Flashing time: Blinking, Flashing and Temporal Response

Blinking, Flashing and Temporal Response

BLINKING,
FLASHING, AND TEMPORAL RESPONSE



On This Page:  • Non-Temporal
Parameters Influence Flashing   • Parameters
of Temporal Modulation 

• Related Psychophysical Results  • Demonstrations
 









Temporal modulation (blinking, flashing) is a very powerful tool for drawing
attention. This, along with auditory alerts, is the heavy artillery of
attention manipulation and must be used sparingly, with care. Ad designers
of commercial websites know that it’s almost impossible to ignore large
flashing graphic elements in peripheral vision, even to the point that
it’s difficult to read the non-flashing main content. The most powerful
types of temporal modulation should therefore be used only for hazards,
i.e., for data that require immediate user action.

Blinking and flashing
are not all-or-nothing, though. At the powerful end of the scale they
interfere with attention to all other data elements. At the weak end of
the scale they can be barely noticeable. The auditory analogues are sirens
and klaxons at the strong end, and confirmatory sounds
(such as the clicking of an auto turn signal) at the weak.

Non-Temporal Parameters
Influence Flashing

Non-temporal design
parameters such as size, shape, color, luminance, and position in the
field of view have an influence on the salience of flashing, but they
are frequently dictated by other design considerations. Once those variables
are fixed, the salience of flashing will be governed by
the parameters of the temporal modulation.

Parameters of Temporal
Modulation

time flash

Flashing alarm clock, available in 3 colours

  • Wakes you up with a powerful flashing lamp and acoustic alarm
  • Snooze function
  • Features a connector for signal indication modules (see accessories): flash module, acoustic module and vibrating pad
  • Ten different alarm melodies
  • Alarm status display (illuminated snooze button)
  • Analogue quartz movement with a second hand
  • Backup battery power supply in case of power failure
  • Clock-face illumination with automatic shut-off, lit during alarms
  • Telephone connector (incoming calls are indicated by flash and sound)

Specifications

Dimensions (HxWxD):

86 x 175 x 53 mm

Weight:

337 g

Power supply:

Power supply: 230 V AC / 12 V DC 1000 mA

time flash, white

time flash, black

time flash, metallic silver

Accessories

Vibrating pad

Vibrating contraption for direct connection to alarm clocks

Flash module MF-1

Acoustic module MA-1

Cable microphone for acoustic pickup 5m


Private customers can order these items in our webshop: white, black und metallic silver

Understanding Success Criterion 2.3.2: Three Flashes

a non-embedded resource obtained from a single URI using HTTP plus any other resources
that are used in the rendering or intended to be rendered together with it by a user agent

Note

Although any “other resources” would be rendered together with the primary resource,
they would not necessarily be rendered simultaneously with each other.

Note

For the purposes of conformance with these guidelines, a resource must be “non-embedded”
within the scope of conformance to be considered a Web page.

A Web resource including all embedded images and media.

A Web mail program built using Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX). The program
lives entirely at http://example.com/mail, but includes an inbox, a contacts area
and a calendar. Links or buttons are provided that cause the inbox, contacts, or calendar
to display, but do not change the URI of the page as a whole.

A customizable portal site, where users can choose content to display from a set of
different content modules.

When you enter “http://shopping.example.com/” in your browser, you enter a movie-like
interactive shopping environment where you visually move around in a store dragging
products off of the shelves around you and into a visual shopping cart in front of
you. Clicking on a product causes it to be demonstrated with a specification sheet
floating alongside. This might be a single-page Web site or just one page within a
Web site.

Polycom IP Phones: Date and Time are Wrong or Flashing

Symptom

Your Polycom IP phone displays a flashing or incorrect date and time.

Resolution

Check SNTP on Your Phone

For this process, you will first need your phone’s administrator password and IP address (if working in the web interface). After you have that, continue to either set of steps below.

  1. Press the Menu/Home button.
  2. Select Settings.
  3. Select Advanced.
  4. Enter phone password, then press Enter.
  5. Select Admin Settings.
  6. Select Network Configuration.
  7. Scroll down to SNTP and ensure address is set to pool.ntp.org. Press OK if the time server had to set.
  8. Scroll down to GMT Offset. Set to your local time zone. Press Select if the GMT Offset had to be set.
  9. Press Back.
  10. Select Save Config.
  11. Back all the way out to the main screen to view changes.

Check SNTP in the Phone Web Interface (GUI)

  1. Obtain your phone’s IP address. On the phone, press Menu/Settings > Status > Network > TCPIP Parameters. Note the IP address.
  2. From a computer on the same network as the phone, open a web browser and navigate to your phone’s IP address.
  3. Log in using the username admin and your phone’s password.
  4. From the top menu, click Preferences > Date & Time.
  5. Under Time Synchronization, ensure SNTP Server is set to pool.ntp.org.
  6. At the bottom of the page, click Save.
  7. Allow the phone to reboot.

If Date and Time Continue to Flash

The SNTP may not be able to reach the designated time server. Instead of pool.ntp.org, try setting the below address

  • ntp2.packet8.net
  • Or the IP of the Local Domain Controller, if applicable.

Or ping pool.ntp.org and use the reply address as the SNTP address.

Still not working? Move on to the next troubleshooting step for help with setting a static IP on your phone and configuring DNS.

Set Static IP and DNS

Note: We highly recommend consulting an IT or network professional when configuring advanced network settings. If possible, the network administrator should always check the IP address, and assign and log any static IP to avoid conflicts in the future.

Setting a Static IP on your phone will require:

Setting a Static IP and DNS Via the Phone’s Web GUI
  1. Obtain your phone’s IP address. On the phone, press Menu/Settings > Status > Network > TCPIP Parameters. Note the IP address.
  2. From a computer on the same network as the phone, open a web browser and navigate to your phone’s IP address.
  3. Log in using the username admin and your phone’s password.
  4. From the top menu, click Settings > Network > Ethernet.
  5. Set DHCP to Disable.
  6. Enter all of the following
    • IP Address
    • Subnet Mask
    • IP Gateway
  7. Under General, ensure the following are entered:
  8. At the bottom of the page, click Save.
  9. Wait for the phone to reboot. If it does not reboot, verify the information, then manually power-cycle the phone (unplug it from the power source, wait a full minute, then plug it back in and let it power on).

If Date and Time Continue to Flash Incorrectly

The problem may lie in your router or server. Potentially, the issue may also originate with your ISP.

You may also try modifying the Time Synch option in the phone setting via web GUI:

  1. Navigate to phone Preferences.
  2. Click on Date & Time.
  3. Expand Time Synchronization.
  4. For Override DHCP’s SNTP Server, set to NO.

See the Network/ISP section of this troubleshooting article.

Network/ISP

If date and time problems persist through the previous steps, there may be an issue with the device delivering Internet and SNTP settings to the rest of your network. If you or your network or IT administrator are able, on your DHCP device (e.g., the router, server, etc.), check configuration, and set SNTP and open DNS.

  • Primary Timer Server: 0.pool.ntp.org
  • Secondary Time Server: 1.pool.ntp.org
  • Primary DNS: 8.8.8.8
  • Secondary DNS: 8.8.4.4
  • DNS Domain: google.com

If all local troubleshooting fails, contact your Internet service provider to inform them you are having an SNTP issue and your network devices are unable to resolve the correct time and date.

If time and date are only off by a matter of hours and are not flashing, you may simply need to set the extension time zone.

Set Time Zone in Account Manager

If the time displayed is not flashing and is only off by a matter of hours, you may simply need to correct the time zone for the extension. 8×8 account administrators can set the time zone for an extension in Account Manager.

  1. Log in to Account Manager.
  2. From the top menu, click Phone System.
  3. Click View All Extensions.
  4. Locate the problematic extension, then click Edit to the left.
  5. In the Extension Settings panel, select the preferred Time Zone.
  6. At the bottom of the page, click Save Changes.

Set Time Zone in 8×8 Admin Console

If the time is not up to date, 8×8 account administrators can set the time zone for the extension in 8×8 Admin Console. End users can edit the time zone for their own extension.

  1. Log in to 8×8 Admin Console.
  2. Click Users.
  3. Select the preferred Time Zone.
  4. Click Save.

Cause

Most likely, the SNTP time server address or DNS are not properly set, either in the phone or the network device giving out DHCP (router or server).

The issue may also originate with your Internet service provider (ISP).

How flashing lights and pink noise might banish Alzheimer’s, improve memory and more

In March 2015, Li-Huei Tsai set up a tiny disco for some of the mice in her laboratory. For an hour each day, she placed them in a box lit only by a flickering strobe. The mice — which had been engineered to produce plaques of the peptide amyloid-β in the brain, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease — crawled about curiously. When Tsai later dissected them, those that had been to the mini dance parties had significantly lower levels of plaque than mice that had spent the same time in the dark1.

Tsai, a neuroscientist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, says she checked the result; then checked it again. “For the longest time, I didn’t believe it,” she says. Her team had managed to clear amyloid from part of the brain with a flickering light. The strobe was tuned to 40 hertz and was designed to manipulate the rodents’ brainwaves, triggering a host of biological effects that eliminated the plaque-forming proteins. Although promising findings in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease have been notoriously difficult to replicate in humans, the experiment offered some tantalizing possibilities. “The result was so mind-boggling and so robust, it took a while for the idea to sink in, but we knew we needed to work out a way of trying out the same thing in humans,” Tsai says.

“There’s been an explosion in brain wave research…pick your area and different people are trying to apply extra cranial stimulation.” The neuroscience that’s making waves for a wide range of conditions.

Your browser does not support the audio element.

Scientists identified the waves of electrical activity that constantly ripple through the brain almost 100 years ago, but they have struggled to assign these oscillations a definitive role in behaviour or brain function. Studies have strongly linked brainwaves to memory consolidation during sleep, and implicated them in processing sensory inputs and even coordinating consciousness. Yet not everyone is convinced that brainwaves are all that meaningful. “Right now we really don’t know what they do,” says Michael Shadlen, a neuroscientist at Columbia University in New York City.

Now, a growing body of evidence, including Tsai’s findings, hint at a meaningful connection to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The work offers the possibility of forestalling or even reversing the damage caused by such conditions without using a drug. More than two dozen clinical trials are aiming to modulate brainwaves in some way — some with flickering lights or rhythmic sounds, but most through the direct application of electrical currents to the brain or scalp. They aim to treat everything from insomnia to schizophrenia and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Tsai’s study was the first glimpse of a cellular response to brainwave manipulation. “Her results were a really big surprise,” says Walter Koroshetz, director of the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, Maryland. “It’s a novel observation that would be really interesting to pursue.”

A powerful wave

Brainwaves were first noticed by German psychiatrist Hans Berger. In 1929, he published a paper2 describing the repeating waves of current he observed when he placed electrodes on people’s scalps. It was the world’s first electroencephalogram (EEG) recording — but nobody took much notice. Berger was a controversial figure who had spent much of his career trying to identify the physiological basis of psychic phenomena. It was only after his colleagues began to confirm the results several years later that Berger’s invention was recognized as a window into brain activity.

Neurons communicate using electrical impulses created by the flow of ions into and out of each cell. Although a single firing neuron cannot be picked up through the electrodes of an EEG, when a group of neurons fires again and again in synchrony, it shows up as oscillating electrical ripples that sweep through the brain.

Those of the highest frequency are gamma waves, which range from 25 to 140 hertz. People often show a lot of this kind of activity when they are at peak concentration. At the other end of the scale are delta waves, which have the lowest frequency — around 0.5 to 4 hertz. These tend to occur in deep sleep (see ‘Rhythms of the mind’).

Source: H. Marzbani, H. R. Marateb & M. Mansourian Basic Clin. Neurosci. 7, 143–158 (2016)

At any point in time, one type of brainwave tends to dominate, although other bands are always present to some extent. Scientists have long wondered what purpose, if any, this hum of activity serves, and some clues have emerged over the past three decades. For instance, in 1994, discoveries in mice indicated that the distinct patterns of oscillatory activity during sleep mirrored those during a previous learning exercise3. Scientists suggested that these waves could be helping to solidify memories.

Brainwaves also seem to influence conscious perception. Randolph Helfrich at the University of California, Berkeley, and his colleagues devised a way to enhance or reduce gamma oscillations of around 40 hertz using a non-invasive technique called transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). By tweaking these oscillations, they were able to influence whether a person perceived a video of moving dots as travelling vertically or horizontally4.

The oscillations also provide a potential mechanism for how the brain creates a coherent experience from the chaotic symphony of stimuli hitting the senses at any one time, a puzzle known as the ‘binding problem’. By synchronizing the firing rates of neurons responding to the same event, brainwaves might ensure that the all of the relevant information relating to one object arrives at the correct area of the brain at exactly the right time. Coordinating these signals is the key to perception, says Robert Knight, a cognitive neuroscientist at the University of California, Berkeley, “You can’t just pray that they will self-organize.”

Healthy oscillations

But these oscillations can become disrupted in certain disorders. In Parkinson’s disease, for example, the brain generally starts to show an increase in beta waves in the motor regions as body movement becomes impaired. In a healthy brain, beta waves are suppressed just before a body movement. But in Parkinson’s disease, neurons seem to get stuck in a synchronized pattern of activity. This leads to rigidity and movement difficulties. Peter Brown, who studies Parkinson’s disease at the University of Oxford, UK, says that current treatments for the symptoms of the disease — deep-brain stimulation and the drug levodopa — might work by reducing beta waves.

People with Alzheimer’s disease show a reduction in gamma oscillations5. So Tsai and others wondered whether gamma-wave activity could be restored, and whether this would have any effect on the disease.

They started by using optogenetics, in which brain cells are engineered to respond directly to a flash of light. In 2009, Tsai’s team, in collaboration with Christopher Moore, also at MIT at the time, demonstrated for the first time that it is possible to use the technique to drive gamma oscillations in a specific part of the mouse brain6.

Tsai and her colleagues subsequently found that tinkering with the oscillations sets in motion a host of biological events. It initiates changes in gene expression that cause microglia — immune cells in the brain — to change shape1. The cells essentially go into scavenger mode, enabling them to better dispose of harmful clutter in the brain, such as amyloid-β. Koroshetz says that the link to neuroimmunity is new and striking. “The role of immune cells like microglia in the brain is incredibly important and poorly understood, and is one of the hottest areas for research now,” he says.

If the technique was to have any therapeutic relevance, however, Tsai and her colleagues had to find a less-invasive way of manipulating brainwaves. Flashing lights at specific frequencies has been shown to influence oscillations in some parts of the brain, so the researchers turned to strobe lights. They started by exposing young mice with a propensity for amyloid build-up to flickering LED lights for one hour. This created a drop in free-floating amyloid, but it was temporary, lasting less than 24 hours, and restricted to the visual cortex.

To achieve a longer-lasting effect on animals with amyloid plaques, they repeated the experiment for an hour a day over the course of a week, this time using older mice in which plaques had begun to form. Twenty-four hours after the end of the experiment, these animals showed a 67% reduction in plaque in the visual cortex compared with controls. The team also found that the technique reduced tau protein, another hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease.

Alzheimer’s plaques tend to have their earliest negative impacts on the hippocampus, however, not the visual cortex. To elicit oscillations where they are needed, Tsai and her colleagues are investigating other techniques. Playing rodents a 40-hertz noise, for example, seems to cause a decrease in amyloid in the hippocampus — perhaps because the hippo-campus sits closer to the auditory cortex than to the visual cortex.

Tsai and her colleague Ed Boyden, a neuro-scientist at MIT, have now formed a company, Cognito Therapeutics in Cambridge, to test similar treatments in humans. Last year, they started a safety trial, which involves testing a flickering light device, worn like a pair of glasses, on 12 people with Alzheimer’s.

Caveats abound. The mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease is not a perfect reflection of the disorder, and many therapies that have shown promise in rodents have failed in humans. “I used to tell people — if you’re going to get Alzheimer’s, first become a mouse,” says Thomas Insel, a neuroscientist and psychiatrist who led the US National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland, from 2002 until 2015.

Others are also looking to test how manipulating brainwaves might help people with Alzheimer’s disease. “We thought Tsai’s study was outstanding,” says Emiliano Santarnecchi at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. His team had already been using tACS to stimulate the brain, and he wondered whether it might elicit stronger effects than a flashing strobe. “This kind of stimulation can target areas of the brain more specifically than sensory stimulation can — after seeing Tsai’s results, it was a no-brainer that we should try it in Alzheimer’s patients.”

His team has begun an early clinical trial in which ten people with Alzheimer’s disease receive tACS for one hour daily for two weeks. A second trial, in collaboration with Boyden and Tsai, will look for signals of activated microglia and levels of tau protein. Results are expected from both trials by the end of the year.

Knight says that Tsai’s animal studies clearly show that oscillations have an effect on cellular metabolism — but whether the same effect will be seen in humans is another matter. “In the end, it’s data that will win out,” he says.

The studies may reveal risks, too. Gamma oscillations are the type most likely to induce seizures in people with photosensitive epilepsy, says Dora Hermes, a neuroscientist at Stanford University in California. She recalls a famous episode of a Japanese cartoon that featured flickering red and blue lights, which induced seizures in some viewers. “So many people watched that episode that there were almost 700 extra visits to the emergency department that day.”

A brain boost

Nevertheless, there is clearly a growing excitement around treating neurological diseases using neuromodulation, rather than pharma-ceuticals. “There’s pretty good evidence that by changing neural-circuit activity we can get improvements in Parkinson’s, chronic pain, obsessive–compulsive disorder and depression,” says Insel. This is important, he says, because so far, pharmaceutical treatments for neurological disease have suffered from a lack of specificity. Koroshetz adds that funding institutes are eager for treatments that are innovative, non-invasive and quickly translatable to people.

Since publishing their mouse paper, Boyden says, he has had a deluge of requests from researchers wanting to use the same technique to treat other conditions. But there are a lot of details to work out. “We need to figure out what is the most effective, non-invasive way of manipulating oscillations in different parts of the brain,” he says. “Perhaps it is using light, but maybe it’s a smart pillow or a headband that could target these oscillations using electricity or sound.” One of the simplest methods that scientists have found is neurofeedback, which has shown some success in treating a range of conditions, including anxiety, depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. People who use this technique are taught to control their brainwaves by measuring them with an EEG and getting feedback in the form of visual or audio cues.

Phyllis Zee, a neurologist at Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois, and her colleagues delivered pulses of ‘pink noise’ — audio frequencies that together sound a bit like a waterfall — to healthy older adults while they slept. They were particularly interested in eliciting the delta oscillations that characterize deep sleep. This aspect of sleep decreases with age, and is associated with a decreased ability to consolidate memories.

So far, her team has found that stimulation increased the amplitude of the slow waves, and was associated with a 25–30% improvement in recall of word pairs learnt the night before, compared with a fake treatment7. Her team is midway through a clinical trial to see whether longer-term acoustic stimulation might help people with mild cognitive impairment.

Although relatively safe, these kinds of technologies do have limitations. Neurofeedback is easy to learn, for instance, but it can take time to have an effect, and the results are often short-lived. In experiments that use magnetic or acoustic stimulation, it is difficult to know precisely what area of the brain is being affected. “The field of external brain stimulation is a little weak at the moment,” says Knight. Many approaches, he says, are open loop, meaning that they don’t track the effect of the modulation using an EEG. Closed loop, he says, would be more practical. Some experiments, such as Zee’s and those involving neuro-feedback, already do this. “I think the field is turning a corner,” Knight says. “It’s attracting some serious research.”

In addition to potentially leading to treatments, these studies could break open the field of neural oscillations in general, helping to link them more firmly to behaviour and how the brain works as a whole.

Shadlen says he is open to the idea that oscillations play a part in human behaviour and consciousness. But for now, he remains unconvinced that they are directly responsible for these phenomena — referring to the many roles people ascribe to them as “magical incantations”. He says he fully accepts that these brain rhythms are signatures of important brain processes, “but to posit the idea that synchronous spikes of activity are meaningful, that by suddenly wiggling inputs at a specific frequency, it suddenly elevates activity onto our conscious awareness? That requires more explanation.”

Whatever their role, Tsai mostly wants to discipline brainwaves and harness them against disease. Cognito Therapeutics has just received approval for a second, larger trial, which will look at whether the therapy has any effect on Alzheimer’s disease symptoms. Meanwhile, Tsai’s team is focusing on understanding more about the downstream biological effects and how to better target the hippocampus with non-invasive technologies.

For Tsai, the work is personal. Her grandmother, who raised her, was affected by dementia. “Her confused face made a deep imprint in my mind,” Tsai says. “This is the biggest challenge of our lifetime, and I will give it all I have.”

Flash | League of Legends Wiki

Blinks your champion a short distance toward the target location.

Cooldown

300 seconds

Range

400 (Smart cast)

Breaks stealth

No

Summoner level

7

Availability
SR HA NB

Flash in action

Flash is a ground-targeted summoner spell that causes your champion to blink a short distance in the direction of the cursor.

Notes

  • Flash cannot be used while rooted, grounded, or unable to cast.
  • Flash additionally changes the user’s facing direction to be in the same direction they blinked.
  • With the Hextech Flashtraption rune, Hexflash replaces Flash when it’s on  cooldown.
  • Flash’s cast indicator shows a radius of 425 units.

Strategy

  • Flash can easily be used to escape from or catch up with a foe. It can be used to dodge or land abilities.
  • It can also be used to move over walls, either for a quick escape or in response to an opponent’s dash.
  • It is an extremely popular summoner spell due to the mobility it offers, and is especially vital on champions that entirely lack mobility abilities, such as Ashe or Cho’Gath.
  • Flash will not interrupt abilities that have a cast time attached to them like Ezreal’s Trueshot Barrage, or abilities that can be charged like Varus’ Piercing Arrow. This allows a champion to charge or cast an ability, then flash in for a surprise attack against enemies, as seen in the video below.
Summoner spell haste
Base cooldown ▶ 420s
()
300s
()
240s
()
210s
()
180s
()
90s
()
80s
()
20s
()
▼  Haste
12 () 375s 267.86s 214.29s 187.5s 160.71s 80.36s N/A 17.86s
18 () 355.93s 254.24s 203.39s 177.97s 152.54s 76.27s N/A 16.95s
30 ( ) 323.08s 230.77s 184.62s 161.54s 138.46s 69.23s N/A 15.38s
70 () N/A 176.47s 141.18s 123.53s 105.88s N/A 47.06s 11.76s
82 () N/A 164.84s 131.87s 115.38s 98.9s N/A 43.96s 10.99s
88 () N/A 159.57s 127.66s 111.7s 95.74s N/A 42.55s 10.64s
100 () N/A 150s 120s 105s 90s N/A 40s 10s

Trivia

  • Prior to being a summoner spell, the alpha items Blink Dagger and Yordle Stompers served the same function as Flash.
  • For a time, the inclusion of Flash in the game was hotly debated and Riot Games Inc. even considered removing it from the game entirely, with parts of the community for and against removal. As a result, it has suffered several nerfs.
  • You would need 49 Flash to go from one fountain to another, which would take 4 hours and 5 minutes.
  • The first icon for Flash was recolored blue for the icon for the Season 2011 mastery Blink of an Eye.

Media

  • Videos
  • Old Icons

Flash

Flash

Flash

Patch History

V7.22
  • Level requirement reduced to 7 from 8.
V4.16
  • Movement commands now persist after Flashing in the same direction you’re moving.
V4.2
  • New particles and sound.
V4.1
  • Icon updated.
V1.0.0.152
  • Cooldown increased to 300 seconds from 265 seconds.
  • Summoner’s Insight is now calculated after other Summoner Flash cooldown reductions.
V1.0.0.129
  • Cooldown increased to 265 seconds from 255 seconds.
  • Range reduced to 400 from 450.
V1.0.0.107
  • No longer pops projectiles.
  • Cooldown increased to 255 seconds from 240 seconds.
V1.0.0.103
  • No longer breaks stealth.
V1.0.0.100
  • Can no longer be cast while rooted.
V1.0.0.97
  • Flash now removes stealth when used.
V1.0.0.81
  • Range reduced to 425 from 450.
V1.0.0.75
  • Cooldown increased to 240 seconds from 210 seconds.
V1.0.0.72
  • Cooldown increased to 210 seconds from 195 seconds.
V1.0.0.70
  • Cooldown increased to 195 seconds from 180 seconds.
V1.0.0.63
  • Changed Flash’s targeting type so it no longer requires a location click; now it uses the location of the cursor.
  • Fixed a bug where attempting to cast Flash extremely far distances away would cause the champion to move, instead of teleporting in that direction.
V1.0.0.61
  • Range reduced to 450 from 1000.
  • Cooldown reduced to 180 seconds from 360 seconds.
  • Flash now pops incoming projectiles when used.
V0.8.22.115
  • Cooldown increased to 360 seconds from 330 seconds.
V0.8.21.110
  • Cooldown increased to 330 seconds from 300 seconds.
  • Cast range reduced by 100.
July 10, 2009 Patch
  • Cooldown increased to 300 seconds from 270 seconds.
June 26, 2009 Patch
  • Cancels channeled abilities upon casting (no more Absolute Zero hopping)
  • Blink of an Eye: Reduces the cooldown of Flash by 15 seconds.
June 12, 2009 Patch
  • Reworked
  • Reduced range to 800 from 900.
  • Changed functionality: Flash is now cast without the need of a target indicator (i.e. it is cast towards the position of your mouse pointer).
  • Flash will automatically flash to the furthest valid range in the direction it is cast at.
  • Flash no longer has a cast time (to 0 from 0.5).
May 9, 2009 Patch
  • Cooldown reduced to 210 seconds from 240 seconds.
May 1, 2009 Patch
  • Reduced cast time to 0.5 seconds from 0.75 seconds.
Alpha Week 5
  • Cooldown increased to 240 seconds from 210 seconds.
Alpha Week 4
  • Cooldown increased to 210 seconds from 150 seconds.

Summoner spells

Common

Barrier · Cleanse · Exhaust · Flash ( Hexflash) · Ghost · Heal · Ignite

Recall

Map-exclusive

ClarityH · Mark / DashH · TeleportS · SmiteS ( Challenging Smite · Chilling Smite)

Empowered RecallS

Featured Game Mode

Poro Toss / Poro DashH · To the King!H · Resuscitate · Warp

Removed

Blasting Smite · Clairvoyance · Enhanced Recall · Fortify · Garrison · Observer · Promote · Rally · Revive · Scavenging Smite · Stifle · Surge · Backtrack

Flashing Light Permits

Flashing Light Permits


Certain emergency or maintenance vehicles may be allowed to display lights other than those provided as standard on motor vehicles. These flashing lights are for the purpose of alerting other motorists of an emergency or maintenance situation. The display of these flashing lights on such emergency or maintenance vehicles requires a written permit from the Department of Motor Vehicles as specified in CGS Section 14-96q.

What to do:

  • Complete Flashing Lights and Siren Permit:

  • Permits can only be processed by mail.

Please mail the form and fee to:

 

Department of Motor Vehicles

60 State Street

Wethersfield, CT 06161

Attn: Specialized Registry Unit  

 

Please call DMV with any questions at (860) 263-5700. 

Frequently Asked Questions

What Vehicles are exempt from Flashing Light permits?

  • Vehicles owned or leased by the federal, state or municipal government.  

  • Wreckers with wrecker plates

  • Escort vehicles with out-of-state registration and DOT permits

What is the fee for a Flashing Light permit?

A fee of $20 is charged at time of application for each permit, and the annual renewal fee for each permit is $20.00. Flashing Light permits are not prorated.

What are the different colors combinations of Flashing Light permits?

  • Amber

  • Red

  • Red and White Light Combination

  • Red (stationary use only)

  • White

  • White headlamp/Amber Light Combination

What types of Flashing Light permits are not issued by DMV?

  • Blue Light

  • Green Light

  • White Headlamp

Do fire chiefs and CEOs of ambulance companies have to report issuing a Blue or Green light permit to DMV?

No.  Public Act 15-5 removed this requirement.  However, the fire department or ambulance company must keep a list of permits (Form E-215B & Form E-215G) they issued on file.  

What is an Amber Light Blanket permit?

This is for a company with ten or more vehicles. To apply, the company must send a list, along with a check, to the address listed below. The list must include the year, make, VIN number and marker number for all vehicles requiring the permit. The fee is calculated by multiplying the number of vehicles by $20.  Please note that although the agency keeps the information on file, the actual permits do not show specific vehicle information.

Where are the Flashing Light permits processed?

Application are processed by mail in the Specialized Registry Services Unit at the DMV office in Wethersfield. Although we do accept “drop-offs,” the application will not be processed while you wait.

When do Flashing Light Permits expire?

Flashing Light Permits can expire on 5 different dates throughout the year; January 31, March 31, June 30, September 30, and December 31.  Most Flashing Light Permits have a fixed expiration dates. Below are expiration months:

  • CEO and Asst. to CEO Amb. CO              January 31

  • All Amber Light Permits                             June 30

  • Fire Chiefs, Deputy or Asst. Fire Chiefs     June 30

  • Fire Marshals, Fire Police                          June 30

  • Directors of Emergency Management        Sept 30    

How do I renew my Flashing Light Permit?

  • Permits expire annually

  • Invitations to renew are mailed to customers about two months prior to expiration.

  • Any changes to vehicle information should have a photocopy of new vehicle’s registration.

  • Any changes to the purpose must have a new application and new authorized signature.

How do I change the vehicle on a Flashing Light Permit?

What if my permit is lost?

A replacement for a lost permit requires the completion of the appropriate Flashing Lights/Siren Permit form (E-215) (E-215ME) (E-215EV) and payment of $20.

Where can I obtain more information on the Connecticut Statues Pertaining to Flashing light permits?

Sec 14-96p – Special restrictions on lamps.  Flashing Lights. 
Sec 14-96q – Flashing or revolving lights.  Authorized use of blue or green lights.

90,000 Interesting facts about blinking | Luxoptica

Reflexively, the person blinks at intervals of 2 to 10 seconds. The defense mechanism works unconsciously: the eye is protected, regularly washed with tears and moisturized.

How much time do we spend with our eyes closed, when children start blinking, why sometimes people blink synchronously, and other interesting facts about blinking, read the Luxoptica blog.

How often to blink

Many wondered: how many times does a person blink on average? Ophthalmic studies state that a healthy person blinks 11-12 thousand times a day, more than 4 million times a year.But this is in a normal state: when we are anxious, excited or frightened, we blink more often – this is how the brain copes with information overload.

When we blink, our eyes are closed for only 0.3 seconds, it turns out that from 30 minutes to an hour a day our eyes are closed, not taking into account sleep.

Blinking and the Human Brain

Don’t worry, you are not missing out on something significant in this half hour.

Studying the human brain, Japanese researchers found that most often we blink “at the end” of something: during a pause in a conversation, reading – at the end of a sentence, when watching a movie or TV show – when changing a frame or scene.Blinking reboots nerve cells and signals renewed attention. So the chance to “miss” something significant is pretty small.

On the contrary, the blinking frequency drops when we perceive new important information or concentrate: we read, listen, draw, watch films, etc.

According to research from the Rome Institute of Neurology, we blink more often when we speak than we listen. But a person gives out deliberately false information, concentrating on lies, so he blinks less often.

How often children blink

It is important for parents to know how often the child should blink, because sometimes it seems to them that the baby blinks too rarely.

Newborns do this much less often than adults – about 2 times a minute. Perhaps this is due to the fact that babies sleep most of the time, or maybe they are just carefully studying the world around them. But you should not worry, the healthy eyes of the child are moisturized enough.Regular visits with the child to the optometrist will save you from possible problems. Visit your doctor regularly and feel free to ask questions.

The flashing frequency increases with age. By the age of 14-15, when children start blinking 10 times a minute, she is only half the size of an adult.

If you wear contact lenses

Modern contact lenses are hydrated and oxygenated to the cornea for a comfortable fit.Correctly selected lenses that suit you in all respects are not uncomfortable, do not feel or shift when you blink.

But lenses take some getting used to. Although the adaptation process is individual, ophthalmologists recommend moisturizing drops to restore tear fluid balance and comfortable blinking.

According to the doctor’s prescription, drops are used during the adaptation period and during further wear of the lenses in order to avoid dry eye syndrome. In addition, if you constantly use gadgets and at the same time blink less, concentrating on obtaining new information, then your eyes simply need an additional moisturizer.

How not to blink when putting on your lenses?

A person blinks if something approaches the eye – a protective mechanism is automatically triggered. The reaction to stimuli works the same way: too bright sudden light, wind, dust, etc. Those who start using contact correction sometimes face such a problem. Follow the recommendations of your ophthalmologist and lens hygiene:

  • Wear and remove lenses only with clean, dry hands;

  • pull and fix the eyelids with the fingers of your free hand;

  • use moisturizing drops and fresh multi-purpose lens cleaning solution.

It is easy to put on the lenses after training, and high-quality contact correction will not be a problem.

For especially sensitive eyes, at first, the doctor will advise anesthetic drops, but in no case should they be picked up on their own or used too long so as not to damage the lenses and eyes.

If it hurts to blink

Pain when blinking is a serious symptom, possibly a sign of ophthalmic pathologies, provoked by various factors:

  • overvoltage, for example, working at a computer;

  • mechanical damage to the eye;

  • hypothermia;

  • foreign bodies;

  • infections – viruses, microorganisms;

  • allergic reaction;

  • neurological disorders;

  • inflammatory processes: barley, abscess, conjunctivitis, etc.

What if it hurts to blink? Remember, only a doctor will determine the cause, diagnose and prescribe the correct treatment. Sign up for a diagnosis, you cannot rely on “it will pass by itself” or self-medicate. Take care of yourself and your eyes.

More Fun Facts About Blinking!

  • Studies show that women blink on average twice as often as men, although this is difficult to explain scientifically.And women who take contraception are 32 times more likely than usual.

  • All creatures blink except for fish, snakes and animals that have no eyelids. Hamsters blink one eye at a time; tropical monkeys in Sudan blink constantly and very quickly, and goats every 30-60 seconds; the toad cannot swallow with open eyes, and the rat only blinks when it sneezes.

  • You can’t sneeze without blinking.

  • No wonder they say “in the blink of an eye”: the annular muscle of the eye, which closes it, is the fastest and most active in the body. The upper eyelid lifter opens the eye, but the lower eyelid does not.

  • Inventor Robert Kearns took the principle of the blinking of the human eye as a basis, improving the performance of the windshield wiper: he patented the idea of ​​a time interval. So, car wipers do not move constantly, but with a delay, if necessary.

  • When watching a movie together, a group of people blink in unison. Subconsciously, we adjust our blinking so as not to miss anything important, so when watching a movie together, people miss the same “unimportant” moments.

7.4. Traffic light operating modes / ConsultantPlus

7.4. Traffic light operating modes

7.4.1. All traffic lights installed at one traffic light object (except for T.4 of any execution), must work in mutually agreed modes.

Any traffic light object included in the coordinated traffic control system must be able to work in an individual (backup) automatic mode, regardless of the operation of other traffic light objects.

7.4.2. For traffic lights T.1, T.3 of any version, T.2 and T.9, follow the sequence of switching on the signals: red – red with yellow – green – yellow – red … In this case, the duration of the signal “red with yellow” should not be more than 2 s, the duration of the yellow signal in all cases should be 3 s.If the estimated duration of the intermediate cycle exceeds the indicated values, then the duration of the red signal is increased by the time it exceeds. This requirement does not apply to controllers in service that cannot divide the intermediate cycle.

The following sequence of switching on signals is allowed: red – green – yellow – red … if the traffic light object is not included in the coordinated traffic control system.

7.4.3. Traffic light operating mode using traffic lights T.1, T.3 (any versions), T.2, T.8 and T.9 may provide for the green signal to flash for 3 s immediately before turning it off with a frequency of 1 blink / s (deviation from the specified frequency is allowed +/- 10%), for traffic lights A.1 and A.2 this mode is mandatory.

To inform drivers and pedestrians about the time remaining until the end of the green or red signal, it is allowed to use a digital display.

(as amended by Amendment No. 3, approved by Order of Rosstandart dated 09.12.2013 N 2221-st)

At pedestrian crossings, which are regularly used by blind and visually impaired pedestrians, in addition to traffic lights, sound alarms are used, operating in a coordinated manner with pedestrian traffic lights.

7.4.4. During the period of decreasing traffic intensity to values ​​less than 50% for conditions 1 and 2 according to 7.2.14, traffic lights T.1 and T.3 (any versions), T.2 and T.9 are switched to the yellow signal blinking mode with the frequency specified in 7.4.3 for green signal.

According to the traffic safety conditions, it is allowed to leave these traffic lights in the three-color signaling mode during the day.

7.4.5. The sequence of switching on the signals of traffic lights T.4, T.8 – alternating switching on of red and green signals, and for traffic lights T.4.zh – red, green and yellow signals in accordance with the regulation mode.

The sequence of switching on the signals of traffic lights T.5 is determined by the traffic organization scheme.

Traffic lights T.6, T.6.d, T.7 and T.10 should provide alternating switching on of two signals or blinking of one signal with the frequency specified in 7.4.3 for the green signal.

The sequence of switching on signals of pedestrian traffic lights: red – green – red … in accordance with the operating mode of the traffic light object.

7.4.6. When regulating traffic by traffic lights T.1.p, T.1.l and T.1.pl, the constant action of any combination of signals (for example, a red signal with a signal of an additional section) is unacceptable.

Open the full text of the document

Smoant Battlestar Baby

User Manual

This device is a complex technical device. Please read this manual before use.

Preparation for initial use.

  1. Remove the device from the packaging.
  2. Remove the cartridge from the product by pulling it up.
  3. Turn the cartridge over and remove the protective sticker that says “REMOVE!”.
  4. Remove the vaporizer from the cartridge by gently prying it with your fingernail or other object and pulling it up.
  5. Place 3-5 drops of liquid in the top opening of the evaporator, keeping it slightly tilted. If excess liquid appears at the bottom of the evaporator, wipe it off with a dry cloth.
  6. Install the evaporator back into the cartridge by inserting it into the hole and pushing it in until it stops.
  7. Open the silicone plug on the side of the cartridge.
  8. Insert the spout of the bottle into the hole under the plug and refill the cartridge. Close the silicone plug tightly after refilling and let the cartridge stand for 5 minutes.
  9. Insert the cartridge into the battery pack.
  10. The device is ready to use. The device is activated automatically when tightened.

Battery charging.

If the indicator light glows red during vaping, it means that the battery has less than 30% charge and needs to be charged soon.To charge the device, insert the supplied cable into the USB connector of a computer or charger, and connect the other end of the cable to the connector on the bottom of the battery pack. The indicator will blink smoothly while charging. When the charging process is complete, the indicator will turn blue. Do not use damaged cables or chargers for charging. Do not use chargers with voltages higher than 5 volts. If you are not sure about the characteristics of your charger, we recommend charging from the USB connector of a computer or laptop.However, the charging process may take longer.

Possible problems and solutions.

  1. Indicator blinks 3 times red . Short circuit on the evaporator or no contact with the evaporator. Remove the cartridge and wipe the evaporator contact with a dry cloth. Make sure the evaporator is installed correctly. If this does not help, try replacing the evaporator.
  2. The indicator light flashes red 5 times .Long-term tightening protection has triggered. If tightened for more than 8 seconds, the unit will cut off power to the evaporator.
  3. The indicator light flashes red 10 times . Low battery power. The device needs to be charged.
  4. The device produces little steam . Check the fluid level in the cartridge. If there is not enough fluid, refuel.
  5. Hot drops of liquid fall on lips and tongue .

a. The evaporator is overheated. Stop using the device for 10-15 minutes to cool down the vaporizer.

b. Evaporator oversaturated with liquid. Remove the evaporator and wipe it with a dry paper towel. Do not rinse the evaporator with water!

c. The liquid used is too thin. Try using a thicker liquid with a higher VG so that the evaporator does not become saturated with liquid and has time to evaporate.

d. The life of the evaporator has expired.The cotton has lost its absorbency and the evaporator must be replaced with a new one.

Precautions.

  1. Use only quality chargers and cables without damage.
  2. Do not immerse the device in water.
  3. Do not attempt to disassemble the device yourself, this will void the warranty. If you have any problems, please contact one of our stores.
  4. Do not expose the device to high or low temperatures.

Aviation engineer told why during takeoff in the plane the bulbs are blinking

https://ria.ru/20210917/puteshestviya-1750373122.html

takeoff in the plane, the lights are blinking – RIA Novosti, 09/17/2021

The aircraft engineer told why the lights flash on the plane during takeoff

The aircraft engineer explained why the window shade is asked to open during takeoff, why the engine “buzzes” and the lighting devices flash, reports Tutu …RU. RIA Novosti, 17.09.2021

2021-09-17T12: 59

2021-09-17T12: 59

2021-09-17T13: 59

tourism

news – tourism

passengers

aircraft

tourism

aviation

tutu.ru

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MOSCOW, September 17 – RIA Novosti. The aviation engineer explained why the window shutter is asked to open during takeoff, why the engine “buzzes” and the lighting devices flash, reports Tutu.ru. During takeoff, the engine can make a lot of noise, and this is the norm, explains a specialist with eleven years of experience. “This happens most often during climb. Since the plane is going against gravity, it needs more power to take off,” he says. The same happens when a liner flies through the clouds. “The logic is the same: it takes more effort to overcome the obstacle,” the expert explains.Passengers are often surprised by the flashing lights during takeoff. “At this moment, the source of electricity changes. First, the aircraft” takes power “from the ground station, and then switches to the auxiliary power unit, and the light in the cabin may flicker for a short time,” – says the specialist. Takeoff and landing is the most important part of the flight. The crew must see everything that happens outside (how the plane behaves, whether there are birds in the way). Passengers sometimes help with this. “The more eyes see the liner, the better.Therefore, the window shades must be lifted, “the expert notes. Still open windows allow you to adapt to the overboard lighting, which is especially important in an emergency landing. In this case, the reaction speed is of great importance, adds the aviation engineer.

https: // ria. ru / 20210916 / eniseyskayasibir-1749965503.html

RIA Novosti

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2021

RIA Novosti

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News

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news – tourism, passengers, planes, tourism, aviation, tutu.ru

MOSCOW, September 17 – RIA Novosti. The aircraft engineer explained why the window shutter is asked to be opened during takeoff, why the engine “buzzes” and the lighting devices flash, reports Tutu.ru.

During takeoff, the engine can make a lot of noise, and this is the norm, explains a specialist with eleven years of experience. “This happens most often during climb. Since the plane is going against gravity, it needs more power to take off,” he says.The same happens when a liner flies through the clouds. “The logic is the same: it takes more effort to overcome the obstacle,” the expert explains.

Passengers are often surprised by the flashing lights during takeoff. “At this moment, the source of electricity changes. First, the aircraft” takes power “from the ground station, and then switches to the auxiliary power unit, and the light in the cabin may flicker for a short time,” says the specialist.

Takeoff and landing is the most important part of the flight. The crew must see everything that happens outside (how the plane behaves, whether there are birds in the way).Passengers sometimes help with this. “The more eyes see the liner, the better. Therefore, the window shades must be lifted,” the expert notes.

When the windows are still open, it is possible to adapt to the overboard lighting, which is especially important in an emergency landing. In this case, the speed of the reaction is of great importance, the aeronautical engineer adds.

September 16, 08:00 Tourism Tour in Yenisei Siberia: places of power, gold of the Scythians and natural wonders

90,000 Indicator readings

Green / On simultaneously

  • Live images are output.
  • The camera is connected to a TV using an HDMI cable.

Green / Flashing simultaneously

The camera is taking photograph.

Green / Flashing simultaneously

Self-timer is counting down. The flashing lights will accelerate 2 seconds before shooting and stop after shooting (animated loop symbol shown for clarity).

Green / 2 simultaneous green flashes, then shutdown

Pairing complete (animated loop symbol shown for clarity).

Green / Flashing simultaneously (once every 5 seconds)

The camera is in standby mode for connection to a smart device (the camera can also be used as is).When the SnapBridge 360/170 app is launched on the paired smart device, the camera connection is restored.

Green / Flashing simultaneously (twice after 5 seconds)

The camera is in standby mode for connection to the remote control (the camera can also be used as is). When the paired remote control is turned on, the camera connection is restored.

Green / Blinking alternately

The camera is in pairing standby mode for a smart device.

Green / Fast blinking alternately

The camera is in pairing standby mode for the remote control.

Red / On simultaneously

The camera is recording movie in mode. Standard Movie .

Red / On simultaneously

The camera is recording a movie in Time Lapse mode. video , Loop recording or Time-lapse video (change from blinking 3 times to on state. Animated loop symbol shown for clarity).

Red / Flashing simultaneously

The camera is recording a movie.

Red / 6 simultaneous flashes in red, then shutdown

Pairing failed (animated loop symbol shown for clarity).

Red / Fast flash simultaneously

  • No memory card inserted.
  • Out of memory.
  • Live image output was stopped because the inside of the camera became hot during output.After the camera has cooled down, output will resume automatically.
  • The inside of the camera is hot. The camera turns off automatically. Allow the camera or battery to cool down before resuming operations.
  • Firmware update failed.

Red / green
Flashing simultaneously

The firmware is being updated.

How to fix screen flickering in Windows

Screen flickering in Windows 11 is usually caused by a problem with a screen driver or an incompatible application.To determine if a driver or application is causing the problem, check if the Task Manager is flickering. Then, based on this information, you will need to update, roll back or remove the driver, update or uninstall the application.

To learn more, select any of the following headings to display additional information:

Task manager flicker check

Press CTRL + ALT + DELETE to open the Task Manager.If the Task Manager is not displayed after pressing Ctrl + Alt + Delete , press Ctrl + Shift + Esc to open Task Manager.

Note: For help with flickering or scrambling screen on Surface Pro 4 screen, see this Surface Pro 4 What to do if your Surface screen is distorted, flickering, or has lines across it.

If you have problems viewing an image on the screen, you may need to start your computer in Safe Mode and follow the steps below.

Troubleshooting the video driver

If you recently installed updates to your device from Windows Update, roll back the video driver to a previous version. Alternatively, try updating or uninstalling your video driver to fix the screen flickering or distorted image on the screen.

Rollback video driver

  1. In the search box on the taskbar, type device manager and select it from the list of results.

  2. Click the arrow to expand section Display adapters .

  3. Under , Video Adapters, right-click the adapter and select Properties.

  4. Go to tab Driver and select Rollback > Yes .

  5. Restart the device.

Notes:

  • You must have administrator rights to roll back or uninstall a driver package through Device Manager.

  • If Rollback is not available, it means that Windows does not have a previous version of the driver to roll back to, and you will not be able to complete this process.

Video driver update

  1. In the search box on the taskbar, type device manager and select it from the list of results.

  2. Click the arrow to expand section Display adapters .

  3. Under , Video Adapters, right-click the adapter and select Update .

Note: To download the latest driver to your device, you may need to contact your computer or video adapter manufacturer.

Removing the video driver

  1. In the search box on the taskbar, type device manager and select it from the list of results.

  2. Click the arrow to expand section Display adapters .

  3. Under , Video Adapters, right-click the adapter and select Properties.

  4. Check the box Uninstall the driver software for this device and click OK .

  5. Restart the device and Windows will try to install the driver again.

Update or remove incompatible application

Application update

Uninstall application

Some applications may not be compatible with Windows 11 and may cause screen flickering or scrambling.Try to uninstall the app using the following steps.

  1. Select Start> Settings > Applications> Applications & . After a few minutes, the installed applications will be displayed.

  2. Scroll down the list and find the app you want to uninstall.

  3. Select it, then click Delete > Delete .If you are prompted to confirm your selection, select Yes .

After uninstalling the first application, restart your device and check if the screen is flickering or distorted. If the problem persists, uninstall all applications one by one until the problem is fixed.

Reinstall application

  1. Select Microsoft Store from the Start menu.

  2. Select Library .

  3. Select the application you want to reinstall, and then select Install .

If the app was downloaded from outside the Microsoft Store, reinstall it from the developer’s site.

Flickering on the screen in Windows 10 is usually associated with incorrect video drivers or incompatible applications. To determine if a driver or application is causing the problem, check if the Task Manager is flickering. Then, based on this information, you will need to update, roll back or remove the driver, update or uninstall the application.

To learn more, select any of the following headings to display additional information:

Task manager flicker check

Press CTRL + ALT + DELETE to open the Task Manager.If the Task Manager is not displayed after pressing Ctrl + Alt + Delete , press Ctrl + Shift + Esc to open Task Manager.

Note: For help with flickering or scrambling screen on Surface Pro 4 screen, see this Surface Pro 4 What to do if your Surface screen is distorted, flickering, or has lines across it.

If you have problems viewing an image on the screen, you may need to start your computer in Safe Mode and follow the steps below.

Troubleshooting the video driver

If you recently installed updates to your device from Windows Update, roll back the video driver to a previous version. Alternatively, try updating or uninstalling your video driver to fix the screen flickering or distorted image on the screen.

Rollback video driver

  1. In the search box on the taskbar, type device manager , and then select it from the list of results.

  2. Click the arrow to expand section Display adapters .

  3. Under , Video Adapters, right-click the adapter and select Properties.

  4. Go to tab Driver and select Rollback > Yes .

  5. Restart the device.

Notes:

  • You must have administrator rights to roll back or uninstall a driver package through Device Manager.

  • If Rollback is not available, it means that Windows does not have a previous version of the driver to roll back to, and you will not be able to complete this process.

Video driver update

  1. In the search box on the taskbar, type device manager , and then select it from the list of results.

  2. Click the arrow to expand section Display adapters .

  3. Under , Video Adapters, right-click the adapter and select Update .

Note: To download the latest driver to your device, you may need to contact your computer or video adapter manufacturer.

Removing the video driver

  1. In the search box on the taskbar, type device manager , and then select it from the list of results.

  2. Click the arrow to expand section Display adapters .

  3. Under , Video Adapters, right-click the adapter and select Properties.

  4. Check the box Uninstall the driver software for this device and click OK .

  5. Restart the device and Windows will try to install the driver again.

Update or remove incompatible application

Application update

Deleting application

Some applications may not be compatible with Windows 10 and may cause screen flickering or screen distortion.Try to uninstall the app using the following steps.

  1. Click the Start button , and then select Settings > Applications > Applications and Features . After a few minutes, the installed applications will be displayed.

  2. Scroll down the list and find the app you want to uninstall.

  3. Select it, then click Delete > Delete . If you are prompted to confirm your selection, select Yes .

After uninstalling the first application, restart your device and check if the screen is flickering or distorted. If the problem persists, uninstall all applications one by one until the problem is fixed.

Reinstall application

  1. On the taskbar, select the Microsoft Store icon .

  2. Select Learn More > My Library .

  3. Select the application you want to reinstall, and then select Install .

If the app was downloaded from outside the Microsoft Store, reinstall it from the developer’s site.

90,000 Topic 6.1. Traffic signals.

Classic three-section traffic light.

Any of us from childhood knows that a red traffic light prohibits movement, and now both drivers must stop at the stop line.

But not everyone knows how a modern “advanced” traffic light works, what signals it can have and how exactly they alternate.

A yellow was added to the red signal. After a couple of seconds, both of them will go out at the same time, and the green one will turn on.

On the exam at the traffic police you will be asked:

What does the combination of red and yellow traffic lights mean?

The answer should not cause you any doubts – a short combination of red and yellow signals informs drivers that the green signal will turn on soon.

Red with yellow went out, turned green, and you can move in all directions (unless indicated by signs or other times)

But do not rush to start moving. How many troubles and tragedies the author of these lines saw when the neighbors on the road blindly guided themselves to the green signal. And this is not just advice, this is a requirement of the Rules.

Rules. Section 13. Clause 13.8. When the permitting signal of the traffic light is turned on, the driver is obliged to give way to vehicles completing their movement through the intersection and pedestrians who have not finished crossing the carriageway of this direction.

That is, before starting the movement, you need to make sure whether those who have now lit up red have stopped.Someone may simply not have time to stop, but someone is in such a hurry that they are ready to slip through the intersection risking their lives (it would be fine only with their own, but also someone else’s).

Well, finally, the drivers on the crossing road stopped at their stop lines, and now you can start driving. We are still green.

Green burned out, burned out and blinked.

And again, at the exam in the traffic police, someone will definitely get this question:

What does the flashing green traffic light mean?

And again the answer is obvious – flashing green signal informs drivers that its time is running out and yellow will turn on soon.

Is it possible to move to the green flashing one? Do not hesitate, you can.It expires, but has not expired yet!

Another thing is that the green blinking will not be long – it will blink only three times and then go out.

Green goes out, but then yellow turns on. And this is what the Rules say about a lone yellow signal, in clause 6.2:

Yellow signal prohibits movement and warns of an impending change of signals.”

And here it is important for the driver to understand! If single yellow is on, then red will be next! That is, it will definitely be necessary to stop!

And now imagine that the yellow one turns on when there are 5-10 meters left to the stop line.At a speed of 60 km / h, you can only hold the car by applying emergency braking! And even then, you will have to stop at the intersection (having crossed the stop line and risking a blow from behind). Novice drivers often do this (they sharply brake to yellow), and if an aggressive “experienced driver” was driving behind, then a blow from behind is guaranteed to a beginner in this situation.

Meanwhile, the Rules prohibit sharp braking anywhere and everywhere (except for cases when it is necessary to prevent an accident):

Rules.Section 10. Clause 10.5. It is forbidden for the driver to brake sharply , unless it is required to prevent a road traffic accident.

That is, if the driver of the brown car now brakes sharply, he will violate the requirement of paragraph 10.5 of the Rules. And in the event of an accident, both will be to blame – the driver of the red car is to blame because he did not observe a safe distance, and the driver of the brown car is to blame because he unjustifiably brakes sharply.

The Rules treated this situation with understanding and allowed driving at the yellow traffic light (if it is no longer possible to stop smoothly before the stop line):

Rules. Section 6. Clause 6.14. Drivers who, when the yellow signal is turned on, cannot stop without resorting to emergency braking, are allowed to continue driving.

And you may also be asked about this on the exam: “Are you allowed to continue driving if, when the yellow traffic light turns on after the green one, you can stop in front of the intersection only by applying emergency braking?”

And here the answer should be absolutely clear to you – is allowed. Simply allowed, in any direction you need.

The lone yellow will not burn for long – in just a couple of seconds it will change to red, and the cycle will start over. But already at the red signal, drivers should definitely stop at the stop line.

Turning on the green signal opens movement in all directions.But at the same time, the general principle of safety has not been canceled:

– you can directly from all lanes;

– to the right – from the right lane;

– to the left and to the U-turn – from the left lane.

In which directions can the driver of the brown car continue to drive?

1. All.

2. Straight or right only.

In which directions can the driver of the red car continue to move?

1. In all.

2. Forward, left or reverse only.

But now special instructions are given by signs. And we remember that signs (or markings) that allow turning to the left also allow a U-turn.

But the U-turn must always be done from the leftmost lane!

In which directions can the driver of the brown car continue to drive?

1. Straight or left only.

2. Forward, left or reverse.

In which directions can the driver of the red car continue to move?

1. Left only.

2. To the left or in the opposite direction.

And that’s not all about traffic signals. If the traffic is not intense, then it is irrational to keep drivers at the stop lines, and the traffic light can be switched to the so-called yellow flashing light mode.

That is, red and green do not turn on at all, but only yellow is turned on all the time. Moreover, it does not just burn, but it blinks at a frequency of once a second. Here’s how this signal is said in the Rules:

Rules. Section 6. Clause 6.2. Yellow flashing light allows movement and informs about the presence of an unregulated intersection or pedestrian crossing.

In this situation, drivers must independently determine the sequence of passage, guided by the general principle of “interference from the right”.

In the collection of the traffic police there is a problem (shown below), solving which you are often mistaken. Some of you choose the third answer for some reason. Most likely, because they inattentively read the question. And the question says “with a yellow flashing traffic light”! And, therefore, this intersection has become unregulated. And, therefore, we must be guided by the signs of priority.

You intend to continue straight ahead. What is your response to a flashing yellow traffic light?

1. Only give way to a tram.

2. Give way only to the car.

3. Wait for the green traffic light to turn on and continue driving.

On the main road you and a passenger car, and it is an obstacle for you on the right – you need to give it way.

And the tram is on a secondary road, it will be the last to pass the intersection.

Traffic lights with an additional section (or with two additional sections).

The classic three-section traffic light can be equipped with an additional section (right or left) or two additional sections (right and left).

Such “rationalization” makes it possible to significantly increase the traffic capacity of the intersection, it is only important that drivers correctly understand the signals of such traffic lights.

And, first of all, you need to understand that movement in the direction of the arrow is allowed only when the additional section is turned on.

For example, right now traffic is open.

And only to the right and nowhere else!

Everyone who needs in other directions should stand and wait for the main green signal to turn on.

The main green light turned on, and note that the main green signal has black outline arrows.

This was not the case at a three-section traffic light, and for a traffic light with an additional section, the presence of contour arrows on the main green is a mandatory accessory!

Currently, movement is only permitted in the directions indicated by the outline arrows.

But now traffic is open in all directions.

1. At this intersection, traffic is always allowed only straight ahead.

2. At this intersection, traffic to the right and left is regulated by additional traffic light sections.

In which directions can the driver of the brown car continue driving?

1. Straight or left.

2. Straight only.

And what should he do if he needs to go to the right?

1. We’ll have to go to the next intersection.

2. You need to stand at the stop line and wait for the right arrow to turn on.

Now the traffic light allows you to turn left and turn around. But this can only be done by those in the left lane. The driver of a brown car with such traffic signals can only go straight.

Traffic lights designed to regulate traffic in certain directions.

Creative thought does not stand still, and the traffic organizers did not rest on the fact that they suggested adding additional sections to the traditional traffic light. If necessary, you can endow the classic three-section traffic light with additional functions without equipping it with additional sections.

You drive up to an intersection and you see three traffic lights instead of one (according to the number of lanes in your direction).

It should be assumed that the effect of each traffic light applies only to the lane over which it hangs. And since the red signal is on everywhere, it means that traffic from all lanes is prohibited.

Pupils. But why, instead of the usual round signal, are red arrows burning?

Teacher. This is done so that when approaching an intersection, drivers can move to the lane they need in advance.

And the same arrows will light up on the yellow signal, informing drivers in which directions they will be allowed to move from this lane when the green signal turns on.

Now traffic is allowed from all lanes.

NO!

It is necessary to adhere to those instructions that are dictated by arrows on traffic lights.

In which directions can the driver of the brown car continue to move?

1. Left only.

2. To the left or in the opposite direction.

In which directions can the driver of the blue car continue to move?

1. Straight or left.

2. Forward, left or reverse.

In which directions can the driver of the red car continue to move?

1. Right only.

2. The driver of the red car must stop at the stop line and wait for the green signal.

Traffic light with a flashing yellow signal.

The most dangerous intersections on the driver’s path are an unregulated pedestrian crossing and an unregulated intersection.At these intersections, drivers must independently determine the order of passage, guided by the relevant requirements of the Rules.

Traffic safety can be significantly increased by installing the simplest traffic lights with one yellow flashing signal at such intersections. Continuous flashing of the yellow signal informs the driver in advance about approaching an unregulated intersection or pedestrian crossing.

There was no traffic light at this intersection.We hung it here with the help of the graphics editor Photoshop.

But if he was really here, this accident, most likely, did not happen.

And these two-way traffic lights with a yellow flashing signal are not even superfluous at a pedestrian crossing.

Reversible traffic lights.

Until recently, roads with reverse traffic were almost exotic (although they were always in the Rules).

And today you can often see such a warning.

And here it is – a section of the road with reverse traffic.

There are corresponding markings on the carriageway (double dashed lines with long strokes), and reversible traffic lights hang above the lanes allocated for reverse traffic.

Now at all traffic lights, green arrows are on for us, and while they are on, these three lanes are given to move in our direction.

On this section of the road, only one lane is allocated for reverse traffic.And now a red cross is burning for us at the reverse traffic light. And, therefore, now the reverse lane is given to the drivers of the opposite direction.

In our country, right-hand traffic is accepted and, in principle, everyone understands that, when freeing the reverse lane, you need to rebuild to the right.

Nevertheless, the Rules also provided for a three-section reversing traffic light – a yellow arrow, firstly, informs about the upcoming signal change, and, secondly, shows drivers where to change lanes, freeing up the reversing lane.

Now it is time for the driver of the blue jeep to turn on the right direction indicators and immediately change lanes to the right. At the next reverse traffic light, the red cross will already be on.

Traffic lights for regulating traffic at level crossings.

To regulate traffic at level crossings, the Rules have provided for as many as three types of traffic lights.

It can be either one red signal flashing once per second.

Or two alternately flashing red signals.

Or the signal can be switched on with two red colors , it also flashes once per second.

And now let’s see what the Rules say about this:

Rules. Section 6. Clause 6.9. A round moon-white flashing light located at a level crossing allows vehicles to cross the level crossing. When the flashing white-moon and red signals are off, movement is allowed if there is no train (locomotive, railcar) approaching the crossing within sight.

That is, if one red signal flashes or two red signals flash alternately, driving through the crossing is prohibited.

If the lunar white signal is flashing, movement through the crossing is permitted.

If nothing is blinking, crossing the level crossing is also permitted. BUT! Not just allowed. First, the driver must make sure that there is no (within sight!) Of an approaching train. And if there is one, then movement through the crossing is prohibited.

In conclusion, we note that GOST allows the use of ordinary traffic lights at a railway crossing.

Four-section traffic light with moon-white signals.

The use of such traffic lights makes it possible to organize conflict-free movement of route vehicles at intersections.We are talking about trams, as well as buses and trolleybuses, if they move on a lane specially designated for them.

Now all four white-moon signals are on at the traffic lights and, therefore, the tram (bus, trolleybus) can move in all directions.

If the lower signal and the upper left are on, the tram (bus, trolleybus) is allowed to move to the left.

If the lower signal and the middle upper signal are on, the tram (bus, trolleybus) is allowed to move straight ahead.

If the lower signal and upper right signal are on, the tram (bus, trolleybus) is allowed to move to the right.

If the lower signal is off, then the tram (bus, trolleybus) is turned on “brick” – entry to the intersection is prohibited.

Now the tram is allowed straight or left, and we are allowed straight or right.

Indeed, conflict-free movement.

Now the tram is allowed straight or to the right, and we will stand at the stop line.

Again, no conflict.

But now the tram will stand, but we can go in all directions.

And again, no conflict.

In what case can such a traffic light be used to regulate the movement of buses and trolleybuses?

1.

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