Harrods lion for sale: Unseen pictures of lion cub which was bought in Harrods in 1969

Содержание

Unseen pictures of lion cub which was bought in Harrods in 1969

Almost half a century ago, John Rendall and Ace Bourke bought a lion cub at Harrods, named him Christian and raised him on London’s King’s Road, before returning him to the African wild.

A new book illustrated with stunning photographs taken by Derek Cattani, one of Christian’s ‘human pride’, retells the moving story of London’s unlikeliest pet, his new life in Africa and the heart-warming reunion between man and lion that has become one of the world’s most watched and loved videos.

Though he was just a tiny cub, there was something about the self-assured expression in his eyes that made him irresistible. It implied a strength of character that belied his cuddly teddy bear appearance.

As we gazed at him in his small cage, I blurted the words that would change my life for ever. ‘Why don’t we buy him?’ I said to my mate Ace Bourke.

Christian the lion having lunch with model Emma Breeze and friends at the Casserole restaurant on King’s Road, London. the lion cub was bought in Harrods’ pet department in November 1969

‘I’ve already named him,’ replied Ace, nodding in agreement. ‘He’s called Christian.’

Our visit to Harrods’ pet department that fateful day in November 1969 had been prompted by simple curiosity.

As two young Australians newly arrived in the UK, we’d heard crazy tales about a London store where you could buy not just the usual clothes and household goods, but tapirs, snakes, monkeys and even pumas and lions as well.

It sounded incredible, but when I saw the beautiful lion cub for sale that day — alert, trusting and magnificent — I was smitten. 

(These were the days before the Endangered Species Act of 1976, when it was legal for exotic creatures to be sold to the public.)

And so began our wonderful, rollercoaster life with Christian.

Day after day, after the Christmas shoppers had gone home, we’d turn up at Harrods to play with our new pet as we tried to convince his keepers that we’d be suitable owners.

Already weighing 2st, he was more than a handful as he leapt around and wrestled with us — an enchanting ball of energy with razor-sharp teeth.

Anthony Bourke and John Rendall take Christian for s spin in their convertible on the King’s Road. The pair would take the lion in a ride in the car to the churchyard to get exercise and to play

Patiently, the staff answered our excited but naïve questions before asking their own: where, exactly, did we think an energetic three-month-old lion cub might actually live?

It was a problem. But, as luck would have it, I’d newly started a job in a pine furniture store, Sophisto-Cat, on the King’s Road, whose owner had grown up in Africa. How might he feel about having a lion on the premises?

It was an outrageous request, but I didn’t have any better ideas. Surely, I argued, a lion was the ultimate ‘sophistocat’ — the perfect mascot?

There was a huge basement which Christian could have to himself, and we’d be on hand to look after him, as Ace and I were living in the flat above the store.  

Amazingly, the owner enthusiastically agreed. To our delight, the Harrods staff approved; we would collect Christian in three weeks’ time.

A few days later, we had a call. ‘Can you collect Christian tomorrow?’ It transpired that our new acquisition had escaped the night before and all but destroyed a display of goat-skin rugs in the carpet department, whose manager was less than pleased. What had we let ourselves in for?

It was a thrilling time to be in London. Among Sophisto-Cat’s close neighbours were Vivienne Westwood and Malcolm McLaren, whose boutique later became the birthplace of the punk movement, and opposite was ultra-fashionable clothes store Granny Takes A Trip, where The Beatles, Who, Cream and Jimi Hendrix were customers. 

Pampered: Christian gets a blow dry. The lion lived in a huge basement in a pine furniture store, Sophisto-Cat, which Christian had to himself

Perhaps it wasn’t totally outrageous that a lion should be living among such a bohemian set.

Christian’s new home was everything we had hoped for: airy, with plenty of natural light and lots of space for a little cub to race around in, often dragging his favourite plastic pig.

With bedding, bones, toys and a large litter tray which he used assiduously after only a few days of encouragement, it was the perfect lion’s den.

Harrods supplied a detailed diet sheet: a liquid meal with raw egg and vitamins for breakfast, then raw meat — usually chopped beef or rabbit — for lunch and supper, and, as a special treat, a delicious marrow-filled bone at night.

Local restaurants and butchers offered steaks that were past their sell-by date, and cut-price meat.

Exercise soon became a concern. But where could we take him? The problem was solved by the vicar of the nearby church, who agreed to let us use its grounds just a few hundred yards from the shop. 

This sanctuary made an ideal playground, with a high entrance gate and brick walls. Residents of the flats that overlooked it would watch from their balconies and shout encouragement, waving and cheering as Christian raced around chasing footballs and — if we allowed him — us. We never received a complaint.

Friends would often come to join in. If Christian ever became too rough, we would just stand still and stop the game, and he quickly got the message.

Fleet Street photographer Derek Cattani became a regular visitor, and documented Christian’s Chelsea life.

We soon settled into a regular routine. The shop opened at 10am. By then Christian had been fed, enjoyed a ride in the car to the churchyard and returned home for a nap, leaving us to get on with running the shop.

At lunchtime he would be wide awake again and ready for his first meat meal. Then it was playtime in the den with anybody who was free to spend time with him. By the end of the afternoon Christian was ready for tea.

Christian attracts young admirers as he heads out in the Bentley. Celebrities began turning up. Diana Rigg had no qualms cuddling Christian, but her co-star in On Her Majesty’s Secret Service, Australian George Lazenby, did not live up to his 007 image and refused to enter the shop

He would then come up into the shop and wander happily around, often opting to sit on a table or chest of drawers in the window where he had a good view.

Celebrities began turning up. Diana Rigg had no qualms cuddling Christian, but her co-star in On Her Majesty’s Secret Service, Australian George Lazenby, did not live up to his 007 image and refused to enter the shop.

We were bombarded with requests to hire him for parties, premieres, publicity shots. To most of these we said no, though we did agree to a photoshoot with Vanity Fair, and one with racing driver James Hunt.

It was an invitation to appear on Blue Peter that brought an end to Christian’s career as a model. During a rehearsal, he behaved impeccably but by the time of the live appearance, he was bored.

Instead of a nice calm chat on the sofa with Valerie Singleton, the whole thing turned into a wrestling match as we tried to stop Christian from running off.

Ace and I decided such events were too stressful for him. He was not comfortable away from Sophisto-Cat or his churchyard. Christian was also now a year old and growing rapidly. Heartbreakingly, he would need a new home.

We began considering Longleat Safari Park. This was where some of the lions used in the hit movie Born Free — which told the story of how conservationists George and Joy Adamson had reintroduced Elsa, a hand-reared cub, into the wild in Africa — had been relocated.

Then a totally unexpected alternative arose. Actors Bill Travers and his wife Virginia McKenna, who had played George and Joy Adamson in the film, were visiting Virginia’s dressmaker, a neighbour of ours in Chelsea.

Christian tackles John during a game of football in the Moravian Close. Residents of the flats that overlooked it would watch from their balconies and shout encouragement, waving and cheering as Christian raced around chasing footballs 

They came to meet Christian, and asked what we were planning to do with him. We admitted we were still searching for the best solution.

A few days later, Bill rang with an idea. He had contacted George Adamson in Kenya to ask whether he would consider rehabilitating Christian there. The great lion guru had provisionally agreed.

It was a wonderful opportunity, but a challenge too. Take a fifth-generation captivity-bred lion, born in a zoo in Devon and then sold to us in a department store, to Africa? Could he adapt? And if he did, would he survive?

On August 12, 1970, Christian marked his first and last birthday in England. Two weeks later, with photographer Derek Cattani who had come to document the first stage of Christian’s rehabilitation, we touched down in Nairobi, on African soil. His ancestral homeland.

George Adamson was there to meet us. This was the man in whose hands Christian’s destiny now lay.

Together we set off in George’s jeep for the Kora reserve 250 miles away — Christian’s new home. When we stopped en route at a camp and took Christian for his first walk in Africa, an event of overwhelming significance occurred.

Christian spotted a lost cow in the bush and immediately crouched and froze. We watched as Christian stalked his prey — creeping slowly forward and using the low bushes to conceal himself. George was worried, though: the beast’s substantial horns could be lethal. 

We tried to grab Christian and, for the first time ever, he snarled at us. The episode shook us, but George was hugely impressed at his stalking instincts.

That night in camp Christian was wonderfully affectionate. Perhaps it was the excitement of his first stalking, or perhaps he was trying to make up for his earlier aggression. Either way, he dozed off with his head on a pillow and his paw on my face.

But we had learned what we most needed to know: our young lion was wild at heart. Everything would be all right.

In the summer of 1971, a year after Christian had become a wild animal, Ace and I returned to Kora to see George and, we hoped, glimpse our beloved lion.

When we called George from Nairobi he told us not to get our hopes up. Christian was now the head of a small pride — three females and a young male. George hadn’t seen them for weeks.

But when he met us at Kora he was grinning.  

‘The lions turned up this morning,’ he said. ‘Christian must have known you were coming.’

At his camp, George identified a spot for a reunion. He told us he would lead the lions to the brow of a rock, from where they could see me, Ace and a cameraman friend, Simon Trevor, who had been making a film about our story. After that, nobody knew what might happen.

As Christian crested the brow he stopped and stared at us. After a few minutes, he walked slowly down towards us, staring the whole time. He looked superb: taller, leaner and less thickly coated, but strong and confident.

His body language was self-assured as he approached. 

‘Call him,’ George said, unable to wait any longer.

And that did it: the moment he heard our voices Christian began to run down the rocky hillside, grunting with excitement. 

A 300lb lion was now bounding towards us at about 20 miles an hour. We braced ourselves for the impact and suddenly there he was, jumping up to greet us, rubbing our heads, moaning with pleasure and running backwards and forwards between us as he tried to embrace us both at the same time.

Wild at heart: A 300lb lion was now bounding towards us at about 20 miles an hour. We braced ourselves for the impact and suddenly there he was, jumping up to greet us, rubbing our heads, moaning with pleasure and running backwards and forwards between us as he tried to embrace us both at the same time

Today I look at the photos of that meeting and realise how overwhelmed I was by the powerful emotion. At that moment, the gulf between humans and lions had been blurred by sheer euphoria.

But that was not the end of the story. In 2006, the film of our reunion was spotted by an English actor named Marc Bolton, who was inspired to add a written narrative and a soundtrack using the Whitney Houston song I Will Always Love You.

Today there have been a staggering 100 million YouTube viewings of that brief clip, with interest showing no signs of abating. Christian is one of the most famous lions there has ever been.

It’s 45 years since, in 1973, Christian disappeared into the wild for ever, but some time later George heard him mating and was confident that he had established his own pride.  

Philip Mason, manager of a safari lodge near the Adamsons’ camp, often sees big-maned individuals that strongly resemble Christian. Could these be his descendants? Philip thinks so.

When Ace and I took Christian to Kenya in 1970, there were 400,000 lions in Africa. Today there are fewer than 20,000.

As the threat to Africa’s lions increases, we have much to be grateful to Christian for. 

The video gains him ever more fans and I pray it will continue to help raise awareness among new viewers, and the fight to save Christian’s descendants will gain momentum.

There could be no better legacy from a remarkable animal who continues to hold a unique place in our hearts.

Adapted from Christian The Lion: The Illustrated Legacy by John Rendall and Derek Cattani (Bradt, £14.99). © John Rendall & Derek Cattani 2018. 

To order a copy for £11.99 (offer valid to November 15, 2018, p&p free on orders over £15), visit mailshop.co.uk/books or call 0844 571 0640. To donate to the George Adamson Wildlife Preservation Trust visit georgeadamson.org/donate

 

Christian – the lion we bought from Harrods

He might have taken a while to house-train and would get through a lot of Pedigree Chum. Yet for six months in 1970, Christian the lion lived as a pet in a flat in Chelsea. And no, this isn’t an April fool.

Anthony ‘Ace’ Bourke and John Rendall bought the young cub from Harrods (a purchase no longer possible thanks to the 1973 Endangered Species Act), keeping him in the basement below a shop named, aptly, Sophisticat. They walked him in a nearby church garden and fed him on fillet steaks.

On the prowl: Christian with John Rendall and Anthony Bourke

‘Our purchase of Christian was a spontaneous, in retrospect irresponsible, thing to have done – but we managed to look after him,’ says Rendall. ‘He was 35lb (16kg) when we bought him and at the end of his first year he was 185lb. But we kept him on a lead on the street and we never let him know he’d become too big for us to physically manage.

Yet Christian eventually outgrew the King’s Road and the pair took him to Kenya to be rehabilitated by George Adamson of Born Free fame. ‘It was a challenge because he was a fifth-generation zoo-bred lion,’ says Rendall. ‘George wasn’t sure to what extent Christian had been de-lionised.’

Christian goes out for a drive

They didn’t need to worry: after a few weeks of acclimatising, Christian left the models and hairdressers behind and went native. ‘He did have to learn some things, like you don’t chase rhinoceros,’ says Bourke. ‘Yet as it turned out, his instincts were totally intact; he knew how to hunt, how to behave with an adult lion.’

A year after leaving Christian in Africa, Bourke and Rendall returned. Warned that Christian may have forgotten them, they approached him apprehensively – but he leapt up in greeting.

Footage of the reunion was posted on YouTube in 2006 and snowballed into an internet phenomenon. The viral hit has allowed the pair to discuss wider issues. ‘We’re humbled by it but it gives us the chance to talk about wildlife conservation,’ says Bourke.

‘How can we harness that incredible goodwill among so many millions of people towards achieving specific aims?’

While buying Christian was never part of any big plan, the experience prompted Bourke to return to Australia and work with indigenous people, while Rendall dedicated his life to wildlife preservation.

Funding from two documentaries made about Christian allowed a section of land in Kenya to be set aside as the Kora National Park – although it was abandoned after Adamson’s death in 1989.

‘The George Adamson Trust is now looking at restoring the park, reintroducing species and helping a village within the area by sinking a new well and building houses for school teachers,’ says Rendall. ‘We focus on both animal and human protection because until people in Africa are living beyond subsistence level we can’t expect them to look after wildlife.’

Their passion for conservation has made the pair reassess that Harrods purchase. ‘We’ve realised we should never have bought a lion, that it only encouraged trafficking in exotic animals,’ says Bourke.

‘It was a huge adventure but I’ve had cats before and after, and have developed the same emotional closeness with them as I had with Christian.’

‘People are surprised this sort of communication is possible with our main predator,’ says Rendall. ‘They are larger than life, their personalities are immense – that’s what attracted George to lions. He thought you could have the highest or deepest relationship with them.’

‘Christian’s charisma got him from Ilfracombe Zoo to Harrods to King’s Road and back to take his chances in the wild,’ says Bourke. ‘It’s like his magic is still here – if we can make some of the people watching the clip aware of wildlife conservation, it’s all been worthwhile.’

A Lion Called Christian (£12.99, Bantam Press), the revised edition of the 1971 book by Anthony Bourke and John Rendall, is out now.

Get your need-to-know
latest news, feel-good stories, analysis and more

Christian the lion, our joy and pride | Family

The grainy film first appeared on YouTube four years ago. Since then, it has melted millions of hearts: a fully grown male lion hugs two young men like an over-enthusiastic kitten.

The moving reunion of the men with their pet took place a year after they had left him in the African bush.”It was so humbling the way he ran towards us with such love and excitement in his eyes, and we felt exactly the same way,” says John Rendall, of the lion he raised and delivered to Africa through a series of extraordinary coincidences. “We had such a beautiful relationship with him. Christian changed the path of our lives.”

In 1969, Rendall and his friend Anthony “Ace” Bourke, came across a lion cub in Harrods, London, which then traded in exotic animals. They fell in love with him and took him home to their Chelsea flat. They named the cub Christian, inspired by a biblical sense of irony. He lived with them in a Kings Road furniture shop, SophistoCat, where he had a giant tray of cat litter and rarely ruined the store’s furniture. He played with local children in the walled garden of a churchyard. He was fed steak and taken to restaurants and glamorous parties in the back of their Mercedes cabriolet.

The scratchy homemade film, shot in Kenya 40 years ago, has been seen by more than 100 million people, landing Rendall and Burke on Oprah and triggering the reissue of their 1971 book and a new Hollywood film with Zac Efron as Rendall [see footnote].

Today, sitting in his African-themed Chelsea flat, Rendall, 65, who is still a laid-back dandy, shows me photographs and bits and pieces from his past. “Christian opened my eyes to a whole other world. Without him I would not have had such a unique introduction to Africa.

“That’s where we took him to run and play,” he says, pointing out of the window at the tree-lined churchyard down the road from SophistoCat.

“Large parts of Chelsea are unchanged, including the close where Christian played football and hide-and-seek, and many of the Kings Road buildings in the World’s End, so it will be perfect for the filming. A lot of the memories of our time together faded over the years and sometimes seemed like some sort of secret dream only Ace and I shared. But this sudden revival of interest in Christian has brought him back to us. I’m really enjoying reliving our experience, falling in love with him all over again and missing him.

“The movie completes the story for me. But I’m concerned [about] where the lions are coming from. When filming was completed on Born Free, some of the lions were sold to safari parks and zoos. Virginia McKenna, who played Joy Adamson, was mortified. I’m determined that this doesn’t happen to any lions used when filming Christian’s story. I’m really looking forward to working with lions again and ensuring people realise that when Christian went to Africa there were 250,000 lions. Today, there are fewer than 20,000.”

Rendall laughs, remembering the first time he became aware of the footage surfacing on the internet. “A friend who knew we had had a lion sent me the clip, saying, ‘Have you seen these two idiots with long hair and the lion?’ I wrote back and said, ‘That was us.'”

“So many issues have arisen out of it,” he says of the now famous footage. “The most obvious is that people can appreciate the love that an animal can have for humans. It’s completely honest. You absolutely couldn’t fake that. I’ve had cats before and after, and have developed the same emotional closeness as I had with Christian. Most people are surprised that this type of communication and deep relationship is possible with predators.”

This lion’s legacy and influence loomed large. John admits that Christian taught him to focus on the essentials of life – “the sun, friends and family” – and inspired the “wildlife conservation” work that became the sustained passion of his life.

“Neither of us dreamed of owning an exotic animal, but I was pretty shocked to see this big cat, even if it was three months old, in this tiny cage.” He remembers thinking: “This isn’t right – we must get him out of here. Surely we can give him a better life. Suddenly our lives were incomplete without a lion cub. And right there, we decided to buy him.”

The idea that anyone could buy a lion and move it into an urban environment seems shocking now. But, in London in the 60s, says Rendall, anything was possible. “Christian wasn’t the only wild cat in this world. His neighbour was a serval cat. There was a chap in Battersea with a puma. John Aspinall had his tigers in Eaton Square and there were cheetahs and cougars roaming around Regent Street.

“An exotic animal in London was just a part of exotic, experimental London. There were so many things going on. There was the fashion, the music. We would see the Stones and the Beatles driving up and down Kings Road. The Stones, who rehearsed around the corner, used to pop in and visit Christian frequently. In that milieu, we were just a couple of Aussies with a lion.”

Rendall and Bourke had known each other in their native Australia and were drawn together by their love of animals. Growing up on a farm, deep in the rugged red landscapes of the outback, Rendall rode horses, and the family pets included cattle dogs, cats and injured birds and orphaned baby kangaroos, who were hand-reared until they were old enough to be set free.

After graduating from university, they made their separate ways to London and met by chance. They eventually got a flat together, finding work and lodging over the trendy Chelsea furniture shop, where they “persuaded the owners they needed a lion on the premises”, after spending days looking for a flat with an outside space “for our dog”. They even advertised in the Times: “Lion cub and two young men seeking suitable garden flat/house”, hoping to find “a courageous or eccentric landlord”.

Raising Christian, John says, was an adventure. “Our lives revolved around him for a year. He was a handful, and it took four of us to look after him – Ace and me, my then girlfriend Jennifer-Mary, who was one of the shop owners, and an actress called Unity Jones who worked with Fellini and had a lioness in Rome called Lola. He was never alone. As with any animal, they hate being alone, particularly lions, who live in a family unit.”

Years later, after becoming a father, Rendall discovered there wasn’t much difference between bringing up a lion and children. “They have the same basic needs: food, shelter and love. What I learned with Christian and subsequently passed on to my children is that you really have to put the time in. You can’t just leave them with toys or in front of the television. You’ve got to get them outside, taking them places, sharing things that they enjoy. Being urban children, too, I thought it was important to introduce them to the natural world: to talk about animals and travelling with them. All three are switched on to preserving wildlife. My youngest son, Nicky, is going to Australia to study marine biology, and my 30-year-old daughter, Tallulah, is a musician and often does benefit gigs in aid of the George Adamson Wildlife Preservation Trust.

“The all-consuming commitment of looking after Christian was like having a child and the perfect preparation for being a parent,” says Rendall. “I was 23 and never had that much responsibility and suddenly here was this animal that demanded our constant attention. He was so irresistible you couldn’t refuse him anything. If one of us was reading, he would clamber into our lap. SophistoCat was a jungle of furniture, and he was constantly stalking us through it.

“He was beautifully behaved, and though he never bit or hurt anyone, you underestimated his strength at your peril. I remember taking him to a party once and he jumped on a friend he hadn’t seen in a while and when he put his paws on her shoulders, one of them slipped, his claw got caught in the straps of her dress and the whole thing was on the floor.”

They were thrust into the unknown, but seemed to understand intuitively that lions can’t be owned, and must be treated as friends. They never showed fear around Christian or tried to impose their will. Instead, they took a horse-whisperer approach to raising him by disciplining him, using tone of voice. “It’s the only way to train a lion or any living creature because if you go down the physical route, you’re going to end up in serious trouble as it grows,” Rendall explains.

“Like any pet dog or cat, Christian knew when we wanted him to calm down, stop being naughty, let’s go, that sort of thing. We were very fortunate that we got it right. We ended up with a wonderful animal. With my children, too, I rarely gave them a slap. Whether it’s accidental or not, they’re all doing well. I guess Christian was my introduction to parenting.”

The two men wrote a bestseller, A Lion Called Christian, in 1971, recounting their life while he grew from a cub to a young adult, and their decision to return him to the African wilderness.

Through a chance meeting with the actors Virginia McKenna and Bill Travers, stars of the 1966 film Born Free, Christian was flown to Kenya and placed in the care of the lion conservationist George Adamson to introduce him to the wild, at the Kora National Park. “I think George got quite a shock when he met us,” he says, laughing. “Straight from Kings Road, in all our gear – flares and with hair everywhere. We stood out from everyone else in Nairobi. But then so did Christian. He wasn’t dressed for the heat after coming from winter in England, so he had a thick coat. For the first few days, he behaved like the worst kind of tourist, avoiding the sun and lolling on our camp beds.”

The visit to Kora led to a lifelong affinity with Africa and its wildlife, but also to a long relationship with Adamson. “When we took Christian to Africa, it was my first visit to that magnificent continent. I was entranced by the sights and smells, and to see Christian in his right environment was so exciting. Suddenly, instead of being ‘exotic’ he just fit in, blending into the landscape. Even so, it was wrenching to leave him behind knowing all the inevitable dangers and hardships facing an animal in the wild, particularly a pampered one.”

Rendall returned to London with a broken heart. “I felt happy for Christian as he was clearly content. But there was an overwhelming sense of loss and emptiness. He left this huge gap – it felt like empty nest syndrome. Ace went off travelling and I was alone.”

In 1972, a year after the heart-stopping hug that made international news and inspired two documentaries, Rendall and Bourke returned to Kenya to see Christian for what turned out to be the last time. Adamson told them he hadn’t seen Christian for three months and, incredibly, he reappeared soon after the men arrived. There was another tearful reunion. “On the third day, during dinner, Christian ambled into the camp and rushed over to us, grunting with excitement. He knocked George over, jumped on the table and interrupted dinner. He tried to sit on our laps, even though he was now a 500lb cat. We spent nine amazing days with him. He was much bigger and more independent, with a pride of lionesses and a batch of cubs, and we were nearly superfluous to his life. But that was the whole point of it, to return to the wild.”

The whole experience moved Rendall to devote his life to conservation, and he is a trustee of the George Adamson Wildlife Preservation Trust. Would he ever consider having a wild animal again? Never, he says. “We realised pretty quickly that buying a lion only encouraged the trafficking of exotic animals,” he says. “Christian made his own luck because he was so charming. It got him from Harrods to Kings Road and back to take his chances in the wild. Aside from his freedom, many wonderful things came out it. If we hadn’t made that snap decision to buy him and take him to George, [to get him] successfully rehabilitated, the trust would not really have existed. Now there’s a national park [Kora] because of Christian’s life.”

Glancing at the photographs of the lion he knew and loved, he says hopefully: “It’s like his magic is still here. Christian has become the perfect ambassador for conservation. I think the movie, too, will be a wonderful opportunity to promote the trust and the Elsa Conservation Trust, and to make a whole new generation aware of the contribution George and Joy Adamson made to conservation.

“If we can get people watching the clip and the movie aware of the cause, then it has all been worthwhile.”

A Lion Called Christian is published by Bantam Press, £7.99, in a revised edition of the book by Anthony Bourke and John Rendall. To order a copy for £6.39 with free UK p&p, go to theguardian.com/bookshop or call 0330 333 6846

This footnote was appended on 3 June 2011. After publication of this article, the following letter was published in the paper: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/jun/02/credit-to-christian

Lions, Leopards And Lemurs: London’s Most Unusual Pets

London landlords can be reluctant to let their tenants keep pets, and looking at this lot we can see why. Exotic animals from all over the world have been pets in London throughout the years. Here are some of the weirdest.

Christian the lion

Documentary A Lion Called Christian tells his story.

Ronald Reagan once phoned up Harrods to buy a baby elephant called Gertie, according to rumour, and tigers, panthers and camels were among the animals available to purchase at the posh department store. Nowadays, Harrods is better known for handbags than animals, but it used to do a roaring (geddit?) trade in exotic animals. Perhaps the most famous was Christian the lion.

In 1969, Australian friends Ace Bourke and John Rendall bought a lion cub from Harrods for the equivalent of £3,000 in today’s money. They named it Christian, and the lion lived with them in their flat on King’s Road in Chelsea. They exercised him in the local church grounds, with permission of the vicar.

The documentary A Lion Called Christian tells of the lion cub barging in on a friend having a bath and proceeding to drink the bath water, and of a chef from a local restaurant providing leftover steaks for the lion to eat.

Christian predictably outgrew his London lifestyle, and his owners decided to try to reintroduce him to the wild.

Have a watch of what happened when they were reunited with him in the wild a year after his release. It melted our stone cold hearts.

The 1976 Endangered Species Act put a stop to such exotic animals being sold in Knightsbridge and elsewhere, although hamsters, dogs and the like were still for sale at Harrods’ Pet Kingdom until it closed in 2014.

Michael the west London leopard

The star of this video is Michael. Michael was the leopard owned by secretary Angela McWilliams in west London in the 1960s. Every day, she would take him for a walk around the area and in the park, where he tried to befriend the local dogs, most probably believing that he was one of them.

Mah-Jongg the lemur

English Heritage, Courtald painting – © Historic England Bridgeman Images

In the 1930s, Eltham Palace was home to ring-tailed lemur Mah-Jongg, along with his millionaire owners Stephen and Virginia Courtauld. Like Christian the lion, he also came from the Harrods pet department.

Exotic pets were very fashionable at this time, and used as a sign of status and wealth — the more exotic, the better. At home, Jongy, as he was affectionately known, had his own centrally-heated living quarters.

The family were keen travellers, as demonstrated by the map room which was unveiled at the renovated palace last year. When they went travelling on their motor yacht, Mah-Jongg had his own specially designed lemur deckchair.

Mah-Jongg died at Eltham Palace in 1938, although he’s still well represented in the decor of the place in artworks and carvings.

George Washington the alligator

Another British Pathe video, this time from Worcester Park near Sutton in 1954, where a woman is bathing her baby alligators, as you do. George Washington is the only one friendly enough to be handled — his snappy friend stays in the tank throughout the clip.

Winnipeg the bear

We’ve covered Winnipeg the bear — AKA Winnie the Pooh— in detail before, but suffice to say that if the Canadian Regiment hadn’t found themselves with a tame black bear as a regimental mascot, we probably wouldn’t have Pooh, Piglet and co. today.

Rossetti’s wombat

Artist and poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti lived in London in the 19th century and had a particular interest in exotic animals.

Most famously, he loved wombats, and his first pet wombat (of two) was named Top. Rossetti regularly sketched Top, and allowed him to sleep on the dinner table during meals. Top died in November 1869, after Rossetti had only had him for a couple of months.

Rossetti also had a private menagerie in the garden of his Cheyne Walk house — not unusual for the wealthy at the time — and regularly acquired animals from notorious exotic animal trader Charles Jamrach, including a kangaroo, armadillos and a raccoon.

Which exotic and unusual London animal pets have we missed? Let us know in the comments below.

Unseen pictures of lion cub which was bought in Harrods in 1969 |

Almost half a century ago, John Rendall and Ace Bourke bought a lion cub at Harrods, named him Christian and raised him on London’s King’s Road, before returning him to the African wild.

A new book illustrated with stunning photographs taken by Derek Cattani, one of Christian’s ‘human pride’, retells the moving story of London’s unlikeliest pet, his new life in Africa and the heart-warming reunion between man and lion that has become one of the world’s most watched and loved videos.

Though he was just a tiny cub, there was something about the self-assured expression in his eyes that made him irresistible. It implied a strength of character that belied his cuddly teddy bear appearance.

As we gazed at him in his small cage, I blurted the words that would change my life for ever. ‘Why don’t we buy him?’ I said to my mate Ace Bourke.

Christian the lion having lunch with model Emma Breeze and friends at the Casserole restaurant on King’s Road, London. the lion cub was bought in Harrods’ pet department in November 1969

‘I’ve already named him,’ replied Ace, nodding in agreement. ‘He’s called Christian.’

Our visit to Harrods’ pet department that fateful day in November 1969 had been prompted by simple curiosity.

As two young Australians newly arrived in the UK, we’d heard crazy tales about a London store where you could buy not just the usual clothes and household goods, but tapirs, snakes, monkeys and even pumas and lions as well.

It sounded incredible, but when I saw the beautiful lion cub for sale that day — alert, trusting and magnificent — I was smitten. 

(These were the days before the Endangered Species Act of 1976, when it was legal for exotic creatures to be sold to the public.)

And so began our wonderful, rollercoaster life with Christian.

Day after day, after the Christmas shoppers had gone home, we’d turn up at Harrods to play with our new pet as we tried to convince his keepers that we’d be suitable owners.

Already weighing 2st, he was more than a handful as he leapt around and wrestled with us — an enchanting ball of energy with razor-sharp teeth.

Anthony Bourke and John Rendall take Christian for s spin in their convertible on the King’s Road. The pair would take the lion in a ride in the car to the churchyard to get exercise and to play

Patiently, the staff answered our excited but naïve questions before asking their own: where, exactly, did we think an energetic three-month-old lion cub might actually live?

It was a problem. But, as luck would have it, I’d newly started a job in a pine furniture store, Sophisto-Cat, on the King’s Road, whose owner had grown up in Africa. How might he feel about having a lion on the premises?

It was an outrageous request, but I didn’t have any better ideas. Surely, I argued, a lion was the ultimate ‘sophistocat’ — the perfect mascot?

There was a huge basement which Christian could have to himself, and we’d be on hand to look after him, as Ace and I were living in the flat above the store. 

Amazingly, the owner enthusiastically agreed. To our delight, the Harrods staff approved; we would collect Christian in three weeks’ time.

A few days later, we had a call. ‘Can you collect Christian tomorrow?’ It transpired that our new acquisition had escaped the night before and all but destroyed a display of goat-skin rugs in the carpet department, whose manager was less than pleased. What had we let ourselves in for?

It was a thrilling time to be in London. Among Sophisto-Cat’s close neighbours were Vivienne Westwood and Malcolm McLaren, whose boutique later became the birthplace of the punk movement, and opposite was ultra-fashionable clothes store Granny Takes A Trip, where The Beatles, Who, Cream and Jimi Hendrix were customers. 

Pampered: Christian gets a blow dry. The lion lived in a huge basement in a pine furniture store, Sophisto-Cat, which Christian had to himself

Perhaps it wasn’t totally outrageous that a lion should be living among such a bohemian set.

Christian’s new home was everything we had hoped for: airy, with plenty of natural light and lots of space for a little cub to race around in, often dragging his favourite plastic pig.

With bedding, bones, toys and a large litter tray which he used assiduously after only a few days of encouragement, it was the perfect lion’s den.

Harrods supplied a detailed diet sheet: a liquid meal with raw egg and vitamins for breakfast, then raw meat — usually chopped beef or rabbit — for lunch and supper, and, as a special treat, a delicious marrow-filled bone at night.

Local restaurants and butchers offered steaks that were past their sell-by date, and cut-price meat.

Exercise soon became a concern. But where could we take him? The problem was solved by the vicar of the nearby church, who agreed to let us use its grounds just a few hundred yards from the shop. 

This sanctuary made an ideal playground, with a high entrance gate and brick walls. Residents of the flats that overlooked it would watch from their balconies and shout encouragement, waving and cheering as Christian raced around chasing footballs and — if we allowed him — us. We never received a complaint.

Friends would often come to join in. If Christian ever became too rough, we would just stand still and stop the game, and he quickly got the message.

Fleet Street photographer Derek Cattani became a regular visitor, and documented Christian’s Chelsea life.

We soon settled into a regular routine. The shop opened at 10am. By then Christian had been fed, enjoyed a ride in the car to the churchyard and returned home for a nap, leaving us to get on with running the shop.

At lunchtime he would be wide awake again and ready for his first meat meal. Then it was playtime in the den with anybody who was free to spend time with him. By the end of the afternoon Christian was ready for tea.

Christian attracts young admirers as he heads out in the Bentley. Celebrities began turning up. Diana Rigg had no qualms cuddling Christian, but her co-star in On Her Majesty’s Secret Service, Australian George Lazenby, did not live up to his 007 image and refused to enter the shop

He would then come up into the shop and wander happily around, often opting to sit on a table or chest of drawers in the window where he had a good view.

Celebrities began turning up. Diana Rigg had no qualms cuddling Christian, but her co-star in On Her Majesty’s Secret Service, Australian George Lazenby, did not live up to his 007 image and refused to enter the shop.

We were bombarded with requests to hire him for parties, premieres, publicity shots. To most of these we said no, though we did agree to a photoshoot with Vanity Fair, and one with racing driver James Hunt.

It was an invitation to appear on Blue Peter that brought an end to Christian’s career as a model. During a rehearsal, he behaved impeccably but by the time of the live appearance, he was bored.

Instead of a nice calm chat on the sofa with Valerie Singleton, the whole thing turned into a wrestling match as we tried to stop Christian from running off.

Ace and I decided such events were too stressful for him. He was not comfortable away from Sophisto-Cat or his churchyard. Christian was also now a year old and growing rapidly. Heartbreakingly, he would need a new home.

We began considering Longleat Safari Park. This was where some of the lions used in the hit movie Born Free — which told the story of how conservationists George and Joy Adamson had reintroduced Elsa, a hand-reared cub, into the wild in Africa — had been relocated.

Then a totally unexpected alternative arose. Actors Bill Travers and his wife Virginia McKenna, who had played George and Joy Adamson in the film, were visiting Virginia’s dressmaker, a neighbour of ours in Chelsea.

Christian tackles John during a game of football in the Moravian Close. Residents of the flats that overlooked it would watch from their balconies and shout encouragement, waving and cheering as Christian raced around chasing footballs 

They came to meet Christian, and asked what we were planning to do with him. We admitted we were still searching for the best solution.

A few days later, Bill rang with an idea. He had contacted George Adamson in Kenya to ask whether he would consider rehabilitating Christian there. The great lion guru had provisionally agreed.

It was a wonderful opportunity, but a challenge too. Take a fifth-generation captivity-bred lion, born in a zoo in Devon and then sold to us in a department store, to Africa? Could he adapt? And if he did, would he survive?

On August 12, 1970, Christian marked his first and last birthday in England. Two weeks later, with photographer Derek Cattani who had come to document the first stage of Christian’s rehabilitation, we touched down in Nairobi, on African soil. His ancestral homeland.

George Adamson was there to meet us. This was the man in whose hands Christian’s destiny now lay.

Together we set off in George’s jeep for the Kora reserve 250 miles away — Christian’s new home. When we stopped en route at a camp and took Christian for his first walk in Africa, an event of overwhelming significance occurred.

Christian spotted a lost cow in the bush and immediately crouched and froze. We watched as Christian stalked his prey — creeping slowly forward and using the low bushes to conceal himself. George was worried, though: the beast’s substantial horns could be lethal. 

We tried to grab Christian and, for the first time ever, he snarled at us. The episode shook us, but George was hugely impressed at his stalking instincts.

That night in camp Christian was wonderfully affectionate. Perhaps it was the excitement of his first stalking, or perhaps he was trying to make up for his earlier aggression. Either way, he dozed off with his head on a pillow and his paw on my face.

But we had learned what we most needed to know: our young lion was wild at heart. Everything would be all right.

In the summer of 1971, a year after Christian had become a wild animal, Ace and I returned to Kora to see George and, we hoped, glimpse our beloved lion.

When we called George from Nairobi he told us not to get our hopes up. Christian was now the head of a small pride — three females and a young male. George hadn’t seen them for weeks.

But when he met us at Kora he was grinning. 

‘The lions turned up this morning,’ he said. ‘Christian must have known you were coming.’

At his camp, George identified a spot for a reunion. He told us he would lead the lions to the brow of a rock, from where they could see me, Ace and a cameraman friend, Simon Trevor, who had been making a film about our story. After that, nobody knew what might happen.

As Christian crested the brow he stopped and stared at us. After a few minutes, he walked slowly down towards us, staring the whole time. He looked superb: taller, leaner and less thickly coated, but strong and confident.

His body language was self-assured as he approached. 

‘Call him,’ George said, unable to wait any longer.

And that did it: the moment he heard our voices Christian began to run down the rocky hillside, grunting with excitement. 

A 300lb lion was now bounding towards us at about 20 miles an hour. We braced ourselves for the impact and suddenly there he was, jumping up to greet us, rubbing our heads, moaning with pleasure and running backwards and forwards between us as he tried to embrace us both at the same time.

Wild at heart: A 300lb lion was now bounding towards us at about 20 miles an hour. We braced ourselves for the impact and suddenly there he was, jumping up to greet us, rubbing our heads, moaning with pleasure and running backwards and forwards between us as he tried to embrace us both at the same time

Today I look at the photos of that meeting and realise how overwhelmed I was by the powerful emotion. At that moment, the gulf between humans and lions had been blurred by sheer euphoria.

But that was not the end of the story. In 2006, the film of our reunion was spotted by an English actor named Marc Bolton, who was inspired to add a written narrative and a soundtrack using the Whitney Houston song I Will Always Love You.

Today there have been a staggering 100 million YouTube viewings of that brief clip, with interest showing no signs of abating. Christian is one of the most famous lions there has ever been.

It’s 45 years since, in 1973, Christian disappeared into the wild for ever, but some time later George heard him mating and was confident that he had established his own pride. 

Philip Mason, manager of a safari lodge near the Adamsons’ camp, often sees big-maned individuals that strongly resemble Christian. Could these be his descendants? Philip thinks so.

When Ace and I took Christian to Kenya in 1970, there were 400,000 lions in Africa. Today there are fewer than 20,000.

As the threat to Africa’s lions increases, we have much to be grateful to Christian for. 

The video gains him ever more fans and I pray it will continue to help raise awareness among new viewers, and the fight to save Christian’s descendants will gain momentum.

There could be no better legacy from a remarkable animal who continues to hold a unique place in our hearts.

Adapted from Christian The Lion: The Illustrated Legacy by John Rendall and Derek Cattani (Bradt, £14.99). © John Rendall & Derek Cattani 2018. 

To order a copy for £11.99 (offer valid to November 15, 2018, p&p free on orders over £15), visit mailshop.co.uk/books or call 0844 571 0640. To donate to the George Adamson Wildlife Preservation Trust visit georgeadamson.org/donate

 

‘One hump or two, madam?’ – The Sun

IT was once a place where the wealthy could drop in and pick up a pet
alligator, baby elephant or lion cub.

Harrods’ Pet Kingdom has been world-famous for nearly 100 years and once
offered enough exotic animals to rival London Zoo.

Before the introduction of the Endangered Species Act 1976, buyers could get
tigers, panthers and even camels.

Rex

But the department in the posh London store is to close at the end of the
month, to be replaced by womenswear.

Opened in 1917 on the fourth floor of the Knightsbridge building, Pet Kingdom
covered 11,000sq ft.

It was also popular with royals and celebrities. In the Fifties, Canadian
actress Beatrice Lillie bought British playwright Noël Coward an alligator
from the shop as a Christmas gift.

In the Seventies, former US president Ronald Reagan picked up a baby elephant
called Gertie.

The story goes that when he called Pet Kingdom to enquire about buying one,
the sales assistant simply replied: “African or Indian, sir?”

Daniel Kennedy

But its most famous sale came with Christian the lion cub in 1969, given to a
pair of Australians who kept it in a flat off Chelsea’s trendy Kings Road.
As it grew, owners John Rendall and Anthony “Ace” Bourke moved Christian to
their furniture store and took it for walks up and down the fashionable
street.

That is, when he was not being chauffeur-driven in their Bentley.

John and Ace adored Christian, bought for 240 guineas — or £3,500 in today’s
money.

Explaining why, John said: “A friend had been to the ‘exotic animals’
department at Harrods and announced, rather grandly, that she wanted a
camel.

“To which the manager very coolly replied, ‘One hump or two, madam?’

“Ace and I thought this was the most sophisticated repartee we’d ever heard,
so we went along to check it out — and there, in a small cage, was a
gorgeous little lion cub. We looked at each other and said, ‘Something’s got
to be done about that’.”

So they bought Christian and took him home to their flat, where they trained
him to use a huge litter tray.

After a year, the animal had grown from just 35lb to 185lb, leaving its owners
with an ever-increasing problem.

But the pair were helped when, by chance, Born Free star Virginia McKenna
visited their shop and later introduced them to animal conservationist
George Adamson.

Channel 5

He eventually released Christian into the wild in Kenya and became the subject
of a book, TV documentaries and a film.

A year after he was set free, Ace and John flew to the African country hoping
to see their pet one last time.

Adamson warned them that they would never see Christian again, as he was in
charge of a pride of lions and had cubs of his own.

But on the day they arrived, a shocked Adamson said: “He’s here, outside the
camp on his favourite rock. He’s waiting for you.”

John said: “He ran towards us, threw himself on to us, knocked us over,
knocked George over and hugged us, like he used to, with his paws on our
shoulders.

“Everyone was crying. We were crying, George was crying, even the lion was
nearly crying.

Speaking about the closure of Pet Kingdom, John said: “I understand they have
to think of something more profitable but it’s certainly the end of an era.”

In recent years, Pet Kingdom underwent a makeover and became a boutique full
of designer doggy items, visited by stars including Holly Valance, Simon
Cowell and Britain’s Got Talent winner Pudsey.

There was also a range of Harrods-branded pet outfits, dog leads, beds and
horse blankets.

And for the glamorous, pampered pooches, owners could get diamond studded dog
collars and pet beds — including a £1,600 four-poster covered in SWAROVSKI
CRYSTALS
.

Harrods

Their pet spa offered dogs and cats a blueberry scrub facial, nail-painting
sessions and workouts on a treadmill while watching films such as 101
Dalmatians.

The department did, until recently, sell dogs and small animals but the
process was a lot stricter than in the old days, with would-be owners having
an interview to test their suitability.

The pets were cared for in-store by veterinary nurses and were only on display
for short periods.

The decision to shut down Pet Kingdom has been taken by the Qatari royal
family — who bought Harrods from Mohammed Al Fayed in 2010 — as part of the
store’s £200million refurbishment.

But not everyone is sad to see it go.

Clarissa Baldwin, chief executive of the Dogs Trust, said: “A pet shop is not
an appropriate environment in which to sell puppies and kittens.

“Our supporters have long expressed their concern about the UK’s most famous
department store selling pets.”

True Story of Christian The Lion

Christian the lion, a true story of the relationship between man and animal, and Christian’s extraordinary journey from zoo, to Harrods and finally to the wilds of Kenya.

Background

This incredible true story of love between man and animal, highlights the trust and love humankind has towards wildlife and how that bond endures. Christian was born in Ilfracombe Zoo, Devon in August 1969; he was part of a litter that had been rejected by their mother.

The litter was hand reared by the zoo keepers, but when Christian and his sister were a few months old, they were sold to Harrod’s, the prestigious department store in London.

London

John Rendall and Ace Bourke, had just come over from Australia and were working in London at an antique pine furniture shop, called Sophistocat. When they were exploring London they visited Harrod’s, and saw this small lion cub in the window. With no further thought, they bought the cub and took him home to their flat in Chelsea.

They named the cub Christian, as an irony of Christians being fed to the lions. They made a home for Christian in the basement of the Antique shop, and they lived above the shop. Both having grown up with pets, John and Ace looked after Christian and treated him as a giant pet, part of the family. There are some iconic photos of Christian gadding around London in an open topped car, but in general Christian’s life was stable with walks in the local area a daily occurrence.

Christian had a gentle and gregarious temperament, but as all babies do, Christian started to get bigger and was becoming more difficult to control in the London environment. Fortunately, one day Virginia McKenna and Bill Travers, actors from the movie “Born Free”, by chance visited Sophistocat Antique Shop and saw Christian. They were enchanted by Christian and suggested that Ace and John contact George Adamson to rehabilitate Christian back into the wild, and to set him free.

Ace and John hadn’t actually thought of this option, but knew that as a fully grown lion, Christian wouldn’t be able to stay in London. So they contacted George Adamson, who put the wheels in motion with Kenyan Wildlife Services to introduce Christian to Africa.

Kenya

It took months for the bureaucratic wheels to turn in Kenya and for permission to be granted allowing Christian to travel there. In the meantime, Ace and John gave up their jobs in London and moved into a caravan, near to Bill Travers home 30 miles outside of London, out in the countryside. Here there was more space for Christian to exercise and move around in.

There was a lot of work needed to be done to get, the nearly one year old Christian, ready for the wilds of Africa, as on arrival to the English countryside he was even scared of a scarecrow, and showed very little aggression. Virginia and Bill built a large compound on their grounds for Christian, this was the closest that he had ever been to the “wilds”. Christian settled down well and seemed to enjoy being outside and investigating his surroundings.

Ace and John knew that these times with Christian were special and maybe their last, so they wanted to spend as much time with him as possible. Christian’s lion instincts were surfacing, but after four months of constant attention with Ace and John a strong bond was being forged. As Ace Bourke says in an interview; “He was dependant on us, but he also loved us, as we were the closest things to him”. Meanwhile in Kora Nature Reserve, Kenya, George Adamson was readying his camp to accept Christian. George was already working with wild lions that needed rehabilitation, and had a small pride that he wanted Christian to be introduced to.

After a long flight, Christian still had to travel another 200 miles in the African bush to finally arrive at Kora Nature Reserve. It must of been such a shock for Christian to suddenly find himself in such a different environment. Ace and John travelled with him to Kenya. His first night in the Kenyan bush was ignominio His first encounter with hippos and crocodiles, produced no aggression in Christian just mild interest. John and Ace were appearing relaxed, but the reality was that they had a” London lion” in Africa! His background put Christian at great risk in the wilds.

Other challenges were meeting George’s man made pride of lions and eventually wild lions, who were not too pleased for another male to enter their territory. George saw that Christians natural instincts were intact, but he was extremely inexperienced in this environment. His first year in Kenya, was anything but easy. There was a lot to learn.

Derek Cattani documented on film Christian’s time in Africa with George Adamson and made documentaries produced by Bill Travers that helped to fund the costs of sending Christian to Kenya, they also aided George in maintaining his camp at Kora to continue to rehabilitate other lions. “Christian the Lion” documentary is still available from the Born Free Foundation.

Reunions

A year after leaving Christian at Kora, in 1971, Ace and John returned to visit him, against a lot of advice that it would be a wasted trip. They filmed this momentous trip of a rapturous reunion between two men and a now wild lion.

They were very unsure of what their reception would be when they encountered Christian again, and of course it could be very dangerous. After an anxious time, Ace and John walked into what had then become Christians territory. George appeared on the top of the hill, about 100 m away, with Christian right behind him. Christian stopped and took a long hard stare at the two men, taking his time he slowly ambled down the hill towards the men.

The men, no longer able bear the anticipation and tension, eventually called out his name; Christian came bounding towards them and jumped into their arms, showing a heartfelt recognition and a joyous reunion. He had not only recognised them, but was excited to see the men again. An incredible reunion.

In June 1972, Ace and John embarked on another journey to Kenya, hoping to see Christian, now 3 years old, again. George had warned them that Christian might not even come to camp, but after three days of waiting, Christian made his way back to the camp. This time he was very different from the time before. He was much, much bigger and had matured. He was far more dignified and no longer boisterous in his greeting, but had not lost any of his charisma.

He would sit with the men for a short while, then just get up and move away, showing that the men were superfluous to his life now. Christian was no longer a pet, but a full grown lion. However, on the last night of Ace and John’s visit, the men sat up all night laughing and joking with Christian playing the fool, just as he used to as the “London Lion”. Come the morning though Christian left to rejoin the other lions. They never saw him again. It was a success, he was no longer dependant on the two men, he had become an African lion.

Christian stayed with George at Kora, but was continually getting into scrapes with the resident lions there. He started to stay away from the camp for longer periods, and was last seen in 1973, heading towards Meru National Park. As he had managed to survive this late introduction to Africa and had managed to grow into a full sized lion, Ace and John presume that he managed to find his own pride and live a full life as an African lion, for at least the next 7 or 8 years. They hope that some of Christian’s progeny still live on today in Kenya.

Help please answer the questions here is the text.mot fly And it’s hard for the people to

About flying and it’s hard for people to walk and ride too, Harrods is very expensw ptace in Hovever stopi let’s stay indoors. It is dangerous to go still a lot of visitors, January and July are the busiest months for harrods, because they happen to sell out once read the text and mark the statements are true (T), 300,000 customersvisit the store on the first day many are false (F) and not stated (hs iip outside the store all night to be the first when the doors are open on the first day of Harrods sales very large department, perhaps the most famous Harrods department store in London.It attracts throm buyers all over the warld. Mil 2. You can buy almost everythitlg at HA rods lions customers go through their doors every day. This is 3. Harrods “Activity of the restaurants of the largest department store in Europe with an area of ​​more than a million serving traditional British cuisine Lev square meters and 330 different departments in seven 4. All people working in Harrods store motto is all TOP all people, each wearing a green uniform 5 . “Little green men help yo, where is perhaps the best way to describe what you can with full bags of groceries, including clothes, Harrods Dace buy from 6.Tourists can wear Tronix shorts, Pets, toys, food and drinks – sports furniture eaup when they go to Harrods department store, household products and more and in case you t. Big AF people go to Harrods tired you can enjoy dinner in one of 27 restaurants and sales time, which serves everything from tea to fine dining, bars, some staff sleep at a very high standard) outside the store all night, more than 5,000 people work at Harrods (Harrods also has 8 doormen known as “little green men” be – issues the reason for their uniform wear.They open doors for you 3. Read the text and respond as you come and go to the store. they can call a taxi for Hogmanay “- this is the name of the Scottish for the last day about you or help with directions. All other employees wear black or gray years. But today Hogmamy is a festival that does not last three days with perhaps the largest celebrationin a Scot and nowadays people have parties at home or join IR formal wear.You also have to watch what you wear when you visit its street parades ing Harrods, even as a tourist, people cannot enter some very old traditions around Hogmana to the store, they wear shorts, short skirts and dresses and here are some of them.Firstly, people are getting ready for thi swimwear, ripped jeans and just dirty clothes. Install the application on your smartphone and work offline + Install TranslatorRuMobile versionCommunityService newsDevelopersUser agreementAbout the serviceFeedback

Legend from the grocery store – Money – Kommersant

London almost lost one of its main attractions – the famous Harrods department store – even before it became famous. Charles Henry Harrod’s life could have ended not in the capital of the British Empire, but in faraway Australia, where he was supposed to be sent for trading in stolen food.

SERGEY MANUKOV

Harrods department store is located in the center of London on Brompton Road, in the fashionable Knightsbridge area, next to Hyde Park. The seven-story store is famous not only in the British capital and the United Kingdom. The British are probably right in saying that this is the most famous store on the planet. Not thanks to statistics, although they also make an impression: the building occupies two hectares, retail space – 90 thousand square meters. m;

Harrods annually serves over 15 million visitors (London’s population is 8.7 million), on some days – up to 300 thousand.

Harrods Department Store is one of the hallmarks of London. Meanwhile, the Harrods story could have ended before it really began. In 1836, Charles Harrod was threatened by Tasmania – the British crown sent criminals to this island off the coast of Australia in the 19th century. The founder of the empire, Harrods, was caught trading stolen, stolen currants, for which he was forced to do hard labor in the overseas territory.

Stain on reputation

Until recently, the biography of Charles Henry Harrod was infallible – spots on it were discovered only in the 21st century

Photos: Harrods

Until February 2017, Charles Henry Harrod (1799-1885) had a reputation for being an excellent family man and an honest merchant.You can read about this in the Encyclopedia Britannica, the Oxford Biographical Dictionary and many similar reference books.

Now, probably, it is impossible to understand how Harrod’s biographers did not pay attention to the dark spot in his biography. Perhaps this is due to the fact that the incident occurred at the dawn of his entrepreneurial activity. Although, on the other hand, perhaps all metropolitan newspapers wrote about the trial of Charles Harrod and his accomplices in 1836.

In any case, the biography of the founder of Harrods will now have to make at least one significant change: he served a year in prison.

Sensational information for the British about the criminal past of Charles Henry Harrod is contained in the book “The Jewel of Knightsbridge: A History of the Harrods Empire”. Its author is Robin Harrod. Of course, there are many Harrods in the kingdom, but 71-year-old doctor Robin Harrod is a direct descendant of the founder of Harrods. Robin learned about his relationship with the famous merchant not so long ago. Research in the archives allowed him to establish that he, Robin Harrod, is the only direct descendant of a man who opened the now famous department store of the same name about two centuries ago.

About thirty years ago, 11-year-old daughter of Robin Harrod asked her parents to help her with her homework – to compose the family tree of the Harrods. Robin had a superficial understanding of family history, he knew only his parents. I had to go into the archives. After a long search, Robin Harrod stumbled upon the chronicle of a lawsuit a century and a half ago, about which all London newspapers of that time wrote. One of the defendants was his great-great-grandfather Charles Henry Harrod.

The criminal life of London in the 40s of the XIX century was rich in events, but in May 1836 there were no bloody murders in the capital.The London press, including the Times, probably for lack of a better one, paid increased attention to the trial that took place in the Old Bailey Central Criminal Court – it was a case of banal theft. The cost of the stolen is not impressive: £ 3 and 5 shillings (£ 200 in modern prices) – the amount, of course, significant at the time, but not so large as to give so much attention to the theft of a 112-pound (50 kg) bag of currants. The bag itself did not stand out in any way – it was made of ordinary sackcloth and cost 6 pence.

Have 200 friends

In 1836, on a February evening in Charles Harrod’s shop, John Luton, a constable of the River Police, stopped by to buy tea. He overheard a conversation between a shopkeeper and a cabman named John Warner about a sack in the corner. Warner said he only brought one bag. Harrod replied that he understood everything, and imperceptibly nodded in the direction of the policeman. Luton noticed that the driver had not given any accompanying papers to the shopkeeper. It seemed strange to him, and he reported the suspicious bag to his superiors.

Scotland Yard has established surveillance of Charles Harrod’s shop. Warner brought bags of groceries to Harrod several times. He was usually assisted by Richard Moran, a loader at Messrs Booth, Ingledew & Co.

An audit carried out at this outlet found that all products delivered to Charles Harrod, including the same bag of currants, had been stolen by the loader.

Charles Harrod, Richard Moran and John Warner were arrested. Harrod and Warner pleaded guilty, Moran denied everything.The trial took place on April 2, 1836. The driver agreed to testify at the trial and escaped punishment, while Harrod and Moran were recognized as members of a criminal gang and sentenced to seven years of hard labor. They had to serve their punishment in Tasmania. In the 19th century, Australia and Tasmania served as prisons for British criminals who worked for the good of the crown and settled in distant territory. In the period from 1788 to 1868, more than 160 thousand people were sent to the Green Continent, sentenced to hard labor.

Three weeks after the trial, at the end of April, Richard Moran and Charles Harrod were transported to Portsmouth, from where ships left for distant Australia.

The journey took four months. However, only Moran set off on a long voyage. He sailed from Portsmouth on the Sarah on November 29, 1836, and arrived in Tasmania on March 29, 1837.

Charles Harrod remained in England. He was saved from Tasmania by his family, as well as many acquaintances that he made thanks to his shop.On May 25, 1836, a bulky packet arrived in the name of the Home Secretary, Lord John Russell, containing four petitions for commutation of punishment for Charles Henry Harrod, signed by a total of nearly 200 Londoners.

Fate was favorable to Charles Henry Harrod: thanks to the requests of his family and customers of his grocery store, instead of hard labor in Tasmania, he served a little more than a year in London prison

Photo: Mary Evans / DIOMEDIA

The main petition was autographed by MP George Grout.The letter described in detail the deplorable state of health of both Charles Harrod himself and his family members – his wife Elizabeth and two children (three years and a little over a year). Sending the head of the family to distant Australia, Grout pointed out, means a death sentence for his next of kin. Since Harrod completely repented of what he had done and vowed never to break the law again, the parliamentarian asked to mitigate the sentence and leave the convict in London.

As a result, Charles Harrod was placed in London Millbank prison, where he spent just over a year.While Harrod was in Millbank, his son died. The health of the head of the family also steadily deteriorated. In 1837, Elizabeth Harrod sent a letter to Lord Russell desperately pleading for her husband’s release. The authorities decided that Charles Henry Harrod had suffered a severe enough punishment and released him.

During Charles Harrod’s absence, his brother, William Frederick Harrod, who owned a jewelry store in Southwark, looked after his shop.

However, he would not have been able to run two businesses for the entire seven years of Charles’s stay in Tasmania – if he had been sent to Tasmania, if only because of poor health.William, who died in 1840 at the age of 43, simply would not have lived to see Charles’s release.

Besides, it is not a fact that Charles Henry Harrod would have been able to return home. Australia was easy to get to, but getting out was much more difficult. Some of the exiled criminals died, unable to withstand the hardships of hard labor. Thousands of former prisoners, after serving their sentences, moved to the mainland. In Australia, everyone was welcome – a huge territory had to be populated and developed.

In addition, the ex-convicts who wanted to return to their homeland had to pay the return trip themselves.Traveling half the world was not affordable for everyone. So if Charles Harrod had been sent to Tasmania, it is unlikely that he would have been able to open Harrods.

Harrods Palace

Robin Harrod not only “exposed” the famous ancestor, but also extended his working career by 10 years. Using archival documents, he proved that Charles Henry Harrod began trading not in 1834, as all biographical dictionaries and reference books report, but in 1824. And at first he sold clothes, but it is known that the sign of his first store was written “Charles Henry Harrod – Haberdasher and Draper” (haberdasher and draper).

Before opening the first grocery store, Harrod tried to sell clothes, but did not succeed

Photo: Guildhall Library & Art Gallery / Heritage Images / Getty Images

Clothes went wrong due to high competition. In the 1830s, about 1,300 outlets offered clothing in London. In the grocery business, the situation was less tense. For example, only 300 shops sold tea. In addition, Charles chose not the best time to start.The following year, after opening his first store in the United Kingdom, a severe financial crisis erupted. Of course, Harrod also suffered greatly from the “Panic of 1825”, but unlike thousands of colleagues in the workshop, he did not go broke.

Charles opened his first grocery store in 1831 on Upper Whitecross Street. Three years later, the Harrods moved from Southwark to East London, Stepney. In the same year, Elizabeth’s father died. The £ 300 inheritance helped open a new grocery store on Gable Street.

Charles Harrod’s affairs have improved in Stepney. The tea trade turned out to be especially profitable. The explosion in the popularity of tea in the kingdom is associated with the abolition in 1833 of the monopoly of the East India Company on overseas trade. Tea, which came from China and Assam, a principality in northeastern India, quickly became Britain’s national drink. For the East India Company, the abolition of the monopoly, by the way, was a strong blow, because the annual volume of tea trade reached £ 30 million.

Rising to his feet, Charles Henry Harrod again decided to change his place of residence – the crime rate was too high in the East End.

In 1849, he moved with his family to the prosperous Knightsbridge, on Brompton Road, and opened another store, which was destined to become the famous Harrods.

The location for the new store was not chosen by chance. Brompton Road is located near Hyde Park, where the first world exhibition took place in 1851 – the Great Exhibition of Industrial Works of All Nations. Charles was counting on an influx of buyers and was not mistaken.

Nevertheless, the beginning of the legendary department store was very modest.The store building was one-story, with the Harrods living in the back. At first, Charles was selling tea and other groceries in a single room. The staff list included two assistants and a messenger boy. Harrods had a weekly turnover of just £ 20 in the early days.

The first Harrods store was one-story, the owner and his family lived in the same building

Photos: Harrods

In 1860, Charles sold the business to his son, Charles Digby Harrod (1841-1905).By that time, trade was booming. In the second half of the 19th century, it was already possible to buy everything in Harrods, including medicines, cosmetics and perfumery, clothing, and food. Harrod focused on attracting wealthy customers and came up with personalized service for the most valuable customers. By 1868, he had brought the weekly turnover to £ 1,000. Prosperity was somewhat slowed down by the fire of 1883 – the store burned down. Charles Digby Harrod quickly rebuilt the outlet. It was then that she took on the form that is familiar to everyone to this day.

The well-known appearance of the Harrods department store took on already under Harrod’s son, Charles Digby Harrod, to whom his father sold the store in 1860

Photos: Harrods

The building, designed by the architect Charles William Stevens, amazed first of all with its grandeur and splendor. Harrods department store was like a palace. The terracotta-tiled façade was adorned with cherubs, and the building was crowned with a Baroque dome.

There is a water tank on the roof.By the way, Harrods has its own water, like several other large stores in the capital. Harrods still takes it from three 150m deep wells drilled under the building many years ago.

At nightfall, 12,000 lamps light up on the famous Harrods terracotta façade

Photo: Xinhua / ZUMA Wire / TASS

The Harrods department store makes an especially strong impression at nightfall, when 12 thousand people light up on its facade.lamps. Harrods has long expanded its area through the acquisition of land on Brompton Road. The last extension was completed in 1911.

By 1911, Harrods occupied almost an entire block of Brompton Road

Photo: Getty Images

New Harrods did not belong to the Harrods for long. It was sold in 1891. The next family the department store is associated with is Barebridge. Richard Bairbridge, then his son Woodman, and finally his grandson, another Richard, ran the famous store for many years.

In 1891 Charles Digby Harrod sold the department store to the Barbridge family

Photo: Mary Evans / DIOMEDIA

In the 1920s, Woodman Barebridge began buying up London stores and building the Harrods empire. During World War II, the department store underwent a metamorphosis: the trade in luxury goods gave way to the production of uniforms, parachutes and parts for Lancaster bombers.

In 1959, the main store and the entire empire were sold to the House of Fraser retail chain, which owns six dozen large stores throughout the UK.And in 1985, the famous department store was purchased for £ 615 million by the Egyptian billionaire Mohammed al-Fayed.

90,019 Egyptian billionaire Mohammed al-Fayed bought Harrods in 1985 for £ 615 million and sold in 2010 for £ 1.5 billion 90,020

Photo: Shutterstock / REX / Fotodom

The Egyptian period in the history of Harrods lasted a quarter of a century. In May 2010, al-Fayed sold the store for £ 1.5 billion to the Qatar Investment Authority (QIA), a sovereign wealth fund owned by the Qatari royal family.The Qataris still own Harrods, and this is far from their only asset in London. QIA is the largest owner of real estate in the British capital, the fund is ahead of all other companies and organizations here – it owns 2 million London “squares”, including the most expensive real estate in the heart of the city.

Trade Legend

Harrods is considered to be the most famous department store on the planet. To send a letter to the store, just write “Harrods, England” on the envelope.It is curious that despite the worldwide fame, Harrods is a purely British phenomenon. There is only one store abroad with the same name. The first and last foreign Harrods was opened in distant Argentina 100 years ago, in 1914. In the late 1940s, the Buenos Aires store split from the main department store in London, but retained the name. Already after the appearance of the Qataris with their fund, it was reported that Harrods would soon open in Shanghai, but problems arose there too – the store did not work.

Harrods is the world leader in retail space profitability, making more profit per square meter than any other store in the world. The department store employs about 12 thousand people (data from 2013). Harrods earned £ 770m in 2015, net income £ 126m.

Harrods department store to some extent “invented trade”: in particular, it was he who first began to arrange sales

Photo: Shutterstock / REX / Fotodom

In 330 Harrods stores, you can buy everything from essentials for a few pounds or even pennies to luxury trappings of overwhelming value.For example, Egyptian cotton Eton Shirts cost $ 44,470, and Clive Christian No. 1 perfume – $ 232,645. Patchi Chocolates $ 10,000 chocolates are also not affordable for everyone. Gold bars weighing up to 12.5 kg are available from Harrods. And the most expensive product of all that Harrods has sold in its entire history is the Project Mars yacht. It cost the buyer £ 165 million.

Despite the versatility of Harrods, its target audience has always been wealthy citizens: the price of the famous perfume Clive Christian No. 1 – $ 232 645

Photo: Reuters

The motto of the store is “Omnia Omnibus Ubique”, which can be translated from Latin as “everyone, everyone and absolutely everything.”Despite the declared willingness to serve everyone and everyone, Harrods, just like in the past and the century before last, focuses on wealthy buyers. It is believed that approximately 60% of the department store’s customers live in the “Diadem” triangle, which is the name of the small metropolitan area between Kensington and Knightsbridge, where most of London’s millionaires live.

One of the Harrods divisions traded exotic animals until the 1970s. It is known that the playwright Noel Coward bought an alligator in it for Christmas, and Ronald Reagan bought Gertie the elephant.

Of course, Gertie was still a baby elephant at the time. When she grew up, she was transferred to the Sacramento Zoo.

The public and other significance of Harrods is also evidenced by the fact that for many years he was officially considered the supplier of the royal court. Only in 2000, al-Fayed decided to remove the crown from the coat of arms, offended by the fact that members of the royal family had stopped visiting the store.

Perhaps this is the fault of the difficult relationship between them. Mohammed’s son Dodi dated Princess Diana, the ex-wife of Prince Charles.Mohammed al-Fayed still believes that the Windsor is to blame for the deaths of Dodi and Diana. A bronze sculpture reminds of the romance of his son and the princess – a couple merged in a dance. The owner of Harrods did not forget about himself, too. The Egyptian hall that opened at his direction was decorated with several busts of the billionaire.

Back in 1890, a bank and a real estate agency were opened in the store. The Harrods empire now includes a number of subsidiaries: Harrods Aviation, Air Harrods, Harrods Estates and Harrods Bank.

Harrods owes its fame, among other things, to innovations, which he introduced many over 180 years.For example,

Harrods is considered to be the first store to introduce an escalator (in 1898), then called “moving steps”. The device made a very strong impression on the visitors – especially nervous employees were waiting upstairs with an assortment of brandy and smelling salt.

At the end of last year, 16 modern escalators finished with cupronickel were installed in the store.

Charles Digby Harrod came up with the idea of ​​wrapping purchases in wrapping paper in the colors of the national flag.Harrods was the first in the UK trade business to run advertisements in the Times on the Internet.

Harrods was the first store to launch media campaigns

Photo: Mary Evans / Illustrated London News Ltd / DIOMEDIA

Traditions are remembered and honored in the famous department store. Harrods still uses their signature gold-green bags and tote bags. Doors in green livery with gold embroidery have also survived.Delivery vans are painted in the same colors – the first began working more than a hundred years ago and had horse traction. In 1919, the first electric van appeared in Harrods Park. From 1936 to 1939, 60 of these machines were produced, some of which are still in use today.

Harrods branded packaging is not only a tradition, but also a kind of fetish

Photo: Getty Images

Thanks to Harrods, children have been reading a book about the adventures of Winnie the Pooh for almost 100 years.In 1921, Alan Milne bought a teddy bear in a department store for his son Christopher, giving the world an imperishable literary work.

There is an interesting history of the silver model of the Harrods building, which was made like a cigar box. Exactly 100 years ago, the owner of another large London store, Harry Selfridge, made a bet with Richard Barebridge, the then owner of Harrods. He claimed that within six years after the end of the First World War, he would be able to surpass Harrods in terms of sales.The winner received the layout of his store from the loser. In 1927, Selfridge was forced to admit defeat. A compact copy of a rival department store cost him £ 400.

A £ 400 silver Harrods mockup was donated to a department store owner by a losing competitor 90,020

Photo: Getty Images

A silver Harrods model adorned the department store director’s office until 2014 and was recently sold at Christies for £ 85,000.

Fabulous 2Br Flat Next To Harrods, London

Pets not allowed Check-in time 9:00 Check-out time 10:00

Useful Information Construction work is taking place in the vicinity of the hotel, possibly related noise. Additional Fees The following fees and deposits are collected by the hotel at the time of service, check-in, or check-out.Late check-in fee: GBP 50 when checking in after 8:00 PM Crib (infant bed) fee: GBP 35 per stay The above list may not be comprehensive. The amounts of payments and pledges can be indicated without tax and are subject to change. Mandatory Taxes and Charges The following additional charges must be paid at the hotel: Breakage deposit: GBP 200 per stay This listing contains all charges indicated by the hotel. However, the amount charged may vary depending, for example, on the room booked or the length of stay.

Additional charges may apply depending on hotel policies. Official photo ID and credit card are required upon check-in upon arrival for incidentals. Special requests are subject to circumstances at the time of check-in and cannot be guaranteed. Additional fees may apply. There is no parking on site. The map shows the approximate location of the house.The full address is provided after booking confirmation. Please contact the hotel for more information. Contact information can be found on the booking confirmation, which will be sent after booking.

Make yourself comfortable in this individually decorated apartment. You will have a kitchen with a full-size refrigerator or freezer and oven. You will have free wireless Internet access in your room, and digital TV will not let you get bored.The private bathroom has a deep soaking bathtub and free toiletries. The room has a dedicated seating area and microwave, and cleaning is available on request.

The following fees and deposits are collected by the property at the time of service, check-in, or check-out. Late check-in fee: GBP 50 when checking in after 8:00 PM Crib (infant bed) fee: GBP 35 per stay The above list may not be comprehensive.The amounts of payments and pledges can be indicated without tax and are subject to change.

The following additional charges will be payable at the hotel: Breakage deposit: GBP 200 per stay This listing includes all charges indicated by the hotel. However, the amount charged may vary depending, for example, on the room booked or the length of stay.

Construction work is in progress in the vicinity of the hotel, possibly related noise.

Services and amenities include multilingual staff and laundry facilities.

90,000 Harrods. London – Incomartur 93

Harrods Shopping Center is considered one of the main attractions in London.It is located in west London, on Brompton Road in the fashionable Knightsbridge neighborhood near Kensington Palace. Harrods is considered one of the largest and most fashionable department stores in the world. The department store has a floor space of 90,000 m² and has 330 departments that would take several days to complete a full inspection. Here you can buy anything you want: household goods, appliances, jewelry, groceries and, of course, clothes from Escada, Stella McCartney, Diesel, as well as other world famous brands.On the territory of the department store there are many ateliers, banks, travel agencies, cafes, restaurants and beauty salons.

It is worth remembering that there is a dress code for visiting the famous shopping center; persons in dirty, sloppy, overly revealing clothes are not allowed into its walls.

The history of this iconic shopping center began in 1824 with a small grocery store founded in 25-year-old Charles Henry Harrod. In 1849 Harrod acquired a small shop on Brompton Road.Starting as a small shop with two salespeople, Harrod’s son, Charles Digby Harrod, had by 1880 transformed the business into a large department store with a staff of one hundred people.

In December 1883, the department store building burned down in a fire, but this did not stop Charles Digby from fulfilling all pre-Christmas orders and making a record profit from Christmas sales. Soon enough, the luxurious eclectic building was rebuilt in its original place. Its buyers included Oscar Wilde, Charlie Chaplin, Ellen Terry, Noel Coward, Gertrude Lawrence, Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh, Sigmund Freud, Alexander Milne and many members of the British royal family.It was in Harrods that an escalator appeared for the first time in England. As a reward for the first rides on it, customers were offered a glass of brandy.

In 1985, the department store was sold to Egyptian billionaire Mohammed al-Fayed, father of Dodi al-Fayed, who died with Princess Diana in a car accident in Paris. In memory of Princess Diana and her lover, two memorials have been erected in Harrods. From 1959 to 2001, Harrods was the official purveyor of the royal court to Elizabeth II, Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Charles, Prince of Wales and Queen Mother Elizabeth.This privilege was expressed in four coats of arms of royalty on the facade of the department store and the prefix “supplier of the court of their majesties” in official papers. Since 1997, after the death of Princess Diana, no member of the current British royal family has been buying or ordering anything from Harrods. And since December 2001, “royal procurement authority” has been formally revoked by Prince Philip.

In 2010, Harrods was sold to the state-owned Qatar Investment Fund for £ 1.5 billion.

There are also sales, twice a year, just after Christmas and in the middle of summer. The winter sale is the most famous. It usually starts either at the end of December or on January 1 and lasts half a month. Regardless of whether you are on sale, Incomartur 93 recommends visiting this one of the main attractions of London.

Blog ⋆ Page 699 of 1011 ⋆ Motor Globe

The tenth stage, which proved to be particularly dangerous due to difficult navigation, brought the PEUGEOT Total team all three places on the podium – for the fourth time since the start of the Dakar Rally 2017. This result further strengthened the leading position of the PEUGEOT 3008DKR in the overall standings after 10 stages …The Peteransel / Cottrets crew regained their first place in the overall standings, although the day was darkened by a collision with Simon Marchic’s motorcycle. Yesterday the rally participants faced difficult navigation conditions, which took away valuable minutes from them while passing the time control points. The Peteransel / Cottrets car collided with a motorcycle, which suddenly drove towards on a narrow …

More details

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) accused the Fiat Chrysler Automobiles alliance of cheating with diesel engine emissions. tests allowed to underestimate the level of emissions of harmful substances in the environment.The scandal that broke out led to the recall of hundreds of thousands of cars and the automaker’s financial losses of $ 19.2 billion. And now – a new diesel gate. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has discovered a software similar to Volkswagen’s that allows you to bypass legislative …

More details

At the North American International Auto Show in Detroit, the Japanese company Nissan unveiled the innovative Vmotion 2.0 sedan. The futuristic prototype was created in the spirit of the Nissan Intelligent Mobility concept, which in turn includes three areas – Intelligent Driving, Intelligent Power and Intelligent Integration.Intelligent Driving gives drivers more confidence on the road by improving safety, control and comfort. Intelligent Power aims to improve the efficiency of combustion engines and introduce advanced hybrid and electric technologies. And finally, Intelligent Integration assumes the formation of a communication system that will allow cars to interact with people, other cars and road infrastructure. …

More details

Stage 8 of the 2017 Dakar Rally brought three victories to PEUGEOT Total at once Sebastian Loeb, Stéphane Peteransel and Cyril Despres showed the three fastest results for the second time since the start of the rally.Thus, the podium is once again in full possession of the PEUGEOT team. Three indefatigable PEUGEOT 3008DKR crews showed the best results in the 8th stage of the Dakar-2017 rally, namely in the second leg of the marathon distance. Sebastian Loeb and Daniel Helena finished with a score of 4 hours 11 minutes 2 seconds, 1 minute 38 seconds ahead of the Peterhansel / Cottre crew, who came in second …

More details

Rumors about this have been spreading for a long time. Now, the official Yaris, built on the basis of the rally car, will debut in Geneva.Years ago, Toyota hinted that the company’s return to the World Rally Championship would be the impetus for the development of a “hot” hatchback. About a month ago, the Japanese flashed a sketch of their new supermini. And now there is an official confirmation. The Yaris featured hasn’t been given a specific name yet, but it is speculated to include the name of GAZOO’s official racing division. Apparently, now all powerful Toyota cars with a sporty bias will receive such an addition to the name. Not so …

More details

And it will appear in the next two years. These are no longer rumors, but in fact the official statement of the President of Infiniti Roland Kruger.According to him, the company has already built a prototype, which is being successfully tested and “looks great.” There is no doubt, says Kruger, that the sports car will be competitive. In addition, the president stressed that the new product will meet all the requirements that the luxury brand Nissan imposes on its vehicles. The only problem for today is that the new sports car does not yet have its own name, but only the factory specification. It is known that the new Infiniti will use Nissan’s electrical technologies, but from borrowing the “utilitarian” platform …

More details

The auto giant from Stuttgart presented a restyled version of its smallest SUV in Detroit. Changes in appearance – modified front and rear bumpers, slightly modified optics and a different radiator grille.True, with all the insignificance of external modifications, the drag coefficient decreased from 0.29 to 0.28. Inside, like the fresh A-Class, there are new trim materials, a revised dashboard and steering wheel, as well as a center display with a diagonal of up to eight inches (depending on equipment). The Germans claim that now the GLA – the only one in its class – offers an all-round vision system that is capable of …

More 90,000 Folio Society – Folio Society

British publishing house founded in 1947.

Folio Society
Founded 1947; 73 years ago (1947)
Founder Charles Ede
Country of origin United Kingdom
Location of headquarters 4 Maguire Street, London
Distribution worldwide
Key people Lord Gavron
Publication types Books, limited editions
Official Website foliosociety .com

The Folio Society is a private London publishing house founded by Charles Ede in 1947 and registered in 1971. It publishes illustrated hardcover editions of classic fiction and popular science literature, poetry and children’s books. Folio editions have specially designed bindings and include illustrations commissioned by artists (most often in fiction) or researched works of art and photography (in popular science literature).Most editions come with their own case.

The Folio Society had a bookstore in Holborn, London for many years, but the bookstore closed in December 2016 when the company moved. Folio editions can only be purchased online through their website, by mail, or by telephone. Some editions are sold in independent bookstores such as Blackwell’s in Oxford; They are also sold by Selfridges, Harrods and Hatchards in London.

History

The Folio Society was founded in 1947 by Charles Ede, Christopher Sandford (of the Golden Cockerel Press) and Alan Bott (founder of Pan Books).The goal of the firm was to produce “publications of the world’s greatest literature in a format worthy of content, at a price accessible to everyone.” Until 1955, the Folio and Golden Cockerel Press shared premises on Poland Street. Subsequent offices were located in the Mayfair and Borough areas of London. The Folio Society moved to 44 Eagle Street, Holborn in 1994 – their offices moved to 4 Maguire Street in London in 2017.

The society issued the first three names in 1947. In October of that year, “ Tales of Tolstoy” went on sale for sixteen shillings (that was about $ 3 in 1947 or just over $ 33 in 2018). Tales followed in November. and December – “ Trilby” by George du Maurier and the translation of “ by Auxin and Nicolette” , establishing the monthly publication model.

In 1971, the Folio Society was incorporated and purchased by John Letts and Halfdan Linner. Under their ownership, The Folio Society published a collection of novels by Dickens, Trollope, Hardy, Elizabeth Gaskell, and Konrad.

Lord Gavron was the owner and chairman of the Folio Society from 1982 until his death in 2015.

Membership and unaffiliated sales

From the beginning, The Folio Society acted as a member organization; as the list of titles grew, the membership commitment was set at 4 books per year. Since 2011, anyone can shop from the Folio Society list without accepting membership. On September 1, 2016, the company ceased its membership structure.

Production trends and pegs

The company currently publishes over 60 titles a year, including multivolume sets.Most titles are digitally typed and then offset offset in printers in the UK, Germany, Italy and Spain. Until 1954, most Folio books were produced with printed dust covers, but in the second half of the 1950s, colored card cases were introduced to protect the books and keep the emphasis on decorative bindings. Solander crates are commonly used to protect limited editions.

Folio publications are printed in various standard sizes (for example, in 1951 these were Royal Octavo, Medium Octavo, Crown Octavo and Demy Octavo), custom sizes are also used.The most common binding material is bakram or similar book fabric, but there are many exceptions: aluminum foil was used for binding Brave New World by Aldous Huxley in 1971, and vegetable parchment was used for binding Case Kalas Voltaire in 1994; most commonly, marbled paper (often produced by Ann Muir Marbling Ltd.) has been used for several volumes in recent years, either as endpapers or as cardboard for quaternary bindings; moire silk (usually artificial) has been used occasionally as a binding material for many years, and leather (parchment and goatskin) and glued leather have sometimes been used, mainly for more expensive editions.Most art bindings are designed by an illustrator. Non-fiction binder designers include David Eccles, Jeff Clements and Neil Gower.

Since 2007, the company has used traditional letterpress printing (a method that Johannes Gutenberg developed in the mid-fifteenth century) to publish each of Shakespeare’s plays, as well as sonnets and poems, in large-format editions. This landmark 39-volume project was finally completed in 2014.

Illustrators

Among the hundreds of Folio book illustrators, the following stand out:

  • Edward Ardizzone (R.L. Stevenson, Travel with the Donkey )
  • Quentin Blake (Voltaire, Candide ; George Orwell, Animal Farm )
  • Harry Brockway (S. T. Coleridge, Ancient Navigator Frost )
  • John Lawrence (Lawrence Stern, Tristram Shandy ; T.H. White, King of the Past and Future )
  • Beryl Cook (Christopher Isherwood, Mr. Norris changes train ; Muriel Spark, Miss Jean Brodie’s prime )
  • Anthony Colbert ( Jane Eyre )
  • Jeff Grandfield (Novels and Stories by Raymond Chandler)
  • Sam Weber (William Golding, Lord of the Flies ; Gene Wolfe, Book of the New Sun ; Frank Herbert, Dune )
  • Margrethe II of Denmark (as Ingahild Gratmer) (J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings )

Artists who have illustrated books for the Society include:

Notable wood engravers include:

Some recent commissions from

  • Richard Allen (Kingsley Amis, Lucky Jim )
  • Elena and Anna Balbusso (Pushkin, Eugene Onegin )
  • James Boswell (J.G. Ballard, Sunken World ; Margery Allingham, Traitor’s Purse )
  • Jonathan Burton (Douglas Adams, The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy ; George Orwell, nineteen eighty four )
  • Faye Dalton (Ian Fleming, Casino Royale , From Russia, with love )
  • Jeff Fisher (Lewis Carroll, Snark Hunt )
  • Stephen Hickman (Robert Heinlein, Starship Troopers )
  • David Hughes (Ken Kesey, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest ; Mark Twain, Connecticut Yankee at King Arthur’s Court )
  • Federico Infante (Vladimir Nabokov, Lolita )
  • Igor Karash (Leo Tolstoy, War and Peace ; Angela Carter, The Bloody Chamber and other stories )
  • John Vernon Lord (James Joyce, Finnegans Wake )
  • Shopop (Philip K.Dick, The Man in the High Castle )
  • Gillian Tamaki (Christina Rossetti, Goblin Market )
  • Joe Wilson (Arthur Clarke, 2001: A Space Odyssey )

See also

References and Sources

References
Sources
  • Cave, Roderick and Sarah Mason, History of Golden Cockerel Press, 1920-1960 (2002, British Library and Oak Knoll Press)
  • Nash, Paul W., Folio 50: Folio Society bibliography, 1947-1996 (1997. Folio Press with British Library)
  • Nash, Paul W. Folio 60: Folio Society Bibliography, 1947-2006 (2007. Folio Society) (includes essays by Sue Bradbury, Joseph Connolly, and David McKitterick)
  • Nash, Paul W., ‘Folio fine editions’, parentheses (April 4, 2000), pp. 22-24. (Includes “Fine editions” checklist showing editions)

external references

.

Related Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *