Heart mushroom: The request could not be satisfied

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Mushroom Consumption and Cardiovascular Health: A Systematic Review

Introduction: Edible mushrooms have a great nutritional value including high protein, essential amino acids, fiber, vitamins (B1, B2, B12, C, and D), minerals (calcium [Ca], potassium [K], magnesium [Mg], sodium [Na], phosphorus [P], copper [Cu], iron [Fe], manganese [Mn], and selenium [Se]), low fatty foods, and sodium. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the relationship between edible mushroom consumption and overall cardiovascular risk.

Methods: We systematically searched Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus, and Web of Science from database inception from 1966 through August 2020 for observational studies that reported the association between edible mushroom consumption and cardiovascular risk.

Two investigators independently reviewed data. Conflicts were resolved through consensus discussion.

Results: Of 1479 studies, we identified 7 prospective studies. Edible mushroom consumption may have favorable effects on lipid profiles by changing some metabolic markers such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Moreover, edible mushroom consumption is probably associated with reduced mean blood pressure. The beneficial overall cardiovascular risk, stroke risk, and coronary artery disease of edible mushroom consumption are not consistent.

Conclusions: Edible mushroom consumption has not been shown to conclusively affect cardiovascular risk factors to date. However, potential health benefits may exist, including a favorable alteration of lipid profiles and blood pressure reduction.

Keywords: Acute myocardial infarction; Cardiovascular disease; Mushroom consumption; Stroke; Systematic review.

Grilled Mushroom and Shaved Celery Heart Salad with Creamy Lemon-Basil Vinaigrette Recipe | Bobby Flay

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Creamy Lemon-Basil Vinaigrette:

1/4 cup fresh lemon juice

1 lemon, zested

2 tablespoons prepared mayonnaise

2 teaspoons honey

1 teaspoon kosher salt

1/4 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper

1/4 cup fresh basil leaves

1/2 cup olive oil

1 lemon, cut in half and grilled, for garnish

Mushrooms:

1 pound cremini or white button mushrooms, stems trimmed

3 tablespoons canola oil

Salt and freshly ground black pepper

2 stalks celery (the white stalks from the heart), cut into 1/8-inch thick slices

1/4 cup chopped fresh parsley leaves

6 Mushroom Health Benefits – Eating Mushrooms Side Effects

Claudia TotirGetty Images

Have you ever truly stopped to appreciate those little fungi peeking out from your spinach salad? You should — by eating more of them!

“Although white foods are often thought to be nutrient-poor, mushrooms are an exception,” says Mitzi Dulan, RD, author of The Pinterest Diet. “They contain many minerals, like selenium, potassium, copper, iron and phosphorus, that are not often found in plant-derived foods.”

Here are six reasons why mushrooms pack a powerful punch when it comes to improving your health:

1. Mushrooms may help keep you young.

      Mushrooms contain a super-high concentration of two antioxidants, ergothioneine and glutathione, according to a 2017 Penn State study. When these antioxidants are present together, they work extra-hard to protect the body from the physiological stress that causes visible signs of aging (translation: wrinkles).

      2. Mushrooms can protect your brain as you age.

      Those two aforementioned antioxidants (ergothioneine and glutathione) may also help prevent Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, the Penn State researchers say. They recommend eating at least five button mushrooms per day to reduce your risk of neurological illness in the future. Cook the ‘shrooms to best preserve their nutritional benefits, either by microwaving or grilling.

      3. Mushrooms may boost your memory.

      Another mental mushroom-related benefit: Researchers at the National University of Singapore found that eating two 3/4 cup servings of cooked mushrooms per week may reduce your odds of mild cognitive decline in a 2019 study.

      4. Mushrooms can help your heart health.

      Mushrooms help recipes taste better in place of salt because they contain glutamate ribonucleotides. Those compounds contribute a savory, umami taste with no ramifications for your blood pressure or heart disease risk. An entire cup of mushrooms has only 5 mg sodium! Mushrooms also make an excellent, satisfying substitute for red meat in any dish, eliminating calories, fat, and cholesterol from the equation.

      Westend61Getty Images

      5. Mushrooms can assist in strengthening your bones.

      At the supermarket, grab a package marked “UVB”. How come? UVB-labeled mushrooms have been exposed to sunlight during their growth period (as opposed to mushrooms that are grown in the dark), and therefore have converted a compound called ergosterol directly into vitamin D. This means by eating just 3 ounces of UVB-exposed mushrooms, you’ve met your daily vitamin D requirement and given your bone health a leg up.

      6. Mushrooms will help give you energy.

      Mushrooms are rich in B vitamins: riboflavin [B2], folate [B9], thiamine [B1], pantothenic acid [B5], and niacin [B3]. These help the body utilize energy from the food we consume and produce red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body.


      How to Eat More Mushrooms

      What are some simple swaps that work more mushrooms into your daily meals? Dulan offers the following suggestions:

      • Chop mushrooms to match the consistency of ground beef and then blend them into the meat you’re cooking for lunch or dinner. This is a quick and easy way to incorporate mushrooms into your favorite burgers.
      • Cut up a small mushroom and mix it in to omelets, quiches, or scrambled eggs at breakfast or brunch.
      • Slice some mushroom into your pasta sauce. Mushrooms can also add great flavor and texture to nearly any side dish.

        So get cooking, but stay safe! “It’s crucial to distinguish between mushrooms are that are safe and those that aren’t,” Dulan stresses. “Avoid eating mushrooms that are from the wild. They can be toxic and lead to serious illness and in some cases, death.” Play it safe and source your mushrooms from the easiest place — the grocery store!

        Lisa Mulcahy Lisa Mulcahy is an internationally established health writer whose credits include Good Housekeeping, Prevention, Oprah Daily, Woman’s Day, Elle, Cosmopolitan, Glamour, Parade, Health, Self, Family Circle and Seventeen.

        This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano.io

        Sacred Chocolate Immuno Mushroom Heart, Gluten-Free Mall

        Produced in a facility that also produces nuts.

        Note: Ingredients may be subjected to temperatures above 115° F on the farm to ensure against mold, fungi, bacteria and pathogens.

        Made with raw organic stone-ground cacao, stone ground below 115° F.
        Dairy/Gluten/Soy Free. Cane sugar Free, Vegan
        Certified Organic Ingredients by Weight: 98.1%.
        Cacao Content: 68%

        Sacred Chocolate’s Immuno Mushroom includes a multitude of medicinal mushrooms.

        This chocolate has a very woody and earthy flavor. It is certified organic and vegan. It has a 68% cacao content. This is a bitter sweet chocolate which includes the skin/husk of the cacao bean for superior nutrition.

        Sacred Chocolate’s Immuno Mushroom is slowly stone-ground from bean to bar right in our custom chocolate factory in Marin County, California, which was designed from the ground up to make raw chocolate! Each 1.44oz bar comes in the shape of a perfect golden spiral heart; symbolic of the fact that raw cacao is so good for the heart. This delicious Sacred Heart chocolate bar is hand poured and hand wrapped. All Sacred Chocolate is prayed over by Sacred Steve, the Sacred Chocolate Oompa Loompas and others!

        Shelf Life: 24 months

        Ingredients – Cocoa nibs, maple sugar, whole cacao beans with SKINS,  cacao butter, mushrooms (chaga, turkey tail, reishi, maitake, shiitake, cordyceps, agaricus, mesima, oyster, lion’s mane), *Himalayan pink crystal salt, *pine pollen.

        100% Organic, Organic, *Wildcrafted.

        Product of United States

        Chocolate Items: Please be aware that are no responsible for melted chocolate being shipped during warmer months. We have procedures in place to try to keep chocolate from melting (ice packs, specific shipping days), but cannot guarantee that your chocolate will stay solid during transit. Thank you. 

        Dairy Free | Gluten-Free | Kosher | Non GMO | Organic | Soy Free | Vegan

        4 Shocking Ways Magic Mushrooms Affect Your Heart and Brain

        Magic mushrooms have a reputation as a harmless party drug. They’re also known by the name psilocybin mushrooms.

        There’s no lethal dose of mushrooms that we know of and you can’t get physically addicted to them. But that doesn’t make them safe. 

        Even at typical doses, you can see the effects on the body. Magic mushrooms affect the heart and brain the most. This leads to high blood pressure, seizures, and fluid imbalances.

        These effects are more common when you mix shrooms with molly or other party drugs. That’s a problem—shrooms often show up at festivals or raves where other psychoactives are being used.

        Learn more about how magic mushrooms can damage your body:

        #1: Shrooms Can Cause Seizures

        Shrooms and seizures aren’t a common combination when you take them on their own… but seizures can happen in some cases.

        A typical shrooms trip looks like you’re in a stupor or unconscious. This can look like an absence seizure—you may be lethargic or unable to respond.

        Yet, that’s not usually what is actually happening. Shrooms trips can be completely internal in some cases, so you might withdraw from the people and things around you.

        However, it’s more common for shrooms to cause seizures when mixed with stimulants. 

        These can include coke, molly, amphetamines, and more. Don’t mix shrooms with other drugs to be safe. 

        Shrooms can also cause seizures if you have a seizure disorder such as epilepsy. Don’t use shrooms if you have seizures. 

        #2: Shrooms Increase Your Heart Rate

        Many people do report that shrooms increase their heart rate—even if they don’t have a heart problem.

        In fact, shrooms can increase your heart rate to the 150-160 range at a normal dose.

        Shrooms can increase your heart rate to even higher thresholds if you mix them with other drugs. That’s yet another reason to avoid mixing shrooms with other drugs.

        Your heart rate should return to normal once you’re no longer tripping.  If it doesn’t, consider seeking medical help. You should also seek help if you feel like your heart rate is causing you distress.

        #3: Magic Mushrooms Raise Your Blood Pressure

        Any drug that increases your heart rate is likely to increase your blood pressure too. Shrooms are no different.

        The effect that shrooms have on your blood pressure depends on:

        • The dose
        • Other drugs used
        • Your cardiac health

        Larger doses are more likely to affect your blood pressure. You’re also more likely to have side effects if you’ve had blood pressure issues in the past. If you have a history of high blood pressure or stroke, you shouldn’t use shrooms. 

        Any effect on your blood pressure is usually temporary and goes away after the trip ends.

        Again, you shouldn’t mix shrooms with molly, Ritalin, or other psychostimulant drugs. This is especially true if you have a history of heart disease or blood pressure problems!

        #4: Shrooms Dehydrate Your Body

        Mushrooms don’t dehydrate you by themselves. However, mushrooms are commonly mixed with molly, which can cause dehydration. Mixing drugs is more likely to cause negative side effects like dehydration. 

        Once again, molly is one of the most common drugs mixed with shrooms. It’s also one of the most common rave drugs to cause hydration problems.

        Shrooms and molly can cause sodium-water imbalances in your blood. This leads to dehydration, which can become even worse when you add more drugs to the mix. No one remembers to hydrate themselves on a shrooms trip!

        Plus, most people enter a dreamlike state when they take shrooms. You might look semi-conscious or comatose. If you’re not fully conscious, you’re most likely not interested in drinking water—nor is it safe for you to do so.

        You can avoid dehydration by not mixing shrooms with other drugs. Make sure to hydrate before and after. Only trip with someone responsible who can keep you drinking and make sure you’re okay.

        Other Effects of Shrooms on the Body

        Mushrooms are a relatively safe drug compared to many—even though no drug is fully safe. The negative side effects mostly end on their own after the trip is over.

        However, you can still experience a serotonin crash after your trip ends.

        The effects include:

        • Depression
        • Fatigue
        • Mood changes
        • Stomach upset

        The serotonin crash is temporary and harmless. It can feel a lot like a hangover and the best way to handle it is the same. Simply take care of yourself and make sure that you’re resting, hydrating, and eating enough.

        It’s more likely to happen (and more likely to be severe) if you combine shrooms with other drugs that affect serotonin.

        These include:

        • Antidepressants
        • Antihistamines
        • Benzodiazepines
        • Stimulants

        Get Treatment for Substance Abuse

        It’s true that psilocybin can’t cause physical dependence. However, you can still be addicted to any drug, including shrooms.

        People often mix shrooms with other drugs that do cause dependence. This is known as poly-drug abuse. 

        Treatment is critical with poly-drug abuse. You’re more likely to have an overdose or reaction when you use more than one drug.

        That’s not even considering the effects of shrooms on the body and brain. These are just a few reasons you should consider treatment even though mushrooms don’t cause dependence.

        Your treatment can include:

        • A customized treatment plan to meet your needs—because you’re a unique patient.
        • Daily access to your care team so you can ask questions and stay involved.
        • Medication to control symptoms and cravings.
        • Therapy to help you learn new ways to avoid substance use.

        Call Northeast Addictions Treatment Center today to start your recovery (and stop using mushrooms)!

        Sources:

        Spinach & Mushroom Stuffed Venison Heart Recipe

        By Michael Pendley

        Print Recipe

        Venison heart is one of the most misunderstood meats in the woods. While the heart is labeled an organ, its texture is pure muscle, more steak than organ meat. Hearts often get a bum rap for being tough or chewy or stringy, but they’re not if you trim them correctly.

        The most important part of cleaning a heart is to open it up and trim away the fibrous tissue inside. Simply trim down one side of the heart, then follow the seams to “unroll” or butterfly the entire thing into one flat steak.

        From there, just trim away the fibers that run along the inside of the heart, as well as any of the hard, white fat from the outer surface.

        What’s left is prime eats, one of the best parts of a deer. You can toss it on the grill as it is, slice it into strips for chicken fried steak, dice it up for tacos, or, as we do in this recipe, stuff it, roll it, tie it and grill it.

        To complement the rich venison flavor, we chose a creamy spinach and mushroom stuffing with a hint of smokiness from bacon.

        Serves: 4
        Prep time: 20 minutes
        Cook time: 35-40 minutes

        Ingredients:

        • 1 large or 2 medium venison hearts, butterflied and well trimmed
        • 8 ounces of your favorite mushrooms, sliced
        • 8 ounces baby spinach
        • 1/2 cup heavy cream
        • 2 slices bacon, diced
        • 1 teaspoon dried rosemary, crushed
        • 1/2 teaspoon dried thyme
        • Salt
        • Black pepper
        • Butcher’s twine

        Directions:

        1. Brown the bacon until crisp. Reserve bacon, leaving the drippings in the pan. Add the mushrooms to the pan. Sauté 3-4 minutes or until the mushrooms soften and begin to give up their liquid. Place spinach in the pan and continue cooking, stirring frequently, until the spinach has cooked down and most of the moisture has evaporated. Add the cream and the reserved bacon to the mixture. Reduce heat and simmer until the mixture thickens a bit. Stir frequently.
        2. While the spinach and mushroom mixture thickens, check the heart again to make certain there are no remaining bits of connective or fibrous tissue. Season the heart on both sides with salt, pepper, rosemary, and thyme.
        3. Spoon the mixture of mushrooms and spinach onto the center of the heart, being careful not to overfill it. Gently roll the heart back together into its original shape. Use the butcher’s twine to tie the heart to help it hold its shape as it cooks.
        4. Place the heart on a preheated grill over medium-high heat. Grill for 20-25 minutes, turning occasionally, until medium to medium-rare.
        5. To serve, slice the heart into half-inch-thick rounds.

        Effects and safety of Psilocybe cubensis and Panaeolus cyanescens magic mushroom extracts on endothelin-1-induced hypertrophy and cell injury in cardiomyocytes

        Heart failure is a public health problem that significantly impacts daily management and the quality of life of many affected persons2. Major depression in chronic heart failure and its increasing role in heart failure mortality is an additional problem3. Although magic mushrooms have been used in ancient and recent times for mind healing and are known to improve the quality of life, their safety in cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure is not known. Our study investigated for the first time, the effects of the hot-water and cold-water extracts of Panaeolus cyanescens and Psilocybe cubensis magic mushrooms on ET-1, a major physiological inducer of hypertrophic changes in vitro on rat H9C2 cardiomyocytes where we evaluate the safety or ability of the extracts to exacerbate these effects. The in vitro H9C2 cardiomyoblast cells protocol model used in the study was chosen based on their established and proven capacity to exhibit physiological responses useful in drug discovery for cardiovascular medicine17. The results from the study demonstrated that treatment with ET-1 increased significantly the cell measurements sizes, BNP levels of the stimulated cells and decreased mitochondrial activity significantly as indicated by cell viability when compared to the non-induced NO-ET1 cells. These effects were in agreement with previous studies indicating successful cellular ET-1-induced hypertrophy in our study18.

        The water extracts of P. cubensis and Pan cyanescens mushrooms reduced significantly the ET-1 induced cell size measurements of treated cells same as the positive control, ambrisentan, which selectively blocks ETA receptor and inhibit ET-1 pro-hypertrophic properties. The four water extracts also significantly reduced the ET-1-induced concentrations of BNP, one of the well-known hall mark peptide of heart failure. As a result the four extracts reversed the two main indices of hypertrophy (cell size and BNP levels) induced by ET-1 significantly in the concentrations used. Moreover, the four water extracts of the two magic mushrooms also improved mitochondrial activity of the cells signified by increasing the % cell viability of ET-1-induced cells in a dose-dependent manner same as positive control, ambrisentan indicating safety at the concentrations investigated in the study. Furthermore the two extracts of P. cubensis and hot-water extract of Pan cyanescens mushrooms reduced the TNF-α concentration in the treated cells compared to ET-1-induced control cells while the cold-water of Pan cyanescens slightly increased it non-significantly. TNF-α is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine that is known to promote cardiac dysfunctions and contributes to heart failure19. By reducing TNF-α, the three extracts demonstrated potential safety in heart failure conditions.

        Many studies have established that ROS plays a very important role in the progression of cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure by inducing oxidative stress which in turn leads to cell and tissue injury20. Superoxide and hydroxyl radicals are among the most prominent ROS causing toxic insults to the human body21. In our study we measured ROS levels especially superoxide and hydroxyl radicals over 1 h of treatment after 2 h ET-1 stimulation and the results showed that the four water mushroom extracts reversed the ET-1-induced ROS levels significantly same as the positive control when compared to ET-1-induced control cells. By decreasing ROS levels, the extracts demonstrated safety and protective effect against ET-1 induced oxidative stress that will be beneficial in heart failure.

        Furthermore, the decrease in ROS observed with the extracts was not due to toxicity based on the positive increase in cell growth rate (Fig. 4) where % viability of cells continued to increase after 1 h treatment. However, it was also quite interesting to perceive the differences between the water extracts of the two mushrooms on cell growth rate analysis in comparison to the NO-ET-1 cells. The cells treated with P. cubensis extract after 1 h continued to grow at the rate close to positive control, ambrisentan and NO-ET1 cells while the water extract of Pan cyanescens lead to a reduction in rate of cell growth even slower than that observed with ET-1-induced control cells. This effect showed that although Pan cyanescens water extracts reduced ROS levels, they also contain other compounds that lowered rate of cell growth. However, it is known that Pan cyanescens mushrooms are unique in that they possess very high levels of urea in addition to psilocybin, psilocin, baeocystin, and other compounds generally known to be present in magic mushrooms22. Urea is also known to induce cell cycle delay and promote a slow rate of increase of cells in log phase of growth23. This could be the reason behind such a reduction in rate of cell growth observed with Pan cyanescens water extracts treatment compared to the other samples. However, we also observed an improvement change from 12 h in the growth rate of the two water extracts of Pan cyanescence such that the cold water exhibited the highest rate of growth by the 48th hour treatment. Caution is however needed with higher concentrations of Pan cyanescens mushroom water extracts as they may have potential to induce cell cycle delay in the first hour after consumption.

        To further investigate safety of the extracts on cell injury, the results showed that the cardiomyocytes induced with TNF-α stimulated a significant cell death indicated by reduction in the viability of induced cells below 80% compared to normal non-induced cells. The four extracts of the two magic mushrooms reversed the TNF-α-induced cell injury and death signified by increasing % cell viability of the treated cells same as positive control quercetin in a dose dependent manner. This effect demonstrated the protective effect of the mushroom extracts against cardiomyocyte injury that will be beneficial in a pathological hypertrophy condition.

        Moreover, it was also interesting to observe that although the cold-water extract of Pan cyanescens mushroom did not inhibit production of TNF-α concentration in the ET-1 stimulated cells after 48 h, the extract still protected against ET-1 induced cell death by increasing % cell viability of cells even higher than the positive control and non-induced cells at the concentrations used in the study as shown in Fig.  3. This effect combine with the protective effect of the cold-water extract on TNF-α-induced cell injury above demonstrate that the extract may have compounds that blocked the induced-cardiomyocyte apoptosis cascades probably by activating or promoting expressions of the cell death repressors. Studies have shown that the apoptosis effects of TNF-α in the heart is depending on the type of its receptor whereby it exhibits its cardiotoxic effect through its receptor TNFR1 (tumor necrosis factor receptor1)24,25. After binding to its TNFR1 receptor, TNF-α can stimulates apoptosis in cardiomyocytes by activating sphingomyelin signal transduction pathway leading to production of the intracellular signalling molecule, sphingosine25.

        Sphingosine is a well-known effective inducer of apoptosis on cardiomyocytes and it induces its effect by down-regulating the expressions of cell death repressors, Bcl-2 (B Cell Lymphoma-2) family protein in the same manner as it does in other cell types25. Furthermore, sphingosine is also a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), which has been found to protect cells from apoptotic cell death; consequently, sphingosine may promote apoptosis through PKC inhibition by changing the level of Blc-2 phosphorylation25. Moreover, many studies have also found that the beta-adrenergic receptor1 blocker (β1-blocker) enhances the resistance of cardiomyocytes to cell death by expanding the survival range of the switching response of Bcl-226. Beta-adrenergic receptor1 is one of the β-adrenergic receptors known to transduce the cell death signal via cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signalling pathways of cardiomyocytes which may result in the reduction of cardiac contractility related to the pathophysiology of heart failure26. We propose possibility that the water extracts of Pan cyanescens and P. cubensis mushrooms may possess compounds with potential ability to promote or activate overexpression and/or phosphorylation of Blc-2 proteins pathways thereby inhibiting the induced-apoptosis and preserving mitochondrial membrane integrity of the treated cells. And this compound/s may be more pronounced in the cold-water extraction of Pan cyanescens mushroom.

        Moreover, the suppressive effects of the two-water extract of P. cubensis and the hot-water extract of Pan cyanescens on ET-induced TNF-α levels of treated cells also indicated that these extracts may also have activity on the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signalling, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of many pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and the genes associated with apoptosis27. Studies have proposed that the inflammation-related NF-κB signaling and its correlation with apoptosis is the underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of heart failure28. Furthermore, oxidative stress may also activate NF-κB and initiate the transcription of numerous pro-apoptotic genes, which includes Bax, Fas and Fas ligand, inducing myocardial cell apoptosis and further promoting heart failure condition29. A further study into the mechanisms of action in vitro and in vivo is therefore recommended. Furthermore, in previous studies, mycochemical compounds were verified to be present in both Pan cyanescens and P. cubensis mushrooms such as alkaloids, with known biological activities including toxicity against cells of foreign organisms22,30. Saponins which are known as potent antioxidant that neutralises free radicals and flavonoids with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinorgenic activities22,30. Finally, tannins with antioxidant properties related to their scavenging activities reported to have been used against heart diseases were also detected in the two mushrooms22,30. Presence of these compounds could have also played a role in the protective activities exhibited by the water extracts of Pan cyanescens and P. cubensis mushrooms in the study. The study also showed that in general the cardioprotective effects were more pronounced with the hot-water extracts of the two mushrooms compared to the cold-water extractions suggesting more benefit with users of the mushrooms that consume the mushrooms with tea.

        In conclusion, the study demonstrated that ET-1 significantly increased cell size measurements, BNP, TNF-α and ROS levels and decreased mitochondrial activity of the stimulated cardiomyocyte cells. The results indicated that the water extracts of P. cubensis and Pan cyanescens mushrooms significantly reversed the cell size and BNP levels which are two indices of hypertrophy and increased viability of cells. The two water extracts of P. cubensis and hot-water extract of Pan cyanescens mushrooms also significantly reduced the ET-1-induced TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the progression of pathological hypertrophy and heart failure. The four extracts also inhibited the ET-1 induced intracellular ROS levels significantly indicating potential safety in these conditions. Furthermore, the extracts exhibited protective properties against TNF-α-induced cell injury and death in the concentrations investigated in the study.

        Finally, the study proposed that the water extracts of Panaeolus cyanescens and Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms did not increase the ET-1-induced hypertrophic changes, instead the two mushrooms had cardioprotective potential properties and also alleviated against TNF-α-induced cell injury and death in the concentrations investigated. The study indicated for the first time the safety and potential beneficial properties of Panaeolus cyanescens and Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms usage in heart failure conditions where ET-1 is the course of pathological hypertrophic changes. However, cautioned with higher concentrations. Further investigation is required to establish the underlying mechanisms of action.

        VSU mycologist spoke about useful and dangerous mushrooms

        On November 24, an open lecture by Associate Professor of the Department of Botany and Mycology of the Faculty of Medicine and Biology Gavriil Melkumov took place in the bookstore “Amital on Pushkinskaya” within the framework of the project “Big University for a Big City”. The meeting was dedicated to the memory of the mycologist Maria Ivanovna Nikolaeva, well-known in the Voronezh region. Gavriil Mikhailovich spoke about the special life cycle of mushrooms, their chemical composition, application in human life, and the functions performed in the biosphere.

        – People in 85 countries around the world use 1154 types of mushrooms. Of these, about 1069 species are edible. Mushrooms are also used for dyeing fabrics, making furniture, items of clothing and hats, smokeless tobacco, tinder and gunpowder, and killing flies. The intensity of the use of mushrooms depends on the natural conditions of the region, the traditions of the population, taboos and religious superstitions, cultural exchange with other peoples. Ethnomycologist Robert Gordon Wasson divided all traditional cultures into “mycophilic” and “mycophobic”.Mycophilia is a passion for picking mushrooms and eating them, mycophobia is fear and dislike, even aversion to mushrooms. The most mycophobic country is the UK. Among the continental countries, Slavic Europe (the Baltic countries, Belarus, Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland, Slovenia) is distinguished by an addiction to mushrooms. Residents of other countries show a moderate interest in mushrooms, bordering on suspicion. In addition to the Slavs, the Mycophiles of Europe are Catalans, Italians and French, – said Gabriel Mikhailovich .

        In our region, locals are often poisoned with many poisonous mushrooms, confusing them with edible twin mushrooms. For example, one of the most common “deadly” mushrooms is the pale grebe, often harvested instead of russula. Toxins from pale toadstool cause cell destruction, affect the functioning of vital organs – the liver and kidneys. Toxins from dung beetles, red fly agaric and fibergrowths lead to disruption of the autonomic nervous system, and toxins and some rowers lead to disruption of the digestive system.

        Then the lecturer spoke about the different structure of fungi, the most dangerous species for humans, symptoms and manifestations of various fungal diseases, important discoveries of medical mycology.

        – Fungotherapy – the science of treating mushrooms – originated about 5,000 years ago and has not lost its relevance to this day. Very often, the medicinal and food uses of mushrooms are combined. For example, military cordyceps, which is widespread in Asian medicine under the popular name “Dong-chun-sya-tsao” (“in the winter – a worm, in the summer – grass”). Initially, it is an entomoparasite that infects ants, beetles and butterfly caterpillars. It is known that this type of fungus can simultaneously cure up to 23 diseases in the same person. Of the mushrooms with a similar effect growing in our region, the lacquered tinder fungus – the Red Book mushroom – is distinguished, which is used to treat diabetes mellitus of the first and second stages. It helps to restore strength and memory, maintain good spirits and good mood. Chaga birch has an oncogenic effect.Champignon relieves heart pain. Gall fungus and chanterelles help in the treatment of the liver, milk mushrooms – for kidney stones. Shiitake is used to treat the elderly, as it can inhibit the aging process of the body. In Japan, this mushroom is regularly added to the diet of residents, as a result of which the average life expectancy there is the highest in the world – up to 90 years. This mushroom has a unique chemical composition: it contains the polysaccharide lentinan, which has the ability to strengthen the immune system by increasing the production of T-lymphocytes. Porcini mushrooms, saffron milk caps improve the general condition of the body. The forest honey mushroom activates the brain and enhances creativity. Oyster mushrooms have antioxidant activity and slow down the aging process of the body, – emphasized Gabriel Melkumov .

        A separate important issue of scientific medical mycology is the development of medicinal products. In this respect, the so-called antimycotics are very actively used, of which the best known is penicillin, discovered by the British bacteriologist Alexander Fleming and colleagues in 1928.It was this drug that became the most important milestone in the development of medical science, especially during the Great Patriotic War. Thanks to penicillin, complex surgical operations were performed on wounded soldiers. Another antimycotic drug, for the discovery of which was also awarded the Nobel Prize, was streptomycin. This drug was actively used to treat primary tuberculosis of the lungs and other organs, as well as the common diseases of plague and tularemia, which were carried by mice and rats. In recent decades, great importance has been given to obtaining immunomodulators from the fruiting bodies of mushrooms, which are used in organ transplantation.

        At the end of the lecture, the scientist noted that any exit to the forest, especially to the coniferous one, improves health, increases the immune properties of the body and improves the emotional state, wished everyone to engage in “quiet hunting” and not get sick.

        The project “Big University – Big City” is supervised by the Department for Pre-University Work and Student Recruitment at VSU.Leading – Associate Professor of the Department of Electronic Media and Speech Communication Larisa Dyakova.

        VSU Press Service

        Infections and heart

        Tyabut Tamara Dmitrievna, Professor of the Department of Cardiology and Rheumatology Bel MAPO, Doctor of Medical Sciences

        Year of health. Read and pass on to another

        Among the various pathologies of the heart, diseases that arise as a result of the negative effects of infectious agents on the heart occupy a considerable share.
        Infectious agents are a huge number of microorganisms found in the world around humans. These include bacteria, spirochetes, rickettsia, protozoa, pathogenic fungi, viruses. If in the last century bacteria were the main culprits of heart damage, then in recent years the importance of viral infections has increased.
        Infectious agents can have a direct damaging effect on the heart muscle – the myocardium, or cause certain negative changes in the immune system, which leads to disruption of its functions.
        The immune system is a set of cells, organs and tissues that carry out immune reactions, the main meaning of which is to protect the human body from the negative effects of environmental factors. Protection is carried out by recognizing foreign cells or substances that have entered the human body, neutralizing them or removing them from the body.
        The functions of the immune system are regulated by the nervous and endocrine systems. The variety of powerful stressful influences that accompany the life of a modern person leads to a dysfunction of the immune system, and, therefore, weakens its defense against the effects of infectious agents.Therefore, quite often, infectious heart disease occurs against the background of excessive stress, mental trauma, negative events in a person’s life (conflict at work or in the family, illness of loved ones, loss of work, divorce, death of a loved one, etc.).
        Protection of the body from infections – bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic – is carried out by two systems of immunity: congenital, determined by genetic factors transmitted from parents, and acquired, which is formed during a person’s life.
        Allocate natural and artificial immunity. Natural immunity is formed as a result of the transfer from mother to fetus through the placenta or with milk of ready-made protective factors, as well as as a result of contact with the pathogen (after an illness or after latent contact without the appearance of symptoms of the disease). Prevention of infectious lesions begins with the conception of a child and continues after his birth – a healthy mother and breastfeeding are the best methods of prevention at this stage of a person’s life.
        After the birth of a child, artificial immunity is also included in the protection, which is formed during preventive vaccinations. Compliance with the vaccination calendar is the basis of prevention in the subsequent stages of a person’s life. Currently, vaccinations are carried out against the most common and severe infections, but there are a huge number of other microorganisms that have a damaging effect on the human body in general and the heart in particular.
        Winter has come, and with its arrival the number of colds is increasing.The most common colds include acute tonsillitis (tonsillitis), exacerbations of chronic tonsillitis, pharyngitis.
        Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsils, which are secondary organs of the immune system. The cause of both acute and chronic tonsillitis are pathogenic microorganisms ( bacteria, viruses and fungi ), which, penetrating into the tissue of the tonsil, cause an inflammatory process and can have a general negative effect on the body in the form of intoxication.
        Acute and chronic processes in the tonsils proceed differently. The manifestations of angina are severe sore throat when swallowing, enlargement of the submandibular and cervical lymph nodes, fever up to 39-40 degrees, headaches and muscle pains, general weakness associated with intoxication. These symptoms require mandatory, early medical attention. Chronic tonsillitis and its exacerbations can be manifested by a slight increase in temperature, especially in the evening, sore throat or slight sore throat, combined with increased fatigue, morning weakness, restless sleep, impaired appetite, which ultimately reduces a person’s ability to work.This condition is called tonsillogenic intoxication. Very often the patient, having visited many specialists, leaves them without answering the question: “Why does he have a fever?” And the whole point is only in chronic inflammation of the tonsils, in the treatment of which these symptoms disappear. Many people suffer exacerbations of tonsillitis “on their legs”, do not attach importance to its symptoms. And in the future they pay for this by the development of complications. There are several reasons for the occurrence of tonsillitis – structural features of the tonsils, impaired immunity, adverse environmental factors – hypothermia, viral colds.Among the factors causing exacerbation of tonsillitis, there are social ones – poor nutrition, unfavorable environmental conditions, maximum employment at the workplace, stress, working conditions, everyday life, smoking, and medical – diseases ENT organs pathology of the paranasal sinuses, individual features of the structure of ENT organs (curvature of the nasal septum, enlargement of the turbinates, diseases of the nasopharynx (adenoids, polyps), frequent respiratory diseases, as well as dental caries. Chronic inflammation in the tonsils can be promoted by immunodeficiency states, other diseases of internal organs, and concomitant endocrine pathology.
        In chronic tonsillitis, up to several dozen (usually about 30) types of microorganisms – fungi and bacteria can be found in the tonsils, but the main cause of the disease is streptococcus.

        Tonsillitis caused by beta-hemolytic streptococcus.


        In the presence of chronic tonsillitis, a large amount of pus accumulates in the lacunae, consisting of dead microbes, white blood cells – leukocytes, and other cells (purulent-caseous plugs). Pathogenic microbes multiply in the purulent contents of the lacunae. The waste products of microbes from the tonsils enter the bloodstream and lead to the development of tonsillogenic intoxication, manifested by fatigue, pain in muscles and joints, headaches, decreased mood, low-grade fever. The tonsils become a repository of infectious agents, from where they can spread throughout the body and cause inflammatory processes. Frequent illnesses further weaken the immune system, which leads to the further development of tonsillitis. This is how a vicious circle of disease is formed.
        Chronic tonsillitis is dangerous complications associated with the spread of infection throughout the body. These include paratonsillar abscesses, · damage to the heart (tonsilogenic myocardial dystrophy, acute rheumatic fever), blood vessels, kidneys.
        Tonsillogenic myocardial dystrophy refers to often developing, but much less often diagnosed lesions of the heart muscle in chronic tonsillitis. It is caused by toxins from bacteria in the tonsils and products of local inflammation and tissue breakdown.
        Clinical signs tonsillogenic myocardial dystrophy are caused by impaired activity of the autonomic nervous system (autonomic dysfunction) and impaired metabolism in the heart muscle (electrolyte, protein), which results in impaired energy production in the heart muscle. In the early stages of development, tonsilogenic myocardial dystrophy is manifested by a high heart rate – tachycardia, interruptions in the work of the heart – extrasystole, shortness of breath with intense physical exertion, a violation of the general well-being of patients. With late diagnosis, signs of heart failure appear, the volume of load causing shortness of breath decreases, and more severe rhythm and conduction disturbances appear. With timely diagnosis and treatment of an extracardiac factor – chronic tonsillitis, which caused the listed changes in the heart muscle, they are reversible and gradually the structure and functions of the heart muscle
        are restored.
        The greatest danger for the prognosis and quality of life of patients is represented by heart damage in acute rheumatic fever.
        Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) – post-infectious complication of tonsillitis (sore throat) or pharyngitis caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, in the form of a systemic inflammatory disease of connective tissue with a predominant localization of the pathological process in the cardiovascular system (carditis), joints ( migratory polyarthritis), the brain (chorea) and skin (erythema annulus, rheumatic nodules), which develops in susceptible individuals, mainly young people (7-15 years old). In the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus, the incidence of rheumatic fever is from 0.2 to 0.6 cases per 1000 child population. The primary incidence of ARF in Russia at the beginning of the 21st century was 0.027 cases per 1000 population. The frequency of newly diagnosed chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD), which includes heart defects and specific changes in valves (marginal fibrosis), detected by ultrasound examination of the heart – 0.097 cases per 1000 population, including rheumatic heart disease – 0.076 cases per 1000 adult population.The available statistical differences between the incidence of primary morbidity of acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease indicate the presence of a large number of undiagnosed acute forms of the disease.
        The time interval between the transferred acute streptococcal tonsillitis, pharyngitis, exacerbation of chronic tonsillitis and the onset of manifestations of acute rheumatic fever is 3-4 weeks. In acute rheumatic fever, all structures of the heart – endocardium, myocardium, pericardium – can be affected. Damage to the myocardium (heart muscle) is always found. Manifestations of heart damage can be palpitations, shortness of breath associated with physical exertion or at rest, pain in the heart region of an aching nature, which, unlike angina pectoris, do not have a clear connection with physical activity and can persist for a long period of time, palpitations, interruptions in the work of the heart, paroxysmal rhythm disturbances – atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter. Usually, heart damage is combined with an articular syndrome of the type of arthralgia – pain in large joints (knee, shoulder, ankle, elbow) or arthritis (inflammation) of the same joints.Joint inflammation is characterized by pain, changes in the shape of the joint caused by edema, reddening of the skin in the area of ​​the affected joint, a local increase in temperature and dysfunction of the joint in the form of restriction of range of motion. Small joints are much less likely to be affected. The inflammatory process in the joints is migratory in nature and quickly passes against the background of proper treatment. Damage to the heart and joints is usually accompanied by an increase in body temperature, weakness, sweating, and disability.In some patients, there are lesions of the nervous system, skin rashes of the erythema annulus and subcutaneous rheumatic nodules.
        For the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever, there are diagnostic criteria that include clinical, laboratory and instrumental data, as well as information about the previous infection caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, its rheumatogenic strains. A timely diagnosis allows the patient to recover during therapy with antibiotics, glucocorticoid hormones, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.However, with late initiation of treatment, non-compliance by patients with the motor regimen, the presence of a genetic predisposition, an unresolved focal infection (decompensated tonsillitis, caries), the outcome of acute rheumatic fever may be chronic rheumatic heart disease with or without heart disease. Heart disease occurs as an outcome of inflammatory lesions of the heart valves. The presence of a heart defect of rheumatic etiology requires the patient to be classified as a high-risk group for developing infective endocarditis, the most severe form of heart disease associated with infectious agents.
        Acute rheumatic fever refers to diseases in which prevention is essential to reduce both primary morbidity and recurrent episodes of illness (recurrent acute rheumatic fever).
        Primary prevention is aimed at reducing primary morbidity and includes a complex of medical and sanitary and hygienic measures, as well as adequate treatment of infections caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus. The first direction includes hardening measures, acquaintance with hygiene skills, sanitation of chronic foci of infection , first of all – chronic tonsillitis and caries.The tonsils are thoroughly sanitized by repeated rinsing and rinsing with solutions of antibacterial agents, vacuum aspiration of the pathological contents of the lacunae. If this does not give the desired result, the issue of surgical treatment is discussed – removal of the tonsils. In each case, the choice of treatment tactics is determined by the otolaryngologist and therapist, cardiologist or rheumatologist.
        Adequate treatment of tonsillitis and pharyngitis is aimed at suppressing the growth and reproduction of streptococcus in the body with the development of streptococcal pharyngitis, tonsillitis, tonsillitis.The basis of treatment is antibiotic therapy in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs, which should be carried out for at least 10 days with mandatory control of a general blood test, urine, and according to the indications of a biochemical blood test, when signs of illness appear, at the end of treatment and a month after the first signs of illness appear. A laboratory study carried out within these terms allows you to correctly diagnose, determine the effectiveness of treatment, and, most importantly, not to miss the onset of the development of complications in the form of acute rheumatic fever.
        Secondary prevention is aimed at preventing the development of recurrent acute rheumatic fever and the progression of the disease in persons who have had ARF. It is performed in patients who are not allergic to penicillin drugs. The drug used for prophylaxis in adults is benzathine benzylpenicillin (extencillin, retarpen) at a dose of 2,400,000 IU 1 time in 3 weeks intramuscularly. Prophylactic regimens depend on the age of the patient and the outcome of acute rheumatic fever.In accordance with the recommendations of the Russian Association of Rheumatologists, secondary prevention includes the following regimens:

        • For patients with ARF without carditis (arthritis, chorea) – at least 5 years after the attack or up to 18 years (according to the principle “which is longer”).
        • For patients with healed carditis without heart defect – at least 10 years after the attack or up to 25 years (according to the principle “which is longer”).
        • For patients with a formed heart defect (including operated ones) – for life.

        The most severe and prognostically unfavorable heart disease associated with infection is infective endocarditis, a disease characterized by the development of an inflammatory process on the valvular or parietal endocardium, including damage to large intrathoracic vessels extending from the heart, resulting from exposure to microbial infection. Most often these are various bacteria – streptococci, staphylococci, enterococci, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and many others.Described 119 different pathogens leading to the development of the disease.

        Aortic valve

        Mitral valve


        This is how the heart valves look during the development of infective endocarditis.
        Overlays of microbes, blood cells disrupt their function,
        destroy the valve and often require urgent surgical treatment.


        The prevalence of infective endocarditis at the beginning of the 21st century was 2-4 cases per 100,000 population per year.There is a widespread increase in morbidity, most pronounced in older age groups and amounting to 14.5 cases per 100,000 population aged 70-80 years. Diagnosis of the disease is difficult. At the first visit to the doctor, the diagnosis is made only in 19 – 34. 2% of patients. The average period from initial treatment to diagnosis is at least 1.5 – 2 months.

        A group of patients with a high risk of developing infective endocarditis is distinguished, which includes:

        • patients with previous infectious endocarditis,
        • patients with prosthetic heart valves,
        • patients with congenital blue defects,
        • patients after surgical operations on the aorta, pulmonary vessels
        • patients with acquired heart defects, primarily of rheumatic etiology (CRHD).

        In addition, a group of moderate (intermediate) risk was identified, which unites patients with the following diseases:

        • Mitral valve prolapse due to myxomatous degeneration or other causes with grade 2-3 regurgitation or multiple valve prolapse
        • Non-cyanotic congenital heart defects (excluding secondary ASD)
        • Bicuspid (bicuspid) aortic valve
        • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis).

        It has been established that the pathogen must enter the bloodstream for the development of infective endocarditis. The most common cause of this can be dental manipulation, which is accompanied by damage to the gums and bleeding. In the presence of tooth decay or gum disease, bacteremia (the presence of the pathogen in the blood) can occur quite often.

        Type of manipulation

        Frequency of bacteremia

        Extraction of teeth

        61-85%,

        Preventive dental treatment

        0-28%,

        Teeth cleaning

        0-26%,

        Depending on the initial state of the heart and endocardium, the disease can occur in two variants. Primary IE (30% of cases) occurs on the unaffected endocardium under the influence of severe infections (staphylococci, gram-negative microorganisms, fungi).
        Secondary IE (70% of cases) develops on valves or endocardium altered due to congenital or acquired heart defects.
        Diagnosis of infective endocarditis is difficult due to the fact that in the early stages there are no specific signs of the disease. Non-specific include fever, general malaise, weight loss, and decreased ability to work.Signs of heart damage are formed at 3-4 weeks of illness. Prior to this, the disease can be disguised as kidney disease, lung disease, strokes, thromboembolism in various internal organs, aggravation of chronic heart failure.
        Prevention of infective endrcarditis may reduce morbidity. According to researchers from France, 60 to 120 cases of infective endocarditis are prevented per 1500 patients who received antibiotic prophylaxis. The economic costs of preventing infective endocarditis are much less than their treatment

        Manipulations that can cause bacteremia and in which antibiotic prophylaxis should be carried out include:

        • Bronchoscopy.
        • Cystoscopy during urinary tract infection.
        • Biopsy of urinary organs or prostate gland.
        • Dental procedures with risk of injury to the gums or mucous membranes.
        • Tonsilectomy, adenoidectomy.
        • Dilation of the esophagus or sclerotherapy of varicose veins of the esophagus.
        • Interventions for obstruction of the biliary tract.
        • Transurethral resection of the prostate gland.
        • Instrumental dilatation of the urethra.
        • Lithotripsy (stone crushing).
        • Gynecological interventions in the presence of infection.

        Not only doctors, and patients themselves should be active participants in the organization and implementation of the prevention of infective endocarditis. Not a single most literate and knowledgeable doctor can implement a prevention program without the desire and understanding of the importance of prevention on the part of the patient himself.

        “If someone is looking for health, ask him first,
        is he ready to part with all the causes of his illness in the future, –
        only then can you help him. Socrates


        This is the meaning of both non-drug prevention, which is based on the correction of many behavioral risk factors, and drug prevention.
        Knowing when to do prevention, you need to know and how to do it. The choice of prevention method is based on 3 principles. The first principle is to determine which group you belong to – high or intermediate risk. The second principle – to assess the tolerance of antibacterial drugs – has ever been recorded any allergic reactions to drugs of the penicillin series (penicillin, bicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, oxacillin, and others).Principle three – before which procedure is the prophylactic administration of an antibacterial drug carried out.

        When carrying out dental procedures or diagnostic and therapeutic procedures on the respiratory tract, esophagus, the following preventive regimens are recommended:

        For patients of all groups without allergy to penicillin drugs:

        • Amoxicillin at a dose of 2. 0 grams by mouth by mouth 1 hour before the procedure.
        • In case of problems with oral administration, ampicillin or amoxicillin 2 grams intravenously 30-60 minutes before the procedure.

        For patients allergic to penicillin drugs:

        • Clindamycin 600 mg or

        • Azithromycin 500 mg or

        • Clarithromycin 500 mg orally 1 hour before the procedure

        When carrying out manipulations on the organs of the urinary-genital and gastrointestinal tract, the following preventive regimens are used:

        • For persons who are not allergic to penicillin drugs: High-risk group – ampicillin or amoxicillin at a dose of 2 g intravenously and gentamicin at the rate of 1.5 mg / kg body weight intravenously 30-60 minutes before the procedure.After 6 hours, ampicillin or amoxicillin is taken orally at a dose of 1 gram.

        Intermediate risk group – Ampicillin (amoxicillin) 2. 0 g intravenously 30-60 minutes before the procedure or amoxicillin 2.0 g orally by mouth 1 hour before the procedure

        High-risk group – vancomycin 1.0 grams intravenously 1 hour before the procedure in combination with intravenous or intramuscular gentamicin at the rate of 1.5 mg / kg body weight.

        Intermediate risk group – vancomycin 1.0 gram IV 1 hour before the procedure

        The presented prophylactic programs for patients with acute rheumatic fever and infective endocarditis are not a prescription for purchase and a direction for administration of the drug. All preventive regimens should be discussed with the attending physician – therapist, cardiologist, rheumatologist. But without the knowledge of the patient himself, his awareness of the essence and significance of primary and secondary prevention of any disease, including infectious heart disease, to maintain a high quality of his life, it is impossible to carry out preventive measures. But it is precisely the prevention of both the disease itself and its complications that plays the most significant role. Any disease is easier to prevent than to cure.
        The importance of doctor-patient interaction was recognized by ancient healers. Hippocrates wrote: “Life is short, the path of art is long, opportunity is fleeting, experience is unreliable, judgment is difficult. Therefore, not only the doctor himself must be ready to do everything that is required of him, but also the patient and those around him, and all external circumstances must facilitate the doctor in his activities.
        And the Chinese healer Lao-Jun writes about prevention:
        “If you want to save yourself from a catastrophe or solve a problem, then it is best to prevent their occurrence in your life in advance. And then there will be no difficulties.
        In order to cure an illness, get rid of a disease, the best thing is to be ready for them ahead of time. Then there will be a happy outcome. At the present time people do not pay attention to this and do not try to prevent, but direct their efforts to save themselves. They do not try to prepare ahead of time, but try to heal with the help of drugs.Therefore, there are sovereigns who are not able to protect the sacrificial altar of state power. There are also such organisms that are not able to keep themselves intact for a long life.
        Thus, a man of wisdom achieves happiness when there are no omens yet. He gets rid of trouble when it has not yet appeared. After all, a catastrophe is born from small things, and disease arises from the subtlest deviations. People believe that little good is not useful, and therefore they do not want to do good.It seems to them that there will be no harm from a little evil, and therefore they do not strive to correct themselves. If you do not accumulate goodness little by little, then great Potency will not work. If you do not abstain from evil in small things, then a big crime will be committed. Therefore, we will choose the most important to show how it is born. “

        Heart rhythm disorders – EMC

        The human heart works all his life. It contracts and relaxes 50 to 150 times per minute.

        During the systole phase, the heart contracts, providing blood flow and delivery of oxygen and nutrients throughout the body.In the diastole phase, it rests. Therefore, it is very important that the heart beats at equal – equal intervals of time. If the systole period is shortened, the heart does not have time to fully provide the body with blood and oxygen movement. If the diastole period is shortened, the heart does not have time to rest.

        Violation of the heart rhythm is a violation of the frequency, rhythm and sequence of contractions of the heart muscle.

        Cardiac muscle – the myocardium consists of muscle fibers.There are two types of these fibers:

        • working myocardium or contractile, providing contraction
        • conductive myocardium creating an impulse to reduce the working myocardium and ensuring the conduction of this impulse

        Contractions of the heart muscle are provided by electrical impulses arising in the sinus node, which is located in the right atrium. Then, electrical impulses travel along the conductive fibers of the atria to the atrioventricular node located in the lower part of the right atrium.The bundle of His begins from the atrioventricular node. It goes to the interventricular septum and is divided into two branches – the right and left legs of the bundle of His. The legs of the His bundle, in turn, are divided into small fibers – Purkinje fibers – through which the electrical impulse reaches the muscle fibers. Muscle fibers contract under the action of an electrical impulse during systole and relax in the absence of it during diastole. The frequency of the normal (sinus) rhythm of contractions is about 50 contractions during sleep, at rest, to 150-160 during physical and psycho-emotional stress.

        The endocrine system, through the hormones contained in the blood, and the autonomic nervous system – its sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions – have a regulating effect on the activity of the sinus node. An electrical impulse in the sinus node occurs due to the difference in the concentration of electrolytes inside and outside the cell and their movement across the cell membrane. The main participants in this process are potassium, calcium, chlorine and, to a lesser extent, sodium.

        The causes of cardiac arrhythmias are not fully understood.

        An increase in the heart rate of more than 100 per minute is called tachycardia. Contractions of the heart muscle at the same time, full-fledged and cardiac complexes on the electrocardiogram do not change, an accelerated rhythm is simply recorded. It can be a healthy person’s reaction to stress or physical activity, but it can also be a symptom of heart failure, various poisoning, thyroid diseases.

        A decrease in heart rate less than 60 per minute is called bradycardia.The type of cardiac complexes on the ECG also does not change. This condition can occur in physically well-trained people (athletes). Bradycardia is also accompanied by diseases of the thyroid gland, brain tumors, mushroom poisoning, hypothermia, etc.

        Violations of conduction and heart rhythm are very common complications of cardiovascular diseases.

        The most common heart rhythm disorders occur:

        • extrasystole (extraordinary contraction)
        • atrial fibrillation (completely irregular rhythm)
        • paroxysmal tachycardia (a sharp increase in heart rate from 150 to 200 beats per minute)

        The classification of rhythm disturbances is very complex.Arrhythmias and blockages can occur anywhere in the cardiac conduction system. From the place of occurrence of arrhythmias or blockages, their type also depends.

        Extrasystoles or atrial fibrillation are felt by the patient as palpitations, the heart beats more often than usual, or there are interruptions in the work of the heart.

        If the patient feels fading, cardiac arrest, and at the same time he has dizziness and loss of consciousness, most likely the patient has a heart rhythm block or bradycardia (decreased heart rate).
        If any heart rhythm disturbance is detected, a complete examination should be carried out to clarify the cause of the arrhythmia.
        The main method for diagnosing cardiac arrhythmias is an electrocardiogram. An ECG helps determine the type of arrhythmia.

        But some rhythm disturbances occur sporadically. Therefore, Holter monitoring is used to diagnose them. This study provides an electrocardiogram recording for several hours or days.At the same time, the patient leads a normal life and keeps a diary, where he notes the actions performed by him (sleep, rest, physical activity) by the hour.

        When decoding the ECG, the electrocardiogram data are compared with the diary data. Find out the frequency, duration, time of occurrence of arrhythmias and their relationship with physical activity, at the same time analyze the signs of insufficient blood supply to the heart.

        Echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart) reveals diseases that contribute to the development of arrhythmias – valve prolapse, congenital and acquired heart defects, cardiomyopathies, etc. d.

        There are contraindications. Read the instructions or consult a specialist.


        Death under the hat: what dangers lie in wait for mushroom pickers in Russian forests | Articles

        In mid-September, the height of the mushroom season begins throughout Russia. Thousands of Russians rush for the gifts of the forest, while facing certain risks. In particular, hazards can be associated with mushroom poisoning or the prospect of getting lost in the forest. Izvestia figured out how to safely pick mushrooms.

        The height of the mushroom season

        The middle of September is the height of the mushroom season throughout Russia. According to the blogger and author of the YouTube channel “Hunter to mushrooms” Dmitry Tikhomirov, in Moscow and the Moscow region because of the heat there were no mushrooms all summer – but by autumn the weather changed, and now in the forests of the region you can find both porcini mushrooms and mushrooms , and aspen mushrooms.

        The mushroom pickers have 2-3 weeks left to go to the forest.I recommend going further from the capital and finding a pine forest – they are in the Tula, Vladimir regions, for example, in Gus-Khrustalny . There are many boletus mushrooms, most of the mushroom pickers hunt for them, – says Tikhomirov.

        Photo: RIA Novosti / Konstantin Chalabov

        In the Moscow region, according to him, the most mushroom places are in the south – in the area of ​​Chekhov and Podolsk. Several years ago, experienced mushroom pickers even nicknamed this place ChGA – “Chekhov’s mushroom anomaly”.In the local forests you can find porcini mushrooms – but there are no pine forests there, and accordingly, there are no boletus mushrooms.

        Most fungi grow in symbiosis with a particular tree. If you are looking for mushrooms, you need to go to the pine forest, they grow with pine trees, like boletus. For whites – in a pine or birch forest , – notes the interlocutor of Izvestia. – On the road, the type of forest can be determined from the satellite map.

        The most important thing, the expert says, is to take precautions in the forest: not to get lost and not pick up poisonous mushrooms. Izvestia talked to the search engines, rescuers and doctors about how not to get hurt during a mushroom hunting trip, how not to get lost in the forest and what to do in case of mushroom poisoning.

        The Lost Mushroom Pickers

        Mushroom picking is fraught with several dangers. First, a person can get lost in the forest. As Izvestia was told in the Partizan search and rescue squad, over the past 2.5 weeks, the squad received 20 applications to search for people, 15 of whom disappeared in the forest.

        People of different ages are lost, but mostly over 60 years old , says the information coordinator of the detachment, Yulia Sedova.- The complexity of such searches is that applications may come not on the day of loss, but after a while. And in September it is already cold outside, it often rains. Prolonged exposure to damp and cold environments can lead to death. Unfortunately, there are such cases.

        According to Ksenia Knorre Dmitrieva, preventive instructor and head of the press service of the Liza Alert search and rescue squad, the reason for the disappearance of pensioners is usually their physical characteristics and state of health – they may become ill in the forest and it will be difficult to get out on their own.

        Photo: RIA Novosti / Konstantin Chalabov

        Sometimes the bad condition of the forest becomes a loss of people: there is no sanitary felling, trees fall. And the mushroom picker simply does not recognize the area – even if he has been there many times and thought he knew the forest like the back of his hand.

        Therefore, when gathering for mushrooms, it is important to inform your relatives where you are going and what time you plan to return. It is better not to go to the forest alone – at the same time, pensioners should not take their children with them, this can only complicate the search, Knorre notes.Also, before the hike, you should study the map of the area and see the weather forecast. If conditions are unfavorable, it is better to postpone mushroom picking.

        In the forest, search engines recommend wearing bright clothes with reflective stripes and warm waterproof shoes, taking with you a charged phone, food and water supplies, necessary medicines, matches, a whistle, a compass and a flashlight.

        “If all the conditions are met, a person has a high chance of surviving an unpleasant adventure,” says Dmitrieva.

        What to do in case of loss in the forest

        If you get lost in the forest – do not panic, the search engines call. A person has two options for what to do: try to get out on their own, or report the incident to the rescuers and stand still waiting for help.

        “If you find a landmark, go straight to it,” says Yulia Sedova. – Look for a path, clearing or power line: there is a high probability of getting to people or a settlement along them.Do not cross a body of water, especially a swamp, walk along or away from it.

        If there are no landmarks, you can go to the water and move downstream. The stream will certainly lead to the river, the river – to the people.

        In turn, Ksenia Knorre Dmitrieva recommends staying in place, immediately calling the rescue service. According to her, you can dial 112 even if there is no connection of a particular mobile operator.

        Photo: RIA Novosti / Konstantin Chalabov

        You need to clearly explain to the rescuers where you are and wait for help.That being said, it is important not to drain your smartphone, because you will most likely be called back several times. A working phone increases the chances of finding a person, – says the interlocutor of Izvestia.

        In the case of , if a person has decided to try to get out on their own, Knorre advises to end the movement before dark and prepare for the night. Trying to walk through the forest more often at night, it is easy to get injured or fall into a hole.

        – Therefore, when going to the forest , it is important to have orientation skills, to be able to light a fire, to build a shelter.Many refer to hiking as an entertainment event – and we know many cases when people died a few kilometers from the settlement, unable to reach it , – sums up Ksenia Dmitrieva.

        Relatives of the missing are advised by the search engines not to hesitate in seeking help: the faster the search begins, the more likely a favorable outcome is.

        Rules for picking mushrooms

        Experts interviewed by Izvestia advise to pick mushrooms in the morning before the sun warms them up – then they will be stored longer.It is better to bypass old, overgrown mushrooms – they accumulate products harmful to humans and absorb foreign substances from the environment.

        Do not put mushrooms in plastic bags, otherwise they will quickly deteriorate and break – it is better to take a wooden basket or basket. Put the mushrooms correctly with their caps down – this way they are better preserved. Upon returning home, you need to immediately sort them out, and then put them in cool salty water for an hour.

        Photo: RIA Novosti / Konstantin Chalabov

        – When going to the forest, you need to know mushrooms “by sight” and not pick up unfamiliar ones.It is better for novice mushroom pickers to take more experienced guides with them. Of course, now there are applications that will help you determine what kind of mushroom is in front of you, but they can be wrong, – Dmitry Tikhomirov notes.

        The Emergencies Ministry also urges not to cut the mushroom without making sure that it is not poisonous. There is no need to collect unknown varieties and mushrooms that are too young, old, soft, watery and rotten. Even those edible in this state can lead to poisoning.

        What Mushrooms Can Be Dangerous

        A huge number of mushroom poisonings are registered in Russia every year, says Neia Georgieva, therapist and senior medical consultant of the Teledoktor24 service in an interview with Izvestia. Most often, people are poisoned by whole families, both adults and children suffer.

        Even edible mushrooms in unfavorable environmental conditions can become poisonous: they well accumulate salts of heavy metals, radionuclides. Therefore, do not collect them from roads and railways, near industrial enterprises , says the doctor.

        According to the therapist, all poisonous mushrooms can be divided into two groups: with a quick action, which manifests itself from 15 minutes to two hours – morels, lines, false mushrooms, red fly agaric, and with a slow action, which manifests itself from 5 hours up to two days.The latter include white fly agarics and pale toadstools.

        Photo: RIA Novosti / Igor Podgorny

        – Morels and stitches are dangerous when eaten without good processing, as they contain gellic acid, which causes a violation of the integrity of the erythrocyte and blood coagulation, and also affects the liver with the development of acute toxic hepatitis, – says the interlocutor of Izvestia. – Pale toadstool contains phalloidin and amanitin, which cause irreversible changes in the body with damage to the liver, kidneys, heart, skeletal muscles and brain.

        Amanita mushrooms are among the fungi that infect the nervous system. These mushrooms contain the alkoloid muscarine. Muscarinic syndrome is characterized by a feeling of fever, sweating, profuse salivation, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dizziness, delirium and hallucinations, and in severe cases, impaired consciousness and seizures.

        How poisoning occurs

        The first signs of mushroom poisoning may be nausea, abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, heart rhythm disturbances, or severely dilated pupils.If they appear, you can’t hesitate – you need to immediately call an ambulance.

        According to Neya Georgieva, competent treatment for severe poisoning is possible only in a hospital. With of this, it is very important to tell the doctor which mushrooms were eaten, as the toxins of different mushrooms act in different ways. Pale toadstools and some fly agaric species can cause death in 50–90% of cases.

        Photo: Izvestia / Kristina Kormilitsyna

        – Before the arrival of doctors, a person needs to provide primary care: rinse the stomach with 5-7 glasses of water, provoking vomiting, give warm strong tea and any sorbent – activated carbon, Polysorb or Enterosgel, – the therapist notes.

        Edible mushrooms can be poisoned even if they are old or have been stored for a long time, adds the interlocutor of Izvestia. In old mushrooms, the decomposition process begins and poisonous decomposition products of proteins appear. In addition, people are often poisoned with improperly cooked mushrooms – undercooked and undercooked.

        – It should also be borne in mind that mushrooms are considered a heavy food, therefore they are contraindicated for children under 14 years of age, people with weakened immunity, the elderly, pregnant and lactating women, sums up the doctor.

        Why is the fly agaric mushroom dangerous for humans?

        Looking at pictures with an elegant red fly agaric, many think that such a mushroom can be poisoned only if you eat it on purpose. In fact, as we found out, fly agarics are a large family, and inexperienced mushroom pickers often mistake some of their species for edible mushrooms. So the white fly agaric is confused with an edible float and a white umbrella, green, yellow and red – with a russula, a panther fly agaric – with its edible relative, a gray-pink fly agaric, a variegated umbrella mushroom and even a champignon.

        Instructions on how to distinguish a red russula from a fly agaric (a cup is another name for a Volvo). Photo: Fermilion

        How does it work? Excitement and inattention, unwillingness to throw out questionable mushrooms can be deadly. Beginner gatherers who are guided by pictures and try to collect more types of prey in the basket especially suffer.

        Amanita is distinguished from almost any edible mushroom by the presence of volva – the remnants of a leathery “egg” from which a young mushroom breaks out to the surface of the earth. In an adult fly agaric, the remnants of this skin are visible at the butt of the leg. In addition, there is a skirt at the top of the leg, and the flesh at the break is slightly watery and has a slight unpleasant odor.

        The presence of a volva at the base of the mushroom stalk is a hallmark of the fly agaric. Photo: Listen Notes

        It is very important to have a complete look at any mushroom you have picked. Look at the root, that is, on the butt: is there a Volvo. A diagnosis of the top of the fungus may not be sufficient! Even noticeable red fly agarics sometimes lose their white warts and their smooth caps look like russules, and the “skirt” can be accidentally ripped off by picking the mushroom.

        There are some edible mushrooms, for example, floats, which also have a volva (but no skirt), and which, to an inexperienced eye, are too similar to a fly agaric: it is better not to take them to non-professional mushroom pickers.

        The skirt (the remnant of the film that covered the plates of the young mushroom) is another distinguishing feature of the fly agaric. Photo: Spletna revija o rastlinah

        Mushroom dishes as a new gastronomic trend

        Dishes with wild mushrooms are one of the most notable gastronomic trends of 2021.And if in Russia mushrooms were always collected and eaten, then outside its borders they attracted mainly emigrants who were nostalgic for their homeland. But today the situation has changed: mushrooms are harvested and eaten both in Europe and in the United States.

        How mushrooms are collected abroad

        As a resident of France Dina K. told Gazeta.Ru, they also have mushroom forests and have a tradition of mushroom picking. The most popular are white, chanterelles and morels.

        Mushrooms are sold in local markets, but prices are high. Therefore, dishes with mushrooms are a delicacy for the French.

        “During the season, the mushroom menu appears in restaurants. You can order roasted roe deer with porcini mushrooms, calf escalope with chanterelles and creamy sauce, chicken in wine sauce with morels, confit duck with porcini mushrooms. The price of such dishes will be in the range of € 25-30, depending on the restaurant, “- said Dina K.

        The trend towards “quiet hunting” is gaining momentum in the United States. San Diego resident Ksenia I. told Gazeta.Ru that mushrooms are harvested in all states, moreover, in every city there is a community of fans of mushroom hunting.And one of the most famous mycologists in the world, Paul Stemets, lives in Ohio, who introduces Americans to new types of mushrooms.

        “Communities hold seminars for novice mushroom pickers, tell which mushrooms are edible and which ones are better not to pick. Nobody shares their mushroom places, ”said Ksenia I.

        03 September 16:54

        Americans are law-abiding people, therefore they pick mushrooms only in specially designated places. You can buy forest mushrooms only at the farmers’ market; you cannot find them in chain stores, because it is almost impossible for such products to be certified.

        “In Northern California, Utah, Oregon, Minnesota, Alaska in Tennessee, Arizona and Pennsylvania, russula, boletus and white mushrooms are harvested. This year there are a lot of mushrooms in Colorado “, – said Ksenia I.

        What do doctors think

        The sudden love for forest mushrooms can be explained by the global trend towards healthy nutrition and organic food.And mushrooms are not only organic food, but also contain a considerable amount of vitamins and minerals. They are also very nutritious.

        Forest mushrooms have many admirers, but also have enough opponents. Which is logical, because forest mushrooms have both benefits and harm, says Sergei Loginov, a gastroenterologist at the RZD-Medicine hospital in the city of Saratov, Ph.D., professor of RAE.

        “The composition of mushrooms contains natural insulin, which helps to normalize blood sugar, and the melanin contained in mushrooms has antitumor properties. In addition, mushrooms help improve cholesterol metabolism, ”said Sergei Loginov.

        Among these products there are champions in the content of nutrients.

        “The most useful mushrooms are aspen mushrooms, chanterelles, honey agarics, porcini mushrooms, boletus mushrooms, milk mushrooms, mushrooms and russula. They contain iron salts necessary for anemia, vitamin PP, which strengthens the heart muscle, vitamin B1 for immunity and iodine. This is partly why mushrooms are equated with meat, “said Elena Doronkina, founder of GetVegetable, a service for the delivery of fruits, vegetables and healthy products.com.

        But with all the advantages, mushrooms cannot be called a dietary product, Doronkina warned.

        Opponents of this product often say that mushrooms are a sponge that absorbs all the worst.

        “Due to their porous structure, mushrooms are able to absorb harmful substances from the environment. Often, salts of heavy metals and radioactive particles are detected in their composition, ”Sergey Loginov explains this position.

        Besides, mushrooms are difficult to digest. “The chitin contained in mushrooms is poorly processed by the stomach, creating a great burden on the digestive system, including the pancreas. Moreover, when eating mushrooms, the secretion of gastric juice slows down, which worsens the digestion of food that a person eats with mushrooms, ”explained Elena Doronkina.

        Despite controversy, mushrooms are often added to their diet by people who want to lose weight. And the doctors approve of this.

        “Mushrooms are a low-calorie product. At the same time, they have a high nutritional value, and nutritious foods in food reduce the risk of hunger breakdowns. Zinc in mushrooms reduces cravings for sweets, ”explained Sergey Loginov.

        Plus they are rich in proteins. “There is the same amount of protein in mushrooms as in poultry meat, and carbohydrates and fats – as in vegetables.On average, 100 grams of mushrooms have 25 calories, ”added Elena Doronkina.

        And yet they require a careful approach: mushrooms are a perishable product, moreover, most of them must be boiled beforehand.

        “Fresh mushrooms can be kept in the refrigerator for no more than three days. If you are not sure that you will have time to cook them during this period, freeze or dry them better. Only boletus, boletus and porcini mushrooms can be washed and frozen raw. The rest must first be boiled, then frozen, ”advises Elena Doronkina.

        Cook like a chef

        There is certainly a trend for dishes made from forest mushrooms, says Kuznyahouse chef Ruslan Zakirov, and this is due to the fact that today many chefs like to cook from seasonal products. But it is important to understand where these forest mushrooms were collected. After all, we must not forget that mushrooms absorb toxins very well.

        “In our restaurant we serve beef tartare with porcini mushroom carpaccio with parmesan and olive oil, in which porcini mushrooms are served raw.Therefore, it is very important for us that the mushrooms are collected in an ecologically clean place, ”Ruslan Zakirov noted.

        As the head chef of Cafe Claret Alexander Bogdanov told Gazeta.Ru, dishes from forest mushrooms are in great demand among guests.

        “Our guests are always looking forward to the season of chanterelles and porcini mushrooms. We are trying to create new interesting dishes with mushrooms, and people welcome them with a bang. The bestsellers from year to year are the same – zharekha (potatoes with mushrooms and onions) and porcini mushroom cream soup, ”said Alexander Bogdanov.

        He himself likes to make a simple warming broth out of mushrooms: Bogdanov advises freezing it in order to drink it later in the winter cold.

        For its preparation, you will need 75 g of boletus, 75 g of champignons, 5 g of dry porcini mushrooms, 150 g of oyster mushrooms, 50 g of carrots, 50 g of celery root, 5 ml of ginger juice, 15 g of horseradish root, salt and pepper.Soak the boletus in salted water for two hours. Rinse and dry. Fry carrots with celery in sunflower oil. Pour dry mushrooms with water and bring to a boil. Drain the first broth. Pour vegetables and mushrooms with 2 liters of water, bring to a boil and cook over low heat until the volume is halved. Strain the broth. Add grated horseradish, ginger juice, salt and pepper to taste.

        Prevention of poisoning by poisonous mushrooms and berries

        It’s time to pick mushrooms and berries.Many residents go to the forest to collect and donate these crops. How to distinguish edible mushrooms and berries from harmful and poisonous during harvest? To do this, you need to be well versed in a wide variety of types of mushrooms and recognize them by external signs. After all, the probability of poisoning due to a mistake is very high. Acute poisoning with poisonous plants is a common type of food intoxication that has a number of characteristic features.

        They arise mainly in the warm season – in spring, summer or autumn among tourists who risk eating seasonings from unfamiliar plants or unknown mushrooms, as well as in children’s groups that go to summer camps and summer cottages.This fate will not escape the fate of children and adults who go on picnics out of town, as well as children walking without parental supervision in the local areas. Children, especially younger ones (up to 5 years old), are attracted by the beautiful and bright appearance of many inedible berries and plants, which they are eager to taste. It is better for children not to eat mushrooms at all. Acute poisoning developing under these conditions is often massive and, like a real epidemic, takes away dozens of human lives.

        Mushroom poisoning can occur when eating poisonous mushrooms (fly agaric, false honey fungus, pale toadstool, false champignon, etc. )or edible but spoiled mushrooms (moldy, mucus-covered, stored for a long time). The most life-threatening fungus is the pale toadstool. Death can occur even from the consumption of 1 mushroom.
        Signs of mushroom or poisonous plant poisoning are: nausea, persistent vomiting, profuse salivation, severe sweating, increasing weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness, severe abdominal pain, headache, loose stools (sometimes bloody).
        If the central nervous system is damaged during poisoning, convulsions, visual impairments, agitation, delirium, hallucinations are observed.If anyone in the family shows signs of gastrointestinal damage after taking mushrooms, do not rely on home remedies. Remember: late started treatment (2-5 days) in most cases is unsuccessful!
        What to do in case of poisoning with mushrooms and poisonous plants:
        First aid measures for poisoning with poisonous mushrooms must include an accurate algorithm of actions. This helps to avoid serious health consequences of the affected person.
        First of all, you need to make sure that the remains of the dish for which you suspect are saved.The remains of the mushrooms can help with detailed chemical analysis to determine a possible poison and find an antidote for it.
        At the first signs of poisoning, you must immediately call an ambulance. Then start taking first aid measures.
        In the room where the injured person is located, windows must be opened to provide a large amount of fresh air. Sometimes, with symptoms of heart failure, it can save the life of the sick person.
        How first aid is provided in case of poisoning:
        First aid measures for poisoning with poisonous mushrooms and berries include a set of measures aimed at eliminating the further action of toxins, symptomatic therapy of emerging symptoms and ensuring a safe position of the sick person’s body.
        So, your actions at home should include the following:
        · Call an ambulance immediately;
        · gastric lavage – the patient is given to drink a large amount of clean water, at least 6 glasses, and vomiting is caused;
        · Repeat gastric lavage until clear water comes out without food debris;
        · after that, burnt magnesium is diluted and given to a sick person to provoke the cleansing of the small intestine – this most effective saline laxative should always be in your medicine cabinet;
        · after removing the remnants of poisonous mushrooms, it is recommended to crush and take about 10 tablets of activated carbon, for children, you can replace it with 2 sachets of smecta.
        The position of a sick person should be half-sitting with an elastic head support. Make sure that the passage of vomit is free, and they do not enter the respiratory tract. If you experience pain in the heart, you can take a nitroglycerin tablet under the tongue
        You are not recommended to do anything else, since it is impossible to predict the interaction of drugs with those poisons that were contained in the eaten mushrooms and berries.
        Prevention of poisoning by mushrooms:
        Measures for the prevention of cases of poisoning with poisonous mushrooms include, first of all, caution during “quiet hunting” in forests, parks and walking areas.In no case, do not take those mushrooms in the edibility of which you are not sure. Do not leave underage children unattended. Avoid buying canned mushrooms from grandmothers and unverified producers.
        Long-term storage of canned mushrooms should also be avoided. They cannot maintain their suitability for food for more than 6 to 8 months.

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