Flat canvas board: Canvas Boards and Panels | BLICK Art Materials


Canvas Boards – Raw Materials Art Supplies

  1. Art Supplies
  2. Canvas, Panels & Surfaces
  3. Canvas Boards
Recycled MDF Canvas Boards
Art Advantage

Acid-free, double-primed 100% cotton canvas is glued onto warp resistant multi-density fiber boards. Great value for the beginner to the professional artist. For use with both acrylics and oils.

Canvas Panel Super Value Packs
Art Alternatives

These value-priced, super value packs of canvas panels are great for lighter paint applications, quick studies, practice and class projects.

Canvas Panels
Art Alternatives

An economical and easily portable alternative to stretched canvas – great for students and artists on the go. Designed for use with all media. 100% medium-weight cotton canvas is primed with acid-free white acrylic gesso. Canvas wraps around all sides and is secured in place on the backside. The convenient label provides an area to identify the artist, title, medium, etc. Recycled paper board core is acid-free.

Value Series Cut Edge Panels

Fredrix Value Series Cut Edge Panels are acrylic primed poly/cotton canvas, suitable for acrylic and oil painting, mounted to an innovative backing board and cut to size.

Hardcore Pro Panels

Each archival panel is sized to seal the rigid MDF Engineered Wood, which is the highest quality and most stable composite material available. The canvas or linen is mounted using pH-balanced PVA glue, and then beautifully and finished with a vinyl backing, creating a double-sided impervious moisture barrier to keep the board flat.

Archival Canvas Boards
Fredrix Special Order Only

These professional grade canvas boards are constructed throughout with the highest quality, non-acidic archival materials. The tempered hardboard core will not warp, become brittle or deteriorate over time. Mounted with proprietary acid-free adhesive, their surfaces use the finest Fredrix® primed canvases, ensuring they will stand the test of time.

Artist Series Watercolor Canvas Archival Boards
Fredrix Special Order Only

Fredrix Watercolor Canvas Archival Board is a 100% cotton artist canvas which combines the texture of a natural, woven fabric with a specially formulated gesso designed for all water-based paints. The canvas is mounted with acid-free adhesive onto tempered hardboard that is guaranteed not to warp or rot. It is versatile and durable.

You can lightly lift out pigment or completely wash out your painting surface without damaging the canvas surface.

Can-Tone Canvas Panels
Fredrix Special Order Only

Fredrix Can-Tone Canvas Panels are pre-toned canvas firmly mounted to a panel board. The sides are completely turned under, glued and will not fray, separate or dent. Each pack contains three panels.

Canvas in Frame
Fredrix Special Order Only

Easy to remove Fredrix Cut Edge Canvas Panels in a modern stylish frame.

Great for oils, acrylics, alkyds, enamels, spray paint, paint markers, vinyl graphics, and embroidery. Create, frame, and hang!

Sculpture Canvas
Sculpture Block Drop Ship Only

Create without effort a highly detailed 3D sculpted painting, extremely strong with long-lasting results. The Sculpture Canvas is easy to shape and can be used for any composition or design. The finished work can be painted with any type of paint or decorated with any other type of material.

Artists’ Canvas Boards
Winsor & Newton Drop Ship Only

These canvas boards are constructed from medium grain cotton canvas that is then secured to a high quality board. These boards are triple-coated with acid-free sizing and highly pigmented acrylic primer specially formulated by Winsor & Newton. Ideal for use with oil, acrylic and alkyd paint.


Canvas, Panels & Surfaces

Stretched Canvas vs. Canvas Panels

I had a good discussion with a fellow artist at a recent art show reception. I asked if he preferred painting on stretched canvas or on canvas panels.

(Numerous art supply companies offer ready-made stretched canvas and canvas panels for artists. And many are good choices for a quality support at a fair price. However, this post is mainly for those of you artists who stretch your own canvas or make your own canvas panels.)

As you may know, I’ve been making my own linen panels for several years. (Click here to learn how.

) But you might not be aware that I paint almost exclusively on panels. Here are eight reasons why.

  1. No loosening. Stretched canvas can become loose and require re-stretching. I’ve had this issue in the past when shipping paintings to a location with a different climate than mine — from Colorado to Florida. In fact, the artist I spoke with at the show had to tighten the stretched canvas on his show painting when he arrived at the event. Alternatively, canvas properly glued to a panel should not become loose.
  2. Less mounting difficulty. Stretched canvas can be difficult to mount squarely on the stretcher bars. And it takes some muscle to stretch it tightly. Canvas panels are easier to make and are square as long as the panel is cut squarely.
  3. No stretcher bars needed. Stretching canvas requires a supply of stretcher bars in the various lengths needed. Also, supporting crossbars are necessary for large canvases. Canvas panels require only canvas and panels large enough to make the needed sizes, plus glue.
  4. Portrait of Marten Looten by Rembrandt (1632) in the LACMA Collection

    Less surface movement. The surface of stretched canvas can move with vibrations and changes in temperature. This can disturb the layers of paint over time and cause the paint to crack. The surface of a canvas panel is much more stable. For example, the pictured painting (detail) by Rembrandt in the LACMA collection was painted on a wood panel in 1632. The surface still looks brand new. Click here to see more close-ups of the painting.

  5. Portability. Canvas panels are more easily portable for plein air painting. Plus, light can’t shine through them from behind during an outdoor painting session as can happen with stretched canvas.
  6. Durability. Stretched canvas can be punctured fairly easily. I’ve done repair work on a few paintings (not mine) with holes in them that clients have brought to my gallery. (After one client had propped a painting against a wall, his large dog knocked it over and stepped through the canvas with his paw. Oops!) Canvas mounted on a panel can also be damaged, but I think needed repairs would be much more minor. And if Miracle Muck® glue was used when mounting, the canvas can be removed from a damaged panel and mounted onto another panel. (Miracle Muck® is heat activated.)
  7. Easier cropping. A canvas panel can be cropped more easily than a stretched canvas.
  8. Easier storage. Canvas panels take up less space than stretched canvases.
Linen Canvas Mounted on Panels

Back to the conversation with my fellow artist. He agreed with my points in favor of using panels. But he tends to use both types of supports for his work. Panels for smaller pieces painted outdoors and stretched canvases for larger studio paintings. By the end of our discussion, we also agreed on a few points in favor of stretched canvas.

  1. Spring-like feel. Stretched canvas has a spring to it that a panel lacks. One can feel the slight spring action of a stretched canvas against the brush.
  2. Larger sizes. For extremely large paintings, a large enough panel may not be available. I know Gatorfoam® panels and other similar products are available up to 60″ x 120.” I haven’t looked for sizes larger than that.
  3. Shipping unmounted. Unmounted paintings can be rolled up for shipping or storage and later stretched onto stretcher bars. This could be a big advantage and money saver when shipping large paintings overseas.

Do any of you have other reasons for or against the use of canvas panels?

How to Mount Hand Embroidery on Canvas Board

What should you do after you have finished stitching?

You know what it’s like to enjoy many hours stitching your latest project.  Once that last stitch goes in you then have that “hmmmm, what should I do with it now” moment!

Just so you know, this post may contains affiliate links.  If you click through to a website and register or purchase something, I get a commission from that sale at no extra cost to you. All opinions and reviews are my own. You can read the full disclosure here.

Very often the temptation to just find the easiest way to display your design is the winning factor however, there are lots of options at this point and one of those is a Canvas Board.

This is a Strong Board no more than 4mm thick which is extremely rigid so you get a really nice smooth finish to your embroidery after you have mounted it.

(Not to be confused with a Canvas panel which is usually canvas stapled on to a thicker frame.)


Canvas Boards come in a huge array of sizes and are relatively inexpensive. They are great for designs that aren’t round or perhaps are a bit too large for a traditional hoop finish. They also give a really nice fresh, modern feel to a piece.

My Garden Glory design is an 8 inch square and my intention from the very start was to get this mounted on to a canvas board to show off the piece to its full effect.

So you can see how easy it is to do, I’ll take you through the whole process step by step so you can try this yourself on your next piece of embroidery.

The first step is to remove your work from the frame you stitched it in and then iron it on the reverse ready for mounting on to the Canvas Board.

Flat Canvas board is ideal for embroidery as it is sturdy and pre-prepared. You can get it in many sizes from most craft stores as well as online. Make sure you choose a good quality one.

Tip: I like to use a second calico fabric as a stabilser on my embroidery as I stitch which means when I come to mount it on the board I already have 2 layers of fabric as a base. If you don’t use a stabiliser, you may want to attach a layer of Calico to the Canvas Board before you attach the actual embroidery for a better and smoother result.

Choosing the size of the Board: How do you know what size to choose?

This basically depends on the embroidery design and if you want it to have space around its edge or not. With my 8 inch square design I wanted a 1 inch border around it so chose a 10 inch square canvas board. You don’t have to have any border and can choose one that is the same size as your finished piece.

Mark the corners of where the canvas board will be with pins on the front of the fabric (see black arrows above).

Next, turn your fabric over (reverse side up) and place your canvas board over the design, matching up the corners to the pins you just placed. With a pencil mark each corner of the the canvas board so you know where it needs to go. (black arrows below).

Next mark a 1.5 inch border from the edges of the canvas board ( this is the fabric you will fold to the back). Cut around this border to remove any excess fabric.

Once you have the corners marked as well as an additional 1.5 inch fabric allowance out from these – place your Canvas Board face down over the back of the design (matching up the corners with the corner marks!) ready to mount.

The following photos show a much smaller board being wrapped just for the purpose of showing you the process more easily.

Step 1… Pull the fabric allowance over to the back on one side and starting from the centre place a pin in to the edge to secure it in place. Keep pulling the fabric over and pinning the rest of that side from the centre out to the edge as in the above photos.

With your first side pinned, you need to repeat this on the opposite side – this time making sure you pull it across and wrap the fabric around to the back nice and tight to keep it smooth on the front.

As you can see from the front, the fabric is nice and tight over the board. Next you need to do the other 2 sides in the same way. Keeping tension as you go.

Here is the Garden Glory Design pinned on all 4 sides and a nice tension achieved so the design is smooth throughout. It is nicely centred on the board.

If you are not happy with anything at this point it is best to sort it out now by readjusting, or making it tighter as you won’t be able to do this after this point.

The next step is to fold the corners over at the back neatly and stitch to hold them in place.

Using the following photos as a guide, firstly bring the point of the fabric over the corner of the board squarely.

Keeping the fabric tucked in to the edge, Fold one side up – make sure you keep the corner nice and neat by keeping the fold of the fabric tucked under in the right place.

Lastly, do the same with the other side, folding it up whilst keeping it tucked under.

Don’t be disheartened with this step as it can take a few attempts to get it right by fiddling and re doing (it’s not as easy as it looks!). Many people say to pin this in place at this point but I found it didn’t keep the corner nice and crisp so opted to stitch the 2 sides together which also helped to pull the corner tighter in the process.

Here’s a close up of the corner stitched to secure the 2 sides in place. It isn’t pretty but I kept checking it looked perfect from the front (which is the main thing!). Plus I can hide the back which you will see in a bit!

Now you need to use some STRONG thread (!) for the next part. ( I used a size 8 perle thread and doubled it to give it the strength I needed to stop it from breaking. ) You are basically going to pull the 2 opposite sides together nice and tight with the thread.

To secure the top and bottom sides to one another, bring your thread up in the centre at ‘1’ approx. half an inch from the fabric edge and secure with a knot. Take the thread directly down to the bottom edge fabric and come up at ‘2’ (half inch in from edge).

You will need a really long piece of thread to continue along – going up at ‘3’ then down and through at ‘4’, back up at ‘5’, back down at ‘6’ etc etc. Finish at the bottom edge to secure. You need to maintain a nice tight and even tension from number ‘1’ all the way to the point at which it will be secured so that the embroidery continues to stay tight on the front.

When you have done the first half of vertical stitches, return to the centre and do the other half in the same way and secure. Providing it is all nice and secure and you are happy with the tension you can remove the pins on the top and bottom edges.

Now you just need to do the exact same process to pull each of the remaining 2 sides together. Once it is all secure, remove the pins and your embroidery is now mounted.

As you do all of the steps above, keep checking back to the front to make sure it is looking as you want it to. The tighter it is the smoother it will look.

As a final step to cover the back, cut a piece of felt half an inch smaller than the finished size. (Mine was 9.5 inches.)

Whip stitch this in place around the outer edge to complete your work.

Attach a picture hook for hanging.

So there you have an easy and simple way to give your embroidery a contemporary edge. There is no right and wrong way of doing this so long as you achieve the result you are after.

If you would like to purchase the Garden Glory Pattern which is featured in this post you can get it here

Let me know how you get on with mounting your own embroidery patterns. You can email me pictures at [email protected] and I can post them here with your permission!

Happy Stitching!

Would you like access to the Pattern Library?

I keep my free downloadable files, patterns, and printables in a pattern library which is open to anyone who loves to stitch and  inside you’ll find an array of goodies for you to enjoy and create.

This resource library is open to everyone for free. All you need is the password to get in, which you can get by filling out the form below…

Want to remember this? Post this Canvas Board Tutorial to your favourite Pinterest board!

How to make your own canvas boards

Making your own canvas boards is fun, quick and can save you money. It also gives you a superior product and the flexibility to create whatever size or shape you need for any given project. 

You don’t need any specialist skills or tools and you can pick up everything you need from any hardware or DIY store. It’s also a great way to explore new painting techniques without splashing loads on money on boards. Read on to learn how to make your own – and once you’re done, make sure you check out our guide to canvas painting for beginners. 

01. Gather the equipment

All of your tools can be bought from the high street

To start making your own canvas boards you will need 3mm thick MDF, a metal ruler, a pencil, a utility knife, canvas material, sandpaper, primer, a priming brush and a cutting mat.

A good right angle is a handy tool for checking your corners are 90 degrees, but it isn’t essential as long as you take care with your measuring.

02. Cut the board to size

A right angle can help here, but isn’t essential

Check you’re working from a good corner on your sheet of 3mm MDF and measure up the desired dimensions of your board. Once marked up you can cut the board with the knife, using the metal ruler as a guide. 

Start lightly and let your knife do the work. It will take a few runs to cut through the board. Take care, fingers don’t grow back!

03. Apply your canvas

Stick the canvas to your board using primer

Once you’ve sanded down the cut edges (do this outside and wear a mask if possible as MDF dust is nasty), you’re ready to paint a coat of primer on the front of your panel. Take your canvas, apply it to the wet primer and press firmly. Take care to line up the weave of the material so it runs perpendicular to the edges of the board.

Bonus tip: Painting onto a smooth board can give great results too, so you don’t even need to add the canvas to the board. Follow steps 01 and 02 then just prime the board a few times, giving it a light sanding between coats. 

04. Add a coat of primer

The number of coats will depend on how much of the weave you want to retain

Paint another coat of primer on the canvas and allow it to dry thoroughly. Repeat this process a few times to create a really solid surface, depending on how much of the weave you want to retain. Once completely dry, flip the board over and trim the excess canvas to finish your hand-crafted canvas board.

This article originally appeared in Paint & Draw magazine issue 10. Buy it here.

Read more: 

Canvas and Wood Acrylic Pouring Troubleshooting and Tips

Some artists are so proficient that they don’t think about problems they might occur when pouring, but for the rest of us, sometimes we just need a little help. So, here are a few things I learned along the way about stretched canvas, canvas boards and painting on bare wood or MDF boards.

Stretched Canvas Concerns

Even brand new stretched canvas can be loose in the center of the canvas. Try spraying a little water on the back of the canvas and using a blow dryer to dry it. Make sure you continually move the dryer across the back of the canvas till dry. You don’t want to burn the canvas by holding it in the same spot. If it’s just a little loose, you can spray it and let it set overnight and that may do the trick as well.

Occasionally, especially with the bargain brands of canvas the corners might not be smooth. You can dampen the corner with the spray water bottle, and try to smooth it out. If this doesn’t work, you can take out the staple and while still damp, try to re-fold and then restaple. Be sure again to let it completely dry before you paint on it.

A stretched canvas where your pour seems to pool in the middle as it dries, is too loose.

A larger stretched canvas may come with some wooden tabs, what are they for? These are so you can add them to the inserts on the back of the canvas, especially if there is any loosening of the canvas that the water trick doesn’t help. They help stretch the canvas or lock in the canvas, either way making the canvas itself nice and tight.

Canvas Board Concerns

You may use a canvas board to pour on, this is fine as long as a few things happen. First, be sure they are canvas over MDF board; second make sure they are perfectly flat prior to pouring; and last make sure you lay them on a flat, even surface to dry. You will not have the issue pictured here if you do these simple things. 

Don’t give them any excuse to pool in the middle. See how the edges are not painted, this one pooled in the middle and left the edges without paint.

Have you ever purchased a canvas board and after it dried you find out that the canvas has actually buckled? Take a look at this picture, its shows a corner that has pulled away from the board.

This can happen sometimes with the cheaper canvas board, and the reason is simple. Usually, they are canvas over cardboard. When this gets wet and stays wet as in acrylic pouring, the glue starts to melt and lift from the cardboard, leaving you with bubbles, waves or complete separation from the board.  

How do you keep this from happening with canvas boards? Read the fine print, make sure it says its a canvas over MDF or compressed board. If it doesn’t say what the board type is, and it’s an inexpensive brand, it’s probably over cardboard. Put it down and keep looking.

Bare Wood and MDF Board Concerns

Painting on bare wood and MDF can turn out beautiful pieces. Have you ever tried to paint on them and either the wood soaked up the paint, didn’t cover, warped or left a strange texture on your dried painting?

Bare wood and MDF need a few things to be able to handle the paint that pouring projects will put them through. First, you need to sand them to a fine surface if not already there. Next they will need to be primed with guesso, this creates a seal and gives the paint something to adhere to.  

Here is great pour on MDF which I forgot to prime and it soaked into the wood, so as it dried even though it was on a flat surface, the wet board bowed in the middle on its own.

Just because an MDF board is smooth, doesn’t mean the sides are smooth. Here you can see the round board is very smooth—on top, but the sides and edges which will also be covered in paint need to have some sanding done to make them smoother before you pour on them.

Maybe you don’t care if the ends of the wood are smooth, so you just make sure the top is, you’ve primed it and then you pour.

You didn’t care if it was a rougher texture, but why doesn’t the paint cover the end after it dries?  If you choose not to sand it, you must still prime it so the paint does not sink into the wood. I typically will double prime it, and then paint over with a brush in acrylics and let it dry, prior to pouring. This will make sure the ends are also painted vs. looking like a different color or even seemingly unpainted.

There are other canvas issues out there, but I tried to provide information on the basic ones I had when starting out, and those I hear from other artists. Hopefully this will help you understand some of the basics of what to look for, how to prepare and how to avoid many common canvas or bare wood problems.  

Never be afraid to ask questions of your fellow artists, that’s what this forum is all about.


Since she began creating art in 2007, Tina Swearingen’s focus has evolved from repurposed conceptual art into the creativity and flow of acrylic pouring. Her pours are inspired by the movement and colors of Southern Arizona’s amazing thunderstorms, and the majestic beauty of the Pacific Northwest, which she now calls home.

Framing Options for Paintings on Unstretched Canvas or Paper

Question: One of my biggest personal painting struggles is my tendency to tighten up and lose spontaneity. I would like to try painting on unstretched  [preprimed]canvas and/or gessoed paper to save money and help the gestural aspect of my work. On page 27 of your Landscape Painting book you talk about painting on unstretched canvas. If the painting is a keeper, how do you handle this? Does one glue it to a masonite panel?  If so what type of glue? – Robin

Answer: Whenever I talk about painting on unstretched canvas, I am inevitably asked this question. What do you do if you want to frame it? It may come as a surprise that a painting done on unstretched canvas can be stretched later. It can also be mounted to a panel or matted. For the benefit of those who may not have heard of painting on unstretched canvas, I’ll first outline the advantages, then I’ll discuss the various presentation options.

Note: Unstretched canvas does not mean unprimed! In the context of this article, “unstretched” canvas does not mean raw canvas, but, canvas that has been pre-primed with gesso. My preferred brand is Fredrix.

The advantage of painting on unstretched [preprimed]canvas or paper

Freedom. There is a certain preciousness about stretched canvas. You may have taken considerable time and effort to prepare the canvas or, if you bought it ready-made, spent a sizable sum. A pristine stretched canvas can be intimidating. It says, “You’d better not mess this up!” You may not want to commit to the trouble and expense of stretched canvas until you know the painting is working out. Unstretched pre-primed canvas (or gessoed paper) is, by comparison, very low cost. As Robin’s question suggests, working on an inexpensive and “unprecious” surface may encourage you to be freer and more experimental.

Portability. Stretched canvases can be cumbersome, especially for plein air painters who must travel light. When I paint outdoors, I carry around several pieces of gessoed paper and unstretched canvas in an envelope. I simply tape the individual pieces to a lightweight panel. It adds almost no weight to my pack.

Painting on canvas that is to be stretched later

If you plan to stretch the canvas later, be sure to leave 1.5 – 2 inches of extra canvas around the image area to wrap around the stretcher bars. (See below.) Also be sure to measure your work in increments of whole inches, so it will conform to the standard sizes of stretcher bars.

Framing options for paintings done on unstretched canvas or gessoed paper

1. Stretching the canvas after the painting is finished. Stretching the canvas after the painting is finished is certainly possible, but it’s not easy. I don’t recommend doing it yourself unless you are very skilled at stretching canvases. If budget permits, I recommend taking it to professional framer. If you do want to do it yourself, here are some guidelines.

  • You do not have to stretch pre-primed canvas as much as you would unprimed canvas. You only need to stretch it enough to make it gently taut, enough that the canvas has no buckles or ripples. That said, stretching pre-primed canvas is definitely harder than stretching unprimed canvas. Pre-primed canvas has much less give.
  • Even if you have the tools and the strength to stretch the hell out of the pre-primed canvas, don’t. Although oil paint does have some flexibility, there is a point at which you could damage or crack the paint layers, especially if the painting has been drying for several years.
  • A painting that is being stretched undergoes lots of handling, so you must take extra care not to damage the surface of the painting in the process.

2. Mat the painting. If you like the look of a mat or liner around a painting, there is no reason you can’t mat a painting done on paper or unstretched canvas. A small piece of canvas will lie very flat under a mat. A larger piece may not lie as flat, in which case mounting or stretching may be called for.

3. Mount the painting. You can mount canvas or gessoed paper to a panel or mat board. Like stretching a painting, mounting can be tricky. It requires a lot of skill and must be done right if it is to remain flat (unwarped) and be truly archival. I recommend taking it to a professional framer, who knows how to do it and has all the necessary tools. Complete step-by-step instructions for mounting are beyond the scope of this article, but if you are interested in doing it yourself, here are a few points to be aware of. Also see the comments and suggestions by readers below. As with any studio technique you are trying for the first time, don’t try it on your “precious” painting. Always experiment on scrap canvas or paper first.

  • Use an archival glue intended for mounting such as Yes Stikflat Glue or Polyvinyl Acetate (PVA). See Gerry’s comments below about stabilized PVA and shelf life.
  • Before mounting paper, seal the back side of the painting with a coat of gesso. Tape the painting facedown on a clean surface before gessoing. This will to allow it to dry flat without any buckling. Canvas does not need to be gessoed on the back.
  • Proper mounting requires complete adhesion. You must use enough glue to form complete contact between the back of the painting and the panel, and spread the glue very evenly using some type of spatula. Too little glue may result in areas that don’t fully adhere, trapping air beneath the surface of the painting.
  • Proper mounting produces a completely flat panel without any warping. Immediately after glueing the painting to the panel, it must dry flat under significant pressure, and be allowed to dry completely (approximately 24 hours). Full adhesion and drying under pressure are the keys to a panel that will dry completely flat.
  • Mount onto good quality material. I have found the masonite available at lumberyards to be very poor quality for art purposes. Their pieces are usually warped. I recommend spending a few extra dollars for an artist-grade panel, like those from Ampersand or archival foam core.

5 Easy Ways to Hang Canvas Art in Your Home 2019

Do you find yourself with a nice collection of canvas art yet your walls are still blank? Between exciting antique store finds, online shopping deals and your personalized canvas print or art creations, the time has come for you to decide where and how to display them. A canvas can shine on its own or maybe work best grouped with other wall art in a gallery display.

Once you’ve decided on placement, the next step is to hang them on your wall. Take canvas size into consideration first. The great thing about prints on canvas is that they tend to be rather light, regardless of their size.

How To Hang Canvas Art

Consider the type of wall you are working with. If your walls are brick or concrete you may need to consider alternative methods for hanging wall art. If you have mostly drywall, then follow our list of the most popular ways to easily hang canvas wall art.

Basic Tools For Hanging A Canvas

You’ll need basic tools for all of the methods listed below. You may already have some of these at home but you can otherwise find them at your local hardware store.

  • Pencil
  • Screwdriver
  • Spirit level
  • Hammer
  • Wall protector pads
  • Tape measure

Basic Tips For Hanging A Canvas

Here are nine tips that will make the process even easier from beginning to end and can be applied to all methods:

  • Always clean the wall with a damp cloth before hanging.
  • Know the measurements of your canvas, especially the center points.
  • Take measurements of where you would like the canvas to be displayed.
  • Measure your desired distance from the ceiling, floor and side objects. We recommend hanging the canvas with its midpoint between 56 and 60 inches from the floor and eight to 10 inches above a piece of furniture.
  • Mark an ‘x’ in pencil on the center spot to help guide you.
  • If necessary, consider moving furniture or items out of the way so you can maneuver better.
  • Make sure to place stick-on wall pads on the backside of your canvas to protect the paint and avoid scratches on the wall.
  • Hang the canvas and center it.
  • Level until it’s perfectly straight.

5 Ways To Hang A Canvas

Now that we’ve covered the basics, let’s get started on the different ways you can complete the task of getting your canvas art on your walls. As mentioned above, keep all of the basic tools handy for any of these methods. They will make hanging a canvas much easier. 

1. Nails

Nails will work best with small and medium canvases. Choose nails according to the size of the canvas. Small nails will work well on a small 8×10 canvas while a medium-sized nail would do a better job with sizes like 16×16 or 20×30. Brass or steel nails should go into the wall easily without chipping or damaging it.

You’ll need one or two nails depending on canvas size.

Step 1:  Prepare the wall and place your mark with a pencil.
Step 2:  Hammer the nail into the mark with one or two quick hits.
Step 3:  Don’t hammer the nail all the way in—leave half an inch to an inch out.
Step 4:  Hang the canvas on the nail.

Please note that you should avoid hammering the nail continuously as it is really not necessary for this purpose—this will ensure there is minimal damage and chipping to your drywall.

2. Sawtooth Bracket

Sawtooth brackets come in different sizes, so make sure you pick one that is appropriate for your canvas size. These brackets should always be placed in the middle of the frame.

You’ll need a sawtooth bracket, its corresponding screws and a nail.

Step 1: Hammer the nail into a hanger hook at a slight angle. The nail going in at an angle will strengthen the hanging and will assure the wall takes most of the weight.
Step 2: Measure the top of the back frame and mark its center point.
Step 3: Place the bracket at the center back of the canvas and guide yourself with the center point mark.
Step 4: Screw in one side of the bracket and then the other.
Step 5: Make sure the bracket is not loose and screws are in tight.

Sawtooth brackets offer great stability and may be a good option for small-to medium-sized canvases. This is considered one of the simplest and most popular ways to hang wall art.

3. Eye Hooks

Eye hooks are very popular at professional framing stores but you’ll be surprised how easy they are to use at home. Small eye hooks are strong enough for a canvas and don’t take up much room between the wall and frame.

You’ll need two eye hooks, wire and nails.

Step 1:  Screw the eye hooks on each side of the wood frame, about five inches from the top.
Step 2:  Next, string the art wire between the two eye hooks, leaving room to give way for hanging.
Step 3:  Finally, where you marked the center with the pencil, hammer in a nail or use a hook if you prefer.

The nice thing about this method is that you can adjust the art wire to ensure the canvas hangs exactly how you want it to.

4. J-Hooks

J-hooks are great options when you have wide or bigger canvases. The hooks come in various sizes and with either one or two nails. A simple, smaller hook would work best for lighter, smaller canvases, while hooks that require two nails will hold up more weight.

It’s best to refer to the packaging provided by the maker to determine which option is best for you. You can place two or three hooks across the wall to ensure sturdy hanging.

You’ll need two or more hooks depending on the size of the canvas.

Step 1:  Place one or several pencil markings on the wall. This will depend on how many hooks you are using.
Step 2:  Position your J-hook on the wall. The nail that comes with it will go directly into the hook. Hammer it in at a slight angle.
Step 3:  Make sure the hooks align perfectly on the wall to ensure the canvas does not hang crooked.

This is a good option for hanging a canvas that is much wider than it is tall. The measuring tape will be your best friend for this particular method.

5. Adhesive Strips

Adhesive strips may be the easiest of all methods. Most adhesive hanging products are made to avoid any type of damage to walls. They are very easy to use and usually come with an adhesive and velcro combination. Make sure you know the weight of your canvas before getting started, since most adhesive strip products clearly state weight capacity on their packaging—typically ranging from four to 16 pounds.

You’ll need four adhesive strips for each corner or more depending on size of canvas.

Step 1: Measure and mark with a pencil to help place the canvas—you may need to add a soft straight line across to ensure it’s straight.
Step 2: Next, place the adhesive strips on each corner of the wood frame (add more between each corner if you feel they’re needed).
Step 3: Press the canvas to the wall in alignment with your markings.

Whichever way you choose to hang your canvas simply depends on personal preference. The important thing is that you proudly display your precious canvas prints and works of art.

Canvas art can bring a level of sophistication to your home. Whether an inherited oil painting or a custom-made photo canvas, the outcome once finished will create clean lines resulting in a modern enhancement to your décor. The added bonus is the joy and satisfaction you will feel when you see your favorite canvas art hanging in its ideal spot.

90,000 Season Spring; New; High Lace Up Women Camouflage Canvas Shoes High Quality Women Casual Shoes Uzzang Board Style; Women’s Flat Shoes | Flat Shoes |

How to choose the correct size:

1. Our size is not a standard US size and is only equal to your feet!

2. Size standards differ from country to country and from manufacturer to manufacturer, your foot length is the only criterion for choosing a size.

3. The length of the foot is not the length of the insole, but the inside length of the shoe. Generally inside length> foot length

4. Please measure your foot length carefully. The method is shown in the illustrations (below).

5. Please choose the size according to your foot length!


Differences in color due to differences in monitor settings, lighting and other factors.Please consider this when ordering.


Usually an order is delivered without a shoe box, only a pair of shoes. But if you need a box, please contact us to increase the price.


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90,000 As painted flat wooden boats. DIY boat made of planks

For boat making requires 3-3.5 meters of tarpaulin, or a conveyor belt 1.2-1.5 meters wide, two boards 200-220 long, 20-30 wide and 3-3.5 centimeters thick, both boards of equal length are rounded off from two parties.A block for spacers and a seat is nailed to each. Boards, preferably, at best, soak with linseed oil and wax or paraffin, then paint and dry. Then nail the belt tape with nails at intervals of 1-1.5 cm; to the end of the boards. Before nailing the tape, we apply paint and lay the tarp on the paint, the tape must be laid on the tarp and nailed to the sides of the boat. With the help of struts, the boat can be easily assembled and disassembled. For convenience and to stand more confidently on the soft bottom of the boat, you can substitute plywood or thin boards across the boat and secure with blades.A boat slide is no different from an inflatable one. When dismantled, such a boat fits well even into a motorcycle sidecar or the trunk of a car and is transported.

If you have an inflatable rubber boat, then advice on storage and repair of a rubber boat is for you the guarantee of a long life of the boat

Here is another project

Punt boat

A punt boat designed by A.V. Zhemerikina can be used for household purposes, in hiking, fishing (Fig.17). The construction of a punt boat is very simple. The boat is designed for a load of up to 400 kg, weighs about 150 kg, the depth of the draft does not exceed 20 cm. It is unpretentious in storage, it can sail. It can be equipped with an awning or a small aft cabin, attach a motor or set a sail.

Fig. Frames and transom of a flat-bottomed boat designed by A.V. Zhemerikina

After minor modifications, you can use the trimmer (brushcutter) as a boat motor, thus combining two different functions of one device.

Punt boat manufacturing

For the manufacture of a punt boat you will need:
7 pine boards 15-20 mm thick, 300 mm wide and 5 m long – for sheathing;
3 pine boards 50 mm thick, 300 mm wide and 4 m long – for oars, stems, frames, water cutter, false sheets;
pine board 30×200 mm 2 m long and two sheets of plywood 3-5 mm thick – for the transom;
1 kg of oil paint (red lead) – for filling joints
3 kg of white on natural drying oil;
1.5 kg nails, 50 mm long;
1 kg screws, 50 mm long.

First, frames are made 200 mm above the level of the side, then the stem and transom. They are installed on a keelboard (50×20 mm and 4 m long) and nailed down. Benches are placed between the frames, they are also nailed. The upper part of the frames, stem and transom is attached to the side mounting boards (20x200x5000 mm), which together with the keel board form a kind of formwork that fixes the main shape of the boat. At the end of the work, the overhead boards are removed, and the extra 20 cm of frames are sawed off.Then the lower side boards are nailed, and the lower contours are carefully cut with a saw

The next cycle consists in attaching the top sideboards, tearing off the keelboard and nailing the bottom boards in its place. Along the joining lines of the boards, 3 false sheets are attached for better sealing of the joints. The joints should be carefully dug with tow soaked in linseed oil, putty and sandpaper. Then you can make a plywood trunk in the bow of the boat and a fish tank under the middle bench.Outside and inside, everything is painted with two or three coats of oil paint.

Oars are made from two boards with dimensions 30×1 30xx2400 mm.

As mentioned above, the boat can sail. To do this, it must be equipped with a lowering keel-centerboard and a rudder. The centerboard is placed in a centerboard well, which is installed in front of the middle bank and tied to it with bars (Fig. 19). Fastening the well to the bottom must be done very carefully, using thickened paint or waterproof glue.Through the bars, the base of the well is connected to the keel and sheathing with M6x80 through screws every 60 mm.

Keel (a), rudder (b) and sail (c) of a flat-bottomed boat designed by A.V. Zhemerikina: 1 – hinges, which are attached to the steering wheel with pins; 2 – hinges, which are attached to the transom without pins; 3 – obushok

The centerboard is cut from thick plywood, glued from two or three boards in width, or cut from a sheet of metal with a thickness of 4-6 mm. In all cases, the keel gap should be 4-6 mm wider than the centerboard thickness.The bars on the upper end of the centerboard serve as stops when lowering it. On a metal centerboard, they can be made from corners. The wooden centerboard is held in the lowered position by a rubber sling.

The handlebars are cut from 8 mm plywood or 12 mm boards. It is hung by means of two loops with pins. The same 2 loops are made on the transom, but without pins and with fastening straps turned 180 °. In order not to accidentally lose the steering wheel, it must be tied to the transom with a thin cord-sorlin.A rounded solid mast with a maximum diameter of 68 mm is best glued together from two fine-grained pine blocks. The lower end of the mast (spurs) is made of a square cross-section for fastening in a nest – a step. The second mast attachment point is the hole in the front bank.

The sail can be sewn from any strong and dense fabric: AM-100, raincoat, teak for a feather, in extreme cases from coarse calico. The sail is laced to the mast; the upper and lower corners of the sail are tied using the corresponding holes in the mast.On the way, the sail is stretched by a rod, the front end of which is tied with a reef knot to the back. In the event of a sudden increase in wind, it is enough to pull on the end of the line, and the sail will completely deflate. It is not difficult to pull the mast out of the step and put it in the boat. If necessary, the sail area can be reduced by screwing it onto the mast, but then it is carried without a yarn or the sail is attached to the lower part of the mast.

Construction of flat-bottomed boats , with a keel length of 3 meters, a bottom width of 0.8 meters and a side height of 0.3 meters, provides a carrying capacity of up to 200 kilograms and the ability to maintain ample buoyancy necessary for fishing and hunting.The flat bottom gives the flat-bottomed boat good stability , i.e. the ability not to tip over , and allows you to easily make frames without resorting to searching for old arcs and runners, as Boukreev recommends. The flat bottom of a flat-bottomed boat is also more convenient for flooring from longitudinal slats, along which you can move freely without fear of stumbling on the canvas bottom.

For the manufacture of the frame of a flat-bottomed boat, it is best to take dry spruce but you can also use pine , aspen , fir or alder …The cross-section of the slats depends on the purpose for which they are intended. So, for example, the section of the keel, as well as the side and zygomatic rails – 30×15 millimeters, the section of the stem – 30×30 millimeters, the floor slats – 10×15 millimeters. The stern post made from a piece of 30 mm board is a trapezoid with the smaller and larger sides equal to 150 and 200 millimeters, respectively. The section of additional rails is 15×15 mm. There must be at least six of them. It is advisable to cut the slats, and fill up their edges.Fasteners are made with screws.

The frame of a flat-bottomed boat can be sheathed not only with tarpaulin , but also any other durable material. After that, for water resistance, it must be painted once or twice with oil paint or, even better, with bitumen mastic, which can be easily made by yourself according to this recipe: bitumen – 1 kilogram; grease or birch tar – 0.2 kilograms; gasoline – at least 1 liter.

Heating resin to a liquid state, you need to pour a solution of solid oil in gasoline into it and stir thoroughly.For safety, the hot resin must be set aside away from the fire, check it for flammability by adding a small portion of gasoline, and only then pour in the solution. If, after cooling, the resulting mastic is not liquid enough to work with a brush, you need to add gasoline to it and mix again.

In 2-3 days after painting with this mastic, gasoline will evaporate , and the hull of the boat will be covered with a thin non-breakable film that fully meets its purpose. The middle frame defines the greatest width of the flat-bottomed boat.

Assembling the frame of a punt boat starts like this. The so-called middle frame, which is the largest in size, must be screwed to the middle of the keel rail. Its elongated side struts are fastened in the upper part with a temporary strut rail. Then, with the help of long nails or screws with some inclination in the upper part forward, set the stem and with a tilt in the upper part backward – the stern stem.

If the sternpost is installed vertically, i.e. without tilting, then this stern can be used for the outboard motor.After that, the zygomatic slats are screwed in such a way that they are 15 millimeters below the frame. Then put the upper side stringer. The rest of the frames are adjusted in place. Their size and configuration are set according to the circumference of the stringers. The upper side stringer strips are now attached in the corresponding cutouts. As for the bow of the flat-bottomed boat, it can be made sharper by attaching a breakwater in the form of a triangular prism made of a wooden bar. The seats can be made with an emphasis on the middle, bow and stern frames for the corresponding parts of the boat.

Cutting material for cladding you need to start by preparing two strips so that the width and length of each of them would be equal to the width and length of the bead. Having fitted them in place, you need to fix them with small studs to the side springs and the end parts of the sternpost, and sew the bow part. The bottom is cut out separately. If the cut of the bottom of the punt boat does not work out solid, then it can be grinded off from the pieces.

The cut out bottom of a flat-bottomed boat is sewn along the edge of the cheekbones to the side strips.You need to sew with a coarse thread with a large stitch. It doesn’t matter if the seams are not tight enough. After that, they are coated with mastic or thick oil paint and covered with strips of thinner matter at least 80 millimeters wide. An increase in the thickness of the oil paint is achieved by adding finely sifted chalk or tooth powder to it. Only then can you start painting the entire boat.

For such a punt boat, oars can be made with oarlocks, or you can use a two-bladed kayak oar made from a single piece of wood or made on site according to the method.

The dream of making a boat with our own hands is visited by many anglers, and making it a reality is not so difficult. In our area, boats are made from various woods, alder, willow, spruce, but most often from simple pine boards, and many people like this craft. Yes, the boat is heavy, but straight-layered. And this tree is resinous, which largely protects the body from decay.

It is generally not customary for us to paint a boat, it steams under the paint, it melts. Previously, they were impregnated with technical oil, but now they mostly use engine oil, that is, a free composition.Of course, now the stores are full of protective impregnations for wood, including very reliable ones, but you have to buy it. And so he impregnated labor every year in the spring, and she will walk for twenty years, and the tree will not crack from the oil.

We saw boards on a sawmill for thirty, that’s it. Then we cut out 25. The bottom may be a little thicker, it needs strength. Boards are only planed on one side, which will go inside the boat; the outer side need not be planed. The length of the body (and, accordingly, the length of the boards) is chosen largely according to habits, and not according to the required carrying capacity.The range of lengths, as a rule, is from 4 to 6 m.

Personally, I have a 3.5m boat, four of us went on it without any problems under a small Salute motor and swam 5 km to their proven places. This is me to the fact that the boat, of course, should be as safe as possible, the load should correspond to the real carrying capacity, but if fishing is planned on small lakes and rivers for two or three (especially one), then it makes no sense to make a large boat, which is needed only for lakes where a big wave rides.

It is wrong to focus on the lengths of the inflatable “brothers” that are already familiar to the eye, because their bulkheads take most of the internal area. And for pieces of wood, they are minimal – 25-30mm, often thinner boards are chosen to lighten the weight.

In the same desire – to have a lighter boat – and they try not to make especially large hulls. In addition, the larger the boat, the more its inertia of movement, respectively, worse maneuverability, and it is often simply necessary for fishing.

When making your first boat from planks, it should be borne in mind that the wider the plank, the fewer cracks – potential leaks. I have such gaps that you cannot push the knife through, it is very tightly made, but this hand needs to be stuffed, and I coat all the joints with additional silicone. But usually in the process of manufacturing, bending the boards, cracks appear, which immediately caulk. You can use moss or construction cords, from above the glazing bead or aluminum wire is clogged. This is enough to keep the boat from leaking, but if you pull it ashore and lie down for a month, and not in the shade, but in the sun, it quickly dries up.

About bonding boards. Previously, they were fastened either quite simply – with nails, or demonstrated the highest class – with wooden fingers without a single nail. Nowadays, a compromise option is in use – with self-tapping screws. It is much more reliable than nails, and not as laborious as “no iron at all”.

Boards can be made with a slope, vertical can also be, the latter option is easier to manufacture, but the navigational qualities of such watercraft are slightly worse. In any case, you will have to bend the side boards in the longitudinal plane.For this you need an adaptation. Someone uses special rope blocks, as was done in the old days. Someone is using suitable clamps. There are many options here, and they only affect the usability. The main thing is how to bend! Slowly, gradually increasing the load so that the board does not burst. If dry, then moisten with water. It is unlikely that it will be possible to bend well faster than in a day, there is no need to rush in this matter.

Increased reliability of the boat is given by stiffeners, which are usually made of durable wood, usually oak, and a pointed nose is also made of it, where the boards of the bottom and sides are inserted, and not on nails, but into specially cut grooves with a strictly verified angle of inclination.

In terms of shape, I prefer a boat with a wide forepart. The maximum width in the bow is about 80 cm, then everything is narrower, and in the stern area it is only 30-40 centimeters, if only it would be convenient to sit alone. And only when the engine is planned to be installed, we make the stern wider under 50-60cm. Board height 38-40cm.

This shape of the boat allows you to confidently steer it from the stern with just one oar – our local traditions, which we do not change from year to year. And largely due to the fact that when passing small places you have to constantly push off from the bottom with an oar.Accordingly, it is quite long (2-2.5m) and strong, usually made of ash.

Almost all of us walk along the river with one oar, even women drive their cows to milk. We teach Maltsov to handle one paddle from childhood. And we have no idea about two oars, it is believed that all this is pampering. Although, of course, to each his own. On the same large lakes, on a decent wave with one oar, you can’t really rake. So all kinds of boats are important, all kinds of boats are needed.

Cotton mittens, 2 strands, canvas handheld, insulated

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  • Dictionary of circus terms

    ACROBATICS (from the Greek.asrobateo – I walk on tiptoe, climb up). The dominant genre (see) of the circus, consisting of its numerous varieties (jumping, power, plastic, equestrian, vaulting), is based on special exercises, different in nature and degree of complexity, demonstrating the physical perfection of a person.

    ALLURE – (French allure – gait). Various types of horse moves: stride, gallop, amble, quarry, trot.

    ANTIPODE – (Greek anti – against and rus – genus.case, podos – leg). A type of juggling performed by the artist in a recumbent position on a special device – a trinket with legs raised upward, with which he throws and catches various objects, balances them, twists with step movements and rotates in a horizontal position.

    ANTRE – (French entree – entrance, exit to the stage). A buffoonery comic scene played out by the clowns, with which they enter the arena as with an independent number.

    AP! (eng.up – up). A conditional command accepted in the circus, given by one of the participants in the performance to perform or complete an exercise or other action.

    APACH – (German Patsch – slap, slap). A fake slap in the face performed by clowns as a playful technique. One of them claps his hands unnoticed by the audience when his partner strikes him.

    APPARATUS (lat. Apparatus – equipment, equipment).

    1. Special mechanical structures, including a system of electric winches and motors.These structures are suspended under the dome or installed on the arena (behind the arena) and are intended to enhance the spectacular effect of the performers’ performance. This is achieved due to the technical features of the apparatus: rotating, ascending, swinging, descending and similar structures.
    2. The combination of several shells used in one room. For example, an air flight apparatus consists of bridges, trapezoids, booms, catchers.

    SUPPORTING – (FR.apporter – bring, bring). A kind of equestrian training, usually demonstrated by one horse, which performs various peculiar scenes of a comic nature. For example, it brings the trainer in the teeth of the objects given to her, hidden in the arena (handkerchiefs, a flower, etc.) or in special boxes lying on the barrier of the arena, and also performs small pantomimes: “horse in bed”, “horse in a restaurant”, etc. .

    ARAPNIK – (Polish). Long whip with short whip.Arapnik is used in horse riding and in numbers with predatory and large animals, because a loud click with the tip of the arapnik encourages the horse to run quickly, and the large predator to action.

    ARABESQ – (French arabesgue – literally – Arabic. Poses in classical dance). A torso position in which the weight of the body is transferred to one leg and the other is carried forward or backward. Various modifications of arabesques are used in acrobatics, gymnastics, and balancing.

    ARABIC JUMPS – Acrobatic jumping, first shown in Europe in the 40s.XIX century. Arab acrobats. They are distinguished by a peculiar configuration, high dynamics of execution. In our circus, the Arab wheel (a wheel, performed not to the side, as usual, but forward) and the Arab somersault (somersault to the side) have become widespread.

    ARNIR – (French – harnais – horse harness, harness). Two leather straps, attached to the edge, pull the horse’s head to the chest, which influences his stroke in a given rhythm and gives the neck a beautiful curve.

    ATHLETICS – (from the Greek athletikos – characteristic of wrestlers). The circus genre, in which the demonstration of well-developed muscles and trick exercises with weights (weights, cannonballs, a barbell, etc.) are shown by the artist in an artistic form as a celebration of the power of a person, his physical and spiritual qualities.

    ATTRACTION – (French – attraction, literally – attraction). A particularly interesting and most spectacular piece, which occupies a central position in the program and attracts the attention of the audience with its ideological and artistic qualities and high artistic skill.

    BAGUETTE – (French baguette – stick) a thin half-hoop in the hands of a rider, over which she jumps, as if over a skipping rope, standing on a running horse.

    BALAGAN – (from Persian balakhane – upper room, balcony). Temporary boardwalk for circus and theatrical performances at festivities in the old days.

    BALANCER – (French balansier – to swing, balance) a long pole in the hands of a tightrope walker, with which he maintains balance on the rope.

    BAMBOO – (from Malay bambu – a genus of tropical plant) an apparatus for aerial gymnastics, which is a metal pole, 3-4 meters long, suspended vertically, on which exercises are performed by two gymnasts. The name of the shell is from a well-known plant, the thick trunk of which was once used in Japan and China for the manufacture of perches, trapeziums.

    BANOLLO – (from the name of the first performer of the exercise, the Italian artist L.Banollo) gymnastic exercise – a flight from one horizontal bar to another with a 180-degree turn into a handstand.

    BATON – (French baton – staff, stick). A small stick (stack) with an oval pad at the end, or a thick bamboo stick, split at the end, for a light but resonant blow.

    Trampoline (BATUD) – (French batoud from Italian battuta – literally – Blow). A throw-up device, which is a frequent net made of strong braid, stretched with rubber shock absorbers inside a metal frame on legs or in the form of a mesh track on metal supports, stretched with cables and blocks to the arena barrier.

    BEREITOR – (from German bereiten – to go around, prepare horses). Rider, horse rider and horse riding specialist. In the circus – an assistant trainer.

    BOGEN – (German – bogen – arc, arch, vault). Deflection in the back, assessed when performing some exercises.

    BUBLIC – A small oval circle that serves as a support when performing a headstand. It is made of cork, belt, polystyrene and is adjusted to the shape of the performer’s head.

    BULAVA – (from Latin bulla – metal ball). 1. An ancient weapon in the form of a heavy breech or metal head on the handle. 2. Subject for gymnastic exercises. Juggler’s props, shaped like a modified mace.

    BUFFONADA – (Italian Buffonata – joke, clowning, buffoonery). Reception of artistic image in acting, known since the times of ancient Greek theater, areal performances, in the performance of jesters in the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and in the productions of the Italian theater of masks.The basics of circus buffoonery are a tactile exaggeration of both the external features of the clown and his actions, props.

    WALSET – (French valse – waltz). Tempo jump, bouncing, used as a connecting element, an auxiliary action for the transition to the execution of the jump.

    VENTROLOGY – (Latin venter – belly, Logos – word, speech. The old name is ventriloquism, that is, “belly broadcasting”, from the Slavic belly – belly). The art of speaking without lip articulation.This technique is used to build a conversational scene between the artist and the doll.

    VOLT – (French volte – turn). The element of horse training is a smooth circular turn of the horse in place.

    VOLTIGE – (from French voltiger – to flutter)

    1. Equestrian vaulting – performance of various exercises on a horse running around the arena at a fast pace: gray-haired, swept-back, hanging by the leg, stands, coups, etc.
    2. Acrobatic vaulting – a kind of acrobatics based on the techniques of tossing and throwing the upper lower or lower, carried out only by muscular-tempo efforts without the use of throwing devices (the former name of “hand-vaulting” from him.Hand – hand).
    3. Gymnastic vaulting – exercises on a swinging trapezoid, as well as tear-off exercises in pair work of gymnasts on a frame, bamboo, doppel trap.

    GERADESHWUNG – (German Gerade – straight line, German Schwung – swing, flight – shvung) – Gymnastic exercise, direct (smooth) flight from one projectile to another or into the hands of a catcher.

    GYMNASTICS – (Greek gimnastike from gymnazo – I exercise, train) – circus gymnastics is a genre, the essence of which is to demonstrate in an artistic form the achievements of the physical development of the human body.In this case, gymnastic apparatus used in the circus are used.

    GRECE – (German Gratsche – sports position: legs apart). Gymnastic exercise – from hanging on close hands, as a gymnast, he swings up to a sitting position on the horizontal bar, keeping his legs apart, and “at the tempo” flies to another horizontal bar or performs a back somersault from the horizontal bar to the descent. The exercise is also performed in pair work of gymnasts on a frame, but with an interception with the hands at the top takeoff point.

    GROTESQUE RIDER – (FR.grotesque – bizarre, comical) – a rider performing dance-acrobatic and jumping elements on a galloping horse.

    GROUP – (from French grouper – to connect, group, German Gruppierung – grouping) – the position of the body, in which the legs, extremely bent at the knees and hip joints, are held by the hands below the knees.

    GURT – (German Gurt – belt, sash) – a kind of girth, encircling the horse below the withers, with two handrails for which the rider holds his hands when performing exercises in equestrian acrobatic numbers.

    YES CAPO – (Italian da capo – repetition). A trick or a reprise performed by an artist as an addition to a number after going out to applause.

    DOPPEL-TRAPE – (German doppel – double, double). A gymnastic apparatus is a wide metal crossbar suspended on three ropes (with a cable inside), of which the middle one divides the crossbar into two trapezoids, on which two gymnasts (gymnasts) perform exercises both separately on each one, and together on one of them.

    TRAINING – (French dresser – training animals, dressage horses). A circus genre based on the show of animals, animals, birds performing various actions, achieved as a result of the development of persistent conditioned reflexes in them to the commands of the trainer.

    DIABOLO – (French diabolo – an old children’s game with cone-shaped tops). Showcasing various configurations of fast-spinning tops that resemble enlarged spools, which are strongly unrolled using a thin cord with two handles at the ends, like a children’s jump rope.

    GENRE – (French genre – genus, species). The circus genre is a historically formed set of numbers, characterized by certain expressive means and only their inherent effective signs.

    JOKE – (English jockey – a rider on the race, horse racing). An artist performing acrobatic exercises on a horse running around the arena. Jockey work is also performed together and in a group.

    JUNGLING – (French jongleur from lat.Joculator – joker, amusing, wit). A genre in which the artist demonstrates the skill of throwing and catching objects in a certain sequence and in a fixed rhythm, as well as balancing them.

    MIRROR – A special hoop pasted over with paper, through which the rider (rider) jumps, breaking through the paper. It is used for this purpose in acrobatic performances.

    ZITZEN TRUK – (German sitsen – to sit, see trick). Gymnastic exercise – a flight from one horizontal bar to another with a 180 ° turn to a sitting position.

    TEETH – Forged tongue with a thickening in the middle part according to the configuration of the oral cavity, adapted for various exercises: hanging in the teeth, holding a partner, standing (“standing in the teeth”).

    ILLUSIONIST – (from Latin illusio – error, delusion, deception caused by distorted perception). An artist demonstrating various tricks with the help of special props, devices equipped with secret devices hidden from the audience, namely: intricate appearances, disappearances, transformations, movement of various objects, animals, people, based on optical illusion, the use of distracting maneuvers and the dexterity of the performer himself , his assistants.

    IMITATOR – (from Latin imitatio – forgery, imitation). An artist who knows the art of imitating various sounds: birdsong, musical instruments, animal voices, etc., which is achieved by appropriate training of the vocal apparatus in combination with the use of specially developed techniques.

    CONVERTIBLE – (French cabriolet). A light two-wheeled carriage on high wheels, which is harnessed to a horse performing school gaits under the control of a trainer sitting in a convertible.Used in other numbers as well (“acrobats on a convertible”, “jugglers not on a convertible”).

    CABRIOL – (French cabriole – jump).

    1. In training – a jump of a horse with drawn in front legs and extended hind legs.
    2. In doubles acrobatics – the lower jerk lifts the upper one into a handstand from swing between the legs of the group.
    3. In gymnastics – a gymnast, hanging on a frame on the knees, holds as a partner, who, with a swing back, performs a twist with a straight torso between the gymnast’s arms.

    CASCADE – (French cascade – a small waterfall, overthrown by ledges).

    1. In acrobatics – a jump-fall on the back (back cascade) or face down (front), performed from different positions: from a place, from a run, from a height. It is mainly used in the performance of eccentrics, clowns.
    2. In juggling – the technique of throwing objects from one hand to another along one definite trajectory.

    RUBBER – (English caoutchouc, from Spanish.caucho, from Peruvian. – an elastic substance extracted from some plants for industrial purposes). A kind of acrobatics based on demonstrating the maximum flexibility of the body when bending backward (“bridge”).

    KIPPE – (German kippe – swing). Gymnastic exercise on the horizontal bar – lifting from the hang on the hands to close-up with a small initial quality.

    KLISHNIK – (from the name of the English artist E. Klischnig). An artist demonstrating the ultimate flexibility of the body when bending forward (“fold”) using specially selected exercises.

    COPFSTEIN – (German stehen – to stand). Balance in a headstand.

    CLOWN – (English clown, from Latin colonus – a man from the common people, a sluggish simpleton, a redneck). A traditional circus character performing with comic reprises, comic scenes. Accordingly to different types of clownery, the roles of clowns are also different: buffoonery, musical, clown trainers, carpet clowns.

    COLUMN – (French colonne – vertical support, from lat.columna – pillar). Acrobatic pyramid of three people standing on each other’s shoulders. According to the position of each of them in the column, they are called: lower, middle and upper. With a solo number of participants, the pyramid is called “a column of four”, “a column of five”. In some exercises (a back somersault to a column or a back somersault from a column to a column), professionals call a column a pyramid of two people.

    KOPFSPRUNG – (German Kopf – head, sprung – jump).Acrobatic element – a forward jump with support on the head or with support simultaneously on the head and arms.

    CORD DE VOLAN – (French corde – rope, cord, rope, volant – fluttering, flying). A gymnastic apparatus is a thick rope suspended horizontally at both ends so that a sag is formed, in the middle of which the artist performs exercises both on the spot and in swing.

    CORPATURE – (from Italian corporatura – body, corporeal).Relaxed state with slight pain in the whole body or in individual muscles, caused by their overwork.

    CRAFT-ACROBATS – (German Kraft – strength). Acrobats performing exercises only with strength techniques (strength acrobats).

    CRAFT JUGGLERS – Athletes juggling weights: kettlebells, cannonballs and other objects (power jugglers).

    KRUP – (French croupe). The widest part of the horse’s back used by riders when performing elements of equestrian acrobatics.

    CULBIT – (French culbute – somersault, somersault). Roll forward or backward by rolling over the head. Performed from a place, as well as a running jump.

    COUPE – (French – coup – push, blow). A position in acrobatics, from which the low or middle throws the upper, standing on the partner’s joined hands, facing him.

    COURAGE – (French courage – courage, courage). High volitional qualities shown by the artist when performing difficult, dangerous stunts.

    COURSE – (lat.cursus – running, movement). A jump of a jockey from a running start to a galloping horse, in which he stands on the croup.

    KURBET – (French courbette – jump, leap). Acrobatic element – jump: stand on your feet from a handstand.

    LOVITOR – A participant in a gymnastic number who, hanging on the knees on a short trapeze or frame (catcher), receives (catches) a partner flying to him from a trapeze or from a horizontal bar.

    LONGE – (French longe – rein, rope).

    1. Long reins used to drive horses during dressage and training.
    2. a special device that protects against falls, bruises during training or performances, which is a rope (or cable) passed through the suspension block, one end of it is held by the passenger, the other is fastened with a carabiner to the belt of the performer (single lounger). Double Lounge – two ropes passed through two blocks, hanging at a distance from each other, or a waist Lounge – a belt with two short ropes on the sides, held by two passengers.

    LOPING – (English Looping the loop – a dead loop in a closed circle). Rotation of the gymnast around the stem, to which his legs are attached with special projections in the soles of the shoes, which go into the slots of the rotating sleeve on the stem. Another way of rotation is to turn around the boom, standing on a trapezoid attached to it, which has rigid slings.

    LYAGSKACH – Lifting and jumping from a prone position, bent on the shoulder blades, performed by a sharp extension of the legs in the hip joints and a push with the hands from the floor at the shoulders.

    MANEZH – (French manege – room for horse riding and dressage training). A round platform in the center of the circus auditorium, 13 m in diameter, where the performance takes place.

    MANIPULATOR (PRESITIGATOR) – (Latin manus – hand, Italian presto – fast, dijito – finger). An artist performing tricks with small objects (cards, balls, coins, ribbons, flowers, handkerchiefs, etc.) due to the virtuoso technique of fingers and excellent coordination of movements of trained hands.

    MELANGE-ACT – (French melange – mixing, acte – action). A number composed of elements of various genres, of which no genre is predominant.

    MNEMOTECHNIKA (MNEMONICS) – (Greek mneme – memory, techne – art: the art of memorization). A number that demonstrates the art of memorization. One performer, being in the auditorium, with the help of a special oral code, a change in intonation, conditioned phrases (“tell me soon”, “what the citizen was blowing out”, etc.)and other transmission methods, informs his partner, who is on the arena (stage), questions asked to the audience (significant dates, names of famous figures, events, banknote numbers, etc.), to which quick answers follow.

    MONOCYCLE – (Greek mono – one, ziole – wheel). A unicycle used in bicycle numbers to perform various tricks on it.

    NUMBER – This is the name of a work of art of circus art, which is a set of tricks performed in a specific compositional sequence, which, in combination with other specific means of expression, reflect an ideological and creative task and have an emotional impact on the audience.The term originated in the second half of the 19th century. and indicated the order of performance of artists in ballet and opera divertissements.

    PA-DE-DE- – (French Pas de deux – dance together). Equestrian act consisting of ballet and acrobatic supports performed by a rider and a rider on two horses running in a row around the arena.

    Pas de trois – (French Pas de trois – dance of the three). Equestrian act, in which acrobatic lifts and pyramids are performed by three artists on three horses, running side by side in a circle around the arena.

    PANNO – (French Panneau – plane). A flat, hard mattress that covers the horse’s back. It is used in some equestrian rooms as a comfortable support for riders.

    CIRCUS PANTOMIMA – (Greek pantos – everything, mimein – express). A circus theatrical performance with a specific plot, combining numbers of different circus genres, in which the character of the characters and the content of the pantomime are expressed by gesture, facial expressions, body movements, tricks.


    1. Solemn exit-march of the whole troupe before the start of the performance with a greeting addressed to the audience.
    2. Introductory part of the performance with a small plot, dedicated to any date, event.

    PARFOR RIDING – (French Par forse, literally – through force). Equestrian act performed by a rider (rider) standing on a horse jumping at a fast pace over various obstacles (barriers, ribbons, etc.)etc.).

    PASSAGE – (French passage – passage, passage, flight).

    1. In acrobatics – a given direction of flight of an acrobat from a throw-up board, a springboard, from the hands of the lower ones, both in forward and opposite directions.
    2. In gymnastics – oncoming flight of voltigeurs in flight, on horizontal bars.
    3. In horseback riding – rhythmic lifting of the front and hind legs by the horse diagonally at a short trot.

    PASSING – (French passage – to transmit, forward, go over).Fast, dexterous actions that facilitate the implementation of learned exercises or protect from falls, bruises (push, hold, grab), as well as the ability to take away or bring ribbons, a hoop at the right time, when a rider (rider) jumps over them.

    PERSH – (French perche, English perch – pole, pole). Equilibristics equipment is a long duralumin tube with various fixtures and fittings, balanced by the artist on the forehead, on the shoulders, on the belt support and in the dentition.At the top of the Persha, the partner (s) perform the exercises.

    PIRUETTE-SALTO – (French Pirouette – turn, turn, see somersault). A somersault performed with the simultaneous rotation of the acrobat’s body 360 ° relative to the longitudinal axis.

    PISTA – (French piste – race track). A narrow, track-like track at the arena barrier, which supports the running horse, allowing it to maintain a certain tilt of the body necessary for the rider’s stability.

    PLANCH – (FR.planche – board, smooth surface).

    1. The horizontal position of the body, held by force in the hanging or in support on gymnastic apparatus. The back plate is face down, the front plate is face up.
    2. Straightened torso (and not grouped) when performing a somersault (somersault with a plank) or with a forceful exit to a handstand (plankstand).

    PONY – (English pony – small horse). A breed of undersized horses used in equestrian training rooms and in mixed groups of animals.

    REPRISE – (French reprise – renewal, repetition). In a circus, a short verbal joke or a funny action in the performance of clowns.

    RISENVELLE – (German risen – huge, huge, Velle – wave). Gymnastic exercise – large turns around the horizontal bar on straightened arms. Among sports enthusiasts, the exercise is known as the sun.

    RONDAD, RUNDAD – (French rond – circle, German rund – round). The element of jumping acrobatics is a turn with a turn, which serves as a connecting link for the transition from the take-off run to jumps performed with the back in a directional take-off run.

    SALTO – (Italian salto – jump, jump). Acrobatic jump – unsupported rotation of the body forward or backward, or to the side with a complete overturning over the head. It is performed in a grouping or with a straight torso, from a place or from a running start, as well as with the help of throwing techniques or throwing devices.

    SANZHIROVKA – (French changer – change, exchange, replace)

    1. Dexterous, quick actions of a magician, skillfully and imperceptibly substituting objects while manipulating them or creating a deceptive impression of a replacement, which in fact did not exist.
    2. In gymnastics – a tempo turn 180 ° with a swing forward on a horizontal bar or in flight.
    3. In training – a change in the direction of a horse or a group of horses, performed at the command of the trainer (“sange!”).

    FREEDOM (FREE TRAINING) – One form of showing a group of trained horses performing under the control of a trainer, but free from the control of riders.

    SKOMOROKHI – (itinerant musicians, dancers, comedians). Wandering actors in Ancient Russia, performing in the streets and squares.fairs and showing elements of training, onomatopoeia, playing musical instruments, juggling, as well as satirical conversational scenes and songs. They are the founders of certain types of shows and some genres of circus in Russia.

    STREKASAT – (Italian strecatschere – lengthening, stretching). A way of doing some jumps that allows the acrobat to move in the opposite direction of the roll

    SUPLESS – (French souplesse – flexibility, pliability).A sharp bend of the body with a throw back due to a strong deflection in the lower back.

    PLATE – (French tableau – picture). General view of a large group of trained horses performing in a single composition, various figured formations, rearrangements in the arena, on pedestals, around them, etc.

    TANDEM – (English tandem – a two-seater, two-wheeled bicycle, driven by both riders sitting one after the other; a team of horses following in a train – one in front of the other).A kind of school riding on two or three horses, walking along the arena one after another. The rider, sitting astride the last horse, directs the course in front of the running horses with the help of long reins, forcing them to make various turns, which the horse and rider repeat.

    TWIST – (English twist – twist, twist). Acrobatic jump is a front somersault performed after a 190 ° turn.

    KEYSTONE – (Greek trapesion – a quadrangle with unequal sides, letters.- table). A gymnastic apparatus is a metal bar suspended horizontally on two ropes (with a rope inside) attached to it at the edges. Exercises are performed in the hanging and in support both on a stationary and on a swinging trapezoid.

    BITS – (German Trense – bit). Iron bits, which, when the reins attached to them are pulled, abut against the palate of the horse, forcing it to raise its head, stop, and turn.

    TRINKA – The old name of a special device on which the artist lies with raised legs while performing antipode numbers, Icarian games, balancing a perch or stairs on his feet.According to some sources, the name comes from the number of traditional objects used by the antipodists of the past (the Belgian cross, ball and barrel). Currently, the name “antipodal pillow” will be changed more.

    TOURNAMENT – (French tourner – twirl, rotate, turn over). The oldest gymnastic apparatus is a steel bar crossbar, pasted over with a special tape. It is fixed horizontally on two metal vertical posts, which are fixedly fixed with cables and blocks to the arena barrier.

    UNIFORMISTS – (German uniform – uniform). Specially trained workers, servicing the numbers for the installation of props, apparatus, shells, participating in the passage and maintenance of the arena.

    FOCUS – (German: Hokus-pokus- trick). A dexterous trick of a magician, striking in its seeming supernaturalness, based on the artist’s sleight of hand, the technique of special equipment, props, and such optical illusion and distracting techniques.

    FLIK-FLAK – (French flic-flac “slap, clap). Acrobatic element – swing backward jump, bending over with intermediate support on the hands.

    CIRCUS – (from Latin circus, letters – circle).

    1. Kind of art.
    2. A building with an arena for circus performances.

    CHEPRAK – Felt or canvas cape, worn on the back of a horse when performing equestrian acrobatic numbers. The saddlecloth is sprinkled with anti-slip rosin.

    SHVUNG – (German schwung – swing, flight). A sharp jerk with the whole body or with one leg to increase swing, swing.

    STAMP – (German stamm – trunk, bord – edge). A metal bar that is suspended horizontally by the edges and is fixed motionlessly with braces. Shells and apparatus of circus performances are suspended from it. Also used for the number “acrobats on the trunk”.

    EQUILIBRISM ​​ – (Latin aeguilibris – in equilibrium).The circus genre, which is based on the demonstration of the art of maintaining balance in various conditions, complicated by the use of special props and props.

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