exterior. Ground up, candlenuts thicken pastes and coconut-milk based curries. (Candlenuts are also mildly toxic when raw, inducing just a friendly warning level of nausea.)
Palm sugar, made from the boiled-down sap of the tree, is sold in either large cylindrical tubes or smaller, rounded disks. Brown sugar can be substituted in a pinch, but it lacks the complexity of palm sugar, which adds a caramel-like, toasted taste to both sweet desserts as well as savory dishes.
The fruit of the tall tamarind tree, native to east Africa, is a smallish curved pod with a brittle shell that encases a sticky, brown pulp. Sweet and sour, the pulp is usually mixed with warm water to extract the juice—a fruity, sour liquid that’s used in soups and curries, as well as stir-fried dishes.
Want to use some of these Malaysian ingredients? Try these recipes for two kinds of sambals and sambal-flavored stir-fried rice here »
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How To Make Sambal Goreng Terasi / Belacan (Shrimp Paste Sambal)
Sambal terasi / sambal belacan is one of the quintessential condiments or ingredients in Southeast Asia. It is perfect to serve on the side or to use it as an ingredient in cooking. It is spicy and packs with umami flavor.
Sambal terasi or known as sambal belacan in Malaysia and Singapore gets lots of love. For folks who enjoy eating spicy sambal (I’m one of them), it’s a joy to have sambal terasi (or anykind of sambal really!) with a meal. WHAT IS SAMBAL TERASI
Basically a basic spicy chili sauce (sambal) made with red chilies, shallots, garlic, tomatoes are mixed with terasi for an extra punch of flavor.SAMBAL TERASI MENTAH AND SAMBAL TERASI MATANG
In Indonesia, sambal terasi can be raw (mentah) or cooked (matang). The version I’m sharing here is the cooked version.
Like many Asian ingredients that we clasified as “umami”, terasi has a strong pungent aroma. For those who are not familiar with it will think that this thing is spoiled or rotten! ha. .ha..! It is made with small tiny shrimp that is fermented and hence that pungent aroma. There are so many varieties of shrimp paste across Asia. They comes in different forms and different colors. Terasi usually comes in a dry block form in Indonesia. It’s hard for me to find terasi here and it is only available in select Asian grocery stores. In Indonesia, terasi is usually toasted over open fire or dry fry on a pan to make it really fragrant. The same thing with other varieties of shrimp paste, if you pre-cook it by stir-frying, it will actually kick it up a notch.
If you can’t find Indonesian style terasi or Malaysian or Singapore style belacan, you can use other variety as the flavor is pretty close. I usually use the Vietnamese or Thai version of shrimp paste or sometimes the Chinese shrimp paste.HOW TO USE SAMBAL TERASI AS A CONDIMENT
Tahu and Tempeh Bacem
Ayam Goreng Kremes (Indonesian Fried Chicken with Crunchy Bits)
Ayam Goreng Kalasan
https://whattocooktoday.com/ayam-panggang-bumbu-kecap.html AS AN INGREDIENT IN COOKING
Sambal terasi can also be used as an ingredients in many stir-fry for veggies, noodles, rice. Sky is the limit. You want it, you add it 🙂DID YOU MAKE THIS EASY SAMBAL TERASI/ BELACAN RECIPE?
I love it when you guys snap a photo and tag to show me what you’ve made 🙂 Simply tag me @WhatToCookToday #WhatToCookToday on Instagram and I’ll be sure to stop by and take a peek for real!
How To Make Sambal Terasi / Belacan (Fried Shrimp Paste Sambal)
- 100 gr red chilies you can use any varieties. See notes
- 5 Thai chilies optional (to add spicyness)
- 5 shallots peeled and roughly chopped, you can use small purple onion too
- 3 cloves garlic halved
- 2 tsp shrimp paste or use terasi or belacan if it’s available
- 1 large tomato quartered
- 3 Tbsp cooking oil
- 2 tsp palm sugar or use coconut sugar or brown sugar
- Salt to taste
If you use dried chilies:
Stir fry to enchance flavor:
Grind or “ulek” the pre-fried sambal:
Let sambal terasi cools down completely. Store this in a sterilized container and it can keep for maximum of 2 weeks in the fridge
For longer storage, I recommend portioning them into about 1 Tbsp portion and place them on a parchment paper and freeze them for about 1 hour or so. Then transfer to a freezer bag or container. So whenever you need sambal terasi, you can just take whatever much you need. You can also portion them by using ice cube trays too
NotesYou can also use premade chili like this. If you are using dried chilies, make sure you soak them in warm water until soft and proceed with recipe. I used red jalapeno peppers.
Kangkung recipe with belacan- How to cook in thirty minutes
Stir fry kangkung with belacan is an authentic home cook food for the Malaysian. This kangkung recipe so well accepted that it has assimilated into the cooking culture of different ethnic groups in this country.
I will explain how to cook kangkung with belacan from the perspective of a Malaysian Chinese. My kangkung recipe may be slightly different from the Malay version, but share the common characteristic of using plenty of chilies and belacan. I will stay true to the authenticity of the recipe. So, please adjust the level of spiciness accordingly!
Let me mention what is kangkung and belacan before going into the nitty-gritty of the preparation. You may skip this if you are familiar with these items, but I know there are a large number of readers who live outside of Asia who may want some information.
This plant is a type of sub-aquatic vegetable widely available in South East Asia. It has a hollow stem.
Therefore, it is termed as kongxincai (空心菜) in Mandarin Chinese, which means ‘hollow vegetable.’ The Malaysian Chinese however, called it ong choy (蕹菜) in Cantonese. Kangkung is also spelled as kangkong in Malay and Indonesian language.
The English translation is water spinach, river spinach, and water morning glory. These terms are all unfamiliar to the local vegetable vendors, and very likely they do not know about these translations. Therefore, I will use the term ‘kangkung’ throughout the following sections in this article.
Kangkung is best for stir fry as the leaves soak up the sauce and the stems provide a contrasting crunchy texture.Belacan
Belacan is the name of the shrimp paste popular in Malaysia and Singapore. It is primarily made with krills and salt and fermented for several months.
Belacan is sold in a solid brown color block wrapped in paper. It has a pungent aroma, and therefore a little goes a long way in cooking. The closest form of shrimp paste to belacan is terasi, the Indonesian version of the shrimp paste.
This shrimp paste screams umami! Belacan and terasi are widely used to make sambal, the chili paste for a variety of cuisine.Sambal
The word ‘sambal’ refers to the local chili paste prepared with chili, onion, and garlic. There are many types of sambal available, as a result of various additional ingredients added to the basic recipe. The sambal in this recipe is combined with belacan and hence is named kangkung with belacan.
Note: Every household in Malaysia make their sambal at home. However, you can purchase the store-bought sambal oelek for convenience to simplify the cooking process. It is available in Asian grocery stores in many countries.How to stir fry kangkung belacan
Below are the detail steps on how to stir-fry kangkung with belacan.
1.Wash the kangkung thoroughly
Discard the fibrous section close to the root.
Kangkung is quite gritty and must be washed with copious amounts of water. I suggest to clean it in the kitchen sink thoroughly. Drain the kangkung in a colander before use.
2.Separate the stems from the leaves
Divide the kangkung into the stems and leaves sections. Cut the stems into five cm short sections. Don’t be stingy. Cut off the first fifteen centimeters from the root as it is too fibrous. It will now turn soft even cooking for five minutes.
Since the stems need a longer time to turn soft, we will stir fry the stems for two minutes before adding the leaves. The leaves only need one minute of stir-frying to become soft and wilt.
3.Blend the ingredients for the sambal
The sambal of this kangkung recipe contain the toast the belacan and soak the dried shrimps.Toast the belacan
It is better to use the toasted belacan for making the sambal.
- Break up the belacan if it comes in a block.
- Place the belacan in a saucepan without oil and toast it until it begins to smoke. Remove. Toasting the belacan will remove the unwanted raw and the fishy smell. It also helps to bring out its umami flavor.
I like to add all the oil for sauteing to the mixer and blend with the spices because the oil facilitates blending. You may add a small amount of water if it is too dry.
You may also want to try out the Malaysian satay and kapitan chicken on this blog. They both contain belacan. Check it out if you like its high umami flavor.Soak the dry shrimps
Clean the dry shrimps with water. Soak it in water for at least ten minutes until it becomes soft. Coarsely chopped it before adding it to the mixer.Chilies
Cut the chiles into small sections. Do not reduce the number of chilies as it will affect the flavor. Remove the seeds if you want to reduce the spiciness. You can also substitute the bird’s eye chilies with an equal amount of red chili to minimize the hotness.
Prepare the sambal by blending all the ingredients with an electric blender. You can use a mortar and pestle to prepare a small amount or to yield a more rustic texture. I prefer sambal with a smooth texture, but some locals like it coarser by grinding the spices manually.
4.Saute the sambal
Remove the sambal paste from the blender. Saute over low heat until all the water has evaporated. By then, the spices will be cooked by the oil, which turns aromatic.
5.Stir fry the stem, then the leaves
- Now add the stems to the sambal. Stir fry over medium heat for two minutes. You can add one to two tablespoons of water if it is too dry.
- Add the salt and sugar.
- The stems should be no longer hard by now but not too soft until it loses the crunchiness.
- Add the leaves and continue to stir fry until it wilts down about one minute.
- Check the amount of liquid in the wok. It should have reduced to a thick sauce by now. The liquid should have been absorbed by the leaves and clung on to the stems.
- Dish out and serve with steamed rice.
What if you do not like kangkung?
You can improvise this kangkung recipe by using other vegetables. My favorite is French beans and asparagus. You need to adjust the cooking time for different types of vegetables.
Prep Time 20 minutes
Cook Time 10 minutes
Total Time 30 minutes
- 400g kangkung (dry weight)
For the sambal
- 1/2 tsp salt
- 1/2 tsp sugar
- Red chili to garnish
- Discard the fibrous section of the kangkung (close to the root).
- Wash the kangkung thoroughly
- Drain the kangkung in a colander before use.
- Separate the stems from the leaves
- Cut to divide the kangkung into the stems and leaves sections. Cut the stems into five cm short sections.
- Place the belacan in a saucepan without oil and toast it until it begins to smoke. Remove.
- Clean the dry shrimps with water. Soak it in water for at least ten minutes until it becomes soft. Coarsely chopped.
- Blend all the ingredients for the sambal until smooth.
- Saute the sambal over low heat until aromatic.
- Add the stems and stir fry over medium heat for two minutes. You can add one to two tablespoons of water if it is too dry.
- Add the salt and sugar.
- Add the leaves and continue to stir fry until it wilts down.
- Dish out and serve with steamed rice.
As an Amazon Associate and member of other affiliate programs, I earn from qualifying purchases.
Amount Per Serving: Calories: 470Total Fat: 25gSaturated Fat: 6gTrans Fat: 0gUnsaturated Fat: 14gCholesterol: 56mgSodium: 1686mgCarbohydrates: 41gFiber: 5gSugar: 15gProtein: 27g
This data was provided and calculated by Nutritionix on 9/9/2019
Belacan (aka Shrimp Paste, Terasi and Kapi)
Belacan, or shrimp paste in English, is almost always dry roasted before being used in a recipe.
Estimated reading time: 4 minutesBelacan, shrimp paste
Belacan is an essential South East Asian ingredient, no matter what ethnicity lives in the kitchen!
What is Belacan?
Belacan is a paste made with fermented dried shrimp. It is then dried further and sold in solid blocks or in paste form.
Called shrimp paste in English, it is an indispensable ingredient in the South East Asian kitchen. It is brimming with strong, umami notes, and even the slightest amount adds an amazing depth to a dish.
Belacan is naturally known by various other names in the region, and differs ever so slightly in make up. However, the various shrimp pastes in South East Asia can be used interchangeably. I do it all the time, and I am South East Asian, amongst other things!
Called kapi in Thai and terasi in Indonesian, if you didn’t grow up with it, you’re either going to love it or hate it!
The word belacan is in Malay, and like most Malay words, it is pronounced as it is spelled.
Buh – lah – chan (silent h in the first 2).
- bə (like the U in fur)
- lʌ (do re mi far so LA)
- chʌn (as above. In fact, belachan was the old spelling when I was in school)
How to use Belacan
Belacan is almost always roasted before being used. This deepens the flavour, aroma and adds a touch of caramel notes.
Shrimp paste is a very strong smelling ingredient. It really does rather stink to high heaven, especially when being roasted on its own before using.
So a word of advice if you’re not used to it, open the windows, and don’t do it before having guests over.
We use belacan in curries, soups, stir fries, sambals and salads – endless list!
This is a brand new site, started in Jan 2021, so the recipes will be added at the end of this post as I get them done.
Belacan and its cousin, udang kering (dried shrimp – post soon), are the main reason Malay and Indonesian “vegetarian” recipes are not really vegetarian, and most certainly, not vegan.
Even the most innocuous of dishes, will, at its heart, have a little of either or both, as a flavour base. Like our Sayur Lemak, or the Indonesian Sayur Lodeh.
Some years ago, I veganised the Sayur Lemak in a United Nations-led Climate Action campaign. You’ll find that recipe (below) on my other food blog, LinsFood.com.Vegan Sayur Lemak
Substitute for Shrimp Paste
The best substitute for shrimp paste is either dried shrimp or fish sauce. Neither will impart quite the same depth, but they will be adequate.
- Double the amount of dried shrimp for shrimp paste
- About 1 Tbsp of fish sauce for every 1/2 tsp of shrimp paste
Vegan Substitute for Belacan
This is easy – shiitake! They are my go-to umami ingredient for vegetarian cooking. And now that all my 4 kids have been vegetarian for about 3 years, you can imagine that’s very often!
Use a handful of shiitake in place of 1/2 tsp of belacan. Slice them or add them to the paste ingredients the recipe will inevitably call for.
And on that note, shall we go roast us some belacan? Don’t forget to open those windows! You’ll probably have to change your shirt too after! 😄
♥ If you found this article useful, don’t forget to leave me a comment and that all important, 5-star rating! 😉 Thank you! ♥
And feel free to tag me on Instagram @azlinbloor with your recipes. If using one of mine, hashtag it #linsfood.
How to use Belacan (Shrimp Paste)Azlin Bloor
Belacan, or shrimp paste in English, is almost always dry roasted before being used in a recipe.
Cuisine Indonesian, Malaysian, Singaporean
- belacan amount as your recipe calls for
Place the belacan in a small frying pan on medium-low heat to roast.
Flatten it as much as you can to get as much of the surface area roasted as possible; it will stick to the back of your spatula. Just scrape it off and add back to the pan.
- Turn the heat down to low and roast for about 5 minutes. Flip it over halfway. If it’s in bits, as much as possible. You’ll start getting a really strong odour, and when you think you can’t take it anymore, it’s done!But seriously, if you’re not sure, give it 5 minutes, maybe even 10, if you have a bigger, thicker piece, keeping a close eye on it, take it off before it burns, when it looks nicely charred, and is a lighter brown than the uncooked paste.Whether your belacan stays in one piece and how long it needs depends a little on the type you bought – soft or hard.
Sambal Belacan Recipe | Allrecipes
Servings Per Recipe: 6
% Daily Value *
protein: 1.7g 3 %
carbohydrates: 7.5g 2 %
dietary fiber: 1g 4 %
sugars: 3. 5g
fat: 0.3g 1 %
cholesterol: 1.6mg 1 %
vitamin a iu: 582IU 12 %
niacin equivalents: 1mg 8 %
vitamin b6: 0. 3mg 20 %
vitamin c: 92.7mg 155 %
folate: 16mcg 4 %
calcium: 12.9mg 1 %
iron: 0.7mg 4 %
magnesium: 17. 1mg 6 %
potassium: 226.8mg 6 %
sodium: 33.7mg 1 %
thiamin: 0.1mg 6 %
calories from fat: 2.7
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.
**Nutrient information is not available for all ingredients. Amount is based on available nutrient data.
(-)Information is not currently available for this nutrient. If you are following a medically restrictive diet, please consult your doctor or registered dietitian before preparing this recipe for personal consumption.
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ESHA Research, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Sambal Belacan (Charcoal Roasted) – My Lovely Recipes
Serving: 1portion | Calories: 14kcal | Carbohydrates: 2.3g | Protein: 1.2g | Fat: 0.2g | Cholesterol: 11mg | Sodium: 434mg | Potassium: 56mg | Sugar: 1.2g | Calcium: 68mg | Iron: 1mg
We are Penangites who love to COOK & EAT, so we are sharing the food we love with you. Know more about us…
Related Recipes90,000 Yesterday in Azerbaijan began the process over the organizers of last year’s Avar
Yesterday in Azerbaijan began the trial of the organizers of last year’s Avar demonstrations in the north-west of the republic. Already at the very beginning of the meeting, the defendants announced that they had staged riots in order to create an independent Avar state. They claim that Armenia provided assistance to them.
There were 23 people in the dock in the city of Mingachevir. All of them are considered the organizers of the riots that swept the north-west of Azerbaijan in August 2001.Then, simultaneously in two regions of Azerbaijan – Zagatala and Belokan – a group of armed bandits, which consisted mainly of ethnic Avars, attacked Azerbaijani villages. They burned several houses in the village of Katekh and blew up the monument to Sheikh Shamil, erected in the spring of 1993 by decree of the then President of Azerbaijan, Abulfaz Elchibey, as “a symbol of the unity of the Caucasian peoples in the struggle against Russian imperialism.”
The bandits also attacked the duty unit of the internal troops and the traffic police post.Several police officers and attackers were killed in the clashes. The district leadership then openly stated that it was “losing control of the situation. ” To settle the situation, the Azerbaijani authorities had to send units of the internal troops and the army to Zagatala and Belokan. Within a few days, the situation was brought under control. All active participants in the riots were arrested, and only Gaji Magomedov, who, according to the investigation, was the ideological inspirer of the “rebels”, managed to hide in Dagestan.
At first, the authorities regarded the events in the northwest as separatist demonstrations. The head of the Zagatala executive branch, Rafael Balayev, constantly insisted that “the events in Zagatala and Belokany are a movement of separatists who are planning to separate these cities from Azerbaijan and create an independent Avar state.” He blamed the “imperial circles from the north” for this. “But we will not allow the creation of a second Karabakh,” Mr. Balayev assured then.
This line of reasoning has sparked a storm of protest from ethnic Avars. Even the head of the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of the Caucasus, Sheikh-ul-Islam, Gaji Allahshukyur Pashazade, intervened in the situation and urged Azerbaijanis “not to generalize all Avars with bandits. ” Avar deputies made similar statements in the Azerbaijani parliament. The head of the socio-political department of the presidential administration of Azerbaijan Ali Gasanov put an end to this issue.He said that “what happened is nothing more than a bandit trick of a group of criminals.” Later, the head of the presidential administration, Ramiz Mekhtiyev, said that he had “already reprimanded the head of the executive branch of Zagatala, who made irresponsible statements.” As a result, the defendants were charged under purely “everyday” articles: premeditated murder, banditry, robbery, etc.
However, with the beginning of the trial, the version of “bandit antics” disintegrated before our eyes. On the very first day, the main defendant, Ilham Bakkayev, said that the goal of the rebels was “to proclaim an independent Avar state.””Are we worse than the Armenians, or what? Why did they succeed, but we should not have succeeded?” – he asked at the trial. His dock neighbor, Shaban Bushkiyev, added that he visited Armenia in 1995. There he met with “representatives of various political parties who gave him instructions to destabilize the situation in north-west Azerbaijan with the subsequent armed conflict.” According to Mr. Bushkiev, the Armenians promised him unlimited weapons and financial support.
MOVSUN Kommersant-MAMEDOV, Baku
A fermented seasoning commonly used in the cuisines of Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South China.Shrimp paste dried in the sun in Ma Wan, Hong Kong
Shrimp Paste or Shrimp Sauce is a fermented seasoning commonly used in Southeast Asian and Southern Chinese cuisines.It is mainly made with finely chopped shrimp or krill mixed with salt and then fermented for several weeks. They are sold either wet or sun-dried and either cut into rectangular blocks or sold in bulk. It is an important ingredient in many curries, sauces and samba. Shrimp paste can be found in many dishes in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is often included in sauce for fish or vegetables.
HistoryBelakan in the Malaysian market Ginisang alamang (fried shrimp paste) from the Philippines. It is usually bright red or pink due to the use of angkak (red yeast rice), and shrimp or krill remain easily recognizable . It is eaten in very small quantities along with white rice.
Trasi (fermented Javanese shrimp paste; alternative spelling: terasi ), as mentioned in two ancient Sundanese scriptures, Karita Purvaka, Karuban Nagari and Mertasinga , existed in Java until the 6th century.According to Karita Purvaka Karuban Nagari , Cirebon angered the King of the Galuh Kingdom after they stopped paying him tribute (in the form of shrimp paste and salt, their regional produce). In Mertasing it was mentioned that Cirebon was attacked by the Galuh Kingdom because they stopped sending routes to King .
Trasi was one of the most popular Java exports, bought by traders from neighboring islands and from abroad. According to Purwaka Caruban Nagari, a Chinese Muslim explorer, Zheng He from Yunnan Province, used to buy Trasi from Cirebon and brought it home. It was that he introduced to China of the route, a foreign condiment that later became popular and inspired the locals to create their own version.
In 1707, William Dampierre described 90,024 trails (or terasi , Indonesian shrimp paste) in his book A New World Tour; “The composition has a strong scent, but it has become a very tasty food for the indigenous people.”Dhampir described it further as a mixture of shrimp and small fish, made into a soft marinade with salt and water, and then the dough was tightly packed in an earthen jar. During the marinating process, the fish softens and becomes soft. Arak was then poured into the jars to preserve them. “The soft fish leftovers were called tracks,” wrote Dampierre; “The aroma is very strong. However, after adding a small part of it, the taste of the dish became quite spicy. ”
In the 1880s, route was described by Anna Forbes during her visit to Ambon.Anna was the wife of British naturalist Henry Ogg Forbes; the couple traveled through the Dutch East Indies in the 1880s. In her diary, she describes the culture, customs and traditions of the indigenous people, including their culinary traditions. Because of this foul-smelling ingredient, she accused her chef of trying to poison her and threw away this “horrible rotten bag”. She later wrote: “Then I watched every dish of a native or European that I ate since my arrival in the East contained this; the essence of that rotten substance that was used as a seasoning. “
Traditional kapi described by Simon de la Lubert, a French diplomat appointed by King Louis XIV to the royal court of Siam in 1687. In one chapter “On the table of the Siamese,” he wrote: “Their sauces are simple, a little water with the addition of some spices, garlic, chilball or some sweet herb as baulma. They have a lot of respect for liquid sauce, such as mustard, which is just a tainted crayfish, because they are poorly salted; they named it kapi .
Shrimp paste can vary in appearance from pale liquid sauces to chocolate-colored hard blocks. Shrimp paste, produced in Hong Kong and Vietnam, is usually light pinkish gray in color; while the type used for Burmese, Lao, Cambodian, Thai and Indonesian cuisine is darker brown in color. In the Philippines, they are usually bright red or pink due to the use of angkak (red yeast rice) as a colorant.While all shrimp paste has a pungent flavor, the flavor from higher quality shrimp tends to be weaker. The markets near the shrimp paste villages are the best place to get the highest quality product. Shrimp paste varies with Asian cultures and can vary in smell, texture, and salinity.
Bagun AlamangShrimp paste in Dumaguete, Negros Oriental, Philippines
Bagoong alamang (also variously like bagoong , alamang , aramang , uyap , dayok or ginamos , among others in various Filipino languages) is the Filipino name for shrimp paste.It is a variety of Bagunga , which is a class of fermented seafood in Filipino cuisine (including fermented fish, oysters and shellfish), which also makes the local fish sauce ( patis ). It is made from the same shrimp Acetes, as the Indonesian and Malaysian variants (known in Filipino / Tagalog as alamang ) and is usually eaten as a filling on green mango (also boiled saba or cassava bananas) used as a main ingredient for cooking, or fried and eaten with white rice.Bagun paste differs in appearance, flavor and spice depending on the species. The pink and salted bagun alamang is marketed as “fresh” and is a mixture of shrimp and salt left to marinate for several days. This bagun is rarely used in this form, except as an addition to unripe mangoes. Pasta is usually fried with a variety of condiments, and its flavor can range from salty to spicy-sweet. The color of the sauce will also vary depending on the cooking time and the ingredients used in the stir-fry.
Unlike other parts of Southeast Asia and the Western Visayas, where shrimp is fermented beyond recognition or minced to a smooth consistency, the shrimp in bagun alamanga (in many parts of the Philippines) is easily recognizable and the sauce itself is firm. sequence. A small amount of cooked or fried bagun is served alongside a popular dish called Kare Kare , an oxtail stew with peanuts.It is also used as a key flavoring agent in the fried pork dish known as binagongan (lit. “What Bagun Applies to”). The word bagun , however, is also associated with the mouth of the hood and the version of the anchovy fish, bagun terong .
Belakan, a Malay variety of shrimp paste, is made from small shrimps of the type Acetes , known as Geragau in Malaysia or Rebon in Indonesia.In Malaysia, krill is usually first steamed and then ground into a paste and stored for several months. The fermented shrimp are then cooked, fried and pressed into flat cakes. William Marsden, an English writer, included the word in his Dictionary of the Malay Language, published in 1812.
Belakan is used as an ingredient in many dishes. A common preparation is sambal belacan , made by mixing toasted belacan with chili peppers, chopped garlic, shallots and sugar and then fried.It is sometimes roasted to bring out the aroma, usually producing a strong characteristic scent.
A version of belacan, similar to the Philippine “fresh” pasta of shrimp bagun alamang (which is fermented for a shorter period), is known as chinkalok.
In Sri Lanka, belakan is a key ingredient used to make lampre.
Galmbo is a dried young shrimp that is ground with dried red chili, spices and palm vinegar to make a spice paste used in a sour, sweet and savory sauce known as balchao in Goa, India.It was brought to Goa by the Portuguese and originated in Macau. It looks more like a marinade and is used in small amounts as a condiment.
Haam ha (Chinese: 鹹 蝦; Cantonese Yale: hàahm hā ; pinyin: xiánxiā ) alternatively spelled “ hom ha ”, also known as har cheong (Chinese: 蝦醬; Cantonese Yale language: hā jeung ; pinyin: xiājiàng ).It is a finely ground shrimp paste popular in southeastern Chinese cuisine and is a staple seasoning in many of the Cantonese settlements. It is lighter in color than the shrimp paste made to the south. It is considered indispensable in many pork, seafood and vegetable dishes. The smell and taste are very strong. A haamha ball the size of pearl is enough for to season roast for two. The shrimp paste industry has historically played 90,025 important roles in the Hong Kong region, and factories in Hong Kong continue to ship 90,024 hammhas to 90,025 people around the world.
KapiBaskets and mounds of Thai Shrimp Paste ( kapi ) at Warorot Market, Chiang Mai, Thailand
In Thailand, shrimp paste ( kapi , กะปิ, IPA: [kapìʔ]) is an essential ingredient in many types of namphric , hot sauces or sauces, and all Thai curry pastes such as the paste used in kaeng catfish . Very popular in Thailand is nam phrik kapi , a spicy condiment made from fresh shrimp paste, which is most often eaten alongside fried pla (short mackerel) and fried, stewed or raw vegetables.There are three types of shrimp paste in Southern Thailand: one is made with only shrimp, the other contains a mixture of shrimp and fish ingredients, and the other is sweet. Nam prik meng daa is sold in Hat Yai and Satul markets. Meng daa is a nocturnal flying bug, his body fluids are pressed and mixed with kapi, quite sweet. Nam prik macam is kapi mixed with tamarind, more sour.
Another common Thai food product is nam kung , which is also often translated as “shrimp paste”. Nam Kung is orange, oily and more liquid, while Kapi is gray, light purple or even black, and much harder and more crumbly. Nam Kung is actually the fat from the inside of the shrimp head, from the organ that plays the role of the liver and pancreas, making it something like shrimp pâté or foie gras. The term “shrimp cutlet” can also be used to refer to nam kung, although it is usually assumed that the default “tomato pot” comes from lobster or crab, and it can also be used in English translations of a completely different Japanese culinary food canimiso .
Mm tômVietnamese shrimp paste.
In Vietnam, shrimp paste ( mắm tôm , IPA: [mam˧ˀ˦ tom˧]) comes in two varieties: thicker pasta or thinner sauce. To prepare for serving, it is usually blended with sugar, lime juice, kumquat, and chili when used as a dipping sauce. Vietnamese often use mum-tom as a dipping sauce on boiled meat, fried tofu, fried fish, or to season some soup dishes.
A watery sauce or condiment very popular in Myanmar, especially among the Burmese and Karen ethnic groups. Ngapi (fish or shrimp, but mostly whole fish) is boiled with onions, tomatoes, garlic, peppers and other spices. The result is the broth-like greenish-gray sauce found on every Burmese dining table. Fresh, raw, or blanched vegetables and fruits (such as mint, cabbage, tomatoes, green mangoes, green apples, olives, chili peppers, onions, and garlic) are dipped in ngapi-yai and eaten.Sometimes in less affluent families, ngapi yay is the main dish and also the main source of protein.
Petis udang or he koBlack consistency petis udang , resembling molasses , produced in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia.
Petis-udang , also known as otak-udang, is a black-colored shrimp paste in Indonesia and Malaysia. It is called He ko in Hokkien (Chinese: 蝦 膏; TAI-LO: Hee-ko ), which means Prawn pasta. Petis udang is a type of shrimp paste used in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. In Indonesia, it is especially popular in East Java. This thick black paste has a molasses-like consistency rather than a hard brick like belacan. It also tastes sweeter due to the added sugar. Petit is obtained by boiling shrimp leftovers. Molasses is usually added to give the petit a sweet flavor. It is used to flavor common local street foods like popiah pancakes, Asam Laksa , CHEE Chong Fan rice rolls and rojak salads such as rujak cingur and rujak petis .In Indonesia, the main producers of petit are households in the districts of Sidoarjo, Pasuruan and Gresik in East Java .
In the highlands of Chittagong in Bangladesh, the indigenous people of Jumma call shrimp paste sidol or nappi . They use it to cook vegetable food such as curry made from bamboo shoots. This bamboo shoot curry is a traditional food of the Jamma indigenous people.They eat like that. First, bamboo shoots are harvested in a bamboo forest, then peeled from leaves and boiled in water. Then boiling water is mixed with shrimp paste. A little chili pepper, garlic paste, salt and flour are added to the shrimp paste mixed with water. The mixture is heated and after a few minutes, the boiled bamboo shoots are placed on the mixture, still heating. The dish is ready to serve in a few minutes.
TerasiTracks ground ground in the Netherlands
Terasi (trassi in Dutch), an Indonesian (especially Javanese) version of dried shrimp paste, usually bought in dark blocks, but also sometimes sold shredded as a coarse granular powder.The color and aroma of terashi differs depending on which village it was produced in. The color ranges from a mild purple-reddish to dark brown. In Cirebon, a coastal town in West Java, terasi is made from tiny shrimp ( Acetes ) called rebon after the town’s name. Another type is shrimp or tuna petis mixed with palm sugar. In Sidoarjo, East Java, terashi is made from a mixture of ingredients such as fish, small shrimp ( udang ) and vegetables.Terasi is an important ingredient in sambal terasi, as well as many other Indonesian dishes such as sayur asem (vegetable soup with tamarind), tray (also called gado-gado, Indonesian salad in peanut sauce), caredok (similar to a tray, but vegetables are served raw) and rujak (Indonesian hot and spicy fruit salad).
Lombok, Indonesia produces a more savory and sweeter shrimp paste called lenkare .
IndustryShrimp paste seller
Shrimp paste continues to be made by fishing families in coastal villages. They sell it to suppliers, resellers, or distributors who package it for resale to consumers. Shrimp paste is often known for its local origins as production methods and quality vary from village to village. Certain coastal areas of Indonesia such as Bagansiapiapi in Riau, Indramayu and Cirebon in West Java and Sidoarjo in East Java; as well as villages such as Pulau Beton in Malaysia or Ma Wan Island in Hong Kong and Lingayen Bay, Pangasinan in the Philippines is well known for producing very good quality shrimp paste.
Preparation techniques can vary greatly; however, the following procedure is most common in China and most of Southeast Asia.
After catch, small shrimps are unloaded, washed and dried before drying. Drying can be done on plastic mats on the ground in the sun, on metal beds on low stilts, or in other ways. After a few days, the mixture of shrimp and salt will darken and turn into a thick gruel.If the shrimp used to make the pasta were small, they are ready to serve as soon as the individual shrimp breaks beyond recognition. If the shrimp is larger, it will take longer to ferment and the pulp will be minced for a smoother consistency. The fermentation / grinding process is usually repeated several times until the paste is fully ripe. The pasta is then dried and cut into bricks by residents for sale. Dried shrimp paste does not require refrigeration.
AvailabilityTrassi udang as bought in a Dutch supermarket.
Shrimp paste can be found in countries outside Southeast Asia in markets serving Asian consumers. In the Netherlands, Indonesian-style shrimp paste can be found in supermarkets selling Asian food such as Trassie Oedang from the Conimex brand. In the United States, Thai shrimp paste brands such as Pantainorasingh and Tra Chang can be found. Shrimp spreads from other countries are also available in Asian supermarkets and by mail order.It is also readily available in Suriname due to the high concentration of the Javanese population. In Australia, shrimp paste can be found in most of the suburbs where people of Southeast Asia live.
Spicy pasta Sambal Belakan (recipe with photo)
Sambal Belakan is a Malaysian version of Sambal spicy pastes, whose homeland is about. Java (Indonesia).The main ingredient in this paste is, of course, red chili. Well, since the variations of of Sambal pasta are like in a ketchup supermarket, the composition of the pasta can be very different depending on the country, and from the province, and even from the locality. Most often, Sambal is seasoned with garlic, shallots, shrimp paste, fish sauce, ginger, palm sugar, lime juice, or vinegar. Sambal is traditionally prepared with a pestle and mortar. Sambal pasta can be served fresh (without heat treatment), or it can be fried in vegetable oil.Pasta Sambal Belacan got its name from the addition of the word “Belacan” to the common name of chili pepper paste “Sambal”, which just means “shrimp paste” in the local language. Those. chili paste with shrimp paste. In the original, in the homeland of this spicy paste, Calamansi limes (or musk lime) are used, the taste is something between lemon and tangerine.
First, prepare the shrimp paste.Wrap it in aluminum food foil and bake in a preheated pan or oven for a few minutes until a strong characteristic aroma appears. Remove the fried pasta from the foil. Do not be surprised, when heat-treated this Asian seasoning emits, to put it mildly, unusual smells, it is very “fragrant” even when cold, and even when heated … Well, it will ventilate, but it will add color to the dip sauce.
Rinse the chili pods, remove the stalks and cut them into rings for easier chopping.
In the original, the paste is ground in a mortar with a heavy pestle. Of course, a blender or other electromechanical chopper is faster, but the traditional way, of course, will turn out more fragrant. Since chili pods are not only crushed during the pestle strikes, they also produce juice, which is mixed with the rest of the components of the paste.
And we will use the fruits of civilization, i.e. blender. Fold the chili pieces, shrimp paste, palm sugar, salt and lime juice into a blender.
Grind the ingredients until smooth. The degree of grinding (size of the chili pieces) is at the discretion of the chef. Someone likes sauces completely mashed, but someone likes to come across pieces of pepper.
Transfer the finished paste to a clean glass jar and store in the refrigerator for several days.
Yours faithfully, Zverev Sergey.
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definition and synonyms of belacan in the Malay dictionaryBELACAN – definition and synonyms of belacan in the Malay dictionary
PRONUNCIATION OF BELACAN
WHAT DOES BELACANMEAN Click to view the original definition of of “belacan” in the Malay dictionary.Click here for to view the automatic translation of definitions in Russian.
BelacanBelacan is a kind of compressed and tough shrimp cooking. Belakan is processed from shrimp or small shrimp fillets, and once the ready-to-process products can be stored for a long period of use.Belacan is raw and smelly and requires good packaging or storage method to reduce belacan odor. Although the Belakan processing process is largely based on traditional or traditional in Malaysia, some entrepreneurs have succeeded in commercializing the Belakan production method for sale. Belakan was released before 1805. William Marsden also included the word Belakan in his book Dictionary of the Malay Language, published in 1812. It has a strong yet tasty and nutritious scent.There are some who like to burn it before using it because it causes an odor. However, if burnt, it produces a very strong odor. Belacan merupakan sejenis bahan masakan yang diperbuat daripada udang yang dimampatkan dan tahan lama. Belacan diproses daripada udang geragau atau isi udang laut yang bersaiz kecil dan setelah apabila siap diproses boleh disimpan lama untuk kegunaan masakan. Belacan mentah berbau agak busuk dan perlukan kaedah pembungkusan atau penyimpanan yang baik untuk mengurangkan bau belacan.Walau pun kaedah memproses belacan kebanyakannya masih ditahap asas atau tradisional di Malaysia tetapi beberapa orang usahawan telah berjaya untuk mengkomersilkan kaedah pembuatan belacan untuk dijual. Belacan telah dihasilkan sejak sebelum 1805 lagi. William Marsden, turut memasukkan perkataan Belacan dalam bukunya “A Dictionary of the Malayan Language” terbitan tahun 1812. Ia mempunyai bau yang kuat tetapi sedap dan berkhasiat dimakan. Terdapat sesetengah orang yang gemar membakarnya sedikit sebelum digunakan kerana ini membangkitkan baunya.Walau bagaimanapun, sekiranya dibakar, belacan mengeluarkan bau yang sungguh kuat.
Definition of belacan in the Malay dictionary
shrimp or shrimp bushes used for cooking, terraces; as if it were two-way for both sides; It’s like a monkey. belacan sj bahan makanan yg dibuat drpd udang atau ikan kecil-kecil yg ditumbuk lumat, digunakan utk menyedapkan masakan, terasi; bagai ~ dikerat dua prb hal yg mendatangkan aib kpd kedua-dua belah pihak; spt kera kena ~ prb sangat gelisah.Click to view the original definition of of “belacan” in the Malay dictionary. Click here for to view the automatic translation of definitions in Russian.
WORDS THAT RHYME WITH BELACAN
Synonyms and antonyms of belacan in the Malay dictionary
Translation of “belacan” into 25 languages
TRANSLATION OF BELACANFind out the translation of belacan to 25 languages with our Malay multilingual translator. The translations of belacan from Malay into other languages presented in this section were performed using automatic translation, in which the main translation element is the word “belacan” in Malay.
Translator from Malay toChinese 虾酱
1,325 million speakers
Translator from Malay toSpanish pasta de camarones
570 million speakers
Translator from Malay toEnglish shrimp paste
510 million speakers
Translator from malay language tohindi language झींगा पेस्ट
380 million speakers
Translator from Malay toArabic معجون الروبيان
280 million speakers
Translator from Malay toRussian shrimp pasta
278 million speakers
Translator from Malay toPortuguese pasta de camarão
270 million speakers
Translator from Malay toBengali চিংড়ি পেস্ট
260 million speakers
Translator from Malay toFrench pâte de crevettes
220 million speakers
190 million speakers
Translator from Malay toGerman Shrimps-Paste
180 million speakers
Translator from Malay toJapanese エ ビ ペ ー ス ト
130 million speakers
Translator from Malay toKorean 새우 페이스트
85 million speakers
Translator from Malay toJavanese tempel urang
85 million speakers
Translator from Malay toVietnamese mắm tôm
80 million speakers
Translator from Malay toTamil இறால் பேஸ்ட்
75 million speakers
Translator from Malay toMarathi language कोळंबी मासा पेस्ट
75 million speakers
Translator from Malay toTurkish karides ezmesi
70 million speakers
Translator from Malay toItalian pasta di gamberetti
65 million speakers
Translator from Malay toPolish pasta z krewetek
50 million speakers
Translator from Malay toUkrainian shrimp pasta
40 million speakers
Translator from Malay toRomanian pasta de creveti
30 million speakers
Translator from Malay toGreek πάστα γαρίδας
15 million speakers
Translator from Malay toAfrikaans Language garnaalpasta
14 million speakers
Translator from Malay toSwedish räkpasta
10 million speakers
Translator from Malay toNorwegian reker lim
5 million speakers
Trends of use of belacan
TRENDS IN USE OF THE TERM “BELACAN”The map above shows the frequency of use of the term “belacan” in different countries.
Examples of use in the Malay literature, quotes and news about belacan
BOOKS IN MALAYAN RELATED TO“BELACAN” Discover the use of belacan in the following bibliographical selection. Books related to the word belacan and short excerpts from these books to provide an understanding of the context of the word’s use in the Malay literature.
1Classic Asian Noodles – Halaman 29
This Malay / Straits Chinese condiment is to be distinguished from belacan or prawn paste. Sambal belacan tastes best pounded in a mortar and pestle (rather than a blender). However, the chillies can be coarsely chopped in a food chopper to …
2Handbook of Animal-Based Fermented Food and Beverage…
Y. H. Hui, E. Özgül Evranuz, 2012
3Spice: ス パ イ ス 料理 レ シ ピ 集 – Halaman 53
Makes I cup (250 ml) Sambal belacan Dried shrimp paste ( belacan ) gives this sambal a distinctive character.I make a version of a gado gado salad where I toss Peanut Lime Sauce (page 60) through stir- fried vegetables and bean sprouts …
Christine Manfield, Charlie Trotter, Ashley Barber, 2007
4Oceanography and Marine Biology, An Annual Review – Halaman 405
Most is boiled in diluted brine and sold as boiled shrimps (Tham, 1955), or dried and sold as such or processed into belacan or pickled whole to give ‘chinchalok’ (
5Asian Noodles – Halaman 31
This Malay / Straits Chinese condiment is to be distinguished from belacan or prawn paste. Sambal belacan tastes best pounded in a mortar and pestle (rather than a blender). However, the chillies can be coarsely chopped in a food chopper to …
6Fish Fermentation Technology – Halaman 103
Usually about 40-50 kg of belacan can be obtained from 100 kg of wet shrimp.Many types of bacteria are known to be involved in the fermentation of belacan . Several researches have identified the following genera of bacteria present in …
Keith H. Steinkraus, P. J. Alan Reilly, 1993
7Asian Soups, Stews and Curries – Halaman 188
This Malay / Straits Chinese condiment is to be distinguished from dried prawn (
8Handbook of Indigenous Foods Involving Alkaline …
Malaysian belacan was reported to be 180-530 mg / 100 g. The total concentration of 5′-nucleotides of belacan ranges from 0.85 to 42.25 mg / g (
Prabir K. Sarkar, M.J. Robert Nout, 2014
9Malaysia & Singapore – Halaman 51
By adding shallots, galangal, garlic, belacan (fermented shrimp paste), tamarind liquid and other ingredients at hand, difrerent kinds of sambal are created, all with the essential spicy punch at their core.Eurasians serve sambal cili taucheo …
Ainul, Nana dan Ida adalah remaja riang yang menuntut di tingkatan empat di SMK Taman Bukit Senyum.
Fazlan Iskandar, Fairuz Fairiz, 2012
“EDUCALINGO. Belacan [online]. Available at
Since shrimp are expensive and perishable, they are stored differently. Thus, they can be stored for weeks or even months. In Southeast Asia, two of the most common ways to preserve shrimp is by drying it or turning it into a shrimp paste. Both are very salty.
Salted dried prawns are either peeled or not peeled.They are soaked in water to rehydrate before they are cooked.
Shrimp paste comes in many varieties. They can be wet or dry. Some wet shrimp paste is more watery than others. Dried shrimp paste, called belakan in Malaysia and Indonesia, is chopped, sliced or mashed before being cooked.
Belakan Fried Rice is one of the simplest fried rice recipes you can find. How good it is (how complex the flavors are) depends a lot on the quality of the shrimp paste used.
As with any fried rice, it is best to use daytime rice that is slightly dry. If the rice is still wet, the fried rice will become soggy no matter how long you fry it. Long grain rice is ideal for fried rice.
Yard beans may be substituted for celery or French beans; any crunchy, non-leafy vegetable will do the same.
The addition of an egg is completely optional.
High temperature frying requires a very high temperature.
What you need
- & frac12; a cup of dried shrimp
- 4 tablespoons
- Cooking Oil
- & frac12; cup diced yard beans
- 2 tablespoons dried shrimp or belacan
- 4 cups of daytime rice
- 1 egg, lightly beaten
- Salt to taste
How to do it
- Place the dried shrimp in a shallow bowl.Pour enough water to cover. Leave on low heat for 20-30 minutes or until completely rehydrated. Drain and set aside.
- Heat one tablespoon of cooking oil in a wok or skillet. Roast the bean cubes until for a minute or two, or just until the bit is exaggerated. Jump out and put it aside.
- Crush or slice the belakan as much as you can.
- Pour the remaining cooking oil into the saucepan. Fry the dried shrimp and belacan together.When the dried shrimp is crispy and slightly brown and the belacan smells of aroma, add rice and partially cooked beans. Stir to fry for about two minutes or until rice warms up.
Click on the fried rice on the sides of the pot to make a well in the center. Pour into a beaten egg. Stir the egg in a circular motion until it is set at the bottom but still very wet on top.
Incorporate the egg into the rice, stirring in spirals and the circle gets wider until the egg is mixed with the rice.
Turn off the fire. Fried rice taste. Add salt if necessary. Stir a few more times before serving.
Note: This fried rice is delicious served with some poultry glaze chunks in soy sauce and chopped raw cucumbers.Rate this recipe I don’t like it at all. This is not the worst thing. Of course it will. I am a fan, I would recommend. Amazing! I love it! Thanks for your rating!
NUKHPATIS – Tree
Nuhpati (c) (Nopata, Nohpato) , a fortress city in Hereti, on the lands of the Tsuket principality
The geographical position of Nukhpati has not been precisely established in Georgian historiography.Most experts (I. Javakhishvili, N. Berdzenishvili, G. Chubinashvili, S. Yeremyan) assume that Nukhpati was in the Nukha-Shaki region and identifies him with Shaki (or Sheki, modern Nukha). According to T.G. Papuashvili Nukhpati was located in the basin of the Belokan River (Belokanis-tskali), in its middle reaches, on one of the southern spurs of the Caucasus Range.
Azerbaijani researcher G. Geybullaev identifies the Nukhpati fortress with the Avar village of Nukhbik (Nukhbid) in the Zagatala region on the border with the Belokan region, between the Belokan and Katekh rivers, about 75 km away.west of Sheki, east of Kitikhor, about 25 km south of modern Zagatala and believes that the name Nukhpati is a Georgian transmission of the toponym. According to Geibullayev, the word Nukhbik (Nukhbik) is translated from the Avar language as “a fork in the road” and corresponds to the current name of the village “Yolayryj” in Azerbaijani.
According to the remarks of Sh. Khapizov, G. Geybullaev in his writings  incorrectly placed Nukhbik, and indicates that in fact the village is located between the rivers Tala-or (flowing into Alazani) and Katikh-or (Katekh-tskali), on the right bank of the Tala-or river, 7 km from the village of Makav .It is possible that on the site of Nukhbik back in the VIII century. was an Avar settlement, which was subsequently destroyed during one of the foreign invasions, and its population took refuge in the fortress city of Dzhare, continuing to use their ancestral lands as farmland, and the place of the former settlement as a seasonal farm.
Modern researchers regard Nukhpatis as a strong strategic stronghold in the Nukhpati interfluve, on the main road to mountainous Dagestan, to the country “Khundz” (Khunzakh).
According to Georgian and Arab sources, the fortress was supposedly destroyed in 738 by the Arab commander Marwan ibn Muhammad, who was following the Leket road from Sheki to Sarir. The highlanders who resisted Marwan were killed.
The fortress was restored in the 740s-750s by the Kartalin king Archil II. According to the chronicle “The Life of Vakhtang Gorgasal”, included in the “Kartlis Tskhovreba”, the Kartli prince Archil (VIII century) developed an active activity on the left bank of the Alazani, including Christianizing the “Nukhpatians” .This chronicle also tells about the construction of a church by Archil “in Nukhpati, between two rivers” .
When choosing a place for a new city, Archil attached decisive importance to the task set before this point. One of the main motives for the creation and strengthening of this city was a political task, which was covered by religious motives – the conversion to Christianity of the mountain tribes of the Nokhpat, which in fact consisted in spreading the political dominance of the king in this area.The strategic position of the city contributed to the fulfillment of this task – it stood on the road leading to the mountains. This was the road connecting Georgia with mountainous Dagestan, the so-called “Belokanskaya road”, which ran along the gorge of the Belokan River and led directly to central Dagestan, to the Khunzakh region.
The ties of the city of Nuhpati with mountainous Dagestan were not limited only to purely political relations, they extended to the economic and cultural spheres of life. Traditionally, the cultural ties of Hereti with the mountainous regions were tied up on the basis of the spread of Christianity.Through the city of Nukhpati, a powerful stream of Georgian Christian culture poured into the mountainous regions of Dagestan, in Khunzakh (tangible material traces of this process are the temple monuments of Georgian architecture, Georgian epigraphy of the patron saint, and various monuments of Christian culture, known on the Khunzakh plateau).
- Patimat Takhnaeva, “Christian culture of medieval Accidents (VII-XVI centuries) in the context of the reconstruction of political history”:
- Geibullaev G.A. “Toponymy of Azerbaijan”. – Baku: Elm, 1986, p. 75 (152):
- “Political history and ethno-confessional relations in the Eastern Alazan region in the 7th – 15th centuries.” // Khalaev Z.A., “Ethnopolitical and cultural-religious history of the Dagestani-speaking peoples of the Alazan valley in the 16th-18th centuries”, Makhachkala, 2012:
- Ethnopolitical history of northwestern Albania (Part I) // Lev Gumilyov Center in Azerbaijan:
- Khapizov Sh. M., Settlements of the Dzharsky Society (Historical-Geographical and Ethnographic Description of the Microregion in the Eastern Transcaucasia): Scientific reference edition.- Makhachkala: “DINEM”, 2011, p. 190 – 191:
 Geibullaev G.A. Toponymy of Azerbaijan. – S. 138; He’s the same. To the ethnogenesis of Azerbaijanis. – P. 141.
 Khapizov Sh. M., Settlements of the Dzhar society (historical-geographical and ethnographic description of the micro-region in the Eastern Transcaucasia): Scientific reference edition. – Makhachkala: “DINEM”, 2011, p. 190 – 191.
 Juansher Juansheriani. The life of Vakhtang Gorgasal / Per., Prev. and comm. G.V. Tsulaya.- Tb., 1986. – P. 108
 Kartlis Tskhovreba. – Tbilisi, 1955. T. I. – P. 243–244 (in Georgian).
Map of Azerbaijan with cities on the satellite map online
Azerbaijan is a country in the South Caucasus. Satellite map of Azerbaijan shows that the country is bordered by Russia, Armenia, Georgia and Iran. The country includes an exclave – the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, bordering on Armenia, Iran and Turkey. In the east, the country is washed by the waters of the Caspian Sea.The area of the country is 86,600 sq. km.
Azerbaijan consists of 66 districts, 11 cities of republican subordination and one autonomous republic. Part of the country is under the control of the unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, and part is under the control of Armenia. The largest cities are Baku (the capital), Ganja, Sumgait, Mingachevir and Khirdalan.
Shahdag National Park
More than 9 million people live on the territory of Azerbaijan. In terms of area and population, Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus.
The country’s economy is based on diversified agriculture, oil and gas production, mechanical engineering, mining, chemical, food and light industries. The national currency is the Azerbaijani manat.
Old and new quarters of Baku
Brief History of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan as a state was formed only in 1918, when the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was formed. Until that time, there were numerous successive kingdoms on the territory of Azerbaijan.This territory became part of the Russian Empire in the first half of the 19th century.
In 1920, the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic was established. In 1922, Azerbaijan united with Georgia and Armenia to form the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (TSFSR). In 1936, the Azerbaijan SSR was created again. The Republic of Azerbaijan appeared in 1991.
1998-1991 – Karabakh conflict
1991-1994 – Karabakh war
1994- the Contract of the Century was concluded for the distribution of products from deep-water fields
Mountain settlement Khinalig
Sights of Azerbaijan
On a detailed satellite map of Azerbaijan, one can see that in the east the country is washed by the waters of the Caspian Sea. There are numerous resort towns on the coast of the Caspian Sea, including Baku, Khachmaz, Astara, Nabran and Sumgait.
Most of the territory of Azerbaijan is occupied by mountains, therefore mountain tourism is gaining popularity in the country.Medical tours to the thermal and mineral waters of Ganja, Massala and Naftalan are very popular.