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General Information Frequently Asked Questions, Fishing and Hunting Licenses, Alaska Department of Fish and Game
In Alaska, a license is required in order to participate in hunting/trapping/fishing, personal use fishing, commercial fishing, and sport fish or hunt guiding. Several different licenses are available for residents, non-residents, members of the military, residents who are disabled veterans, and resident seniors who are 60 years or older.
How long is my license valid?
Licenses are valid from the date of purchase through December 31st of each calendar year. The exceptions are trapping licenses and short-term non-resident fishing licenses. Trapping licenses are valid from the start date through September 30th of the following year. Short-term non-resident fishing licenses are valid for only 1, 3, 7, or 14 days.
What are the different license formats?
There are three types of license formats: printed/electronic licenses, eSigned licenses, and carbon copy licenses.
- Printed/Electronic Licenses: This format is available at ADF&G offices, most license vendors, and our online store. At time of purchase you will receive a copy of your license in PDF format. There are three ways to carry a printed/electronic license.
- You may print a copy of your license, physically sign it, and carry it on your person.
- You may download an electronic version to your phone and sign the license by utilizing tools available through your mobile device.
- You may carry a digital version by taking a picture of your signed license with your mobile device.
- You may print a copy of your license, physically sign it, and carry it on your person.
- eSigned Licenses: This format is only available through your ADF&G account on the online store. Purchasing a license for yourself through your ADF&G account will automatically provide you with an eSigned license. This license can be stored and viewed on your electronic device. You may also print this license version and carry the physical copy on your person.
- Carbon Copy Licenses: This format is being reduced and is only available at select vendors and some ADF&G offices. This license is handwritten and the licensee receives a carbon copy. If this license is lost, a duplicate must be issued at a cost of $5.00.
Residents under the age of 18 do not need a hunting, sport fishing, or trapping license, unless they are proxying or guiding. Non-residents under the age of 16 do not need a sport fishing license, but they do need to purchase a hunting and/or trapping license.
When sport fishing for a species with an annual limit, resident and non-resident anglers of all ages are required to record their harvest on a Sport Fishing Harvest Record Card. The harvest record card is available online, at some license vendors, or at Fish and Game offices. Species with an annual limit are listed in the “general regulations” section in area sport fish regulations summary books.
|Residents (Under Age 10)||Non-Residents (Under Age 10)|
|Residents (Age 10–17)||Non-Residents (Age 10+)|
|Residents (Under Age 18)||Non-Residents (Under Age 16)|
Alaska Resident Seniors or Disabled Veterans
Resident seniors (60 years of age or older) who meet the Fish and Game residency definition may obtain a senior permanent identification card (PID).
Do I need a king salmon stamp?
King salmon stamps are required for anglers who fish for king salmon (except king salmon in stocked lakes), except for residents under the age of 18 and non-residents under the age of 16, as well as persons who have a resident blind fishing license, resident low-income license, resident senior permanent identification card (PID), or resident disabled veteran’s license. These individuals require a Harvest Record card to fish for king salmon (except king salmon in stocked lakes).
Do I need a Alaska duck stamp?
A state duck stamp is required for anyone who hunts waterfowl, except for residents under the age of 18 and persons who have a resident low-income license, resident senior permanent identification card (PID), or resident disabled veteran’s license.
Do I need a big game locking tag?
Alaska residents who plan to hunt brown/grizzly bear or muskox may be required to obtain a big game locking tag. See definition of a resident licensee.
Individuals who qualify for the non-resident military license may be required to obtain a big game locking tag to hunt for brown/grizzly bear, goat (free), muskox, or sheep (free). See definition of a non-resident military licensee and more information on qualifying for military licenses.
Non-residents and non-resident aliens may be required to obtain a big game locking tag to hunt brown/grizzly bear, black bear, bison, caribou, deer, elk, goat, moose, muskox, sheep, wolf, or wolverine. See definition of a non-resident or non-resident alien licensee.
Please see the current hunting regulations for details.
Can I use a higher priced big game locking tag as a replacement?
A big game locking tag may be used for a species of equal or lesser value.
Refund of Licenses, Stamps, and Big Game Locking Tags
Refunds are processed at the Juneau Headquarters Licensing office only. Please send your written request for refund along with your original license/tag and any supporting documentation for the refund to the following address:
State of Alaska
Department of Fish and Game
PO Box 115525
Juneau AK 99811-5525
Refunds are regulated by Alaska Administrative Code 5 AAC 93.530 which states:
- A person who wishes to obtain a refund of a license fee must apply by submitting a written request directly to the department, including the person’s original license and supporting documentation that shows the person meets the requirements in (b) of this section.
- A refund of a license fee will be granted by the department under this section only if the licensee or the licensee’s representative demonstrates to the satisfaction of the department that the licensee was unable to make any use of the license as a result of:
- the death or serious disabling illness or injury of the licensee that occurred after the licensee’s purchase of the license and before the opening of any season for which the license may have been used; in the case of a serious disabling illness or injury, the illness or injury must have lasted until all seasons for which the license may be used are closed;
- the permanent cancellation of the opening of all seasons to which the license applied, rendering the license unusable at any time during the year for which it was issued; or
- a catastrophic event that the department determines justifies a refund of the license fee, including a localized volcano eruption or a terror alert that prohibits the licensee’s air travel to this state.
- A refund will not be made under this section to a licensee who is
- unsuccessful in the licensee’s efforts to take fish or game or obtain employment as a crew-member; or
- unable to conduct the licensed activity due to scheduling difficulties, transportation problems, misconduct of a guide, or other circumstances that prevent the licensee from undertaking the activity the licensee had planned, but which do not prevent the licensee from undertaking licensed activities at either an earlier or later time.
If you have any questions about the refund process, please email us at [email protected] or call the Licensing office at 907-465-2376.
Federal Requirement for Aliens Bringing Guns into the United States
The U.S. Department of Justice/Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) requires non-immigrant aliens temporarily importing firearms and ammunition into the United States to submit ATF Form 6NIA (5330. 3D), in order to obtain an ATF firearm import permit. This permit application must be submitted well in advance of your trip.
The form and instruction on how to submit it can be obtained by calling ATF at 304-616-4550 or visiting the ATF website, where you can download the ATF Form 6NIA (5330.3D). It takes approximately 8-10 weeks for ATF to process the ATF Form 6NIA (5330.3D).
In order to submit this form (unless meeting other qualifications listed on the form), you must buy a hunting license. A hunting license can be purchased at our Fish and Game online store. A copy of your license with the ATF Form 6NIA (5330.3D) must be sent to ATF.
The approved ATF importation permit and your hunting license in order to clear US Customs when you arrive in the United States. All the regulations about carrying an unconcealed or concealed handgun in Alaska can be found at the Alaska Department of Public Safety.
If you have more questions, please can contact the ATF Alaska field office at (907) 271-5701.
30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities
Front Psychol. 2013; 4: 629.
Andrew J. Latham
1School of Psychology, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
2Centre for Brain Research, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Lucy L. M. Patston
1School of Psychology, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
2Centre for Brain Research, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Lynette J. Tippett
1School of Psychology, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
2Centre for Brain Research, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
1School of Psychology, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
2Centre for Brain Research, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Edited by: Petko Kusev, Kingston University London, UK
Reviewed by: Paul Van Schaik, Teesside University, UK; Silvio Aldrovandi, University of Warwick, UK*Correspondence: Andrew J. Latham, School of Psychology, The University of Auckland, Level 6 Human Sciences Building, 10 Symonds Street, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand e-mail: [email protected]
This article was submitted to Cognition, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology.
Received 2013 May 24; Accepted 2013 Aug 25.Copyright © 2013 Latham, Patston and Tippett.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements.
Keywords: video games, expertise, cognitive training, transfer of training, perceptual learning
Video-game play has become the past-time of choice for current generations, with entertainment software allowing individuals to engage both socially and competitively with individuals across the globe. Players engage with seamless virtual environments with success contingent on the execution of precise bimanual motor movements in response to complex visual cues. Evidence suggests that extensive video-game play may lead to the enhancement of visual attention and executive control, generalizing beyond the context of the video game, although this is still debated.
Video games became publically available for the first time in 1972 with the release of the first arcade machine, and household gaming console, the Magnavox Odyssey. While this new technology was quickly seized upon by the public, it was not without objection. Many saw video-game play as a mindless exercise imparting no real benefit to the player. Ball (1978) defended video-game play and suggested it offered a potential mechanism to improve a variety of cognitive skills including eye-hand coordination, decision making, following directions, and number and word recognition. Many publications that address these claims have followed. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of studies over the last 30 years that contribute both to current views concerning the effects of video-game play on specific cognitive domains and to their neural underpinnings.
This review is organized primarily by cognitive functions that are argued to be influenced by video-game play. It also examines the small literature addressing the neural underpinnings of superior behavioral performance in video-game players, and considers the challenges to, and limitations of, the video-game literature. Results of all the studies reviewed are summarized in Supplementary Table 1.
Hand-eye coordination and reaction time
Griffith and colleagues published the first finding demonstrating individuals with video-game experience outperforming those with no video-game experience. They reported superior performance by VGPs on a rotary pursuit task, suggesting they possessed enhanced hand-eye coordination (Griffith et al., 1983). Despite this striking result, there was no relationship between participants’ rotary pursuit performance and the intensity of their video-game play (hours per week) or length of exposure to video-game play.
Early studies also indicated that video-game play could enhance visuomotor reaction times to a wide range of stimuli. Orosy-Fildes and Allan (1989) tested participants on a simple color discrimination task and found that participants who played a video-game on the Atari 2600 system responded significantly faster than those who did not play video games. This difference may also, however, result from a greater capacity to perform visual discriminations, or from the effects of greater cognitive stimulation. Similarly faster reaction times were observed in simple color and shape discrimination tasks by children classified as video-game players (VGPs) according to their enthusiasm toward video-games, compared to non-video game players (NVGPs) who were not enthusiastic toward video games (Yuji, 1996). Of course children who possess faster reaction times may be more enthusiastic toward video-games because of the advantage their innate quickness may afford them during video-game play. Nevertheless, faster reaction times in response to visual stimuli by expert VGPs, and by NVGPs after video-game training, is a recurrent finding throughout most of the video-game literature (e. g., Castel et al., 2005; Bialystok, 2006).
One of the first ideas to receive close examination was that video-game play might increase proficiency at spatial processing, particularly spatial visualization. Gagnon (1985) assessed the impact of video-game training on performance on the Guildford-Zimmerman spatial visualization and spatial orientation test, along with visual pursuit, manual speed and manual accuracy subtests from the Employee Aptitude Test. Only female participants showed significantly improved post-play performance, and even then only for spatial visualization, but interestingly the amount of prior video-game experience that participants possessed correlated significantly with visual pursuit, spatial visualization, and hand-eye coordination performance. Controlling for prior video-game experience, Dorval and Peìpin (1986) assessed the impact of video-game training on the spatial relations portion of the Differential Aptitude test relative to controls who refrained from video-game play. Both males and females who underwent video-game training showed significantly enhanced performance on the spatial relations subtest. However, due to the lack of an adequate control condition in this experiment, and in many studies to follow, we cannot rule out the possibility that general cognitive stimulation may have improved performance.
Similar improvements in spatial visualization after video-game training have also been observed in children (Subrahmanyam and Greenfield, 1994). This study is particularly note-worthy as it was the first to observe the effects of video-game genre on the outcomes of video-game training. Only children who played the spatially demanding video-game, Marble Madness, showed significantly improved spatial visualization performance, while children who played the language-oriented video-game, Conjecture, showed none. The use of another video-game as a control went some way toward adjusting for the effects of general cognitive stimulation, although it remains possible that there is a greater expectancy that spatial performance will improve after playing spatially demanding games (Marble Madness) than after playing non-spatial games (Conjecture), which may account for at least part of the result (Boot et al. , 2011).
Many early studies examined the link between video-game training and mental rotation performance, a specific form of spatial visualization. McClurg and Chaillè (1987) found improvements on mental rotation performance in children after video-game play; however, this study lacked an adequate control condition. Okagaki and Frensch (1994) found that video-game naïve participants who played the spatially-oriented video-game Tetris, showed improved performance on paper-and-pencil measures of mental rotation and spatial visualization relative to participants who did not play Tetris. Significantly, this is one of the only studies to show that expertise acquired during video-game play may generalize beyond performance in computerized environments to non-computerized performance, which provides a stronger test of the transfer of the proficiency (Boot et al., 2011). Unfortunately, Okagaki and Frensch did not include an adequate control condition.
Not all findings involving spatial video-game play (Tetris) and mental rotation performance have been consistent. Sims and Mayer (2002) compared the mental rotation performance of skilled and non-skilled Tetris players, and also compared mental rotation performance of non-skilled Tetris players before and after training. Skilled Tetris players outperformed non-skilled Tetris players only when stimuli were identical or similar to those within Tetris. Furthermore, no performance gains were observed on mental rotation in Tetris-trained participants compared to those who received no training. In contrast to Okagaki and Frensch (1994), this study suggests superior mental rotation performance may not generalize beyond the types of stimuli video-game players are trained upon. In summary, simple video-games such as Tetris and Blockout, may convey a limited enhancement as success in these games is primarily reliant on mental rotation skill with a limited range of stimuli.
There has been particular interest in the link between spatially-oriented video-games and the reduction of gender disparities in mental rotation performance, although close examination of the findings reveals mixed outcomes. Although De Lisi and Cammarano (1996) concluded that the expected gender difference in favor of men was attenuated in participants who played Blockout, they also noted the direction of this disparity was actually reversed in their control group who played only the non-spatial game Solitaire. Indeed the magnitude of improvement and absolute scores of the females groups playing the two types of computer games was comparable. This is far from convincing evidence that playing spatially-oriented video-games (in this case Blockout) differentially improves the performance of females on mental rotation. More convincing changes were observed, however, in a study with children (De Lisi and Wolford, 2002). Pre-training gender differences on a mental rotation task disappeared following video-game training (on either Tetris or the non-spatial game Carmen Sandiago), largely due to the extent of the improved performance of the girls who played Tetris. Overall children who played Tetris improved significantly in comparison to controls who played Carmen Sandiago. While these results may be driven simply by the expectation to improve in mental rotation performance after playing Tetris, this does not account for the differential improvements of the girls who play Tetris.
The largest body of video-game literature examines the impact of video-game play on the capacity and spatial distribution of visuospatial attention. Success in many action video-games requires participants to attend to disparate multiple in-game objects all within complex visual environments. Given these demand characteristics, it is perhaps not surprising that most studies report enhancements in these abilities in skilled VGPs.
Greenfield et al. (1994) began this wave of research, when they assessed the impact of video-game expertise and training on a task that requires dividing visual attention. Participants indicated whether a flash of light occurred on the left or right of fixation, or at both locations concurrently. Presentation probabilities were fixed so that in one condition the target was presented 10% of the time to one location, 80% of the time to the other location and 10% of the time to both locations concurrently, while in the other condition the target appeared 45% of the time in each position and 10% of the time to both locations concurrently. Both NVGPs and expert VGPs showed a reaction time benefit to high probability locations, however, expert VGPs, unlike the NVGPs, did not show an attentional cost at the low probability position. This suggests that expert VGPs are superior at dividing visual attention. This result could also be explained by a larger attentional window or a larger distribution of spatial attention. A follow-up training study showed that NVGPs who played Robotron: 2084 for 5 h, showed results in the same direction as expert VGPs. Unfortunately, there was no control training condition.
Current interest in the effects of action video-game play on visual attention has largely been stimulated by the seminal work of Green and Bavelier (2003), who compared expert VGPs and NVGPs on a battery of visuospatial and attentional tasks. A flanker compatibility task and enumeration task were used to measure attentional capacity. In the flanker compatibility task participants had to indicate which of two targets appeared in one of six possible locations while ignoring an outside distracter; in the enumeration task, participants had to indicate as quickly as possible the number of briefly flashed items that appeared. A useful field of view (UFOV) task was used to measure the spatial distribution of the field of attention. Participants had to locate on which radiating spoke a target was presented at up to 30° eccentricity. Finally an attentional blink task was used to test temporal aspects of visual attention. Participants were asked to identify a first target and to detect a second target that appears within a few hundreds of milliseconds later. Expert VGPs outperformed NVGPs on all tasks, suggesting they may possess a larger attentional capacity, larger field of attention and reduced attentional blink. Subsequently, Green and Bavelier (2006a,b) replicated and elaborated on these findings. Using a flanker task and manipulating perceptual loads, they found expert VGPs had greater attentional resources and distribution of visual attention, (Green and Bavelier, 2006a). In the same study they also replicated their UFOV findings of enhanced spatial distribution of attention across a wide field of view in VGPs, even when performing an additional central discrimination task. This indicates that superior UFOV performance was not due to the redistribution of attentional resources from central to peripheral vision. A training study showed these enhancements could be brought about in NVGPs after a small period of action video-game play (Unreal Tournament 2004) but not after playing a non-action video-game (Tetris).
Using an enumeration task Green and Bavelier (2006b) showed expert VGPs can enumerate about two more items than NVGPs and additionally possess superior performance on a multiple object tracking task. A training study suggested a causal role for action video-game play, as NVGPs trained on an action video-game (but not those trained on a non-action video game), showed similar enhancements. The authors argue these findings may be mediated by changes in visual short-term memory skills. Consistent with this, Boot et al. (2008) found VGPs showed superior multiple object-tracking performance and, while they did not find a significant different on an enumeration task, they did find expert VGPs performed significant better on a visual short-term memory task. This task involved detecting changes in a display comprising varying color lines at one of four orientations, which reappeared following a delay of 900 ms. Sungur and Boduroglu (2012) also reported that expert VGPs could more accurately track multiple objects and additionally showed a smaller performance deficit when required to hold the unique identities of multiple target elements whilst simultaneously tracking them. They also suggested this reflects larger visual short-term memory capacities of VGPs.
Many of the performance advantages shown by Green and colleagues in adult expert VGPs have been replicated in child and adolescent VGPs. Dye et al. (2009) found both child and adult VGPs displayed a flanker compatibility effect using the attentional network task. Similarly, Dye and Bavelier (2010) found both child and adult expert VGPs showed enhanced performance on the UFOV (with an additional central discrimination task), attentional blink, and on a multiple object tracking task. Unfortunately, training studies with children were not possible as the majority of action video-games are restricted for mature or adult audiences. It is possible, of course that children and adolescents who possess pre-existing superior visuospatial and attentional abilities are drawn to action video-games because these abilities result in greater success playing video games, and consequently playing games is more rewarding.
Visual anticipation and visual search strategies
Kuhlman and Beitel (1991) found that child VGPs had a greater ability to anticipate stimulus onset. Anticipation is approximated by measuring the accuracy of participant responses to the timing and final location of stimuli in cases of apparent motion (e.g., Haywood, 1977). Child VGPs responded significantly more accurately to the final light stimulus in a sequence, suggesting they had better anticipated its arrival. Enhanced priming of stimulus presentation in expert VGPs, both in terms of location and content, may facilitate anticipation of the stimulus’ arrival, resulting in faster responses once stimuli are presented. It remains possible, of course, that enhanced anticipation is not the result of video-game play but a pre-existing characteristic of those children who become VGPs.
Whether anticipatory abilities are related to visual search strategies is a matter of debate. Within the VGP literature, evidence related to enhanced visual search is mixed. Castel et al. (2005) investigated the effect of extensive video game play on visual search capability and inhibition of return. While expert male VGPs showed significantly faster reaction times on both the “easy” and “hard” visual searches and the inhibition-of-return task, contrary to expectations, no differential suppression of previous search locations was found. A similar pattern of simple reaction time benefits has also been reported by Bialystok (2006) who found that while expert VGPs made significantly faster responses than NVGPs on the Simon task, they did not show any difference in the effect of stimulus-response in/congruency. These simple reaction time benefits suggest that at least some of the task benefits shown by expert VGPs may simply be due to a heightened ability to make appropriate and rapid motor responses to visual stimuli.
Contrary to Castel et al. (2005), Hubert-Wallander et al. (2011) provided evidence that expert VGPs were capable of quicker visual searches during their “hard” visual search condition. Clark et al. (2011) suggested that expert VGPs may possess altered top-down search strategies, with the use of broader search patterns. In a modified change detection paradigm, expert VGPs not only correctly located changes more quickly than NVGPs, but appeared to do so as a result of a more efficient search strategy. This was shown by a tendency to mentally travel larger visual distances between change localization attempts, distribute and make change localization attempts more often in all four screen quadrants, and cover a larger visual area with change localization attempts in the first five attempts. Training studies are needed in order to determine whether faster visual searches and broader top-down search strategies result from video-game play or are a pre-existing characteristic of expert VGPs.
Temporal dynamics of sensory attention
West et al. (2008) compared the performance of matched male expert VGPs and NVGPs on a temporal order judgment task that measures participants’ sensitivity to an exogenous cue to a spatial location. Participants were presented two target items separated by a variable stimulus onset asynchrony and asked to report which target appeared first, with the location of one of the stimuli cued. The dependent measure is the point of subjective simultaneity, which indicates the stimulus onset asynchrony needed for a participant to perceive both targets as occurring simultaneously. Surprisingly, the point of subjective simultaneity in expert VGPs occurred at a significantly larger stimulus onset asynchrony than for NVGPs, suggesting VGPs attention may have been captured more by the exogenous cue (see section Exogenous and Endogenous Attention). Donohue et al. (2010) found that when no exogenous cue was present, expert VGPs were significantly more accurate than NVGPs at discriminating presentation asynchronies in visual and auditory stimuli. Incredibly, expert VGPs showed a point of subjective simultaneity that did not differ from simultaneous stimulus onset. Consistent with this, on judgments of multisensory temporal order when the stimulus asynchrony was 0 ms, NVGPs showed a response bias toward an earlier visual stimulus onset while expert VGPs were at chance, indicating no bias toward either modality. Donohue and colleagues also found a significant correlation between video-game experience and point of subjective simultaneity, suggesting better multisensory precision may result from increased video-game experience, although it is possible that individuals with better multisensory precision play more video-games due to the advantage this skill conveys.
Li et al. (2010) showed a reduced effect of backward masking in expert VGPs. In a follow-up training study only those NVGPs who played an action video-game (and not a non-action video-game, The Sims), showed a significant reduction in backward masking in the same direction as expert VGPs. However, this result could be driven by the expectation of NVGPs trained on the action video-games to improve on backwards masking, especially as the temporal demands of The Sims are low, because players able to control the speed of in-game time and perform actions while the game is paused.
Exogenous and endogenous attention
The impact of exogenous cues on the performance of expert VGPs was further examined by West et al. (2008) using a signal detection paradigm. Participants viewed a UVOV display with three ringed eccentricities and populated with “swimmers” in constant motion; the swimmers were depicted by a circle with two “arms” represented by perpendicular lines. Participants responded whenever a swimmer began to struggle (move erratically). Expert VGPs showed significantly faster reaction times to erratic swimmers in all but the highest stimulus load and eccentricity, suggesting an increased sensitivity to changes in salient motion. Hubert-Wallander et al. (2011) also tested the impact of exogenous cuing but on a modified Posner cuing paradigm. Participants indicated whether a “T” presented to one of four target locations was upright or upside down. Each trial was preceded by an uninformative exogenous cue to one of the target locations. While expert VGPs identified the correct orientation significantly more quickly, there was no significant difference between expert VGPs and NVGPs in reaction time costs generated by the exogenous cue. Contrary to West et al. (2008), the authors suggested that video-game play may preferentially target endogenous as opposed to exogenous attention. It may simply be the case, however, that if expert VGPs know a cue is always a distracter, they are not preferentially captured by the exogenous cuing.
Chisholm et al. (2010) provided support for the view that expert VGPs possess enhanced endogenous attention. On an attentional capture task, participants identified the orientation of a line in a target element, either in the presence or absence of distractor information. Expert VGPs not only correctly responded significantly more quickly, regardless of whether distractors were present or not, but were also less adversely affected by distractor presence than NVGPs. The authors suggested expert VGPs may possess greater control of endogenous attention enabling them to suppress or disregard irrelevant information more easily than NVGPs. However, this result could also simply arise from reduced sensitivity to distractors without impacting on endogenous attention.
Video-game play has also been found to impact on cognitive task set selection and the higher-order capacity to switch between tasks. For example, Nelson and Strachan (2009) found participants’ performance on a target location and matching figures task differed according to whether they had played the action video-game Unreal Tournament or puzzle video-game Portal. Participants who played the action video-game showed faster response times but lower accuracy, while participants who played the puzzle video-game showed slower response times but greater accuracy. This provided evidence that cognitive strategies primed by the demands of different video-game genres could possibly generalize beyond the context of the video-game itself.
Colzato et al. (2010) investigated the effect of action video-game expertise on task switching. Expert VGPs showed a significantly lower task switching cost than NVGPs when switching between identifying local and global cues. Karle et al. (2010) investigated what may underlie lower task switching costs in expert VGPs. They speculated that task switching is a combination process and lower costs may result from a greater capacity to activate relevant task networks, inhibit previously active and competing task networks, or a combination of both. Expert VGPs showed reduced task switching costs relative to NVGPs in non-overlapping tasks (i.e., character discrimination and numeric discrimination) but showed no significant reduction in task switching costs when tasks overlapped (i.e., odd/even, prime/multiple, less than/more than). The authors argued that overlapping tasks create proactive interference that requires inhibiting conflicting response sets, which suggests that lower task switching costs shown by expert VGPs may reflect an enhanced ability to activate task relevant networks.
Fundamental properties of the visual system, visual perception and use of sensory evidence
Some of the most exciting, diverse and novel findings in the VGP literature have concerned the potential enhancement of fundamental aspects of the visual system. Green and Bavelier (2007) compared the performance of male expert VGPs and matched NVGPs on a visual crowding paradigm. Participants were presented with three Ts randomly oriented either the right way up or upside down at three different eccentricities, and had to identify the center T’s orientation. The effect of visual crowding was modulated by moving the Ts closer together or further apart. Expert VGPs not only show a reduced effect of crowding but were able discriminate the orientation of significantly smaller Ts than NVGPs, indicating they may possess greater visual acuity. A follow-up training study produced mixed results with NVGPs trained on an action video-game showing improved visual crowding performance but not visual acuity. NVGPs trained on the non-action video-game (Tetris) showed no improvement. The inability to produce enhanced visual acuity in NVGPs may mean it is not amenable to short-term training, or instead that it represents a pre-existing characteristic of expert VGPs.
Contrast sensitivity, another fundamental property of vision, has also been found to be superior in expert VGPs. Contrast sensitivity refers to an individual’s ability to detect small increments in shades of gray on a uniform background, and like visual acuity, it is a major limiting factor in determining quality of sight (Campbell, 1983). Li et al. (2009) found expert male VGPs were more accurate than NVGPs on a standard contrast sensitivity paradigm. In a follow-up training study, NVGPs who played action video-games significantly improved their contrast sensitivity while NVGPs who trained on the non-action video-game (The Sims 2) showed no improvement.
In addition to increased quality of vision, video-game expertise is also associated with larger central and peripheral visual fields, determined using Goldmann kinetic perimetry (Buckley et al., 2010). During this technique, participants respond once they detect a circular light target (328 candelas for peripheral field and 20 candelas central field) that traverses from 100° eccentricity to central fixation along a straight line. Eccentricities where target detection occurred were recorded and the task repeated until a full visual field boundary in 30° steps was constructed for each participant. Amazingly, expert VGPs showed central and peripheral visual fields that were around 1000 deg2larger (around 50% larger central visual field and 15% larger peripheral visual field, respectively) than NVGPs.
At a higher level of the visual system, Sungur and Boduroglu (2012) investigated the effects of video-game expertise on the resolution of visual representations. On the color wheel task, expert VGPs were able to identify the color of a target on a color wheel with 180 options more precisely that NVGPs. Sugur and Boduroglu also calculated the magnitude of the errors on both the color wheel and a UFOV task. Expert VGPs made a greater proportion of small magnitude errors (i.e., a few degrees on the color wheel or neighboring items on the UFOV) than NVGPs, while NVGPs made a higher proportion of high magnitude errors (i. e., guesses) than expert VGPs. The authors argued that this showed that visual information was stored at a higher resolution by expert VGPs. It is possible of course, that the higher proportion of “guesses” made by NVGPs may reflect failures to detect targets rather than lower resolution representations.
Finally, Green et al. (2010) provided compelling evidence that VGPs make more efficient use of sensory evidence in making judgments. They applied a drift diffusion model to participant’s responses on a visual motion direction discrimination task, in which they judged the net movement of a dot array under different levels of dot movement coherency. VGPs accumulated and integrated visual sensory information at a faster rate than NVGPs, enabling more rapid inferences to be made, particularly at lower coherence. The same results were observed in an auditory tone location discrimination task suggesting they reflect a multi-modal enhancement in sensitivity in VGPs. The results of a follow-up training study supported the link with action video-game play in the visual domain, with nearly identical results to those of experienced VGPs; NVGPs trained on an action video-game showed significantly better performance than NVGPs trained on a non-action video-game (The Sims 2), who showed no improvement.
Video-game play as a cognitive intervention
Video-game play was first tested as an intervention to stem cognitive decline in older adults in the mid-1980s. Early results showed promise, with improved performance of older adults on a range of cognitive measures (e.g., WAIS-R, Sternberg paradigm), following video-game play (e.g., Drew and Waters, 1986; Clark et al., 1987; Dustman et al., 1992; Goldstein et al., 1997). These studies failed, however, to include an adequate control condition (if one was included at all), limiting interpretation.
More recently, Basak et al. (2008) tested the impact of playing the action video-game Rise of Nations on older adults. Unlike typical action games tested in the video-game literature, Rise of Nations is a real-time strategy game. Players control a nation’s economy, military, technological development, and diplomatic relations with neighboring societies. Success can be achieved either through military dominance, cultural dominance, or constructing a wonder of the world. Older adults in the video-game play group showed significant improvements in working memory, abstract reasoning, distractor inhibition, mental rotation performance, and a significant reduction in task-switching costs relative to older adults who did not play. Unfortunately, like earlier intervention-based studies, the inadequate control condition means the significant improvements may have resulted from greater cognitive stimulation.
Neuroimaging and video-game play
Evidence from studies involving video-game training suggest that video-game play, even for a short period of time, may result in enhancement to a large number of cognitive abilities that last for at least 4 months (e.g., Li et al., 2010). The neural correlates underpinning these superior abilities are not well-understood as only a handful of neuroimaging studies have addressed this question.
Haier et al. (1992) conducted the pioneering neuroimaging study of video-game play. Eight participants underwent positron emission tomography (PET) scanning while playing the non-action video-game Tetris both before, and after, daily practice for 4–8 weeks. In addition, 16 control participants were scanned while passively viewing visual stimuli. Participants who underwent the video-game training showed a significant decrease in whole brain glucose metabolism. Interestingly, the level of improvement shown by participants in Tetris was inversely correlated with levels of glucose metabolism. Haier and colleagues suggest that the decrease in glucose metabolism may reflect a more efficient utilization of the neural circuitry brought about through learning and task mastery. While this may explain a portion of the decrease to whole brain metabolism, it does not explain why whole brain glucose metabolism was lowered as the enhancements facilitated by Tetris are likely restricted to areas subtending mental rotation performance only (see earlier discussion in section Spatial Visualization).
Granek et al. (2010) used event-related fMRI to investigate the effect of video-game expertise on cortical activity during the preparation of visually-guided movements. During scanning participants completed four visuomotor tasks. These involved navigating their hand or a cursor control via a joystick toward, or away from, a fixated target. Visuomotor planning typically comprises a network of prefrontal, premotor, sensorimotor, and parietal regions (Gorbet et al., 2004; Gorbet and Sergio, 2007). Expert VGPs and NVGPs appeared to show dissociation in activation weightings in this network with VGPs showing greater prefrontal activation and NVGPs showing greater parietal activation. The authors suggest that these differences may reflect differences in the familiarity of expert VGPs and NVGPs with novel visuomotor tasks. Expert VGPs may not have to attend as closely to the outcomes of their motor acts as they are able to generalize visuomotor response patterns developed through video-game play. Conversely, NVGPs may have to attend more closely to the outcomes of their actions as they have not yet developed the appropriate response patterns. A future training study is required to show these hemodynamic response patterns to motor preparation are the result of video-game play and not a pre-existing characteristic of expert VGPs.
Mishra et al. (2011) compared expert VGPs and matched NVGPs on a selective attention task during recording of 62-channel EEG. During the experiment participants were required to respond to all instances of a numeral presentation in one cued letter stream, while ignoring those occurring in distractor streams. Of particular interest was the steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), which is a frequency-tagged neural response to periodic stimuli. When attention is directed at the periodic stimuli a larger SSVEP amplitude is generated. While no significant group differences were found in the SSVEP amplitude for attended stimuli, expert VGPs did show significantly reduced SSVEP amplitudes for unattended stimuli. Consistent with the behavioral findings of Chisholm et al. (2010), this suggests that enhanced attentional performance in expert VGPs may be underpinned by a greater capacity to suppress, or disregard, irrelevant stimuli. Interestingly, expert VGPs also showed larger P300 amplitudes relative to NVGPs in response to numerical targets under high load conditions. This suggests that expert VGPs may show greater sensitivity than NVGPs to task-relevant stimuli under increased load, which in turn may underpin their more accurate behavioral performance.
Bavelier et al. (2012) compared activation of expert VGPs and NVGPs in the fronto-parietal attentional network and the motion sensitive area (MT/MTS) during a visual search task with distractors. Participants had to indicate whether a diamond or square was present in a ring of shapes surrounding the central fixation cross, performed under either a low or high stimulus load. This was accompanied by distractors—a static or moving patch of dots presented centrally or peripherally to either side of fixation. NVGPs, unlike expert VGPs, showed a significant increase in activation of the fronto-parietal attentional network in response to increased visual search load. Bavelier and colleagues suggested the heavily reduced utilization of this network in expert VGPs, may reflect lower use of attentional resources with higher task burdens in contrast to NVGPs. Additionally, moving distracters (patches of irrelevant moving dots) elicited less activation in MT/MST in expert VGPs than NVGPs but not in response to attended motion stimuli. Consistent with previous research (Chisholm et al., 2010; Mishra et al., 2011) this finding suggests that VGPs are more efficient at suppressing, or disregarding, irrelevant stimuli.
To date the small neuroimaging literature on expert VGPs has focused on the functional correlates of enhanced cognitive performance. Substantial evidence in the broader neuroimaging literature indicates that practice and expertise can induce not only functional but structural changes to neural organization. For example, repetition of simple finger exercises has been shown to lead to increased cortical representation of the fingers (Pascual-Leone et al., 1995). Expertise has also been shown to be accompanied by structural changes in brain regions and pathways associated with that expertise (e.g., taxi drivers, Maguire et al., 2000; bilingual individuals, Mechelli et al., 2004). Expert musicians have provided a model for the investigation of neuroplasticity and there is now considerable evidence that the brains of adult musicians differ from those of non-musicians both functionally and anatomically (Jäncke, 2009; Oechslin et al., 2010; Wan and Schlaug, 2010). Future neuro-imaging research in VGPs should also investigate structural changes that may accompany video-game expertise or training, as well as addressing the question of whether extensive training can shape the neural representation of cognitive processes beyond specific trained skills.
Challenges to the video-game play literature
Not all findings in the video-game literature have been consistent or successful. For example, while Boot et al. (2008) found expert VGPs showed superior visual short term memory, multiple object-tracking, mental-rotation performance and reduced task switching costs, they found no improvement on block tapping, enumeration, functional field of view, operations span, Ravens Matrices, spatial 2-back, Tower of London, and no reduction in attentional blink. Follow-up training by NVGPs on an action video-game also failed to elicit any enhancement. Direct replication attempts of Green and Bavelier’s (2003) seminal findings have also been mixed. Irons et al. (2011) failed to replicate the flanker compatibility effect while Murphy and Spencer (2009) failed to replicate any of the original findings at all.
Boot et al. (2011) have argued that there are a variety of methodological limitations within the video-game literature, many of which have been highlighted throughout the current review. Specifically, they list the use of either unspecified, or overt recruiting methods, which they argue potentially prime the VGP stereotype and expectancy effects in VGP participants; the inability to infer directional effects from cross-section research designs; the similarity between the experimental task (generalization task) and video-game experience and the possibility of placebo effects in training studies. Indeed these types of problems are ubiquitous in most investigations of expertise with specialist populations. Researchers investigating video-game play and expertise can take the lead by employing clinical trial best practices (Boot et al., 2011) to clarify results in what appears to be an exciting avenue of research.
Four additional limitations appear particularly salient in the video-game literature to date. First, the majority of researchers have employed computerized experimental paradigms that typically require rapid target detection with manipulations to distractor difficulty and target eccentricity. Arguably, these tap the same skills in a very similar environment to the “training environment” (i.e., video-game play) and as a result may not provide evidence of proficiency beyond training. Exceptions showing the generalization of expertise or training to non-computerized tasks do exist (e.g., Okagaki and Frensch, 1994), but are rare. If at all possible, researchers should include non-computerized transfer tasks.
Second, there are large disparities in the relative frequency of males and females within VGP and non-VGP populations (with the former predominantly male and later predominantly female). Quaiser-Pohl et al. (2006) examined the effect of video-game genre preference on mental-rotation performance and gender differences. Latent class analysis on 861 adolescence revealed that males were significantly over-represented in the action video-game category (81.7%), while females were over-represented in the puzzle video-game (82.9%) and non-VGP (81.9%) categories. It cannot be ruled out that the greater representation of expert male VGPs is due to self-selection. Spence et al. (2009) directly investigated the impact of gender by comparing the attentional performance of male and female NVGPs, who were matched by their baseline score, after video-game training. Reassuringly, both males and females showed the same systematic enhancement to attentional performance. Interestingly, follow-up testing at four months showed that these performance gains remained even when video game play had ceased. Similar long-term enhancements have also been found by Feng et al. (2007) on UFOV and mental rotation performance 5 months after video-game play had ceased.
Third, there are difficulties in adequately defining and measuring video-game expertise. Cross-sectional studies often classify video-game players as “experts” if they have played video-games for a small period of time per week over the past 6 months. Unfortunately, there is no guarantee that individuals with these video-gaming characteristics possess expertise, or could even obtain expertise with such a small time commitment. Greenfield et al. (1994) were the first researchers to use a predefined group of “expert” VGPs to assess the effects of prolonged video-game play. Expert VGPs were participants who were able to reach a score of over 200,000 on the action video game Robot Battle, while video game novices were participants who were unable to reach a score of 20,000. Unfortunately there is no standardized objective measure of performance expertise for video-game play, unlike some expert populations (e.g., “Grades” in musical performance and theory). The lack of such a metric makes it difficult to assess performance not only within a video-game genre but also between genres. Certain popular game titles, however, currently have, or are beginning to utilize, skill metrics to match players of comparable skill in multiplayer games. For example, the most recent release of Counter Strike: Global Offensive and popular multiplayer online battle area League of Legends use performance ratings. Starcraft II uses a total of seven leagues ranging from the beginners “Bronze” league to the “Grand Master League” which consists of the top 200 players on a server. With the rise of professional video-game play, level of professional attainment (i.e., as a national or international competitor) could also serve as a proxy for expertise. While not perfect, future studies may be able to tap into skill metrics, online rankings, and level of professional attainment in order to better assess the expertise of their expert VGP samples.
Lastly, more emphasis is needed on the links between the specific game genres of expert VGPs, video-game training and the cognitive enhancements measured. Throughout this review it is evident the findings of earlier studies (during the 1980’s and early 1990’s) are typically weaker and less precise than those of more recent studies. While this often reflects study designs, findings were also shaped by the video-games of that era, which were generally extremely simple in nature, requiring only repetitive and distinct patterns of responses to succeed. Overall it appears that training on this sort of game can lead to improved performance, but improvements are generally are restricted to the context in which training occurs and reflect increased task efficacy, rather than more general enhancement of underlying cognitive processes (Ball et al., 2002). As information technology progressed (both software and hardware) so too have the cognitive demands of the plethora of action video games played today. Although the term “action video game” is typically used in the literature to refer simply to “first person shooters,” where success is heavily reliant on the ability to make speeded responses to the visual stimuli present on the screen at any given moment, “action video games” of today in fact encompass a vast array of different game genres (e.g., first-person shooter, real-time strategy, role-playing game, multiplayer-online battle arena, etc.) each with the potential to give rise to a unique set of perceptual and cognitive enhancements. In contrast to “first person shooter” games, success in real-time strategy games, for example, is more reliant on the ability to continually assess, update, and plan the most efficient series of responses to visual stimuli and as a result may preferentially enhance more executive processes. Furthermore, objects located in modern video games are no longer just passive; through the integration of artificial intelligence and multiplayer capabilities they are able to learn and adjust to the player as the game progresses. Success against “others” requires the recruitment of additional higher order cognitive processes such as theory of mind (Premack and Woodruff, 1978) in order to infer and attribute knowledge, perception and false belief states to dynamically-controlled in-game items. While there is undoubtedly overlap between the skill sets required by different game genres, the specific enhancements they drive are likely to closely reflect the cognitive domains they actively recruit (e.g., Basak et al., 2008; Nelson and Strachan, 2009; Li et al., 2010). Future studies would benefit from careful analysis of cognitive demands of the specific game genres of expert VGPs, and the cognitive domains assessed when testing for generalization effects.
Conclusion and future directions
Evidence is continuing to accumulate that suggests both brief and extensive experience with video-games can result in a broad range of cognitive enhancements which may generalize beyond the context of video-game play (see sections Hand-Eye Coordination and Reaction Time, Spatial Visualization, Visuospatial Attention, Visual Anticipation and Visual Search Strategies, Temporal Dynamics of Sensory Attention, Exogenous and Endogenous Attention, Task Switching, Fundamental Properties of the Visual System, Visual Perception and Use of Sensory Evidence, Video-Game Play as a Cognitive Intervention). There are, however, concerns about current research practices that need to be addressed (Boot et al., 2011) to clarify the validity of the current results. In addition to the concerns raised by Boot et al. researchers should also monitor gender disparities in their VGP and NVGP samples, seriously assess expertise of their expert VGP sample, and pay closer attention to the genres they possess expertise in and which are used in training studies.
Despite an impressive corpus of findings, research into the practical application of video-game play is restricted to minimizing the effects of cognitive decline in older adults (see section Video-Game Play as a Cognitive Intervention). In addition, all these studies have lacked adequate control conditions making results particularly problematic to interpret. This is particularly surprising as the potential for video-game play to impact on such a broad range of cognitive domains appears to offer many avenues for practical application. Future rigorous research that is capable of determining whether the application of video-game play can stem cognitive decline in older adults is a high priority. Alternatively, researchers could aim to use video-game play as an intervention to ease cognitive deficits in patient populations or further improve cognitive performance in specialist populations.
Early neuroimaging studies (see section Neuroimaging and Video-Game Play) have successfully begun examining the functional neural correlates of enhanced cognitive performance in expert VGPs. So far only motor planning, selective attention, and visual search have been assessed. Future neuroimaging research is needed to assess the functional neural correlates of enhanced cognitive performance. There is also a need to investigate the structural changes that accompany video-game expertise. A longitudinal randomized control training trial that also incorporate neuro-imaging study would be a valuable approach. The recommendations to promote best behavioral research practices are equally applicable to neuroimaging.
The results in section Fundamental Properties of the Visual System, Visual Perception, and Use of Sensory Evidence are particularly exciting as they suggest fundamental elements of the visual system may be heightened by video-game expertise and play. Changes at this level of the visual system potentially underpin a diverse range of downstream performance enhancements presented in this review, such as spatial visualization (section Spatial Visualization), visuospatial attention (section Visuospatial Attention), visual search (section Visual Anticipation and Visual Search Strategies) and temporal order judgments (section Temporal Dynamics of Sensory Attention). Unfortunately, we still have little understanding as to what about video-game play—other than practice—allows it to shape core elements of the visual system. Answering this question may also elucidate why video-game play has the potential to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie how video-game expertise gives rise to so many enhancements may lead to the efficient and targeted application of video-game play (and other forms of expertise-related interventions) to both education and clinical settings, and more generally permit individuals to make more informed decisions about the potential uses of their spare time.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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Law & Order SVU “End Game” Recap & Review – Season 20 Finale
Law & Order SVU finished season 20, breaking Law & Order’s record number of episodes along the way, and heading for a record breaking season 21. The series is strong and has a lot going for it. So why I am I so agitated after seeing the season 20 finale, “End Game”? While watching, I had to keep repeating to myself, “It’s just a fictional TV show. It’s just a fictional TV show.” This episode hit me in all the wrong places. It turned Benson’s detectives into “dirty” cops, but made sure that Olivia Benson remained unblemished along the way. She’s not directly a part of a frame-up, but she did push everyone’s buttons which helped start it.
Not only does Peter Stone bring all of Benson’s detectives (and attorney Nikki Staines) into his plan to frame Rob Miller, he also manages to get a murder conviction despite having ZERO EVIDENCE. I’m perplexed as to how this even got to trial. Rob Miller is initially released as a Federal judge ruled that Rob’s statement “No Nikki, no case” didn’t rise to the legal standard, yet later, Stone manages to get an arrest warrant for Rob on nothing but circumstantial evidence. I have a hard time believing that Rob’s defense attorney wouldn’t dispute the evidence before the trial. Clearly he knew how a large sum of money was deposited in a young woman’s bank account. Why wait for the trial to call Nikki Staines to testify that she was the one that did it, not Rob Miller? Wouldn’t this matter be brought before a judge in advance of the trial, throwing the rest of the evidence in doubt? Something about the way this got to trial didn’t feel right. I’m also surprised that the defense didn’t make a move to throw out the verdict as I don’t think Stone met the burden of proof.
I’ve come to the conclusion that Olivia Benson should come with a warning label that states she is hazardous to the career of an ADA, and she may incite you to compromise your ethics. (This would have helped Rafael Barba.) I cringed at the end when Peter Stone seems to profess his feelings for Benson when he says the she became more important to him than the case he is trying. This is the same Peter Stone, who, just a few months ago in the SVU episode “Part 33”, told Benson to keep her “bleeding heart” out of the courtroom. Even in the early stages of this episode he was reluctant to proceed as they had no proof. He seemed firm on that issue. But the minute he hears that Olivia and Noah are under threat, he decides to risk his entire career for her? Sorry, this was so contrived it almost made me laugh. I’m sorry to see Peter Stone go; my disappointment with the character is that we were force-fed a back story early on, before we could really get to see his legal expertise. And when we did see his legal expertise, it was – like in this episode – not consistent. I would have enjoyed it if he had been the one person to keep Benson in check. Instead, he seemed to have backbone in one episode and not in another, or, like in this episode, his backbone disappeared mid-episode. I can only hope that in season 21 we will get an ADA that is their own person and that can resist the pull of Olivia Benson.
While Benson didn’t participate in the frame-up, she does what she always does best: gets indignant that Stone won’t prosecute someone based on her opinion, with no evidence. She goes so far as to insult Stone by wondering whose side he’s on. Later, she’s shocked that he can move ahead with a trial, saying that the case is basically a “bunch of arrows on a corkboard, signifying a whole lot of nothing.” First she wants him to go full throttle on Rob Miller, then she gets cold feet when Stone delivers. Benson’s flip-flop here is head-scratching and whiplash inducing.
At the end, Stone tells her that she’s the one person who could make it on her own. Then why did he feel the need to frame Rob Miller for her? We keep hearing that Olivia Benson is such a strong woman, yet it seems like everyone always needs to protect her and save her from all the bad in the world. It’s a variation on the old “damsel in distress” trope and I think Law & Order SVU has used this far too many times with Benson. Her bias and inability to cope with Rob Miller has incited her whole team to frame him for a murder that they can’t prove he committed. Frankly, Rob Miller looks like the victim here. He may have very well committed the murder, but as the SVU didn’t really get any hard proof to that effect; all we know is the SVU/Stone had to do something illegal to get a conviction. It looks like the “arrow on the wheel of justice” was fixed in one direction, and now that the SVU has participated in a frame-up, what’s stopping them from doing it again to protect their own interests?
The brightest spot in this episode was Titus Welliver, who was excellent in playing Rob Miller, a deliciously nasty human being with a lot of power and influence, none of it used for any good. I can only hope that something happens where he can appeal and get out of prison, if anything so he can commit a crime that lands him back in jail without the frame-up. Callie Thorne also helped to round things out with her emotional, believable performance. I did like how they tied this story back to the Italian exchange students in the SVU episode “Exchange”. Otherwise, this story annoyed me and agitated me more than anything else. I could probably write for a few more hours on how much it bothered me, but I think I’ll cut my losses. “End Game” didn’t leave me with a great feeling about the Special Victims Unit going into season 21.
Update May 23, 2019: A viewer noticed a continuity error, occurring between the previous SVU episode, “Assumptions” and the SVU finale, “End Game”. “Assumptions” ends with the date May 7, when Rob Miller approaches Benson and Noah in the restaurant. Benson seems shocked to find he’s out. But “End Game” begins on May 5 – two days earlier – and it seems Benson had already found out Rob Miller is out and we are told police are already watching her and Noah – two days earlier than the end of “Assumptions”!
Here is the recap:
A private party goes on with many young girls in attendance. One man questions a girl’s age.
Benson, arriving at the SVU, speaks with Fin, saying she barely closed her eyes since Rob Miller got out of prison. She adds he is targeting her and wants her to know he has all the power. Fin explains they have an unmarked car on her block and in front of Noah’s school, there’s no way he can he can get at her. Benson snaps back that he walked right into that restaurant and introduced himself to Noah, adding she should have shot the son of a bitch. Fin tries to calm her, suggesting not so loud, Stone is in her office, Fin called him in.
As they walk into her office, Stone comments he wishes he had better news. Benson asks him to tell her it’s not worse than Rob Miller making bail. Stone replies that the Feds dropped the charges. Fin says “Damn!” and Benson looks stunned. She comments that he blackmailed a judge and threatened witnesses, adding he threatened Nikki Staines, they have him on tape saying “No Nikki, no case.” Stone counters that a Federal judge ruled that statement didn’t rise to the legal standard. Fin asks what now, Benson also asking what about Nikki’s rape. Stone replies there’s nothing there; Nikki is scared and is claiming it was consensual. Benson pauses, looking at Fin, and whispers she will talk to her.
At the apartment of Nikki Staines, at 1239 West 47th Street on Sunday, May 5, Nikki tells her daughter it is going to be okay, suggesting she go to her room and lie down. As her daughter races off, she cries and asks “What kind of person?” Nikki tells Benson that Miller killed her daughter’s dog. When Benson asks if she is sure, Nikki emphatically says yes, she’s sure. She points to the dog Penny’s ashes, saying the vet said it was rat poison. Getting upset, she explains the landlord didn’t put down any rat poison and she didn’t either. Benson asks how, and Nikki says her daughter said that a woman offered Penny a treat on their walk last night and she thought it was okay and this morning the dog was…Benson says she is so sorry. Nikki goes on to say the woman said to say hello to her mom. Nikki asks why, saying Rob Miller knows she was not going to testify. Benson replies that is whys he is here, they need her to testify. She adds that the Feds dropped the charges. Nikki is shocked, saying “no no no no!” When Benson asks Nikki to hear her out, Nikki shouts NO! Benson asks her to talk to her about the Wally Stevens case, the underage girls, saying Miller thought he’d be implicated and that is why he stole her phone. Nikki emphatically says there is nothing on that phone that connects him to that case. Benson asks why, what was he afraid of, can Wally put him at those sex parties. Nikki pauses and when Benson presses her to tell her more, Nikki shouts she can’t, citing attorney/client privilege, asking with sarcasm if Benson ever heard of it, adding she is not about to risk getting disbarred. She says she is appreciative for what Benson has done for her but orders Benson to go now, and Nikki storms off. Benson leaves.
Back at SVU, Benson tells the detectives there has to be a way to tie Rob Miller to Wally Stevens and the sex parties. Benson comments he blackmailed a judge (Judge Brian Leonard) and stole Nikki’s phone, saying it has to be connected, asking what are they missing. Rollins explains they have gone over the case forwards and backwards, it is falling apart. Carisi says the girls at the party are all backing off the story. Benson thinks Miller got to them or their parents. She suggests they check their bank accounts. Fin comments Miller doesn’t leave a fingerprint on the knife, and Benson reminds him they have half a dozen witnesses. Fin counters they HAD witnesses, they all lawyered up. Benson, getting increasingly agitated, shouts, “Exactly! That’s my point!” Fin comments since Leonard retired to the Maldives. Wally Steven is untouchable – double jeopardy. Benson retorts she knows, she was there. Fin sighs. Carisi gets a message and tells Benson he hears her on all of this but they have something from the harbor unit they have to deal with right now. A young female washed up on a pier on the Hudson river. Benson says, “Let’s go.”
At Pier 66 on the Hudson River on Sunday, May 5, Benson and Carisi meet with Sgt. Matthews. He explains that the victim was 15-16, naked, with no ID, he guesses she was in the water a couple of hours or a day at the most. Carisi asks if she fell off a boat, and Matthews states every bone in her body is broken and her organs liquefied. Benson pulls back the blanket covering the body, and Matthews comments this girl fell out of the sky.
Benson, back at SVU and on the phone, explains she just wanted to let them know that a uniformed officer will be with the sitter when she picks Noah up from school today. She ends the call and Rollins approaches and asks how is Noah going. Benson replies he is thrilled; he gets to ride to and from school in a squad car but the school administration, not so much. Rollins comments that Miller is a bad guy but asks if she really think he would go after a lieutenant’s kids? Benson, sounding agitated, says she doesn’t know what he’s capable of. Rollins explains the preliminary report from the ME on their Jane Doe says there was no water in her lungs and she was dead before she hit the river. Benson asks for the cause of death, and Rollins states it was an OD, China White, highly concentrated Fentanyl, adding this girl was not an addict. There was no trace in her hair or needle marks. Benson thinks she got a hot shot, and Rollins explains the ME is ruling undetermined for now, but they also found the presence of semen from two different men, no DNA hits. No matches with missing persons yet. Benson brings up the girl is healthy with expensive dental work, she had parents and they have to be looking for her. Rollins comments it has only been 24 hours and they will keep checking. Carisi enters and says the ME finished the autopsy. Benson tells them to go.
At the ME’s, Carisi and Rollins learn she fell 2000 feet was and was in the water 15 hours before she washed ashore. Carisi suggests getting tidal info from the Coast Guard and cross reference with the FAA for aircraft. Rollins comments they still don’t know who, and the ME explains she found contacts with a very unique prescription, one in a million, asking if this narrows id down enough for her.
At the home of Hugo and Vanessa Parker, 466 Anderson Hill Road in Purchase, New York on Monday, May 6, Benson arrives and Rollins is waiting. She states the victim is Lindsay Parker and the ophthalmologist confirmed the contact prescription. She lives there with her parents. Benson asks why no missing persons report and Rollins thinks that 16 can be pretty independent and they may not realize she is missing. Rollins rings the doorbell and Benson comments this never gets easier. Hugo opens the door and as Benson introduces themselves, says he hope they found her. They enter the home and Hugo calls out to his wife, who is frantic. But they are shocked to see Rob Miller is also there. Benson asks what is he doing there, and he explains he is there to help, Hugo adding he has been their attorney for 10 years and when Lindsay didn’t come home, he was their first call. Benson, stunned, pauses, then said they need to speak with the parents about Lindsay. She glares at a stone-faced Miller.
The parents explains Lindsay was spending the weekend with friend Brooke in Sag Harbor. When she didn’t answer her phone they called the house and the parents said their daughter said they were with the Parkers. Benson says they will need their contact information. They explain what has happened and called Rob to hire a private detective if it came to that. Benson and Rollins proceed to break the bad news to the parents, who are in shock. Benson explains they are still investigating and when Rollins asks for the information they will need, Rob says he can get them that. Benson offers condolences and Rollins says they will help them make arrangements. Benson gives them her card and says they will be in touch. They move to leave and Ron says he can show them out.
Rob says if there is anything the police need he is here to help, and Benson tells Rollins she will meet her outside. Rollins asks if she is sure and Benson says she is good. Benson shakes her head, and then:
Rob: I realize this is awkward.
Benson: I don’t even know where to begin with you. Do your clients know that you’re a criminal?
Rob: They’re aware that I was falsely charged. Their daughter is dead, shouldn’t that be our priority?
Benson: That’s my top priority, believe me, But what is your role in all of this?
Rob: Excuse me?
Benson: Well, their 16 year old daughter was murdered one week after you were released from federal custody.
Rob: Do you hear yourself? This is just a tragic coincidence.
Benson: I don’t believe in coincidences.
Rob: What you’re saying right now is clear evidence of police bias. Your bias.
Benson: Okay. (She turns and moves to leave)
Rob: Are you angry because I figured out your little CSU ruse at the bar two months ago?
Benson, scoffs: Yeah I’m angry. I’m very angry but not because of that.
Rob: Uh, maybe because I declined to pursue our relationship.
Benson, walking back up to him: Don’t flatter yourself. If there weren’t two grieving parents in the next room, (whispering) I’d break your jaw.
Rob: You’d regret that, Lieutenant.
Benson: Stay away from me. Stay away from my son. Because if you don’t, I promise you (whispering) I WILL do something that we’d both regret.
Rob (smirking): Okay.
Benson leaves and Rob scoffs.
Back at SVU, Carisi and Rollins speak with Brooke about Lindsay’s death. They hear about the party in the city. They press her for details about the party and she is scared and cries. She explains the men that were there and they treated them like adults, with champagne and coke and one guy gave her a Birkin bag. Benson is observing and Fin enters, saying Lindsay’s cell phone went dead at 2:36 AM Sunday and they pinpointed the signal to a five block radius is Tribeca. He explains he is already on running every building in the zone. He is checking car services that ran from Sag Harbor to Manhattan. Benson wants them to show Brooke a picture of Wally and everyone else they have picked up at an underage sex party in the last 6 months. She thinks there is a connection and Rob Miller is at the center of it.
Rollins shows Brooke the photos and she picks out Wally who invited her to the party. She also spots Rob Miller and pauses, saying he looks familiar but thinks it might be from TV. She also picks out Alex who was at a party in the Hamptons last summer with an Italian exchange student.
At Green Haven Correctional Facility at 592 BY 216 in Stormville, NY on Tuesday, May 7, Fin and Carisi question Alex who knows Brooke. He says Lindsay looks familiar but says he didn’t have sex with either of them. They show him a photo of Rob Miller and he is hesitant to say anything, but they continue to press him to try to connect Rob to this, but all he will say is that maybe he saw him at the party but he is not testifying against Rob, saying he will take his chances inside.
Meanwhile, Benson goes to pick up Noah at school and when she can’t find him, she hears that two uniformed officers picked him up, saying they had Benson’s approval to do so. She gave no such approval. Frantic, she calls in to Rollins to put in an all city alert and quickly finds that Noah is at SVU, that two unis from the 21st s dropped him off, saying Benson asked for a pick up. Benson says she didn’t, saying it had to be Rob Miller, and he is sending her a message that he can take her son whenever he wants. She tells Rollins not to let him out of her eyesight. Rollins agrees, assuring her Noah is alright and he is safe. Benson hangs up the phone and spots Rob Miller standing nearby, staring at her. She storms in his direction, yelling, “You son of a bitch!” He tells her to take it easy, that Noah is fine. She gets in his face and tells him to stay away from her son. He asks or what, she’ll shoot him? He tells her to take his advice and make life easier on herself and drop this case. Benson tells him to go to hell. He nods and she turns to leave.
Back at SVU, Benson recaps what they know with Stone and the detectives. She explains that with Rob Miller and Wally Stevens, Rob stole Nikki’s phone because he was afraid that Stevens would implicate him in the underage sex case. Stone says there was nothing on the phone, and Carisi comments that the charges against Stevens were dropped but that’s how they know Rob got to Judge Leonard. Stone comments they also can’t prove. He asks about the girls, and Rollins explains that Brooke Davis was with Lindsay Parker the night she was killed. Brooke ID’s Alex Kay who put Miller at a sex party last September in the Hamptons but now refuses to testify against Miller. Benson outlines her working theory: Rob Miller runs into Lindsay, who just happens to be his client’s daughter at a party Saturday night. Miller panics because he thinks Lindsay can ID him. He gives her a hot shot. She admits there are a lot of dots to connect. Stone says that is an understatement. Benson says Rob is a man, not a super-villain, he had to have made a mistake. Stone says if he did, he doesn’t see it. He glares are her and she looks at him, stunned. She asks him to come into her office. He follows her into her office and, shutting the door hard, asks him whose side is he on? Stone says not Rob Miller’s. Benson counters it doesn’t look that way. He gets angry, asking her tersely if she is accusing him of something. Rattled, she says she is just asking. He glares at her and she steps away. She states she knows Rob is guilty and when Stone asks how, she replies that he had unis pick up her son from his school and was clearly threatening her and looked her in the eye and he told her to drop the case. Stone, angry, asks when was she going to tell him this? She claims that is irrelevant to the investigation, but Stone shouts that is it completely relevant to the investigation. Rob is threatening Noah and anything Benson finds out his lawyer will claim she has a personal vendetta against him. Benson turns away and takes a breath. She says she is worried that he is going to harm her son. She sits down and says that Rob Miller is a criminal, he’s a rapist, he’s a murderer, and they’ve got nothing and he’s going to get away with all of this. Stone looks anguished.
Sometime later, Nikki Staines meets with Stone in a parking garage. She says she is only there because he swore he wouldn’t ask her to testify. He says he is not, and she asks what does he want? He explains it’s the same thing she wants – Rob Miller behind bars. She asks how the hell are they going to do that, and he explains they are going to break a couple rules.
Later, we see Nikki making a bank deposit with a lot of cash while Stone watches. Stone also watches as Fin arrests a guy for drugs. At SVU, Rollins and Carisi create a ruse to get their hands on Brooke’s cell phone. Stone watches as the man Fin arrested for drugs gains entry to a building past the doorman, carrying with him an envelope.
Back at SVU, Benson is surprised to hear Stone got a judge to sign off on an arrest warrant and when she asks what evidence, Stone says to just trust her. She asks if she has a choice. Fin enters and says the Parkers are there, with their lawyer. They quickly inform them they have a suspect in their daughter’s murder and Benson quickly announces Rob is under arrest for Lindsay’s murder. They take him away.
Sometime later, on the courthouse steps, Benson asks Stone that he is just going to keep her in the dark. He tells her not to worry about what the chef is going to do with his catch. Benson comments she loves metaphors but not so much when it involves a rapist-slash-murderer’s day in court. She says even less when the state’s case is…Stone finishes “Circumstantial.” She says ONLY circumstantial. She adds for all she knows, all they have is a bunch of arrows on a cork board signifying a whole lot of nothing. Stone asks if Benson thinks Rob raped Nikki, and Benson says of course. Stone asks if she thinks Rob murdered Lindsay, and Benson replies he knows that she does. Stone says, “Good. You caught the fish, let me cook it.” He walks up the steps and Benson lets out a heavy sigh.
In Supreme Court Part 33 on Wednesday, May 15, Brooke testifies about partying with the old guys. Stone paints it as she was being taken advantage by rich, horny old men, to which the defense objects. Stone asks her if one of the men was Rob Miller but she is not sure. He asks her that it is just a coincidence they were are the BLT Steakhouse, and she says she was never there. Stone comments that is odd, saying her phone was. He shows GPS records and she sees her phone number. It was at that location on Tuesday May 13 between 1:17 PM at 2:34 PM, the same place as Rob Miller’s phone. He asks if Rob gave her money at that time and she denies even being there. Rob leaps up and says this is nonsense. The judge tells him to sit. She denies getting money from him. Stone shows her her bank statement and she says that is impossible. Stone has her tell the jury that on May 13 at 3:40PM there was a deposit of $9,500 but she’s never had that much cash and didn’t make that deposit. Stone says it looks like she was paid off by Rob, and when the defense objects the judge sustains it. Under cross by Rob’s attorney William Biegel, Brooke says she never met Rob and he never gave her any money.
Later, the doorman testifies Rob was never a member and he has no idea who he is. The man that he let in said he was waiting for a member – Rob Miller. Rob says he’s never even seen this guy, and the judge tells him that is two strikes. He doorman admits the video shows the man came in with a envelope and didn’t leave with one, 17 minutes after Rob arrived. Under cross, Mr. Burton admits he never saw Rob with the man with the envelope or take the envelope.
Fin is on the stand who identifies LaMar Jackson who is a con he arrested in 2014 for narcotics. Fin busted him for selling China White. Under cross, Fin admits he doesn’t know where LaMar is and when asked if he would be surprised if Stone asks him to take the stand, Fin says nothing surprises him anymore. The defense says that would surprise him as that would mean Stone is suborning perjury. Stone objects and the Biegel withdraws. Stone rests the people’s case. Biegel calls Nikki Staines. Stone looks concerned.
Biegel questions Nikki about May 13 in the afternoon and shows that Nikki was the one who made the deposit into Brooke’s account. Nikki admits that she was trying to frame Rob Miller. Stone is silent but clearly worried. Under cross, Stone gets Nikki to explain that she did it because Rob threatened her with compromising photos and she would lose custody of her daughter. She says Rob is evil and will do whatever it takes to get what he wants. He asks if she is still scared of him and she doesn’t know. Stone plays back a recording of Rob Miller and Chief Dodds where Rob said “No Nikki, no case”. He asks again if she is still scared and Nikki says he killed Lindsay Parker, didn’t he? Biegel objects and the judge tells the jury to disregard that statement. Stone says she was so scared she manufactured circumstantial evidence to trick the jury to convict him. Nikki admits yes, and says she has a daughter and he would be a threat to her for the rest of her life if she didn’t do anything. She shoots Rob a look. The jury looks disgusted.
Later, Benson heads out to her car and is approached by Rob. He asks “what the hell” and Benson stops and says she shouldn’t be talking to him. He replies, “Oh, I see. Now you’re worried about ethics. Haven’t you learned by now that people that screw with me typically don’t have happy endings. Endings I want. Ending I control. It’s called power, Lieutenant.” She tells him good night and gets into her car. Rob says he’s got it but “you pissants” don’t comprehend it. He says she will see. He adds when the dust settles, she and Nikki…Fin approaches and asks if she is okay, and she tells him to get that piece of dirt away from her. Fin moves toward Rob but Rob orders Fin not to touch him. Rob comments to Benson,” A word to the wise, Lieutenant: You’re a tiny fish. Tiny fish always get eaten by the bigger fish. Like it or not, that’s how the world works.” As Rob walks away, Fin states dryly, “Somebody’s freakin’ out.” Benson asks Fin if he was at the trial, and Fin replies no, but he heard Nikki out on quite a show. Benson sits back and sighs.
At Cardoze East at 271 West 15th Street on Wednesday, May 15, Benson meets up with Nikki and asks what is she doing? Nikki tells her to stop it, what she did she didn’t just do for herself. Benson counters she would have never agreed to this, and Nikki explains this is why they didn’t say anything to her. Benson asks who is “we”, and when Nikki makes a face, Benson asks that Stone knew about this. Nikki laughs and says, “Christ Liv, it was his idea.” Benson looks at Nikki with her mouth agape, and steps away to take this in. She asks that Nikki and Stone tried to frame Rob, and Nikki admits yes, he is guilty. Benson states “You could both be disbarred for this.” But Nikki says there are things that are more important than a license to tap dance around a courtroom. She adds they’ve been doing this a long time and they don’t say it out loud or when the lights are on, but there are times in the dark when they whisper “sometimes the law’s just not good enough.” She adds a threat to her child’s safety is one of those times, saying at least she won’t have to look over her shoulder for the rest of her life and neither will Benson. Benson counters, “No. No, I am not a part of this.” Nikki states, “Yeah you are.” Benson gets up and leaves.
In Supreme Court Part 33 on Thursday, May 16, the verdict is read: on the sole count of murder in the second degree, Robert Alan Miller is found guilty. Rob is stunned, and Lindsay’s parents are happy. Rob gets upset, and, yelling at Stone, calling him a son of a bitch, saying he set him up. The judge yells for order and Benson looks surprised. Rob glares back at her as they take him away in cuffs. Stone looks happy but Benson does not as she leaves the courtroom.
Outside the courthouse Stone approaches Benson. She says she doesn’t even know what to say, asking if it’s congratulations. She comments he won the case without a single piece of evidence. Stone says he proved Miller was a bad guy and the jury put him away for that alone. He adds that for once the arrow on the wheel of justice stopped at the right place. Benson counters it was with a little help. Stone comments everyone needs a little help. She says, “Even me.” Stone says she’s the one person who could make it on her own. She tells him to take it easy, they both know that’s not true. He says he does but that’s not what most people want to hear. She thanks him and he asks why, because he put his integrity and his career and everything he believes in jeopardy for a good friend? Benson replies, “Yes. Yes. And.I.Didn’t.Ask for this.” He knows she didn’t ask for this but he did it anyway. He was always going to do it. He hopes she finds someone like that again. When she asks what that means, he tells her to look at what he just did in there. He doesn’t regret any of it for a minute but he simply lost perspective. He states this is on him, admitting it is a weakness and a crack in his character. He adds the fact is, she became more important to him than the case he is trying and that is not him. He looks like he is tearing up as he put his hands on her shoulders and says she can look at a case with an open heart and he can’t do that. Benson tries to talk but he stops her, saying he has to look at a case through clear eyes. She tries to talk again but he tells her to stop and listen. He tells her he had to move on; he has to go or risk getting blinded again. She whispers for him to wait, but be removes his hands and tells her to take care of herself. They look at each other and finally he breaks her gaze and turns and walks away, leaving her there standing alone, staring ahead. She takes a few deep breaths, turns and walks away as we fade to black.
Mariska Hargitay – Lieutenant Olivia Benson
Ice-T – Sergeant Odafin “Fin” Tutuola
Kelli Giddish – Detective Amanda Rollins
Peter Scanavino – Detective Dominick “Sonny” Carisi, Jr.
Philip Winchester – ADA Peter Stone
Callie Thorne – Nikki Staines
Titus Welliver – Rob Miller
Richard Kind – William Biegel
Jazzy Kae – Brooke Davis
Nahanni Johnstone – Vanessa Parker
Alex Cranmer –
Aida Turturro – Judge Catano
Marilee Talkington – Golda Simon
Mike McGowan – Alex Kay
Sherin Shetty – M.E. Carrie Stover
Travis Mitchell – Sgt. Carl Matthews
Ryan Buggle Noah Porter Benson
Michael Scott – Frank Burton
Ryan Vincent Anderson – James
Bobby James Evers – Adam Rhodes
Silas Anthony – Kevin Shea
Annie Baltic – Lindsay Parker
Ger Payawal – Jury Foreperson
Jillian Rose – Attica Staines
Quincy Giles – Lamar Jackson
All Content (Recaps, Review, Commentary) Copyright © allthingslawandorder.blogspot.com unless otherwise noted
Check out my blog home page for the latest Law & Order information, on All Things Law And Order.
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Charlie Staines the first player in 83 years to score six tries in his first two NRL games | Parkes Champion-Post
Charlie Staines became the first player in 83 years to score six tries in his first two NRL games as his wild ride continued in Penrith’s 42-12 flogging of Manly.
Staines scored two in 25 action-filled minutes at Lottoland on Saturday night before limping off with a hamstring injury.
Nathan Cleary also put on a masterclass, setting up two tries and scoring one of his own in the second half when he regathered his own grubber.
But while Penrith shot out of the blocks to a 22-0 lead after 30 minutes, it was an absolute horror show for Manly.
Dylan Walker suffered a new fracture in his foot, Brad Parker suffered a serious concussion and Curtis Sironen faces time out with a knee injury.
But still, Staines was the main story.
He became the first man since South Sydney’s Don Manson in 1937 to score six tries in his first two games, according to Fox Sports Stats.
Incredibly, his four-pointers have come in just 105 minutes – or one every 17 minutes of his first-grade career.
And perhaps the only people more relieved than Manly when he left the field was the Post Office Hotel in his home town of Forbes, who were again offering a free shout to their 40 patrons every time he scored.
“My tries, like my four tries the other week, they were off the back of good set plays,” Staines said.
“That was the case again tonight.
“On my way to the line with the second try, I felt a tweak in my hammy. I’ll get it looked at and hopefully be back in a couple of weeks.”
Charlie Staines has played his second game for the Penrith Panthers NRL side.
The performance was one of the best of ladder-leaders Penrith’s season, completing at 91 per cent playing expansive football.
Parkes’ Billy Burns was absent from the weekend’s match, after almost weekly appearances for the Panthers this 2020 season.
Staines opened the scoring when he got the ball down in a tight space on the right edge in the 10th minute, then Cleary gifted him with a perfect lofted ball for his second.
The Penrith halfback was in everything against his likely Queensland State of Origin opposite number.
He kicked a 40-20 before another try, before one of his grubbers rebounded into Penrith hands and Viliame Kikau put on an offload for Stephen Crichton to score.
“That would have been in the back of his mind (playing against Daly Cherry-Evans),” coach Ivan Cleary said of his son.
“Everyone wants to do well against their opponent and someone he has looked up to. His kicking game was really good tonight, he stuck solid to the plan all night.”
Cherry-Evans, meanwhile, was clearly Manly’s best.
He put Jake Trbojevic over with an inside ball for their only first-half try and kicked for Jorge Taufua for one in the second.
He also somehow held up Kikau to save one and stopped another when he chased down Naden after running 80 metres from a Lachlan Croker intercept.
ALSO MAKING SPORTING NEWS:
What time does the NRL final start? start time, Penrith Panthers vs South Sydney Rabbitohs, kick off, how to watch, scores, results, video, highlights
The NRL final is upon us.
Here is everything you need know so you can enjoy the big dance between the Penrith Panthers and South Sydney Rabbitohs.
Watch Fox Leagues’s massive line-up of Grand Final week coverage on Kayo including live pre-game, half-time and post-game coverage with full analysis from the best team in the business. New to Kayo? Start your free trial >One of the greatest: Wayne Bennett | 01:29
WHAT TIME IS THE NRL FINAL ON
The NRL grand final is scheduled for a 6:30pm kick off Brisbane time on Sunday, October 3.
That early kick-off time is because daylight saving time has kicked off in parts of the country.
So that means the match will kick-off at 7:30pm AEDT (NSW, ACT, Victoria and Tasmania), 7:00pm ACDT (South Australia), 6:00pm ACST (Northern Territory) and 4:30pm AWST (Western Australia).
HOW TO WATCH
The NRL Grand Final will be broadcast live and exclusively on Channel 9 and 9HD.
You will also be able to stream the match on 9Now, but a Nine Account is required to access the stream.
Fox League and Kayo will show a replay of the game immediately after full-time.
Get all the latest NRL news, highlights and analysis delivered straight to your inbox with Fox Sports Sportmail. Sign up now!!!
LATE MAIL: Panthers star’s fan day no-show; Reynolds set to resume kicking dutiesDylan Edwards set to play in Grand Final | 01:30
Fox League will be broadcasting right throughout the day.
Yvonne Sampson will be joined by premiership-winners Cooper Cronk, Greg Alexander and Braith Anasta to preview the game and break it down at half-time.
WHY IS THE FINAL BEING PLAYED IN BRISBANE
Suncorp Stadium is the venue for the first time, with the NRL final being shifted away from Sydney for the first time.
The reason is quite simply because of the mass Covid outbreak across NSW, which saw the competition shifted to Queensland.
While Brisbane hosted the Super League final in 1997 between the Broncos and Sharks, it is the first time in the competition’s history that the NRL final has been played outside of Sydney.
MORE NRL NEWS
TRANSFER WHISPERS: Bulldogs pair shown the door, Manly star’s new deal stalls PUNISHMENTS: Munster, Smith face fines and bans as contract ramifications revealedMatty Johns is a huge fan of Brian To’o | 00:49
WHO ARE THE FAVOURITES
Last year’s runner’s up the Panthers are the favourites.
According to TAB, they are $1.67 favourites with the Rabbitohs paying $2.25.
Wayne Bennett, in his 10th final, will be sniffing an upset.
It’s the second time inside a month that these two teams have met, with the third-placed Rabbitohs beating the Panthers in the first week of the four-week finals competition 16-10 at QCB Stadium in Townsville.
But Penrith got a second chance in the finals competition because they finished inside the top four.Anasta hails ‘reinvented’ Marshall | 02:29
WHAT ARE THE TEAMS
Panthers team: 1. Dylan Edwards 2. Stephen Crichton 3. Paul Momirovski 4. Matt Burton 5. Brian To’o 6. Jarome Luai 7. Nathan Cleary 8. Moses Leota 9. Apisai Koroisau 10. James Fisher-Harris 11. Viliame Kikau 12. Kurt Capewell 13. Isaah Yeo 14. Tyrone May 15. Scott Sorensen 16. Spencer Leniu 17. Liam Martin 18. Brent Naden 20. J’maine Hopgood
Players cut: 19. Mitch Kenny 21. Charlie Staines
Rabbitohs team: 1. Blake Taaffe 2. Alex Johnston 3. Dane Gagai 4. Campbell Graham 5. Jaxson Paulo 6. Cody Walker 7. Adam Reynolds 8. Mark Nicholls 9. Damien Cook 10. Tevita Tatola 11. Keaon Koloamatangi 12. Jaydn Su’A 13. Cameron Murray 14. Benji Marshall 15. Jacob Host 16. Thomas Burgess 17. Jai Arrow 18. Taane Milne 19. Patrick Mago
Players cut: 20. Braidon Burns 21. Jed Cartwright
21 BEST MOMENTS OF ‘21: WWE moves, new heroes created as young stars emerge
‘FULL STEAM AHEAD’: V’landys backs Suncorp for GF, postponement still an option
‘GANG BACK TOGETHER’: Inglis open to joining dream team, legend mentors rookieBenji Marshall’s miraculous 12 months | 01:25
Hockey round-up: Maidenhead suffer heavy opening day defeat to familiar foes Staines – Photo 1 of 1
Maidenhead Hockey Club
Saturday’s start to the South Central Hockey League Premier Division 1 season didn’t go exactly to plan for Phil Cowell’s Maidenhead men’s 1st team as they were thrashed 6-1 by familiar foes in Staines 1sts at Altwood School.
Maids have been moved up into the division following a restructure of the leagues and the emphatic nature of Saturday’s result suggests they’ll have to find their feet quickly if they’re to avoid a season of struggle.
There were elements of Saturday’s performance that skipper Cowell wasn’t too displeased with, most notably an improved second half display in which Cowell scored.
Overall, they were very much second best to a side they’ve matched up well against in previous campaigns.
Staines pressed well in the first half, netting twice before the break and while Maids offered more of an attacking threat after half-time, they were picked off by some clinical finishing on the counterattack.
Reflecting on a surprisingly difficult opening league game, Cowell said: “I don’t think the team would mind me saying we were poor in the first half.
“We didn’t get into the game, and we got bogged down at the back. They scored a well-deserved goal, and their second goal was a little unfortunate because it went through our keeper, but we went in 2-0 down at half-time and that was probably deserved to be honest.
“The frustrating thing is that second half we actually played a lot better and moved the ball around quite nicely and created some chances. We transitioned well from defence to attack and created a lot of chances, but because we were pushing through, we were stung on the counter attack, and they were quite clinical to be fair to them.
“They’ve got some high-quality forwards and took their chances really well. One of them was a penalty stroke, so yeah, we got a goal from a short corner, from me, but it was less than a consolation.”
Maids lacked structure throughout and Cowell believes they were missing the encouragement and tactical nous of coach Rohit Kapoor, who couldn’t make Saturday’s curtain raiser.
They’ll now look to bounce back at Slough Men’s 1sts on Saturday in what promises to be a ‘feisty’ clash.
Cowell said: “We didn’t actually have Rohit (Kapoor) coach, on the sidelines on Saturday which I think was a big factor.
“Our structure on the press was quite poor and we didn’t really have anyone to get a message on.
“It’s not a great start but we showed glimpses of what we can do in the second half.
“They have a very good forward who scored two of their goals, but I feel that in the return fixture we’ll have a chance.
“The scoreline didn’t reflect the game. First half we were poor but second half we had most of the possession. A fair result but a bit of a harsh scoreline.”
He added: “We’re now away to Slough at 12pm on Saturday. It’s another massive game but we’ll take some confidence into it.
“They lost 3-2 to Henley. It’s usually a feisty clash with Slough so looking forward to that one.”
Marlow Hockey Club
With a new league structure in place, and some unfamiliar teams to face this season, there was a degree of uncertainty and apprehension for Marlow’s men’s and women’s teams ahead of this weekend’s opening matches.
However, across the various levels of competition, the club made a strong start with the men’s 1sts serving up an impressive 11-0 victory over Newbury & Thatcham in their opening South Central Hockey League Premier Division 2 clash. Newbury simply had no answer to Marlow’s incisive passing in and around the D, while they were also held at arm’s length by the side’s resolute defence. All of the goals came from open play, barring one from a penalty corner, and Callum White rocketed to the top of the league’s scoring charts by scoring five of them.
The others were shared around between Matt Ashton, Mav Girn, Sam North, Leo Pennant, Chris Sewell and Charley Hunter.
The men’s 2nd team were also convincing 4-1 winners away to Reading 3rds, with James Ashburner, Dan Field, Will Pendered and Johnny Mee all finding the net.
Both results bode well for the remainder of the season.
There was an early start for Marlow Ladies 1sts team, but they certainly caught the worm so to speak, beating local rivals Maidenhead 4-0 with goals from Jenny Martin, Hanna Dring and Kiera Foster (two).
Inspired by this, Marlow’s second team followed them onto the pitch and promptly beat Maidenhead’s 2nd team 3-0 in another one-sided display.
Elsewhere the men’s 3rd team drew 0-0 with Leighton Buzzard 2nds, but the 4ths lost 2-1at home to Yateley. The 5ths were 8-1 winners away at Tring 1sts and the 6th team beat Sonning 5ths 4-2 away. The 7th team were also convincing 7-0 winners over Sonning 6ths.
The Ladies 3rds were held to a 2-2 draw at home by Oxford 3rds but the 4ths were impressive 4-1 victors over Oxford 4ths.
The 5ths beat Yateley 2nd 3-1 at home, and the 6ths were 5-0 winners at Maidenhead 5ths. The Ladies 7th team also beat Slough 4ths 3-1, giving the club an opening day tally of 11 wins and two draws from 14 games.
Stoke Green Hockey Club
Stoke Green Hockey Club tasted victory in their first ever game with a 3-2 win over Amersham and Chalfont 6ths writes Ben Hart.
The team, an offshoot of the Cricket Club of the same name, hopes to promote hockey in the Wexham area while providing young people with a route into sport. Coached by former Slough captain Kulhit Bhachu, Stoke Green secured a thrilling victory in their first Southcentral (MT3) fixture.
It was a dream start for the hosts who raced into a 3-0 lead at half-time. Veer Patel opened the scoring to round off an excellent counter attack.
Amandeep Singh swept home the second and then scored a fantastic solo effort as he waltzed past two defenders before smashing past the Amersham keeper. Amersham rallied in the second half, in need of a miraculous comeback. Short corners proved to be the scourge of the home side as both Amersham goals came from the set piece.
However, a defiant Stoke Green side held out despite chances for both teams in the final stages.
Sardar Dhoot was awarded Man of the Match for his excellent midfield display. Stoke Green travel to Eastcote 6 next hoping to build on their opening day success.
Slough Hockey Club
Slough Hockey Club celebrated its centenary on Sunday with a day of celebratory games, food, drink, and entertainment, writes Ali Lubbock.
The event followed the women’s 1sts’ opening game of the season on Saturday, a convincing 2-0 victory over ISCA in the Vitality Women’s Hockey League Division 1 South. Surbiton and Sevenoaks lead the way after the first round of matches following solid 4-0 away wins over Canterbury and Wimbledon 2nds respectively.
The men’s first team got their campaign underway with a 3-2 defeat against Henley and host Maidenhead this coming Saturday.
A centenary of competitive hockey is worth celebrating and is a notable achievement in the sport, with the club having played in the top echelons for the past 50 years.
Slough has an extensive list of honours both at a national and European level and have always been one of the country’s dominant forces in the indoor game, both on the men’s and women’s side.
The women won the first Typhoo sponsored National League season when it was introduced in 1990-91 and dominated the ladies’ game for several years after.
The men also have a series of league titles under their belt, having first won the men’s National Inter League Championship back in 1975-76. Between 1979-83 they were the strongest side in the country, but they were relegated from the topflight in 1994-95 and haven’t managed to get back there since.
The club has also been a breeding ground for international talent with many players having represented the pink and blacks.
The men’s list of internationals includes Ian Taylor, Paul Barber, Balwant Saini and Suti Khehar, while the women’s list features Karen Brown, Sue Knight, Mandy Pottow, Sue Chandler, Jo Thompson, Mandy Nicholson, Lesley Hobley, Jane Smith, Kate Richardson-Walsh, Alex Danson-Bennett, Fiona Greenham, Sarah Kelleher, Anna Bennett, Shona McCallin and Beth Storry to name a few. Some of those ex-players were reunited for the celebrations at Upton Court Park in Slough on Sunday, where a glass was raised in recognition of all that’s been achieved and all that is to come.90,000 Lines, streaks, dark spots, streaks on the TV screen Samsung
In this article, you will find tips in case the image on the TV screen is fuzzy or blurry.
Step 1. Look closely at screen
Make sure that there is no mechanical damage on the screen: cracks, dents, impact marks.
If there is no mechanical damage, go to the next recommendation.
If there is mechanical damage, contact a Samsung service center.
Step 2. Run Image Test
A picture test will help you check if the problem is a TV or a signal.
How to run a picture test on a Samsung TV
If there is a defect in the image test, contact a Samsung service center.
If there is no defect, go to the next recommendation.
Step 3. Disable the “Motion light” function
Disable the function, if available on your TV.Open “Settings” – “General” – “Economy mode” – Disable “Motion light”. Check the image.
If the defect disappeared, then everything is in order with the TV, use it further.
If the defect persists, go to the next recommendation.
Step 4. Reset TV settings
A reset will return the TV to its factory state and clear errors.
How to reset Samsung TV
Check the image after reset.
If the defect disappeared, then everything is in order with the TV, use it further.
If the defect persists, go to the next recommendation.
Step 5. Update the TV firmware
If there is a new firmware for the TV, install it. If there is no new firmware, go to the next recommendation.
How to find out if there is a new firmware and install it on Samsung TV
Check the image after updating the firmware.
If the defect disappeared, then everything is in order with the TV, use it further.
If the defect persists, go to the next recommendation.
Step 6. Contact the service center
If the recommendations above do not help, the TV is defective. Contact Samsung Service Center for repair.
[If the TV was in a cold environment]
If the TV was stored / transported in a cold environment and streaks are visible on the screen, turn it on and let it run for at least three hours.The streaks appeared due to a small amount of condensate that will evaporate during operation.90,000 Benefits of Computer Games: What Can Video Games Teach Us?
The popularity of computer games is growing every day, children and adults spend more and more time in this activity, which makes us think about how to use gambling addiction for good – first of all, for learning
According to Knowable Magazine, certain types of video games can improve brain function for a narrow set of tasks.Several studies have also shown their effectiveness in acquiring a second language, mathematics and science. This is potentially good news for pupils and students, as well as millions of people who love to play or can’t stop playing.
The latter phenomenon, by the way, is a long-standing cause for concern for parents, doctors and teachers. More than half of Russians (58%) believe that video games do more harm than good (according to VTsIOM as of August 15, 2019), while noting the negative impact on the psyche and manifestations of aggressive behavior.Also, 54% of citizens have a bad attitude to the hobby for games of loved ones.
According to various estimates, there are more than 2.3 billion gamers in the world (as of 2018), and two years ago, the World Health Organization finally decided to include addiction to online and video games in the list of diseases (ICD-11 will enter into force from 2022).
People (and not only young people) spend a lot of time playing games, and this is a fact in connection with which the task arises to turn this hobby into something more productive than simple entertainment and removal of negative emotions.
What to read / see on the topic:
First studies of the influence of games on improving brain function
Initially, the evidence that this is possible was obtained from testing shooters. Sean Greene, a student of psychology at the University of Rochester, noted that often criticized “shooters” can be beneficial. He gave his friends a visual attention test, which showed amazing results. At first, Green and his supervisor, Daphne Bavelier, attributed this to some kind of error, since when Bavelier herself was tested, the result was normal.The difference between the participants in the experiment was that all of Green’s friends devoted more than 10 hours a week to playing the Team Fortress Classic shooter.
Greene and Bavelier then conducted another experiment, dividing the “newcomers” group into two teams. The first one spent one hour a day at the shooter for 10 days, the second spent the same amount of time going through the spatial puzzle “Tetris”.
Tests have shown that the participants of the first group focused their attention better on objects of interest against a visually loaded background, and could also track up to five moving objects at the same time.In other studies, it became known that Tetris, in turn, improves the ability to spatial reasoning and visual representation of two-dimensional objects.
Bavelier, now a cognitive researcher at the University of Geneva, notes that fans of “action games” are better at “maneuvering” between distributed attention (the ability of the brain to respond to stimuli simultaneously) and focused attention (the ability to concentrate on a target stimulus). “This is called attention control, the ability to switch flexibly as needed,” she says.Switching between tasks is also facilitated by playing All You Can ET, a special cognitive simulator in which players must provide aliens with certain food and drinks in a timely manner.
Useful links for a deeper understanding of the topic:
- The work of the Center for Applied Research and Development of St. Petersburg State University on the impact of computer games on cognitive functions, as well as the psyche, motivation and social behavior of a person (spoiler: games with elements of violence do not lead to antisocial behavior, and the stereotype of an isolated, uncommunicative gamer is incorrect).
- A study by researchers at the University of California, Irvine on the impact of online simulators on the multitasking skill of the elderly.
- Gamification expert Gabe Zichermann TED talk “How do games make kids smarter?”
- An article by an employee of the Moscow Center for Video Game Research on PostNauka about how video games help us do better in school exams and why gamification makes us work harder.
Pitfalls in the implementation of games in the educational process
Greene, now a psychologist at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, notes that games can help train professionals who work with heightened visual attention – for example, surgeons, law enforcement officers or the military.The latter, by the way, is confirmed even at a very high level. “The ability to quickly absorb information, react and coordinate while remaining calm under pressure is often a sign of people who play well,” a BBC official told the BBC.
But Greene also acknowledges that the real-life benefits of playing conditional Call of Duty for hours may be limited: if time for video games crowds out time for other tasks, other skills may suffer over time.
It is also important that the results obtained in the experiments are very specific and are valid only within the framework of the task: that is, “shooters” do not improve spatial thinking, as in the case of “Tetris”, but, on the contrary, it does not improve visual attention. In turn, educator and psychologist Richard Mayer claims that, having studied this topic for a long time, he did not find convincing evidence that the so-called games for training the brain really helped significantly improve memory, attention or speed of decision-making.Economics of education Heads of IT companies on education: “Every child should become an expert”
Another controversial issue: how to use (and is it worth using) video games in the classroom? In it, researchers also do not always agree: so, according to Bavelier, computer games that increase brain capacity can be integrated into school activities to add a “spoonful of honey” to complex subjects and boring programs.Although “shooters” are probably not suitable for this: of course, they can hardly be offered to primary school students.
“This could be a game where the doctor has to choose the right medicine to save the world. But it should not be associated with death, violence or zombies, ”she said. But the professor also wonders if children will be able to transfer cognitive skills gained from play to other, more real-life situations.
Sean Green, in turn, notes the complexity and high cost of creating games.High-quality, effective and compelling games can cost as much as it would cost to create some kind of blockbuster, the psychologist noted.
Maximum engagement is an advantage of games to use
Still, the prospects for the introduction of video games in the classroom are encouraging, despite the lack of research on any advantages of this teaching method over existing ones. Even if we assume that “brain simulators” are overrated, one cannot ignore the fact that games are indeed highly addictive and engaging.
“The most important thing about games is their motivational power,” says Mayer. “And we want to use that.” Brain scientists, education professionals and game developers need to work more closely with each other to create exciting games that hone cognitive skills and have fun. As Bavelier adds, children’s brains are capable of memorizing hundreds of Pokémon and their abilities. Imagine if they were just as enthusiastic about exploring the stars in the sky!
Writer Greg Toppo, in his book The Game Believes in You: How Digital Play Can Make Our Kids Smarter, agrees that games can help improve student engagement, revitalize lessons, and also allow you to tailor them according to the needs of each specific class.Games can also reward students for consistent practice, perseverance, and out-of-the-box solutions.
In addition, games can help improve soft skills. “There are many soft skills that gamers can use in their professional lives: teamwork, problem solving and strategic planning,” said Ryan Gardner, Regional Director for Hays Recruitment. However, if you play games without thinking about the skills that you can learn from them and then use them, you will hardly be able to use your hobby in the future improvement of career prospects.
Computer games and esports education: first steps in Russia
At the moment, online and video games are offered to be used (or, more rarely, they are already being used) as part of training sessions and as independent lessons. So, in June 2019, the Ministry of Education of Russia proposed to introduce computer games and mobile applications as a means of teaching in schools and colleges over a five-year period.
In the summer, there were also ideas about the allocation of separate classes for e-sports and other games.In August, experts from the Internet Development Institute (IRI) advised including Dota 2, Hearthstone, Dota Underlords, FIFA 19, World of Tanks, Minecraft and CodinGame in electives for schoolchildren. The selection criteria were the popularity, updateability of games, their compliance with domestic requirements for eSports, and age marking of 14+. In addition, the selected games, according to IRI experts, should develop students’ skills in team play, strategic thinking, logic and reaction speed, as well as reveal their creative potential.The Ministry of Education rejected the idea to include such subjects in the school curriculum: according to the department, they can lead to overwork of students. Instead, schools were encouraged to introduce eSports lessons at their own discretion.
How to make money on esports
Meanwhile, the world’s interest in esports is only growing.The global market reached $ 775 billion in 2018, and according to the PwC report, its revenue will grow by an average of 18.3% every year. E-sports broadcasts in Russia were watched by 22 million people – thus our country was in third place in the world in terms of this indicator.
Not so long ago, the idea that you could make a living by playing seemed unrealistic. Now, some players are able to financially support their families and see this as a good career opportunity.
Incomes of athletes vary from $ 2,000 to $ 15,000. In addition to the team salary, gamers can receive a substantial amount of prize money for winning tournaments, donations (voluntary donations from viewers) on streams (online broadcasts of what is happening on a computer or console), sponsor support, as well as advertising.
At the same time, it is not so easy for Russians to study as an e-sportsman: this educational direction is just beginning to gain momentum, while such educational institutions have been functioning in the EU, the USA and some Scandinavian countries for a long time.You can learn with the help of online services teaching game skills, online courses, cyber schools, several university programs (in particular, the HSE and the Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sports, Youth and Tourism). There is also a cybersport faculty at Synergy University. In general, the FCC of the Russian Federation, founded in 2000, is responsible for the massive development of eSports in Russia.
According to Elena Avdeeva, the director of the first Moscow school with intellectual sports classes, the skills gained through computer games will help a child in any profession.“Moreover, esports and new technologies open the way to the professions of the future: smart home architect, drone operator, esports journalist, cyber trainer, vulnerability finder, virtual reality artist, neural network developer, cybersports player, and so on,” she noted earlier in conversation with “Evening Moscow”.
What else to read / watch / listen to on the topic:
- Who are “boosters” and how do they make money helping novice gamers 90,094 15 most influential people in esports.Forbes Rating 90,094 Young gamers around the world spend more than three hours a week watching other people play video games online (according to Inc. 2018). What makes them do it: The Wired material and The Verge podcast
- The Guardian: How Video Games in Schools Can Help Teachers and Parents
However, with the introduction of new eSports directions and the introduction of video games in classrooms, a number of difficult tasks arise: first, the idea of how to teach new disciplines and effectively use gaming opportunities in the classroom has not yet been fully formed.Secondly, it is not entirely clear how to minimize the risks associated with a long stay at the computer: problems with vision, overweight, posture, social, offline interaction, and possible computer addiction. Despite this, online and video games have good prospects for more firmly gaining a foothold in the educational process, and, perhaps, very soon, parents will not scold their children for a long stay at the computer, but will begin to take part in these games and help get the most out of the process. …90,000 Top 20 Board Games | Niza Gams
At the very beginning of the summer, we voted for the best board games. Everyone could send us the TOP 10 of their favorite games. Then we assigned points to each game according to its place and summed everything up, thus creating the People’s Rating. More than 1000 people took part in the survey, thank you very much everyone!Here we show you 20 of your favorite games.More details about each game, as well as places from 21 to 100 – in our videos on Youtube channel . Videos from Top 10 and Top Games from 11 to 20 places end of article
We present to you People’s rating of 20 best board games :
One of the most popular games in recent years. In it, all players are engaged in terraforming Mars, that is, turning it into a habitable planet.Everyone will represent their corporation on Mars, and the most influential one will bring victory to its owner. In two hours you will go from a very small company that produces practically nothing on lifeless Mars to a huge corporation on a planet with oceans, wildlife and cities.
In this game, everything is determined by the upgrade cards that you choose for your company. Building a working engine, creating successful combinations of cards is what brings great pleasure in this game.The development paths of your corporation can be very different. And at the end of the game, you will look at your brainchild with great satisfaction and think about what could have been changed, and what tactics worked perfectly for you. If you love to create, then this game is for you.The last edition of the game has ended at the moment. We expect a new circulation in the summer. You can leave your contacts on the page of the game , and we will inform you about the receipt.
What happens if Indiana Jones saves the world from Cthulhu? This is how your adventures in the Ancient Horror will unfold.Traveling the world in search of clues, battling monsters in different cities, expeditions for ancient artifacts – if you add it all, you get a great movie plot. And yes, in this game, unlike Arkham Horror, you get a more adventurous movie than a horror movie.
We usually play like this: dim the lights, turn on the music (we recommend the melodice resource, where you can get themed music by the name of the board game) and, of course, read all the artistic text on the cards.Each time we have a new coherent story, a new adventure, with its ups and downs, which we remember for a long time. It is one of the best games right now that allows you to create your own story. If you appreciate the atmosphere in games, then we recommend Ancient Horror.
You are a feudal ruler of one of the provinces of medieval France.You have to expand your possessions, build cities and monasteries, lay roads and
A classic family game with tile-laying mechanics. She is known to very many, so in any company (with family or friends) she will go with a bang 🙂
The game has a huge number of additions that make it even more diverse, bring new rules and elements.There are about 10 of them in Russian now!
Carcassonne: Count, King and Cult
The composition of the add-on 2 tablets of the fortress of Carcassonne and 1 token of the count Help your opponents and enlist the support of the Count of Carcassonne by giving him
Carcassonne: Abbey and Mayor
The composition of the add-on 6 Abbey Squares and 12 New Terrain Squares Build magnificent cathedrals and complete neighboring objects even faster, and
A very dynamic and simple duel.The game Star Empires keeps you in suspense and does not get bored after dozens of games. The perfect game for your collection: cheap, fast and compact.
An alternative version of the beginning of the last century, in which huge robots walk across the expanses of Eastern Europe. The sickle looks very cool – starting
An alternative version of the beginning of the last century, in which huge robots walk across the expanses of Eastern Europe.The sickle looks very cool – from numerous illustrations on all maps to luxurious miniatures of heroes and robots. This game has been one of the most talked about board games in the world and has grossed $ 2 million on kickstarter! After a few years, the hype subsided, but now we can say that the game has successfully passed the test of time and has become one of the best modern strategy games.
There is everything here: production of resources, battles between players, hidden goals … And all this is very successfully intertwined into one very exciting and balanced process.
Simple and addicting card game
A very versatile and compact game. There are roles and bluffs, construction and planning. The game is good both for a large company of up to 8 people, and for parties together.
A pleasant and uncomplicated game, a family game that is familiar to many.You will lay routes on the maps of Europe, the Nordic countries, America, etc. Huge circulations in Russia and abroad speak of the enormous popularity of this family game.
After purchasing from us you will receive a link to the video guide to the game from Vlad 🙂
A very beautiful game for controlling territories.There is a lot of bluff, miscalculation and strategy here. One of the few games in this genre that can be played well together. The base is played by up to 4 players.
We are waiting for a new edition of the game in November. You can leave your contacts on the game page to get it among the first
7 Wonders Duel
One of the best duel games, an improved and refined version of the 7 Wonders base game especially for two players.
A dueling game that has already become a classic.
Winemaking. Complete Edition
We expect a new circulation to arrive by the end of 2021. Leave your contacts to be among the first to get the game! In this game, class is felt in everything. In a pleasant field, in pretty wooden components, quality maps and, of course, the theme itself! You will not run away from zombies or orcs, you will not exhibit armies of fictional characters … You will grow grapes, make wine and sell to your customers.You can play Winemaking with your loved one, four with two couples, at the family table with children, with your boss and more.
For those who want to organize a very light and calm evening for themselves, but at the same time, to have something to think about.
Control of territories in the setting of your favorite books and TV series. A game with a huge fan base) There are a lot of clubs and game cells that only play it.
We expect new circulation in August
The best, in our opinion, game from the genre of family co-op games.In this game, you will not need to compete and try to score more points. Here all of you together, as a team, will save the planet from terrible epidemics and try to cure the spreading diseases. Moreover, each player will have their own role with special abilities.
This game should be in everyone’s collection!)
A very fun and aggressive game about battles for the glory of Odin. You will improve your clan, fight with each other, send fighters to death in Ragnarok and earn glory points.
There are a lot of strategies in the game due to the large number of upgrade cards. It’s not a shame to lose in battles, since points can also bring losses, and all the figures will return to you from Valhalla every round. Therefore, she is so driving and like many players
The basic version of the game is designed for 2-4 players, but there is an expansion with a 5th player, as well as the Gods of Asgard and Sorcerers of Midgard, which will make the game even more interesting after you have played a lot of the basic version.
Fun in a box! You and your friends (up to 6 people, we recommend exactly 5-6) will rob the train. Every man for himself,
Fun in a box! You and your friends (up to 6 people, we recommend exactly 5-6) will rob the train. Everyone for himself who takes the most is the winner. You will rush around the train, shoot at rivals, take bags of money from them and control the sheriff, who really does not like what is happening on his train!The highlight of this game is how the action cards are played.You post them one at a time, but you don’t take the action right away. For example, the first player says that he will go down to the carriage, the other says that he will shoot, the third will run forward, and so on for several rounds of action. Then you collect a common pile of cards and start performing all these actions. And from this moment the most interesting begins. Why is he shooting in the air? Why is she going to meet the sheriff? Someone ran into a stray bullet. Real chaos! And an even more amusing situation arises when the train enters the tunnel: everyone lays out their cards face down.Anything can happen in the tunnel!
This game is not for serious strategies, here you just need to relax and have fun, then you are guaranteed to have a great time.
The game also has a simplified and accelerated version: Colt Super Express
Seven famous mobsters – Pretty Woman, Cheyenne, Django, Ghost, Mai, and Tuco – have not yet fallen into the hands of justice.Under
A kind of cat and mouse, where one hero, a creature, plays against all the crashed astronauts, and tries to catch them. The goal of the astronauts is to hold out until the rescue ship arrives, the goal of the creature is to leave them on the planet. There are many interesting cards in the game that make each game memorable
Mansions of Madness.Second edition
Mansions of Madness is a fully co-operative board game set in HF Lovecraft’s horror universe. Players take on roles
A cooperative game set in the H.F. Lovecraft universe with large miniatures, plot twists and, of course, battles with monsters from other worlds. You will play the game using an application on your phone or tablet, which greatly speeds up the process of learning the rules.
The game has an add-on:
7 Wonders (new version)
Everyone’s favorite game in a new design! In order to improve accessibility and clarity for beginners, this year the gamewas redesigned
This is a game with basic draft mechanics (card selection), that is, here you will all move at the same time, there is no waiting time for your move.Choosing cards for the production of resources, military or scientific cards, you will develop your civilization and try to score as many points as possible.
The era of geographical discoveries and daring dashes into the unknown gives way to the time of systematic development. Islands and continents, recent blank maps,
The first board game for many, evokes a sense of nostalgia and warm feelings.There are elements of luck due to the cube, interaction between players when exchanging resources and when building on the field. It is very good when playing with friends, as many have heard about it in one way or another or even played themselves.
Root is an asymmetric strategy for 2-4 players.Here everyone will play by their own rules and go to victory
An asymmetric territory control game. Here, each faction will have their own rules and their own victory conditions. Therefore, you will definitely want to play for all the factions. A complex and deep strategy game with very cute components.90,000 PlayStation 5 problems after two months of active use
Most gamers will remember 2020 first of all for the scandalous start of sales of a new generation of consoles – PlayStation 5 and Xbox Series.
Not without problems, but I was still able to grab the PS5 almost at the start – the console came to me on December 4th. From the moment I brought the system home, unpacked it and launched it for the first time, almost two months passed, and during this time emotions cooled down, and the new Sony console showed obvious problems. Even if they are not critical, they are. I have singled out for myself some points that I personally do not like, and I want to tell about them in this material.
Noise, crackling, creaking and a frenzied glossy panel
Whoever says anything about the silence of the PS5, many users (including myself) have all sorts of noises.Moreover, these noises can be of a completely different nature. For some it is a barely audible rustle, for others – a buzzing, for others – an extremely unpleasant hum.
I read the Internet, the reasons for the noise can also be different. This is also a peeled-off sticker from one of the cables inside the console, which, falling into the blades of the cooler, makes it crack loudly. Someone talks about the chokes of the power supply, they say, they are to blame for the unpleasant sounds made.
In my case, as I believe, the reason for the noise is precisely the operation of the cooler.It is almost inaudible when there is no particular load, for example, while watching Netflix. Things get noticeably worse if you run something to play. Yes, not critical, my PS4 Slim also made perceptible sounds, but it’s still unpleasant, especially at night, when you play in relative silence. Remarkably, not everyone has such problems. For many users, the PS5 is extremely quiet.
Another point that can affect the noise is the type of cooler in the console. Yes, as it turned out earlier, Sony installs coolers with different types of impellers on their consoles.At the same time, one of them is noticeably quieter. Sony on its website gives certain recommendations for those whose PS5 is making noise. The company explains the whole thing like this:
This is normal and simply means that the fan is temporarily running at a higher speed to cool the console more efficiently.
By the way, I was not too lazy and contacted the company’s support service about my problem, where they told me a couple of interesting points. Firstly, the words above that the noise of the cooler is like the norm, was confirmed by the person on the line.The specialist directly said that this is a design feature of the set-top box, and the noise is not a warranty case. Simply put, if your PS5 cooler is noisy, this will not be a reason to replace it with a new one.
Secondly, the support service noted that there is a high probability that the cooler noise will be corrected with one of the future system updates. And this is interesting, it turns out that Sony can control the technical aspects of the PS5 through firmware updates. Earlier, they have already said that they will be able to change some parameters of the console through updates – the rotational speed of the cooler, among them.Well, let’s wait for updates and see if there are any changes.
As for the drive noise, which has also been reported by people, I personally cannot say anything about it. Despite the fact that I have a PS5 version with a floppy drive, I have never used it.
Another point that was discussed in all the reviews (I cannot help repeating this, it hurts too much) – the front glossy panel. This is not just a controversial decision – it is a completely disastrous decision from my point of view.As a design moment, it may look good, but I was happy about this beauty for the first couple of days, until a layer of dust accumulated on this very panel.
When trying to remove dust, clearly visible scratches remain on the material, and sometimes they are just so greasy. And it doesn’t matter which cleaning method you use. You can take all kinds of napkins, soft rags and so on – there will still be scratches! All that remains is to accept and not wipe your PS5 as often as you would like. Or use some custom sticker.
Hello, dirty DualSense
Like all PS5 owners, I got acquainted with the DualSense gamepad in Astro’s Playroom, which causes wild delight in exactly how it shows all the capabilities built into the controller.
After some time it turned out that not all games, to put it mildly, use the DualSense chips somehow. Neither Spider-Man: Miles Morales, nor Demon’s Souls, which I have played for many hours, can come close to giving the sensations that a cute little platformer comes preinstalled on every PS5.
In principle, I can’t remember a single title that could reveal the features of a gamepad as much as Astro’s Playroom does. This is sad. It turns out that at the moment games do not use the potential inherent in DualSense, but it is simply enormous. In the future, of course, there will be many times more projects with support for all features, but for now … alas.
But games are okay, at least cool vibrations, adaptive triggers and so on will still appear there. The main problem with DualSense, in my opinion, is that it is white and very easily soiled.
After just a couple of days, dark yellow spots appear in the places of the grip. It doesn’t matter if you wash your hands! The dirt eats into the body of the gamepad with a stranglehold, and nothing can be done to clean it. For this reason, I gave up buying a second DualSense. Better to wait for the black version, which sooner or later will appear on sale.
Where are the patches for PS4 games ?!
Another point on which I would like to speak briefly is the lack of updates on the PS5 for a large number of PS4 games.
At the moment, most titles are working under backward compatibility and generally without any improvements for the new system. Not 60 frames per second, no newfangled vibration, nothing like that. Well, at least the downloads have become faster, and thanks for that.
Conditional Fallout 4 or Metro Exodus both worked at 30 FPS, and continue to do it safely, albeit much more stable, without drawdowns. Everything is clear here, third-party studios, they seem to care about our expectations. But why not immediately release an update, say, for the same The Last of Us: Part II? After all, this is a Sony exclusive, and one of the most important! No, you have 30 frames on you and no adaptive triggers that would be there, oh, how useful.
And how did they generally choose which games to optimize for PS5 right at the start, making them work at 60 frames in 4K (hello to Days Gone and Ghost of Tsushima), and either forget about any games or leave the update for later? So I don’t know.
It is clear that most of the most important titles will still receive a corresponding update in 2021, but so far there are very few such games, and I would not count on the fact that the entire PS4 library will even work on PS5 over time as it should.
What to expect from PS5 and Sony in 2021?
The start of the new consoles was not very successful in terms of the availability of the consoles themselves in free sale and the availability of games. There were more than enough technical and not only problems, but something (the same noise) has not been fixed until now. But this is always the case, I can not remember a single start of the consoles (and I have seen several of them), when everything would have gone smoothly. There have always been shoals.
But that was 2020, and it was in the past. It’s time to talk about what Sony is preparing for PS5 owners in the coming year, and there are several interesting moments at once.The first is, of course, new games! There will be both a shaft of cross-platform projects, for example, Resident Evil: Village, Far Cry 6 and Vampire: The Masquerade – Bloodlines 2, and exclusive ones, including Horizon Forbidden West, Ratchet & Clank: Rift Apart and the new God of War. Each of the new titles must use the hardware capabilities of the new PlayStation and the DualSense feature, and Sony’s games simply have no right not to use them.
In addition, updates to previously released games are expected: Metro Exodus, The Last of Us: Part II and Cyberpunk 2077.These and other projects on PS5 will bring an improved picture, even faster downloads and support for a proprietary gamepad.
Second – we still expect the development of the PS Plus Collection. Yes, earlier the head of Sony Interactive Entertainment Jim Ryan said that the company does not plan to expand the library yet, but the final decision will be made after receiving feedback from users.
The company and its managers, who are responsible for the gaming direction, cannot fail to understand that Microsoft with its Game Pass is simply making the PlayStation exactly in terms of the availability of games on a subscription model.No, seriously, what are 20 games in the Collection, albeit selected ones, versus hundreds in Game Pass.
On top of that, Xbox Game Pass Ultimate subscribers now also receive Electronic Arts games in EA PLAY. Yes, and Microsoft adds all its releases there immediately, and in the future, both Bethesda projects and S.T.A.L.K.E.R. 2. All my life, since the first PlayStation, I played on Sony consoles, but now I am sure that towards the end of this year I will take my money to Microsoft and take a Series X for myself, precisely because of Game Pass.
In general, we expect Sony to respond to this, but it simply cannot do anything, the problem should be obvious to it.
The third and last point – Sony should announce replacement panels for PS5 and DualSense this year, it is not for nothing that it prohibits the sale of custom solutions from third-party companies. I would like to get the opportunity to buy official side panels either from Sony itself or from a certified manufacturer, in different colors and designs. Well, bundles with a PS5 themed design for the release of a particular game should also come out.I would like to see something similar in free sale:
If you are still thinking about buying a PS5, we recommend that you read a detailed review from Rozetked. There is both a text version and a large video. And all the games due out on PS5 in 2021 can be viewed in a separate article.90,000 Astronomers have suggested that solar activity is triggered by three planets
Scientists have found an explanation for the 11-year cycle of solar activity.The matter may be in the planets, which, lining up in a row, cause disturbances in the bowels of the star.
Scientists from Germany have proposed a new theory to explain the periodicity of solar activity. According to them, the number of sunspots and other effects associated with solar cycles are changing due to
impacts on the star of the three planets of the solar system: Venus, Earth and Jupiter.
Solar activity is a whole class of processes associated with the variability of many parameters of our star, such as radiation at different frequencies, the number of sunspots and the flow of charged particles ejected into space.The most famous manifestation of solar activity is the change in the number of sunspots. The first written evidence of sunspots dates back to 800 BC, and with the invention of the telescope in the 17th century, observations of them began to be carried out in Europe. In the first half of the 19th century, amateur astronomer Heinrich Schwabe discovered periodicity in the number of visible spots on the solar disk. So the 11-year cycle of solar activity was discovered. This discovery aroused great interest in the scientific world, and the Swiss astronomer Rudolf Wolf organized the first solar service in Zurich.
Since then, observations of the Sun have been carried out regularly. Later, other cycles of the Sun’s activity were discovered: 22-year, secular, etc. During periods of minimum activity, sunspots may not be observed at all on the surface of the Sun, while in years of maximum their number reaches tens of hundreds.
The sunspot temperature is about 4000K, which is 2000K less than the temperature of other regions of the photosphere. Therefore, when observing with a telescope with a light filter, the spots appear to be darker areas compared to the surrounding surface.Investigations of the Sun in the XX century have shown that sunspots are areas where powerful magnetic fields enter the photosphere. The darkening of the photosphere in these regions is explained by the fact that powerful bunches of magnetic field lines impede the convective motions of matter from deeper layers. This leads to a decrease in the flow of thermal energy.
Scientists have long been trying to understand the reasons for the cyclical behavior of the Sun. It is known that at the beginning of the 11-year cycle, the solar magnetic field has a dipole configuration and is directed mainly along the meridians (such a field is called “poloidal”).At the maximum of the cycle, it is replaced by a field directed along the parallels (“toroidal”). At the end of the cycle, the field again changes to poloidal, but now it is directed in the direction opposite to the direction of the beginning of the cycle.
A process called “solar dynamo” is responsible for the generation of magnetic fields, as well as for the formation of sunspots. This model explains the observational features. Due to the fact that the equatorial regions of the Sun rotate faster than the polar ones (“differential rotation”), the initially poloidal field, being carried away by the rotating plasma, should stretch along the parallels, thereby acquiring a toroidal component.This process is called the “omega effect”.
In order for the cycle to continue over and over again, the toroidal field must somehow be transformed back into a poloidal field. In 1955, the American astrophysicist Eugene Parker showed that the volumes of the solar plasma must rotate due to the Coriolis forces. This force also stretches the components of the magnetic field, converting toroidal magnetic fields into poloidal ones (the so-called “alpha effect”). It is believed that this effect occurs in the immediate vicinity of the Sun’s surface in the region of sunspots.But this theory cannot explain the observed duration of the solar cycle.
However, scientists from the Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) propose a new theory of solar cycles. In their work, published in the journal Solar Physics , , they showed that the 11-year cycle could be caused by the tidal influence of some of the planets in the solar system, namely Venus, Earth and Jupiter. Researchers noticed,
that these three planets line up in the same direction about once every 11 years.
Similar assumptions were made earlier, but for a long time scientists could not offer a mechanism to explain the occurrence of solar activity cycles due to tidal effects.
Resonance effect came to the aid of researchers. “If you act on an object with small shocks, over time, the amplitude of its vibrations will increase,” explains Dr. Frank Stephanie from HZDR.
Scientists’ calculations have shown that in order to make the alpha effect vibrate, it is almost not necessary to apply a lot of energy.This is achieved due to the Taylor instability. It occurs when a strong magnetic field passes through a conductive layer or plasma. The interaction of the current with the field generates a powerful turbulent flow. The study authors suggested that the alpha effect does not occur near the sun’s surface, but in an area called the “tachocline”. This layer is located at a depth of about 30% of the solar radius and separates two regions inside the Sun: the region of radiative transfer and the region of convection. The omega effect also occurs in this area.
Researchers used Taylor instability models to redescribe the lateral oscillations of the alpha effect. “We found a way to tie the alpha effect to the tachocline,” explained Stephanie. Thus, all oscillatory processes turned out to be tied to a thin layer in the depths of the Sun. It is important that such vibrations require almost no energy change. This means that very little exposure is enough to trigger an alpha effect. Mathematical calculations carried out by the researchers show that the periodic tidal action of the planets is sufficient to excite an 11-year and 22-year cycle of activity.
However, the idea of the influence of planets on the solar dynamo has existed for a long time, but some experts do not support this theory and consider it marginal.90,000 Experience with Nintendo Switch Game Console
Nintendo Switch recently turned one year old. This is a good opportunity to summarize and talk about the experience of using the console. I’ve been playing Switch since summer and have a lot to say about that.
In our country (and not only in it), it is generally accepted that Nintendo products are something for children that does not deserve the attention of “serious” players.To put it mildly, this is not entirely true. Yes, Nintendo deliberately has its own way, its games and devices are different from competitors – but this is its main advantage.
What is Nintendo Switch
In short, the Switch is a Nintendo hybrid console. It can work both in a portable version and in a stationary one, connected to a TV. The console consists of several modules: a tablet in which all the computing power is concentrated, a pair of detachable joycones (gamepad halves), a docking station with HDMI for connecting to a TV, and a joycon holder with which they can be combined into one controller.For more information on the technical characteristics and design features, see our video review.
What you need to know about the Nintendo SwitchThe
Switch is a great platform for those who travel frequently or are too tired to sit in front of their computer or TV but want to play big games. This is literally something that sooner or later everyone who is even a little passionate about games thinks about – a portable device on which you can play full-fledged games in bed, in a train car, on the go, and indeed anywhere.
Nintendo is positioning the Switch as a versatile device, but the console is much better at being portable. The main reason for this is technical specifications. The Switch is weaker than its competitors in terms of computing power and other teraflops. Even on a Full HD TV – not to mention a 4K panel – some games look quite dull. The lack of detail is striking, “soap” and annoying “ladders” appear on the game objects. If Super Mario Odyssey and Mario + Rabbids Kingdom Battle look good on TV, then The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild or Resident Evil: Revelations are already doing worse.Textures are not the highest resolution and insufficient anti-aliasing – in some places it seems that this is not a modern game, but something from the past generation. But as soon as you take the console out of the dock and start playing on the “tablet”, everything falls into place – the small screen (6.2 inches) hides all the graphic flaws, and the picture literally blooms. Even the modest 720p resolution does not interfere. However, there are also opposite situations. For example, Xenoblade Chronicles 2 looks better in stationary mode.
One charge from the Nintendo Switch battery lasts for a full portable gaming session. In The Legend of Zelda, you can play for about three hours, in less resource-intensive games – up to four to five hours.
Out of the box, the Nintendo Switch is ready for two-player gaming that no competition has. To fight in Pokkén Tournament or compete in Mario Kart, two complete joycons are enough, each of which can work as a separate gamepad.They are small enough and you will have to get used to them, but the “halves” have all the necessary controls: one analog stick and six main buttons.
Sticks, by the way, are not very well suited for playing shooters – it can be problematic to aim precisely because of their slow speed. It’s easy to get used to, but at first it will be uncomfortable. Alternatively, you can purchase the Pro Controller, but then you have to sacrifice portability.
The tablet and joycones are made of high-quality material that is pleasant to the touch.Everything is assembled perfectly, I really want to hold the Switch in my hands. True, there is one strange feature – over time, the plastic in the grip areas is rubbed off and begins to shine, like the sleeves of a jacket, which you constantly rub against the table. It is not possible to remove these “spots”. Or I was not trying well.
There are other “jambs” of the structure. The dock leaves marks on the black frames around the tablet screen. This does not interfere with play, but it can be annoying. You can always stick a film on the display, but the scuffs won’t go anywhere.
You also need to be careful when putting on additional panels on the joycon. They are marked with “+” and “-” symbols, and intuitively you want to connect opposite symbols, but it’s just the opposite. Plus it is necessary to the plus, and the minus to the minus, otherwise you run the risk of tormenting yourself by removing the panel with a screwdriver.
Another fairly common problem is the loss of communication with the console by the left joystick. This happened to me only a few times, and even then for a couple of seconds. Not critical, but annoying, yes.Another thing is worse – after six months of active play, the trigger on the right joycon loosened a little.
What to play on the Nintendo Switch
Modern gadgets have taught us that almost every device can do a little bit of everything, but Nintendo excelled here too. Switch is exactly what a game console can only run games, take screenshots (video of gameplay can be recorded only in some games) and publish them on social networks. There is no browser, no Youtube or Twitter app in the console, all attention is paid exclusively to games.And there is something to play on “Switch”.
The console started well, almost all key publishers became interested in the console and started porting their projects to it. At the very least, you can already play Skyrim, DOOM, Darkest Dungeon, Payday 2, Minecraft, Rocket League and Resident Evil: Revelations. This is not to mention a whole scattering of small indie projects of the most varied quality. And in the future, there will still be Wolfenstein 2: The New Colossus, Titan Quest, Wasteland 2, Pillars of Eternity 2: Deadfire, Dark Souls and who knows what else from third-party developers.Switch could potentially be the perfect platform for re-releasing all sorts of classics. At least, I would very much like to believe it.
But, despite the titles listed, these are not at all the games for which you need to take Switch. The main value of Nintendo consoles is in their exclusives – games that are equally innovative and conservative, in which gameplay comes first.
The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild – action-adventure in an open world with a lot of unusual mechanics.The main theme of the game is freedom. Zelda encourages exploration: almost nothing is directly explained. Many possibilities may simply not be recognized if you do not start experimenting. And Breath of the Wild is suddenly a very logical game. Everything in it happens exactly as you imagine. In iron armor, it is better not to walk in a thunderstorm – lightning will strike. It is cold in the snowy mountains without a warm fur coat. The horse will be friendlier to you if you give it a carrot. The rain extinguishes the fiery arrows. The tree can be cut down with an ax.And so in everything. Very fresh impressions.
Mario + Rabbids Kingdom Battle is a turn-based tactic with characters from Mario games and Rabbids. Simply put, cartoonish XCOM. Behind the frivolous appearance is a complex and deep game with wide tactical possibilities, and the complexity swings from very simple to furious. You can’t skip this. It’s not often that you see hilarious comedy in the conservative genre of turn-based games.
Mario Odyssey is the newest game in the title series of Nintendo platformers. This time Mario moved to the “half-open” world, became more realistic (if such a word can be used in this situation) and got a new “gadget” – a cap that allows you to move into other characters. Perfectly polished gameplay is the main advantage of Mario Odyssey. Nobody else makes platformers like that.
Bayonetta 1 & 2 – crazy slashers about the witch Bayonetta, who fights against crowds of unimaginable creatures and regularly demonstrates her femininity.Almost a manifesto of feminism.
The first game can be played on other platforms, but the second game is only available on Nintendo consoles (Wii U and Switch). Seen from the outside, Bayonetta is like an epileptic party full of flashes and crazy special effects. This is partly true, but it is also one of the best slashers with incredible dynamics and unique style.
1-2-Switch is a set of 28 mini-games designed to show all the capabilities of the Nintendo Switch hardware.The main thing here is not even what is happening on the screen, but what the players do with the joycons. They must be shaken, milking an imaginary cow, jerked up sharply, imitating a cowboy duel, gently twisted, trying to determine the number of virtual balls by vibration, depict the shaving process and generally carry out all sorts of funny manipulations. It’s not very interesting to play this alone, of course, but for a noisy company it’s just that.
One thing is bad – for a set, consider one-time entertainment they ask for $ 50.
Mario Kart 8 Deluxe is an incredibly addictive arcade kart racing game featuring characters from the Nintendo franchises. In this game, it is not so much driving skill that is important as the ability to handle objects that can speed up cards, knock down enemies or give a bonus to defense. Most notably, Mario Kart 8 Deluxe can be played by up to four on one console (even in handheld mode). True, then you need an additional pair of joikons.
The above games are more than enough for a thoughtful introduction to Nintendo Switch.
Things to Remember Before Buying a Nintendo Switch
– Switch games and accessories are expensive, and discounts on top exclusives are rare. Plus, large multi-platform releases are on average $ 10 more expensive than other consoles. Here, unfortunately, nothing can be done, such is the given.
– After purchasing the console, it is better to immediately attend to the purchase of a memory card.The internal storage in the Switch is only 32 GB, which will be enough only at first, or you will have to constantly delete something. Switch supports MicroSD / MicroSDHC / MicroSDXC cards up to 2TB. The main thing is to look at the speed of reading and writing – it should not be lower than 60 Mb / s. The bigger, the better.
– Use the service my.nintendo.com. With its help, you can exchange coins earned for buying games and other simple actions for various additional materials and discounts.More recently, gold coins can be used to buy games – 1 coin equals 1 cent. Not too generous, but at least something.
To take or not to take?
Take, of course. The Switch is a great first step in getting to know Nintendo. Yes, there are problems. Yes, it’s expensive. But the quality of games and portability completely atone for all the disadvantages. Try to put your skepticism aside and at least try out the new Nintendo console. I assure you that a whole new layer of gaming experience will open up for you.I’ve gone from being dismissive of the Switch to being ecstatic myself. Which is what I wish for you.
How long does the LG washing machine wash – LG MAGAZINE Russia
Washing machines of the LG brand are one of the most popular in the world due to a number of reasons, including high quality, durability, wide functionality and simplicity and ease of operation. LG’s assortment includes a rich assortment of washing machine models with special functions demanded by customers, such as steam drying, TurboWash fast wash, the ability to simultaneously wash different types of fabrics (for models of washing machines with two drums), the ability to control using the voice assistant Alice, integration into the smart home system and much more.
Also, absolutely all LG washing machines, regardless of model and year of manufacture, are equipped with several basic washing modes, which allow you to thoroughly and gently wash various types of fabrics with dirt of varying intensity. Manufacturers have foreseen that some programs are more popular among owners of LG washing machines, while others are used much less frequently.
Many owners are interested in what is the fundamental difference between the washing modes of LG washing machines.All programs differ in several ways:
- The speed of the washing machine drum.
- Water temperature.
- The presence / absence of a prewash mode (this mode is necessary for heavily soiled items. It is not recommended to use it for delicate fabrics).
- Washing time.
What is a wash cycle in an LG washing machine?
The washing cycle in the LG washing machine consists of:
- direct washing,
Depending on the mode, each step takes a different amount of time. Also, the washing time can be increased by additional options, such as: soaking or additional washing (+ 15-20 minutes), additional rinsing (+ 20-30 minutes), boiling the laundry, as well as increasing the spin speed.
Knowing the features of the different washing modes, you can accurately answer the question of how long your LG washing machine washes, since all programs are automated and take a clearly allotted time.
Washing programs in the washing machine LG : complete list
The following are the different washing programs in the LG automatic washing machine according to decreasing popularity among users.
- Cotton program. The most used program. Suitable for washing cotton fabrics? Cotton garments, as well as clothing containing cotton and synthetic materials (for example, polyester).In this mode, your LG washing machine will wash at 90 degrees, and the wash cycle lasts from 1.5 to 2 hours (90 to 120 minutes) depending on the model.
- Daily wash program. A mode designed for synthetics without heavy dirt. To preserve the color of things, the water temperature during washing does not exceed 40 degrees, and the cycle lasts 1 hour (60 minutes).
- Intensive 60 program. One of the most versatile programs. Suitable for all types of fabrics with medium soiling.The duration of the wash cycle is 1 hour (60 minutes).
- Baby Clothes Program. Gentle wash and rinse thoroughly. This is the longest wash program of all modes. Washing lasts 2.2 hours. In Baby’s Clothes mode, the LG washing machine consumes a lot of water (it is necessary for a good rinse so that micro-particles of the detergent do not remain on the fibers and do not cause irritation or allergies on sensitive baby skin).
- Hypoallergenic program.This mode also involves a thorough rinse and is suitable for people with allergies to detergents and allergic asthma. The water temperature during washing is 60 degrees, and the washing cycle is from 1.5 to 2 hours (depending on the LG washing machine model).
- Fast 30 program. This mode is ideal for freshening up clothes without getting too dirty. The wash cycle runs at a low temperature (30-40 degrees depending on the model of your LG washing machine) and lasts only 30 minutes.The most environmentally friendly washing mode, since energy costs and the amount of water consumed during it are minimal.
- Silent program. The mode is designed for washing in the evening and at night and is suitable for freshening up clothes without heavy dirt. Washing is carried out at low drum speeds to reduce vibration and noise and takes 45 minutes.
- Cotton Fast Program. This mode is suitable for clothes made of cotton and also containing cotton, but without significant contamination.The wash cycle lasts 1.5 hours (90 minutes).
- Delicates program. A mode specially designed by LG for the most demanding fabrics that were previously washed exclusively by hand: silk, satin, lace, velvet, etc. Washing takes place at a temperature of 30 degrees and lasts 1 hour (60 minutes).
- Wool program. A mode specially designed for woolen and knitwear. In addition to the low washing temperature at 40 degrees, this mode is also programmed to not spin, which avoids stretching and deformation of fabrics.Washing time – 1 hour (60 minutes).
- Sportswear Program. Mode for high-tech fabrics from which clothing for sports and outdoor activities is made. Washing is carried out at a temperature of 60 degrees. The duration of the wash cycle is 1 hour (60 minutes).
- Duvet program. A special mode that is suitable for large stuffed items and allows you to wash blankets, pillows, down jackets and furniture covers. To preserve the color of things and the consistency of the filler, the wash is carried out at a low temperature.The wash cycle lasts 1.5 hours (90 minutes).
- Dark fabrics program. A mode created by LG for colored and dyed items. In this mode, the water temperature is no higher than 30 degrees, which avoids fading fabrics.