Giant bulldog clip: : Coideal XXL Bulldog Clips Extra Large, 2 Pack 1 Foot Long Stainless Steel Jumbo Giant Binder Paper Clamps for Drawing Board, Art, Teachers, Home Office School Supplies (Silver, 11 4/5 Inch) : Office Products



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Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing.

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Item specifics

Condition: Modified Item: No
Brand: SMCO Colour: Silver
Binding Accessory Style: Bulldog Clips MPN: Does Not Apply
Form/Size: 140mm x 33mm Type: Binding
Material: Metal SMCO Specialists In Office Stationery: SMCO For All Your Stationery Supplies!
Binding Method: Clip

Business seller information

Stuart Manufacturing Company Ltd

Alistair Stuart

Unit 15, No.2 Bulrushes Business Park

Coombe Hill Road

East Grinstead

West Sussex

Rh29 4LZ

United Kingdom

Returns policy

After receiving the item, cancel the purchase within

Return postage

60 days

Buyer pays return postage

The buyer is responsible for return postage costs.

Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing.

Postage and packaging

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Item location: Holsworthy, United Kingdom

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Bulldog Clip Large: Gold | Essentials

Bulldog Clip Large: Gold | Essentials

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40% Off Organisation

$0.90 $2.50

Free shipping on orders over $70.00*


Add a touch of gold to your every day with this gorgeous Large Bulldog Clip. Use it to keep your desk and important documents organised in style.

SKU: 10806401



Width: 50mm / 1.96″

Length: 65mm / 2.55″

Height: 50mm / 1.96″


  • Made from coated spring steel
  • Gold finish

Delivery & Returns

Items can be returned to us with the following details:

  • Item is returned within 30 days of purchase.
  • The original receipt or proof of purchase is provided.
  • The returned item is unused with original packaging.
  • The returned item is not monogrammed.
  • Items can be returned for a refund, exchange or gift card.

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Giant Memo Bulldog Clips | Modernise Your Office

This privacy policy sets out how we uses and protects any information that you give us when you use this website.

We are committed to ensuring that your privacy is protected. Should we ask you to provide certain information by which you can be identified when using this website, then you can be assured that it will only be used in accordance with this privacy statement.

We may change this policy from time to time by updating this page. You should check this page from time to time to ensure that you are happy with any changes.

What we collect

We may collect the following information:

  • name and job title
  • contact information including email address
  • demographic information such as postcode, preferences and interests
  • other information relevant to customer surveys and/or offers

What we do with the information we gather

We require this information to understand your needs and provide you with a better service, and in particular for the following reasons:

  • Internal record keeping.
  • We may use the information to improve our products and services.
  • We may periodically send promotional emails about new products, special offers or other information which we think you may find interesting using the email address which you have provided, you may opt out of these emails at anytime using the opt out link clearly marked on the bottom of the email.
  • From time to time, we may also use your information to contact you for market research purposes. We may contact you by email, phone, fax or mail. We may use the information to customise the website according to your interests.


We are committed to ensuring that your information is secure. In order to prevent unauthorised access or disclosure, we have put in place suitable physical, electronic and managerial procedures to safeguard and secure the information we collect online.

How we use cookies

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Overall, cookies help us provide you with a better website by enabling us to monitor which pages you find useful and which you do not. A cookie in no way gives us access to your computer or any information about you, other than the data you choose to share with us.
You can choose to accept or decline cookies. Most web browsers automatically accept cookies, but you can usually modify your browser setting to decline cookies if you prefer. This may prevent you from taking full advantage of the website.

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Our website may contain links to other websites of interest. However, once you have used these links to leave our site, you should note that we do not have any control over that other website. Therefore, we cannot be responsible for the protection and privacy of any information which you provide whilst visiting such sites and such sites are not governed by this privacy statement. You should exercise caution and look at the privacy statement applicable to the website in question.

Controlling your personal information

You may choose to restrict the collection or use of your personal information in the following ways:

  • whenever you are asked to fill in a form on the website, look for the box that you can click to indicate that you do not want the information to be used by anybody for direct marketing purposes
  • if you have previously agreed to us using your personal information for direct marketing purposes, you may change your mind at any time by writing to or emailing us.

We will not sell, distribute or lease your personal information to third parties unless we have your permission or are required by law to do so. We may use your personal information to send you promotional information about third parties which we think you may find interesting if you tell us that you wish this to happen.

If you believe that any information we are holding on you is incorrect or incomplete, please write to or email us as soon as possible at the above address. We will promptly correct any information found to be incorrect.

Turns Out a Baker’s Best Friend Is…the Binder Clip

It’s no secret that ever since the pandemic started, people have been turning to flour, sugar, and butter for comfort. But what are they doing with it? The people have tired of banana bread (at least, the Instagram posts have slowed), and the sourdough craze has cooled (I put my starter on hold until summer’s over—it’s too damn hot!). So have we moved on to layering, filling, frosting, and decorating layer cakes? Absolutely not. Okay, some people have. But they’re the outliers. Most of us are sticking to the simple things: single-layer cakes, brownies, bars.

Edd Kimber—food writer, baker, four-time cookbook author, and onetime Great British Bake Off winner—could not have anticipated that this would be the case when he started writing his new book, One Tin Bakes. But that just makes him the luckiest food writer of the season. Because One Tin Bakes is exactly what it sounds like: a book full of cookies, blondies, bars, coffee cakes, and cinnamon rolls that are all baked in a 9-by-13-inch pan.

One Tin Bakes: Sweet and Simple Traybakes, Pies, Bars and Buns

by Edd Kimber

Among the eye-catching things in this book are the peanut butter “brookies” (peanut butter cookie on the bottom, brownie on top), the giant Portuguese custard tart, and the chocolate-tahini babka buns. But what caught my eye first were the binder clips. They pop up on one of the first pages, securing parchment paper to one of the titular tins. It’s not the only place binder clips have been shown being used in baking—here’s an Instagram post by an obscure newspaper—so an amateur baker can be forgiven for wondering more about them. Are they oven safe? What’s the point, really?

Use binder clips to line your tray for these double whammy cookie/brownie crossovers.

Photo by Edd Kimber

For Kimber, the reason for the clips can be summed up in a simple observation: “Parchment doesn’t like to sit neatly.” When you have a thick batter, such as that brookie batter, it can be difficult to spread it onto a piece of parchment that just won’t sit still. Securing it in place with binder clips helps tame the paper and make the spreading go smoothly.

Likewise, once the tin is in the oven, the fan can be a liability for the parchment. (British cooks use their oven’s convection option much more regularly than American cooks.) While your cake is baking, the fan can blow the parchment right into it, where it becomes an unwelcome layer. It’s not cute. It’s also not an issue if the parchment is clipped.

There’s not really a clip technique—the clip is the full tip, as they say. (Editor’s note: Nobody says this.) But Kimber does have some thoughts about which clips to buy. “I like the smaller ones,” he says. “Big ones can be very tall and can get caught in the oven racks very easily.”

Avoid plastic-coated clips, of course—“they’ll melt in the oven.”

Wash your clips by hand.

And buy a bunch of them. “I lose them,” Kimber admits, so now “I have a little pot of them.”

Here are a few clips to put in a pot of your own:

Multicolored Binder Clips

Officemate Silver Binder Clips

Mr. Pen Colored Binder Clips

Jumbo Paper Clips | Large Giant Paper Clips

Jumbo paper clips in our selection refers to any wire or metal paper clips in general made in large sizes. They are usually made of thicker or bigger materials than common ones.

Based on different materials and specifications, these giant paper clips correspondingly have different forms:

They could be jumbo binder clips (fish clips), jumbo wire paper clipsjumbo metal hinge clips. or 4 inch paper clips in standard style. There seem to be not a strict criteria on this domain over the market. We usually call the paper clips over 50mm or 3 – 4 inches “jumbo paper clips”.

Jumbo paper clips look obviously much cooler, more fun, durable and rigid. And just as Mr. Ismay says, size means Stability, Luxury and Strength. Presently all the jumbo paper clips that can been seen around are all in regular styles as below while we specialize in the ones formed into different shapes.

We’ve developed a serial of giant paper clips in different designs and technologies which are totally new for the market that nobody else haven’t tapped into yet. 

And compared with the common ones, these large paper clips have multiple uses:

Creative Stationery – They are obviously more durable and practical than those regular ones on binding more paper with stronger clip strength, also our unlimited, creative designs vitalize those piles of insignificant wires which is a pleasing relaxation for the people at work.

Business Gifts – Fantastic for different objectives such as friends, customers, visitors, students etc to show affection in various events: conferences, holidays, celebrations, teachings etc.

Decorative Ornaments – They are brilliant decorations for various types of objects. They could be decorative bookmarks or adornment to any gift books, DIY holiday cards, postcards, gift package toppers, or brims as Hat Clips!

Promotional Gifts – A perfect and cool way to show the individuality of your business via custom logo JUMBO paper clips, getting across your ideas.


Iron Wire

The wire large paper clips in our business line can be made of wires in 1.5mm, 2.0mm, 2.5mm, or about 4.0mm. 1.5mm wire is the mostly frequently-used one. Other gauges of wires have to be customized upon client’s requirements.

As you can find out, we are pretty skilled in wire shaping. If you are interested in wire home decors, you go visiting to learn more.

Metal or Metal + Wire 

Our printed clips and binder clips can be made of these materials as stated, both of which are usually covered with prints on the metal portion.


The available colors could be electroplated (silver, gold, rose gold, chromatic etc), or in spray-paint (baking varnish).


How To Hang Pictures With Bulldog Clips?

How To Hang Pictures With Bulldog Clips?

How do I view unframed photos?

How do you hang unframed canvas? Canvases can be secured on the wall without a frame, too, but only if they’re not too large or unweildy—and they’ll look better if the sides of the canvas are painted rather than blank; simply prop the open section inside the wood frame onto two sizeable nails (which will keep the piece more level than using one).

How can I hang a print without frame? How do you hang art without a frame? “If the item is really special, I will use a clip because it won’t damage the piece the way a pin or tape would,” Krieger says. She often sources vintage clips to match the patina of the piece, and slips that on a nail, but a binder clip and a clear thumb tack will do in a pinch.

How To Hang Pictures With Bulldog Clips – Related Questions

Should pictures be hung in odd numbers?

ODD NUMBERS- as a rule of thumb, things in odd numbers are always more interesting. Three pictures could be hung asymmetrically or symmetrically (as shown above). EVEN NUMBERS- hang an even amount of art close together to create the illusion of one display, oppose to multiple individual pieces.

How can I view old photos?

How do you hang multiple pictures on a wall?

What is the easiest way to hang pictures?

How do you hang pictures with paper clips?

Here’s a hint to help you get it right the first time: Find a large paper clip and straighten out the two middle bends so it forms an L. Coat the tip of the bottom end of the clip with colored chalk or lipstick. Hold the clip against the wall and hang the picture on it.

How do you hang an odd number of pictures?

Full Collection. Picture hanging tip: When hanging pictures, hanging an odd number of frames is easier than hanging an even number. Simply hang the middle frame first, and then you hang the next…

What is the rule for hanging pictures?

The golden rule of hanging a picture is to have the center of the photo be at 57 inches. This reflects the standard eye-height of the average person, and is used as a standard in most art galleries and museums.

Can you hang an unframed canvas painting?

Canvases can be secured on the wall without a frame, too, but only if they’re not too large or unweildy—and they’ll look better if the sides of the canvas are painted rather than blank; simply prop the open section inside the wood frame onto two sizeable nails (which will keep the piece more level than using one).

What can I use if I don’t have a picture frame?

– Idea 01. Light up your prints.
– Idea 02. Opt for a photo hanger.
– Idea 03. Branch out for a natural display.
– Idea 04. Pull those binder clips out of the drawer.
– Idea 05. Consider a photo easel.
– Idea 06. Frame around prints with washi tape.
– Idea 07. Arrange your prints into a grid.
– Idea 08. Repurpose a screen or fencing.

How do you make a paperclip into a hanger?

What can be used as a frame?

What does it mean when a canvas is unframed?

What is an Unframed Canvas? Unframed canvas is the artwork that is not set into any frame. Because of frameless borders, these artworks can adapt to any style. Unframed canvas prints are loved for their sleek and modern look.

Can you hang unframed prints?

What types of art can be hung unframed? Lightweight art—paintings on board and works on paper, for instance—can be affixed to the wall without any concern of excess weight taxing the hanging device (or damaging the piece itself).

What can I use instead of a picture frame?

– Washi Tape. This amazing craft material originated in Japan and comes in all kinds of amazing colors and patterns.
– Binder Clips.
– Clipboards.
– Strings and Clips.
– Skirt Hangers.

How do you attach a bulldog clip to the wall?

– Figure out how far you want the boards apart.
– Screw the boards to the wall in the ends and center.
– Paint the boards the same color as the wall, if you like.
– Measure and mark with a pencil where the clips will go.
– Screw in the bulldog clips.
– Put up your little artist’s masterpieces!

Can you hang unstretched canvas?

It may come as a surprise that a painting done on unstretched canvas can be stretched later. It can also be mounted to a panel or matted. Note: Unstretched canvas does not mean unprimed!

How do you hang unframed photos?

Dog Harnesses: No Pull, Service Dog & More (Free Shipping)

Looking for the best dog harness for your pup? Whether it’s a small dog harness for your Chihuahua, or large dog harness for your Great Dane, Chewy has the perfect harness for pup play. The right dog harness can ensure safe playtime and walks for you and your precious pup. Pet parents use dog harnesses instead of leashes for a variety of reasons. Whether you choose a dog leash, dog lead or harness will depend on your dog, and the activity you will be engaging in. Large or muscular dogs can be very strong, and often enjoy tugging you along. A large dog harness can give you more control over your dog when out for a walk or run than a regular collar can. Harnesses are also better for energetic pups not using a leash training collar. Smaller dog breeds can be prone to injury. Putting your precious pup in a harness can disperse the pressure from one area of the neck to the back and body. Spreading the stress over a larger surface area can prevent doggie injury. Looking for a top dog safety harness? If you’ve got an energetic pup who loves to jump while you drive, a dog car harness or dog seat belt harness can keep both you and your pup safe while on the road. Chewy features top dog harness brands like PetSafe dog harness, Kurgo dog harness and Solvit dog harness. The Solvit Deluxe Car Safety Harness is the ultimate in protection and comfort. Crash-tested, the harness works with your car’s seatbelt system, providing some range of motion but keeping your dog safely in place. A dog travel harness makes travel fun and safe for your dog, and reduces stress and anxiety for pup parents. For the best harness on the online dog shop at Chewy!

Related Categories: Dog Collars, Dog ID Tags & Name Tags, Dog Tie Outs, Dog Collars & Leashes, Basic Dog Harnesses, Service Dog Vest & Harness Options, No Pull Dog Harnesses, Handicap Support Dog Harnesses, Front Clip Dog Harnesses

Frequently Asked Questions About Dog Harnesses
Are harnesses safe for dogs?

Harnesses are safe for dogs, and they present an excellent alternative to collars for dogs who pull. They work by redistributing pressure across the chest and ribcage and can be more comfortable for some canines, too. Talk to your vet or trainer if you’re unsure about whether to choose a collar or harness for your dog.

What is the best dog harness for a dog?

The best harness for a dog will fit properly, be comfortable and provide the right amount of control. No-pull harnesses, which feature leash attachments on the front and sometimes also the back, work well for training and for difficult-to-control canines. Harnesses with handles can help with larger dogs and those who need assistance getting up.

What size dog harness should I get?

To determine what size dog harness you should get, measure your dog’s girth around the chest. Use a flexible tape measure or a length of string and take the measurement just behind the front legs, around the largest part of your dog’s torso. Most harnesses will list the chest measurement they fit and provide a size chart that includes recommended weight ranges.

Caterpillar – Page 180 – Spare parts for undercarriage of tracked vehicles tracks, track rollers, support rollers, drive wheels

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  • Head Nose Clip (455395.BL)

    Head Nose Clip (455395.BL) is a comfortable, high quality model designed for use by sports swimmers. This device is made of high-tech polycarbonate, which is distinguished by its softness and flexibility. This material behaves well when stretched, does not crack, quickly returns to its original shape, and is characterized by a long service life. One of the main advantages of this clip is that its design perfectly follows the contours of the nose without squeezing or causing discomfort when worn.The device is equipped with a special case for hygienic storage.

    Clamping Features:

    • for swimming;
    • protects the nose from water ingress;
    • soft, flexible;
    • long service life;
    • perfectly follows the contours of the nose;
    • does not cause discomfort when worn;
    • storage case.

    Type: nose clip;
    Sport: swimming;
    Material: polycarbonate;
    Color: blue;
    Complete set : clip, case.

    Manufacturer: Head (Netherlands).
    The Head brand is a well-known global manufacturer of all kinds of equipment and equipment for various sports disciplines. The founder of the company is the American engineer and inventor Howard Head. Initially, the brand created high-tech skis in a factory located in Baltimore, USA. The brand has become world famous for the production of high-tech downhill skis, as well as metal tennis rackets.Today, the company’s product range includes products for such sports as swimming, tennis, water aerobics, winter disciplines, as well as outdoor activities. The main office of the company is located in the Netherlands, the city of Amsterdam.

    Head nose clip (455395.BL) Choose Women’s bags of blue color, Children’s life jackets with delivery in Kiev, as well as: Kharkov, Odessa, Dnepropetrovsk and in other cities of Ukraine.You can also find Earplugs, nose clips from manufacturers such as: Head in the store

    90,000 1. Dilapidated gates and giant calves. From the memoirs of a rural veterinarian

    1. Dilapidated gates and giant calves

    When the gate fell on me, I realized with all my being that I had really returned home.

    My thoughts easily carried over through my short life in aviation to the day when I last came to Mr. Ripley’s farm – “to nibble a couple of calves,” as he put it on the phone, or rather, to gobble them up in a bloodless way.Goodbye morning!

    Trips to Anson Hall have always been reminiscent of hunting expeditions in the African wilderness. A broken country road led to the old house, which consisted of only potholes and bumps. He wandered through the meadows from gate to gate – there were seven in all.

    The gate is one of the worst curses in the life of a rural veterinarian, and before the appearance of horizontal metal bars, impassable for livestock, we in the Yorkshire hills especially suffered from them. There were usually no more than three of them on the farms, and we somehow put up with it.But seven! And at Ripley’s farm it was not even the number of gates, but their insidiousness.

    The first, blocking the exit to a narrow country road from the highway, behaved more or less decently, although over the antiquity of the years they had become very rusted. When I dropped the hook, they turned on their hinges, groaning and moaning. Thanks for that. The other six, not iron but wooden, were of the type known in Yorkshire as “shoulder gates.” “Apt name!” – I thought, lifting the next flap, prying the upper crossbar with my shoulder and describing a semicircle to open the way for the car.This gate consisted of a single sash without hinges, simply tied to a post with a rope at one end at the top and bottom.

    Even with the usual gates, there was plenty of trouble. Stop the car, get out, open the gate, get into the car, pass the gate, stop the car again, get out, close the gate behind you. But the trip to Anson Hall required a truly hard labor. The closer to home, the more dilapidated these infernal inventions became, and, bouncing on potholes, I approached the seventh, all red from the work that the sixth asked me.

    But here they are – the last and most formidable. Their character was vile and very vicious. For many, many years, they have been patched and corrected so many times, sparing new poles for them, that, in all likelihood, nothing remained of the original material. And so they were more dangerous than everyone else.

    I got out of the car and took a few steps forward. With this gate we had old accounts, and for a few seconds we gazed at each other in silence. In the past, we have had a few tense rounds, and in the account, no doubt, they were leading.

    The sash, somehow knocked down, was also hanging on a single rope loop located in the middle, and therefore turned on a very unreliable axis with a truly crushing effect.

    I cautiously approached its right side and began to untie the rope, noticing with bitterness that it, like all the previous ones, was neatly tied with a bow. As soon as I pulled at the end, the flap was released, and I hurriedly raised my hands to the top bar. But I was late. The lower crossbar, as if alive, deftly and very painfully slapped me on the shins, and when I tried to balance the flap, the upper one cut into my chest.

    Same time every time! I step by step led the sash in an arc, and the crossbars beat me up and down. Yes, the fight was unequal.

    Without any pleasure, I noticed that Mr. Ripley was watching my evolutions from the porch of the house. All the time I was struggling with the flap, he puffed on his pipe with taste and did not budge until I hobbled over the grass to the porch.

    – Ah, Mr. Harriott! Have you come to nip my calves? Bristly cheeks creased from a wide, friendly smile.(Mr. Ripley shaved once a week – on market day – logically believing that on the other six days scrubbing his face in the morning with a razor is the most useless thing. Who can see him, except his wife and cattle?)

    I bent down and rubbed bruises on the legs.

    – Mr. Ripley! This is your gate! Remember, the last time I came, you promised me that you would fix them? You, in fact, said that you will put new ones – it’s high time! It is so?

    “That’s right, young man,” Mr. Ripley replied, nodding in agreement.- I said how not to speak. But after all, hands still do not reach such trifles. – He grinned guiltily, but then his face took on an expression of sympathetic concern – I lifted my trouser leg and showed a wide abrasion on my shin.

    – Oh-oh-oh-oh! Well – the end! There will be a new gate here next week. I can guarantee you.

    – But, Mr. Ripley, you said the same word for word when you saw that my knee was covered in blood. “I guarantee you!” I remember well.

    Above the partition, a row of mighty shaggy heads looked indifferently in my direction.I am rooted to the ground.

    – Yes, I know, I know. The farmer pressed the tobacco in his cup with his thumb and puffed again on his pipe. “The mistress sharpens me every day that my head is full of holes, but you can rest assured, Mr. Harriott, that this will serve me as a good lesson. I apologize for your leg, but there will be no more annoyance from the gate. I can guarantee you.

    “Okay,” I said and limped to the car behind the emasculator [11]. – Where are the calves?

    Mr. Ripley walked leisurely across the courtyard and opened the lower stall door.

    – Here they are.

    Above the partition, a row of mighty shaggy heads looked indifferently in my direction. I rooted to the ground, and then pointed at them with a trembling finger:

    – Are you talking about these? ..

    – They are the most, – the farmer nodded cheerfully.

    I went closer and looked into the stall. There were eight of them – strong one-year-old bulls. Some looked sideways at me with mild interest, while others continued to kick with their feet, throwing straw.

    I turned to the farmer.

    – Again you …

    – Huh?

    – You called me to pinch the calves. And these are not calves, but adult bulls! Remember what monsters you had here last time? I almost got a hernia, so I had to put pressure on the forceps, and you said that next time you would freeze them in three months. They said you could guarantee …

    The farmer nodded solemnly. He agreed with everything without exception, no matter what I said.

    – That’s right, Mr. Harriott, that’s what I said.

    – But they are no less than a year old!

    Mr. Ripley shrugged his shoulders and gave me an endlessly tired smile:

    – Can you keep track of time? So it flies, so it flies.

    I trudged to the car to get some painkillers for local anesthesia.

    “Okay,” I muttered, filling the syringe. “If you can catch them, I’ll try to do something.

    The farmer removed the rope noose from the wall and walked towards the stalwart bull, muttering something reassuringly. The goby was about to rush past, but the loop was surprisingly deftly tightened on his face and horn at exactly the right moment. Mr. Ripley put the rope through the ring in the wall and pulled it tight.

    – Well, Mr. Harriott.Fast and hassle-free, right?

    I said nothing. All the troubles lay ahead of me. After all, I was working in the dangerous rear, very close to the hooves, which, of course, will fly up if my patient does not like the injection in the testis.

    But where to go? Over and over again I anesthetized the scrotum, and the hooves no-no yes drummed on my hands and feet. Then I proceeded to the operation itself – to bloodless destruction of the spermatic cord without damaging the skin. Undoubtedly, this is much more convenient than the old method with a scalpel, and some seconds are spent on a young calf.

    Such giants are another matter. To capture a large fleshy scrotum, the emasculator had to be bred almost to a horizontal position, and then squeezed from such and such a position! Here the fun began.

    After local anesthesia, the bull did not feel anything – or almost nothing, but I, desperately trying to pull the arms of the emasculator, felt cold hopelessness – the task seemed overwhelming. However, human muscles can work wonders if you work hard enough. Beads of sweat were creeping down my nose, I puffed, pressed with the last of my strength, the metal handles gradually drew closer, and finally the tongs closed with a click.

    I always apply them twice on each side and, having a rest, repeated the whole procedure below. When the second side was finished, I leaned against the wall, gasping for air and trying not to think that this was only the first, that there were seven more …

    It took a long, very long time before the last one finally came. My eyes crawled out onto my forehead, my mouth could no longer close, and then it dawned on me. I straightened up, stood on the side of the bull and said hoarsely:

    – Mr. Ripley, why don’t you try it yourself?

    – Huh? – All this time, the farmer calmly watched my attempts, slowly releasing blue clouds of tobacco smoke from his mouth, but such a proposal clearly unsettled him.- How so?

    – You see, this is the last one, and I would like you to understand by experience what I have always told you about. Try to close the tongs.

    He thought a little.

    – So that’s it, and who will keep the cattle?

    – Nonsense, – I answered. – We will tie it tighter to the ring, I will prepare everything and see how you do it.

    A slight doubt was written on the farmer’s face, but I decided to insist on my own and led him to the tail of the bull. Then he put on the emasculator and pressed Mr. Ripley’s fingers to the handles of the apparatus.

    “Great,” I said. – Let’s!

    The farmer took in more air in his lungs, strained his shoulders and began to press on the arms. Not the slightest effect.

    For several minutes I watched his face turn red and purple. His eyes were bulging more than mine, and the veins in his forehead bulged. Suddenly he groaned and fell to his knees.

    – No, honey, nothing will work for me. I tried in vain.

    – And after all, Mr. Ripley, – I put my hand on his shoulder and smiled affectionately, – you demand from me exactly this!

    He nodded obediently.

    – Well, nothing, – I said. – Now you understand what I was talking about. Simple, easy work has become very difficult only because the calves have grown up. If you called me when they were three months old, I would have done the job in one moment, right?

    – What’s true is true, Mr. Harriott. Your truth. I was a fool, and I won’t let this happen again.

    I was proud of myself. I am not particularly ingenious, but the conviction grew in me that I had found a way to penetrate Mr. Ripley.

    From delight my strength increased tenfold, and I safely completed the operation. Walking to the car, I reveled in my own ingenuity and completely choked with complacency, turning on the engine, because the farmer leaned over to the window.

    “Thank you, Mr. Harriott,” he said. “You taught me something this morning. The next time you arrive, there will be a brand new gate for you, and I will not call you to such animals either. I can guarantee you.

    How long has it been since that morning? After all, this was even before I left for the army.But now I again got used to civilian life and again felt the taste of many, it would seem, firmly forgotten. However, when the phone rang, I had a taste I had never forgotten — the wonderful taste of Helen’s dinner.

    Sunday lunch included traditional roast beef and Yorkshire pudding. My wife had just put a solid chunk of pudding on my plate and was now pouring a meat sauce of indescribable flavor over it. After a typical veterinarian Sunday morning, busy throwing from farm to farm, I was ready to eat the bull, and it occurred to me, as it happened more than once, that if I had a chance to introduce some foreign foodie to the merits of English cuisine, I would certainly gave him Yorkshire pudding.

    At the very beginning of lunch, thrifty farmers stuffed the bellies of their children and households with slices of Yorkshire pudding with meat sauce, using a crafty joke: “He who eats more pudding, gets more meat!” The latter was not entirely true, but the dish itself is divine. Putting the first bite in my mouth, I looked forward to how Helen, when I cleaned the plate, would refill it with beef, potatoes and peas and red beans picked in our garden in the morning.

    And here the piercing sound of the telephone crashed into my blissful reflections.No, I told myself firmly, nothing would spoil my dinner. The most urgent case in veterinary practice will somehow wait until I’m done with the second course.

    Nevertheless, I took the receiver with a tremulous hand, and the voice that rang out in it plunged me into excruciating anxiety. Mr. Ripley! Oh my God, not that! Not in Anson Hall over bumps and potholes! After all, today is still Sunday.

    A voice thundered in my ear. Mr. Ripley belonged to those who were convinced that one must shout on the phone, otherwise they might not hear at such a distance …

    – A veterinarian, or what?

    – Yes.Harriot listens.

    – So you returned from the war?

    – Returned.

    – Well, I need you this very minute. One of my cows is really bad.

    – What about her? Anything urgent?

    – Yeah! Broken leg, not otherwise.

    I pushed the receiver away from my ear: Mr. Ripley increased the volume even more, and my head was buzzing.

    – But why do you think so? I asked, feeling an unpleasant dry mouth.

    “She’s standing on three legs,” bellowed the farmer.- And the fourth kind of dangles.

    Damn, the most ominous symptom. I glanced sadly across the table at my full plate.

    – Okay, Mr. Ripley, I’ll come.

    – This minute, huh? Won’t you pull?

    – No. Now I’m leaving.

    I hung up, rubbed my ear and turned to Helen.

    She raised her head, and I saw the pained face of a woman who vividly imagines her Yorkshire pudding sinking, turning into shapeless ruins.

    – But you can stay for a few minutes, right?

    – Sorry, Helen, only here seconds play a role! – A cow appeared before my eyes, which rushes about in pain and further damages the broken leg. – Yes, and he does not find a place for himself. No, you need to go immediately!

    My wife’s lips trembled:

    – Nothing. I’ll put it in the oven until you return.

    As I left, I saw Helen take my plate and turn towards the kitchen door. But we both knew this was the end.No Yorkshire pudding would last until I got back. I was on my way to Anson Hall.

    I taxied into the street and put on the gas. The market square was dozing peacefully in Sunday rest, and the sun was pouring its rays generously on the cobblestone, which had not yet been touched by anyone’s foot. All of Darrowby’s denizens were eating their holiday meals behind closed doors. The meadows began, and I pressed the gas pedal to the floor, so that the stone walls only flickered past, but now it was time to turn onto a country road, and then it began …

    something of change.However, the iron gates remained almost the same, only the rust on them noticeably increased. With a growing sense of doom, I drove through the wooden gate, untiing the ropes and dragging the flap on my shoulder in an arc until I got to the seventh.

    These last, the most terrible gates were waiting for me in all their old dilapidation and absurdity. Approaching them almost on tiptoe, I refused to believe my eyes. Since the last time I contemplated this gate, I had the opportunity to experience a lot of things.I lived in a completely different world of drill training, comprehension of navigational wisdom and, in the end, even training flights. And this creaky colossus stood here and did not blow in its mustache.

    I examined the sash carefully. The crooked loosened crossbeams remained the same, as did the only rope loop. Even the rope was probably the same. Incredible! But then I noticed something different: Mr. Ripley, apparently fearful lest the cattle got into the habit of scratching their sides on this ancient bastion and damaging it, took care to decorate the sash with scalloped barbed wire.

    But maybe time softened their nature? Probably, they have not retained all their former malice! I carefully loosened the lower rope on the right side and, with infinite care, untied the bow at the top. Phew! It seems to have done well! But then the rope fell, and the sash swung on the left loop more ferociously than before.

    She hit me in the chest and immediately slapped my legs, but I also felt something new: iron thorns dug into my leg through my leg. I desperately fought back from the sash, but it thrashed me from above, then from below.I leaned back, protecting my chest, my legs buckled, and I collapsed on my back. No sooner had my back touched the ground than the sash famously pressed me down from above.

    In the past, I almost got under her several times, but managed to dodge, and now she finally managed to cover me. I tried to crawl out to freedom, but the barbed wire held me firmly. I was trapped.

    Painfully arching my neck, I looked over the sash. The farm was not more than forty steps away, but everything seemed to die out there.Weird! Where is the anxious master? I thought he was rushing about the yard, wringing his hands! And nowhere is there a soul.

    Call for help? But I immediately gave up this thought: everything turned out very stupidly. There was only one thing left … I grabbed the top bar with both hands and jerked it up, trying not to hear the crackle of torn clothes, and then very slowly I got out from under the sash.

    I left her lying on the ground. Usually, I close all the gates behind me with special care, but there were no cattle in the meadows, and in general I was not tempted to enter a new single combat with the sash.

    In response to my knock, the door opened.

    – Ah, Mr. Harriott! What a weather! – said Mrs. Ripley, continuing to wipe the plate and at the same time trying to pull up the apron on her broad hips, with a carefree smile – just the same as her husband’s, I remembered.

    – Yes, great … I was summoned to see your cow. Is your husband at home?

    She shook her head:

    – He is not there. Haven’t returned from Fox with the Hounds yet.

    – What !? I stared at her in confusion.“This is an inn in Diverton, right? But, as far as I understood, it was about something urgent …

    – But he went there to call you. We don’t have a phone. Her smile widened.

    – But … but almost an hour has passed! It is high time for him to return.

    “That’s right,” she replied, nodding in agreement. – Only there he met friends, friends, not otherwise. On Sunday morning they all gather there.

    I ran my fingers through my hair.

    – Mrs. Ripley, I got up from the table to get here quickly!

    – Well, we’ve already dined, – she answered me in consolation.

    However, she could not have explained this to me: from the kitchen there was a delicious smell of roast, which, of course, was preceded by Yorkshire pudding.

    I was silent for a while, and then, sighing deeply, I grunted:

    – So, maybe I’ll look at the cow for now. Tell me, please, where is she?

    – Get out! Mrs. Ripley pointed to a stall in the far corner of the yard. – Go have a look at her. He’ll be back soon.

    It burned me like a whip. A terrible word! “Fast” in Yorkshire is a very common expression and can mean any period of time up to two hours.

    I opened the top flap of the door and looked at the cow. She certainly went limp, but when I approached her, she jumped on the mat, jabbing her injured leg into the floor.

    Well, it seems, there was no break. True, she did not lean on her leg, but, on the other hand, if the leg were broken, it would dangle, but this is not. I even sighed with relief. In large animals, a fracture is almost always tantamount to a death sentence, because no plaster of Paris can withstand such pressure.Apparently, the hoof was painful, but I could not examine the dancing cow alone. It remained to wait for Mr. Ripley.

    I stepped out into the bright sunlight and looked over to where the Diverton bell tower rose from behind the trees over the gentle slope. There was not a single human figure to be seen in the meadows, and I wandered dejectedly to the grass for the services, so that from there, with a good patience, I could look out for Mr. Ripley.

    Turning around, I looked at the house, and in spite of my irritation, peace and tranquility breathed over me.Like many other old farms, Anson Hall was once a manor house on a noble estate. Several hundred years ago, some titled person built herself a dwelling in an extremely beautiful place. Even though the roof was about to collapse, and one of the high chimneys was drunkenly tilted to one side, the windows in dense bindings, the graceful arch above the door and the noble proportions of the whole building were fascinating, as were the pastures, stretching higher and higher to the green tops of the hills.

    And this charming garden wall! In the old days, her sun-drenched stones would have guarded the mowed lawn, all in bright colors, but now there was a rage of nettles.Its dense thicket, waist-high to a tall man, filled all the free space between the wall and the house. Farmers are, of course, bad gardeners, but Mr. Ripley was one of a kind.

    My thoughts were interrupted by the voice of the lady of the house:

    – He’s coming, he’s coming, Mr. Harriott. I saw him from the window! She ran out onto the porch and waved her hand towards Diverton.

    Yes, she was not mistaken, her husband was indeed heading home – a tiny black speck was slowly creeping across the meadows.We watched Mr. Ripley’s progress for about fifteen minutes, but finally he squeezed through a hole in the wall and walked towards us in a waving halo of tobacco smoke.

    I went straight to the attack:

    – Mr. Ripley. Indeed, I have been waiting for a very long time. You asked me not to waste a minute!

    – Yes, I know, I know. Only you can’t talk on the phone and not take a glass of beer, huh? He bowed his head and lit me with a smile from the unapproachable stronghold of his righteousness.

    I opened my mouth, but he got ahead of me:

    – And then Dick Henderson treated me to a mug, well, I had to treat him, and just about to leave, take Bobby Talbot and talk about the pigs he bought that week …

    – This is Bobby Talbot for me! His wife intervened vividly. “So he’s sitting there now too?” He clung to the inn like a fly. And as soon as his mistress tolerates this!

    – Yeah, and Bobby was sitting there too. He doesn’t seem to come out of there. – Mr. Ripley smiled thoughtfully, knocked out the pipe on his heel and began to soften the tobacco in the cup again. – Do you know who else I saw there? Dan Thompson, that’s who! For the first time since his operation. Well, he was emaciated! We can say – twice. To drink a couple or two beers for him is the most pleasant thing.

    – Dan, you say? Mrs. Ripley perked up even more. – How glad I am! And they said that he could not get out of the hospital alive …

    – Excuse me … – I interrupted.

    – No, they ground it in vain with tongues, Mr Ripley continued. – Kidney stone, everything and business. Dan is already quite okay. So he told me …

    I raised my hand in protest:

    – Mr. Ripley, can I examine the cow? I haven’t had dinner yet. When you called, my wife put everything in the oven.

    – But first of all I had lunch and only then went there. – Mr. Ripley smiled encouragingly at me, and his wife nodded with laughter to finally calm me down.

    – Wonderful! I said in an icy tone. – I am delighted.

    But the sarcasm was gone in vain: they took my words at face value!

    When Mr. Ripley finally tied the cow, I lifted the sore leg, put it on my knee, scraped off the dirt with a hoof knife, and in the oblique sunbeam the culprit of the trouble flashed dimly.I pinched his cap with tongs, pulled it out and showed it to the farmer. He blinked, and then his shoulders shook:

    – So this is a nail from my boot! How did it happen? On the cobblestone, apparently, he slipped, and he pulled himself free. The cobblestone is slimy here. Once or twice I almost rolled over my ass. I already told the hostess …

    – I have to go, Mr. Ripley, – I interrupted. “After all, I haven’t had dinner yet, do you remember? I just go to the car to get some tetanus serum and give the cow an injection.

    I gave her an injection, put the syringe in my pocket and walked across the yard back to the car, but then the farmer called out to me:

    – Do you have tweezers with you, Mr. Harriott?

    – Tweezers? .. – I stopped and turned to him, not believing my ears. – Yes, of course, but is it really impossible to choose another time?

    The farmer flicked an old copper lighter and aimed a long column of flame at the tobacco in the pipe.

    – So just one calf, Mr. Harriot! A minute – and all the business.

    Well, okay, I thought, I opened the trunk and fished out the emasculator from under the overalls, which I put on at calving. What does it matter now! Anyway, my Yorkshire pudding is long gone, and the beef and delicious fresh vegetables are perhaps not quite charred. All is lost, and the calf is more, the calf is less – what a difference!

    I walked back, when suddenly in the depths of the courtyard two doors opened, a huge black monster flew out at a gallop and, blinded by the bright sun, stopped abruptly, looking around warily, digging the ground with its hooves and angrily whipping itself with its tail on the sides.I stared at the wide spread of the horns, at the mighty muscles bulging on the shoulders, at the cold sparkling eyes. All that was missing was fanfare and sand underfoot instead of cobblestones, otherwise I would have imagined that I suddenly found myself on the Plaza de Toros in Madrid.

    – What is this – a calf? I asked. The farmer nodded cheerfully:

    – He’s the best. I’ve decided to overtake him in the barn, where it is more convenient to tie him by the neck.

    A hot wave of anger swept over me. How am I going to yell at him! And then, oddly enough, the wave subsided, leaving behind only hopeless fatigue.

    I went up to the farmer, pulled my face to his face and said quietly:

    – Mr. Ripley, we have not seen for a long time, and you had enough time to fulfill the promise you gave me. Remember? That the calves need to be operated when they are three months old, no more, and that you will replace these gates. Now look at your bull and see what your gates have turned my suit into.

    The farmer looked with sincere distress at the holes that adorned my trousers, and even touched a large flap hanging from the sleeve at the elbow with his finger.

    – Yes, it didn’t work well, excuse me. He looked at the bull. – Yes, and this one, of course, is a little too big.

    I said nothing. A few seconds later, Mr. Ripley threw back his head and looked me straight in the eye with firm determination.

    “Bad is bad,” he said. “But you know what? You will pinch this one today, and I will make sure that this does not happen again!

    I shook my finger at him:

    – You already told me the same thing. But now can I rely on your promise?

    He nodded eagerly:

    – I can guarantee you.

    Charolais bull

    The best beef cattle in Europe – pale cream Charolais from eastern Central France. This breed existed there as far back as the 18th century, when the Charolais were used as draft animals for plowing and transporting goods. Such work undoubtedly contributed to the development of the main features of the breed – a dense build and massive hind legs. The first 27 Charolais bulls were brought to England in 1962, mainly for crossbreeding with dairy breeds.Gobies obtained as a result of such a cross grow rapidly and gain weight.


    These 20 cm clips are used when it is necessary to hold the head of a bull or cow – to inject medicine down the throat or thread a ring through the nose. When the latch slides towards the handle, the curved pliers open up, they are inserted into the nostrils, the latch slides back, and the pliers clamp the nasal septum.

    How to feed your family to their fill

    Those who eat more pudding will get more meat – this was announced to family members when they sat down to dinner.However, the housewife knew full well that a generous serving of crispy pudding squares with delicious meat sauce would save expensive beef.

    Yorkshire Pudding

    Some families preferred to have each pudding baked in a separate round pan, but most homes baked one large pudding for all, cut into squares. Some liked the crunchy edges, while others liked the softer pieces from the middle.

    To make Yorkshire pudding, pour 120 g flour into a large bowl, mix it with half a teaspoon of salt and make a dimpled slide of the flour.Crack 1 large egg into a hole and gradually knead the flour with vigorous movements, adding a little 0.3 liters of milk, until you get a lump-free batter. Leave it on for an hour. Then heat some fat in a 20 cm square mold, add 2 tablespoons of cold water to the dough and pour it all into the mold. Bake at 230 ° C for 25 minutes, until the pudding rises and turns golden brown.

    Cooking with kerosene

    In the summer, when the stove was fired, it was very hot.At the end of the 19th century, kerosene stoves appeared and found widespread use in the north of Yorkshire. The most common was a kerosene stove (above), about 25 cm high, with several wicks under a flat grate on which a kettle or a saucepan was placed. The kerosene stove with an enameled oven 75 cm high was arranged more complexly. The internal space was only 0.3 cubic meters. m, but it contained three shelves, and a glass door made it possible to monitor how the baking was going.

    Delivery of milk from the meadow

    When more than one can of milk was fed from the cows in the meadow, the milkman often went there with a donkey or a short horse.The farmers in Wensleydale preferred donkeys, and in Swayldale they preferred horses. A belt device was thrown over the back of the animal, holding it along the can on both sides.

    Limousin bull

    Limousin beef cattle from the west of Central France are second only to the Charolais in Europe. It is somewhat smaller than the latter – the back is even longer, but the skeleton is lighter. Provides a lot of lean meat. It gains weight quickly and can profitably be slaughtered by a calf. A ten-month-old bull weighs half a ton.The prize bull is worth around £ 8,000.

    Heifers of the Limousin breed

    Limousin cattle in England began to breed in 1971, and ten years later there were already over 6 thousand purebred limousines in the country. This cattle tolerates large temperature fluctuations well. Heifers in winter are dressed in thick wool, which sheds with the onset of warm weather. Their color ranges from light red to reddish brown, the eyes and mouth are surrounded by clear light rings. The first calves of a cow are brought at the age of two and a half years.Their owners prefer to get more gobies, which are raised for meat.

    Evaluation of a Novel Laser-assisted Coronary Anastomotic Connector – the Trinity Clip – in a Porcine Off-pump Bypass Model

    This article describes the new coronary anastomosis connector, Trinity clip, and how to evaluate such a new device in a pig off-pump bypass model … Various methods are proposed to assess the quality of the anastomosis, promoted by a new connector or conventionally constructed: intraoperative, postoperative and postmortem methods.Evaluating the quality and safety of a facilitated anastomosis – as well as the healing and reconstruction process – in the short and long term is of paramount importance until the future clinical use of a coronary connector anastomosis.

    Currently only 1 coronary anastomosis connector is clinically used 17.18, Several other devices have shown unfavorable experimental or clinical results, or the developers have failed to market the product 19-21. Compared to other methods for achieving coronary anastomosis, the Trinity Clamp includes several interesting features. First, due to the nonocclusive connection of the vessel walls, ischemic conditioning of (i.e. constriction or shunting) is redundant, which allows anastomosis construction as a result of a bloodless area without time constraints, and hence reduced manipulation of the coronary artery. Second, the construction is relatively simple and clear, neither a separate incision in the coronary artery nor the placement of additional sutures to obtain hemostasis is necessary.Third, the connector is a low-profile device, without a cumbersome deployment device system; Thus, it will not interfere with the construction of a bypass in hard-to-reach or remote areas of the heart, and thus potentially increase the possibilities for revascularization using minimally invasive approaches.

    Important questions regarding the biological behavior of the facilitated anastomosis are still unanswered. What are the implications for laser punching systems for arteriotomy in both ITA and guy? May blood exposed to non-intimal surfaces of (i.e., material from the forks and medial and laser RIM adventitia), due to the small ischemic dimension target, be a potential limitation on education excessive intimal hyperplasia in the long term? To answer these questions, a preclinical study, using a porcine model as described in this article, will evaluate the prolonged patency and, in addition, the healing and reconstruction effects associated with intimal hyperplasia formation with subsequent potential narrowing of the anastomosis.Also, in this preclinical study, patency, healing, and remodeling of a simplified anastomosis will be compared to a control, usually manually sutured, of the anastomosis. The porcine model is suitable for these scientific questions because of its pre-human resembling the physiology and anatomy of the heart and coronary arteries, and its EMERGENCY healing (e.g. intimate hyperplasia formation), in which 6 months of observation of a major in the pig model is comparable to 1. 5-3 years follow-up of a stented human coronary artery 22. However, the arteries of a young and healthy pig are not diseased and compliant and are thus different from the diseased human vessels arising in cardiothoracic surgical practice. Thus, prior to clinical implementation, the feasibility and safety of the connector will also be assessed in the human atherosclerotic cadaveric model. In addition, a tendency towards hypercoagulability is found in pigs 23. Therefore, to evaluate facilitated anastomoses on small caliber coronary arteries, a porcine model is rather difficult.From this point, this protocol described antiplatelet therapy (75 mg clopidogrel and 320 mg acetylsalicylic acid) is warranted. In addition, the antiplatelet pending blood regimen is exposed to the nonintimal surface of the anastomosis (Benis). In our previous study, we showed that the anastomotic surface of the nonintimal progenitor of the Crown connector is completely endothelialized after 10 days 6.7. The role of antiplatelet therapy in clinics using this connector should be based on the amount of endothelialization.Once the nonintimal surface is endothelialized, the antiplatelet regimen may be reduced.

    Excimer laser contact the laser and only successfully laser pierce the vessel wall in case there is full direct circular contact with the laser tissue. The most important step in the construction of the anastomosis, therefore, is the correct position of the laser catheter on the vessel wall of the graft and coronary artery. This step should be trained Ex Vivo cadaver models (eg pig hearts) to minimize training time.Possible scenarios that will lead to a laser search flap failure, and which must be taken into the head, are described here: 1) The coronary anastomosis connector is designed to connect bribery to the coronary artery, and secondly to serve as a laser platform. The connector presents the vessel walls (i.e. straight tissue surfaces, no impacts) and allows perpendicular position of the catheter to the vessel wall. If the connector moves small (for example, incomplete insertion, back or side grip, intramural or -adventitial positioning), the presentation of the vessel wall is not suboptimal (that is, is not straight to the surface).Therefore, in the event of a bad position, you should always reposition the connector before reaching the point of no return (eg arteriotomy). 2) A fixation clip is designed to keep the laser catheter perpendicular to the connector during construction. However, the anchorage of the clamp is not designed to withstand much counter-force, so the surgeon must support the laser catheter during construction. If not sufficiently supported, the catheter may move. 3) In order to ensure optimal contact with the laser tissue, the ischemic wall must be dissected free of the free suburban adventitia tissue, in relation to the lateral wall.Ensure that the laser surface consists only of the coronal wall, from its inner sheath to its adventitia, and no suburban adventitia tissue is trapped in the socket.

    If unfortunately the construction of the anastomosis fails, the clamp should be removed (when opening with the lower fork only), and then the coronary lesion should be closed (± 2 mm length) with repair of the sutures (8-0 prolene). Pigs are generally quite sensitive to ischemic stress. Therefore, ischemic pre-occlusion is recommended before coronary occlusion to correct the defect.Then a new anastomosis can be constructed distal to the first target. The graft is still seated on the upper fork connector. Thus, after re-positioning and fixing the catheter, the connector can be directly inserted into the coronary artery.

    The most important methods of assessing the anastomosis are coronary angiography (clinical gold standard) and histology (experimental gold standard, combined with coronary angiography). However, the intraoperative assessment of the quality of the anastomosis from time transit flow measurements (TTFM) is extremely informative.TTFM is fast, non-invasive, real-time, and easy, and in addition, correct interpretation can reduce the number of technical, not visible, errors 11,12,24-26. Modern TTFM consoles automatically calculate and display in real time the average flow, flow curve, and ripple index (PI), as well as many other parameters. PI is calculated using the formula (flow min flow max) / mean flow and an indicator of anastomotic quality, while mean flow alone is not a reliable indicator.Low mean flow (<15 ml / min) with good PI (<5) and good diastolic flow curve can be found by perfect anastomosis to a small coronary target with moderate flow, while good mean flow (> 15 ml / min ) with an abnormal diastolic filling pattern and a high PI (> 5) suggests anastomotic imperfection or graft rejection (i.e., twisting, squeezing, or twisting of the graft). In this case, consideration should be given to revising the anastomosis.Thus, a good assessment of the quality of the anastomosis should include interpretation of the flow curve, pulsation index and mean flow, in conjunction with the clinical condition. However, the reported specificity and sensitivity of TTFM are not the same, and hence the diagnostic accuracy is under debate. In addition, the value of PI off is determined empirically based on clinical experience rather than clinical research. The TTFM console we are currently using in preclinical animal studies features epicardial ultrasound imaging.If there is still uncertainty about the quality of the anastomosis after measuring the flow rate, real-time epicardial ultrasound imaging can be of great help in further evaluating the anastomosis, hereby increasing the diagnostic Accuracy 27-31.

    An experimental alternative to measuring TTF peak response peak hyperemic flow 32, ie, coronary reserve, which is the ratio of peak hyperemia flow, after 30-second graft occlusion, and base flow.The maximum sensitivity of hyperemic flow should be> 4 for distal anastomosis. If the anastomosis is intended proximally to a coronary artery, the peak hyperemic flow response may be slightly lower and should be> 3 6. No hyperemic flow response suggests a technical anastomotic error or graft rejection. In this case, consult the TTF measurement and clinical condition, and consider revising the anastomosis. Please note that absolute flow reserve varies with blood pressure (thus always measure at the same mean arterial pressure in duplicate), and that ischemic preconditioning may negatively affect the maximum hyperemic flow response.In addition, the peak hypere response of the microphone flow is not confirmed by the method and the absolute cutoff value has not been determined. We have empirically selected the slice based on our experimental experience.

    Finally, the method of anastomosis described in this protocol is an experimental technique of anastomosis with the purpose and potential for application in a clinical minimally invasive setting. At this time, materials on the application of the method shown in this document will not be completed or marketed for finished products, but rather prototype tools.There is also a reclamation window (eg universal overlay and flexible laser catheter), which is being filled soon.

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