Fang pictures: Fang Bo Pictures, Photos & Images


Fast Facts About The Chinese ‘Honey Trap’ Spy Who Infiltrated America

Who is Christine Fang? The fetching Asian beauty may seem to be just a pretty face upon first perusal, but she’s actually far more than that.

Fang (also known in her home country as Fang Fang) is suspected of being a Chinese intelligence operative who managed to worm her way into the confidences of various U.S. politicians, including most recently an unidentified Ohio mayor. She’s also slithered into the businesses of a number of powerful Democratic California congress, earning her the badge of “honey trap spy” … as well the attentions of a yearlong investigation by Axios, who claim she had romantic or sexual relationships with these players as part of a plot to get intel on the American political stage.

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While this is undoubtedly a twisted and complicated tale, OK! has put together a handful of fast facts about whom this devious beauty has been aligning herself with, to prime anyone who’s not familiar with Fang’s allegedly nefarious skills for putting herself in the thick of American politics. While the midwestern mayor remains under speculation, there are plenty of influential Californians she’s managed to sink her claws into…with photographic proof!

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Read on to get a quick orientation.

Fang and Representative Eric Swalwell


One of the “honey trap” spy’s main targets was Representative Eric Swalwell, a Democrat from California and anti-Trump activist, who by his own admission did nothing amiss, will not admit to sexual relations with Fang, and cut ties with her in 2015. She reportedly managed to plant at least one intern into his office, however.

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Fang and Representative Judy Chu


Another California politician Fang was seen with was Democrat Judy Chu, a representative for one of California’s powerful Los Angeles-area districts. Having enrolled herself Cal State East Bay back in 2011, Fang used her time as a student to ingratiate herself into state politics and reportedly assisted with Chu’s campaign.

Fang and Fremont City Councilmember Raj Salwan (left) and Representative Ro Khanna


Fang also was seen cozying up to two powerful Northern California politicians, proving that if she is indeed a spy, she has the most populated state in the USA well covered, from the north end to the south.

Fang and Ash Kalra and Mike Honda


Fang is all smiles for the camera posing with Ash Kalra, who reps California’s wealthy Silicon Valley, as well as Mike Honda, a Californian who served in Congress for 16 years.

A SECOND Democratic congressman cuts ties to Fang Fang at same time as Eric Swalwell’s family 

California Representative Ro Khanna is no longer friends with Chinese spy ‘Christine’ Fang Fang on Facebook as of Thursday after a Wednesday report revealed he still had ties to her after it came out she was a spy for CCP.

Khanna’s unfriending also came after fellow California congressman Eric Swalwell’s father and brother unfriended the Chinese honeytrap from Facebook as of Thursday morning.

The Swalwell family finally cut ties with Fang five years after the congressman was warned she was a spy targeting him and other Bay area Democrats.

After reported Wednesday that Swalwell’s father, also named Eric, and brother, Joshua, were still friends interacting with Fang on Facebook, the two ended their friendship status.

From Wednesday eventing to Thursday morning, Fang’s Facebook friends went from 90 to 81.

Also absent from her friend list Thursday morning following reports of the continued ties are Khanna, who represents California’s 17th district, and former Mayor of Little Rock, Arkansas Mark Stodola, among other Democratic figures.

Axios reported Monday that as part of a year-long investigation they found that Fang, posing as a Democratic fundraiser and befriending those in the Party between 2011 and 2015, was actually a Chinese spy. They also reported that, according to FBI eavesdroppers, she slept with at least two unidentified mayors from the midwest.

Swalwell refuses to say if he had sex with Fang, claiming it’s a matter of national security that he not share more details of their relationship.

As the FBI investigated Fang and her infiltration efforts, she fled the country.

Swalwell, 40, insisted he cut ties with the honeytrap spy in 2015, after he was briefed by intelligence officials on Fang’s behavior and activities.

California Rep. Eric Swalwell’s brother Joshua (left) and father Eric (right) have unfriended Chinese spy Fang Fang – or Christine Fang – on Facebook five years after the congressman was warned of her ties to the Chinese Communist Party

On Wednesday, reported that Fang was still friends with Swalwell’s father, Eric Sr., and brother, Joshua, on Facebook

As of Thursday morning, the Swalwell’s no longer appear on Fang’s friend list, which shrunk from 90 to 81 overnight

Swalwell said he completely severed ties with Fang after a briefing on her in 2015, but his father liked a headshot style image Fang posted to her Facebook on March 12 of this year

Fang also liked a video posted by Joshua Swalwell featuring his brother in 2016, a year after Swalwell said he cut ties

In the video, Joshua and Eric are seen on screen in selfie-mode talking to each other about turning 35

California Rep. Ro Khanna, who was also friends with Fang up until Wednesday, no longer appears on her Facebook friends list as of Thursday morning

In November 2016, however, Fang was one of the 44 people who liked a video posted by Swalwell’s brother Joshua on Facebook of him and the congressman together.

His father also liked a headshot style photo Fang posted to Facebook on March 12, 2020 and another from March 2019.

Eric Sr. and Joshua finally ended their Facebook friendship with Fang following Wednesday reports of their ongoing social media interaction with the Chinese spy who targeted Rep. Swalwell among other Democratic politicians.

Swalwell demanded Wednesday that there be an investigation into who leaked his relationship with Fang, who he is accused of having sex with while she worked as a Communist honeytrap.

The former presidential candidate claimed his relationship with Fang was leaked while he was involved with impeaching President Donald Trump and that classified information was being ‘weaponized’ against him.

Swalwell, who represents a Bay area district and sits on the House Intelligence and Judiciary Committee, has refused to confirm or deny sleeping with Fang before he was tipped off in 2015 that she was a Chinese agent.

She fled the country as the FBI investigated her and her infiltration efforts which also saw her become friendly with other California politicians and have sex with two mayors from the midwest, with the encounters caught by FBI eavesdroppers.

Swalwell’s friendship with Fang was seized on by the president’s son Don Jr. who accused the Democrat of both sleeping with her and being a hypocrite for accusing him and his father of colluding with Russia.

But the Democrat said he was the victim – and suggested his high-profile pursuit of Trump was the reason he was targeted with the leak.

‘I hope it is investigated into who leaked this information,’ Swalwell told CNN on Wednesday morning. Axios, which first revealed the story, said it had been investigating it since 2019.

‘At the same time this story was being leaked out is the time that I was working on impeachment on the House Intelligence and Judiciary Committees,’ the California Democratic representative said. 

Swalwell told CNN Wednesday that he wants an investigation into who leaked the information regarding his relationship with the Chinese honeytrap spy. He claims the timing is questionable

Eric Swalwell was just one of the California Democrats Fang had a relationship with. He refuses to say whether that relationship was sexual, claiming it’s ‘classified’

Fang was in the United States from 2011 to 2015 posing as a Democratic fundraiser got close to Swalwell and several others



Fang – if that is her real name – arrived in the U.S. as a Chinese national student at Cal State East Bay in 2011 as an undergraduate – although she appeared to be in her late 20s or early 30s. She became president of the Chinese Student Association then used her position to become part of the area’s Democratic political scene.


Sometime in 2012, although exactly how is unclear but she was almost ubiquitous at political events – not just Democratic ones – in the Bay area between 2013 and 2015. Swalwell won his district in 2013, and before that was a member of the Dublin City Council. Pictures of them together are all at political events in the Bay area.


He refuses to say, saying their relationship is a matter of national security. If the FBI was following her and bugging her, they may have a good idea of whether the two did or not – but they could not legally have eavesdropped on him as a congressman, and if they did so intentionally, that would be a major breach of the law. Swalwell was divorced from his first wife by 2012 and married his second wife, Brittany Watts, in 2016.


Fang seems to have been monitored since she was a student but exactly when the FBI surveillance operation started is unknown. It is known that she had contact with a suspected Chinese intelligence officer stationed at its San Francisco consulate. Diplomatic communications are routinely monitored.


Fang had sex with two unnamed mayors, one of an ‘obscure’ Ohio city (anywhere with a population of more than 5,000 in Ohio is a city) and one an ‘older’ mayor from the midwest. They had sex in a car but he claimed he was teaching her English. Both encounters were overheard by the FBI. She is also Facebook friends with current and former mayors and attended get-togethers for urban leaders.


It is unclear but counter-intelligence operations by the FBI are often intended to simply disrupt enemy spying and get them out of the country. Fang seems to have known she was compromised when she vanished in 2015.


So far the leaked FBI investigation and Swalwell’s own account is clear that he acted properly, cutting ties with her when the FBI told her she was a danger to national security. However her lingering presence in his family’s Facebook friendship circuit must raise questions about the extent to which he cut ties.


The FBI keeps its secrets close to its vest and disrupting a spy who was targeting at least two members of Congress would have been a major coup for its counter-intelligence agents. Letting China know just how much the agency had come to understand of Fang’s activities in her four years in the U.S. helps them hone their espionage in future to make it more difficult to detect.

‘And if this is a country where people who criticize the president are going to have law enforcement information weaponized against them, that’s not a country that any of us want to live in.’   

Swalwell said he first became aware that Axios was looking into Fang’s activities in July 2019, around the time he was ending his brief bid for the Democratic presidential nomination – during which he was a strong critic of the president.

While Fang interacted with other current members of the House – including Hawaii Democratic Representative Tulsi Gabbard, another who made a presidential bid, and Khanna – Swalwell believes the information was leaked to specifically target him.

‘I’ve been a critic of the president. I’ve spoken out against him. I was on both committees that worked to impeach him,’ the California congressman told Politico on Tuesday. ‘The timing feels like that should be looked at.’

‘What it appears though that this person — as the story reports — was unsuccessful in whatever they were trying to do,’ Swalwell said of Fang.

‘But if intelligence officials are trying to weaponize someone’s cooperation, they are essentially seeking to do what this person was not able to do, which is to try and discredit someone,’ he said.

Swalwell said he is not compromised by his relationship with Fang, and says the controversy would not cost him his seat on the Intelligence Committee.

‘As the story referenced, this goes back to the beginning of the last decade, and it’s something that congressional leadership knew about it,’ Swalwell told Politico.  

The congressman has refused to say whether he had a sexual relationship with the Chinese honeytrap spy, despite reports others had such a relationship with Fang, and he blames Trump for the revelations being leaked now. 

Meanwhile, Donald Trump Jr. claimed they had a sexual relationship and described Swalwell as a ‘threat to national security’.  

Swalwell is the most high-profile figure to be swept up in the bombshell story of Fang, who between 2011 and 2015 targeted rising political stars in the Bay Area and across the country who seemed destined for nationally important roles. 

Swalwell is currently a member of the House Intelligence Committee, and played a high-profile role in the impeachment of Donald Trump. 

Fox News’ Tucker Carlson said Tuesday night that he asked Swalwell’s office about rumors of a sexual relationship between himself and Fang.

‘His staff replied by saying that they could not comment whether Swalwell had a sexual relationship with Fang, because that information might be, quote, classified. ‘ 

He described Fang as being Swalwell’s ‘companion’ who helped fundraise for him, and secure the support of the Asian American community in his constituency.

Swalwell was single at the time of Fang’s mission in the United States, and did not marry his wife Brittany until 2016.

Fang met Swalwell in 2012, when her cover was a student in the Bay Area and became involved in activism and politics, moving on to fundraise.  

Swalwell’s office gave a similarly opaque answer when asked on Monday by Axios – which spent a year investigating Fang – about his relationship with her. 

Intelligence agencies were so concerned about Fang’s involvement in Swalwell’s office that they organized a briefing for Swalwell, and he said after that briefing he severed ties with her immediately. 

She vanished not long after, presumably back to China.  

The Axios story mentions nothing about Swalwell’s sex life, although it features images of him with Fang at events. 

It also cited a current U. S. official saying Fang had a sexual encounter with an Ohio mayor in a car while it was under FBI surveillance. 

Fang and Swalwell were frequently together, with her serving as a fundraiser for him

Donald Trump Jr. discussed Swalwell’s involvement with Carlson, and claimed he is a ‘national security threat’

Swalwell, a member of the House Intelligence Committee and a fierce critic of Trump, is pictured with Fang at one of their numerous social engagements


Fang targeted rising political stars in the Bay Area using her cover as a student

There was more at play than romantic chemistry with the unidentified mayor. 

Asked why Fang was interested in the mayor, he said she wanted to improve her English, the official told the outlet. 

Don Jr. tweeted a clip of Swalwell warning of the dangers of potential election interference, where he blasted the administration for ‘false equivalence’ between threats by China, Iran, and Russia – which interfered in 2016.

‘It’s all starting to make sense!!!’ quipped the president’s eldest son.

‘It’s the democrat playbook to accuse others of doing all the things you’re actually doing. This should be no surprise anymore,’ he said in another tweet.

What Are FANG Stocks And Should You Invest In Them? Plus, Why They’re Sometimes Called FAANG Stocks

To the victors go the spoils, the saying goes. That certainly holds true with internet companies, where several definite winners have emerged, namely the FANG stocks.


Facebook (FB) dominates in online social networking and social media. (AMZN) rules the markets for e-commerce and cloud-computing infrastructure. Netflix (NFLX) has taken a huge lead in subscription video on demand. And Alphabet‘s (GOOGL) Google is the king of internet search.

The four household names are plays on some of the hottest technology trends, including cloud computing, streaming media, smart homes and artificial intelligence.

CNBC’s “Mad Money” host Jim Cramer coined the acronym FANG in 2013 to collectively refer to the four high-growth internet stocks.

The term caught on in part because headline writers love playing with the word. Some examples: “The FANG Stocks Bite Back” and “FANGs Retracted: Netflix, Other Top Nets Lose Bite.”

What Does FANG Stand For In Stocks?

  • Facebook
  • Amazon
  • Netflix
  • Google

Take the first letter of each stock and you get FANG.

In October 2015, Google restructured and placed its legacy business under an umbrella corporation called Alphabet Inc. Alphabet is now the parent company of Google and subsidiaries like Chronicle, Verily and Waymo.

But investors stuck with the acronym FANG rather than switch to FANA. Headline writers couldn’t do much with the latter.

Who Are The FAANG Stocks?

  • Facebook
  • Amazon
  • Apple
  • Netflix
  • Google

Some Wall Street pundits couldn’t leave well enough alone and decided to add Apple (AAPL) to the FANG stocks. This group has the ungainly name FAANG. Some have taken to calling FAANG stocks the FANG+ or FANG Plus stock group.

While Apple is a U.S. technology giant like the other stocks, it gets most of its revenue from hardware such as iPhone, iPad and Mac computers. Still, one growth driver of late has been internet cloud-based services including the App Store, iCloud, Apple Pay, Apple Music, Apple TV+ and Apple Arcade.

Other FANG Variants Suggested

Beyond FAANG stocks, other variations on FANG have been proposed.

In June 2017, Goldman Sachs coined the abbreviation FAAMG for Facebook, Amazon, Apple, Microsoft (MSFT) and Google.

Then, in October 2017, Bank of America suggested adding chipmaker Broadcom (AVGO) and digital media and marketing software firm Adobe (ADBE) to the FANG stocks to create FAAANG.

In July 2018, the Financial Times proposed a stock group called MAGA as a nod to U.S. President Donald Trump’s slogan, “Make America Great Again. ” The group included Microsoft, Apple, Google and Amazon.

Trump drew attention to the MAGA group at a media briefing in February 2020. He referred to the companies as the “Trillion Dollar Group” for each having reached a valuation over $1 trillion.

In August 2018, Cramer suggested that maybe WANG might be a new group to watch. WANG includes Walmart (WMT), Apple, Netflix and Google.

In May 2019, two Wall Street analysts proposed adding ride-hailing firm Uber Technologies (UBER) to the FAANG stocks list. However, they couldn’t decide where the U would go.

In October 2019, Cramer suggested that Netflix be removed from FANG and replaced with Microsoft. He suggested the name FAAM, CNBC reported. Presumably, the name would use Alphabet instead of Google.

In June 2020, brokerage firm Baird said it preferred the WASP basket of e-commerce stocks to the FANG group. WASP includes Wayfair (W), Amazon, Shopify (SHOP) and PayPal (PYPL).

Is There A FANG ETF?

There is no exchange traded fund dedicated solely to the four FANG stocks, though some are heavily weighted to the group.

First Trust Dow Jones Internet (FDN) is one such FANG-themed ETF. It seeks to track with the performance of the Dow Jones Internet Index. That index selects stocks with a three-month average market capitalization of at least $100 million and other liquidity measures. The Dow Jones Internet Index is weighted by market cap, so FANG stocks top the index.

In 2017, First Trust Dow Jones Internet raced 37.6% higher. But in 2018, it rose just 6.2% after tech stocks fell late in the year. In 2019, it increased 19.3%, but that compares with 28.9% for the S&P 500 and 35.2% for the Nasdaq.

Last year, the ETF rocketed 52.6%. In comparison, the Nasdaq index rose 43.6% in 2020, besting the 16.3% gain by the S&P 500 and 7.2% advance by the Dow.

So far this year through June 15, First Trust Dow Jones Internet is up 10.

4%. Meanwhile, the Dow is up 11% and S&P 500 is up 12.3%. The tech-heavy Nasdaq index is up 8.6% year to date.

Should You Invest In FANG Stocks?

The FANG stocks have been a mixed bag lately.

Facebook stock broke out of a 31-week consolidation period at a buy point of 304.77 on April 5, according to IBD MarketSmith charts. It hit an all-time high of 339.92 in intraday trading on June 15.

Amazon stock hit a record high of 3,554 on April 30 after a 34-week consolidation period. But it quickly reversed. Since then, it has formed a cup base with a buy point of 3,554.10, based on IBD trading principles. Amazon stock finished the regular session June 15 at 3,383.13.

Netflix stock reached an all-time high of 593.29 on Jan. 20 after posting better-than-expected fourth-quarter results. However, it has been drifting downward since then. Netflix stock closed the regular session June 15 at 491.90.

Google stock broke out of a flat base at a buy point of 2,431. 48 on June 10. It notched a record high of 2,455.51 intraday on June 15.

How To Find The Best Stocks

As always, investors need to do their homework and rely on hard data, not hunches. Look for stocks with strong sales and earnings growth and with charts forming proper bases under the right market conditions. Check out the links at the bottom of this article for analysis on each of the FANG stocks.

To find the best stocks to buy and watch, check out IBD’s Stock Lists page. More stock ideas can be found on IBD’s Leaderboard, MarketSmith and SwingTrader platforms.

Consult the IBD University for how to get started trading stocks.

New Challenges For FANG Group

The companies in the FANG group are facing a host of pressures now. and Google have come under regulatory scrutiny for possible anti-competitive business practices. Facebook and Google have been criticized for lack of data privacy and security. And Netflix is confronting a flurry of new competitors in streaming video as well as a heavy debt load associated with content production.

Facebook is under pressure to moderate its platform better to weed out hate speech, fake news and other unwanted content.

Follow Patrick Seitz on Twitter at @IBD_PSeitz for more stories on consumer technology, software and semiconductor stocks.


FB Stock Still A Buy? Facebook Looks To Join $1 Trillion Club

Is Amazon Stock A Buy Right Now? Here’s What Earnings, Charts Show

Is Netflix Stock A Buy Ahead Of Its Second-Quarter Earnings Report?

Is Google Stock A Buy? Internet Search Giant Could Finally Be Best FANG Stock In 2021

Looking For More Market Insights? Check Out Our Daily IBD Live Segment!

Tooth Anatomy – Gosford, Experienced Dentists: VC Dental

How many teeth do you have? What are the different types of teeth and what are their functions? What do they look like? What are teeth made of? Read on to find out.

Adult teeth

Adult teeth are also called permanent or secondary teeth.

When do permanent teeth start coming through (erupting)?

Primary (baby) teeth are usually replaced by adult teeth between the ages of 6 and 12. By 12 years of age, most children should have a full set of permanent teeth, except for wisdom teeth.

Teeth tend to erupt in parallel, so for example, the top molar on the left side should grow in at about the same time as the top molar on the right.

How many teeth do we have, and what are their different types and functions?



The permanent dentition consists of 32 teeth. This is made up of four incisors, two canines (or cuspids), four premolars (or bicuspids), four molars and two wisdom teeth (also called third molars) in each jaw. If wisdom teeth have been removed there will be 28 teeth.

The incisors are the middlemost four teeth on the upper and lower jaws. They are used for cutting, tearing and holding food. The biting section of an incisor is wide and thin, making a chisel-shaped cutting edge.

The canines (or cuspids, meaning a tooth with a single point) are on either side of the incisors. They are for holding and tearing food.

Premolars (bicuspids) and molars have a series of elevations (points or ‘cusps’) that are used for breaking up particles of food. Each premolar generally has two cusps, hence the name bicuspid. They are used for holding and crushing food.

Molars are the flat teeth at the rear of the mouth. Each molar typically has four or five cusps. They are used exclusively for crushing and grinding.

Wisdom teeth are also called third molars. They erupt from the age of 18 onwards but are often surgically removed.

How many roots does each tooth have?

The number of roots for each type of tooth varies. Typically incisors, canines and premolars will have one root whereas molars will have two or three.

What do my teeth look like?

Our diagrams and images below will show you what the crown and roots of your Incisor, Canine (Cuspid), Premolar (Bicuspid) and Molar teeth look like in each jaw:

Incisor teeth:

You have four incisor teeth (2x central and 2x lateral incisors) in each jaw. They look like this:


Canine teeth:

You have two canine (or cuspid) teeth in each jaw. They look like this:


Premolar teeth:

You have four premolar (or bicuspid) teeth in each jaw. They look like this:


Molar teeth:

You have six molars in each jaw. These are made up of four molars (‘first’ and ‘second’ molars), and two wisdom teeth (also called ‘third molars’). They look like this:



What are teeth made of?

The diagram below shows a cross sectional view of a tooth.

Crown, Root and Neck:

The tooth has two anatomical parts, the crown and the root.

The crown of a tooth is the top part that is exposed and visible above the gum (gingiva). It is covered with enamel, which protects the underlying dentine.

The root of a tooth descends below the gum line, into the upper or lower jawbones, anchoring the tooth in the mouth. Different types of teeth have a different number of roots and root formations. Typically incisors, canines and premolars will have one root whereas molars will have two or three.

The neck is the dividing region of tooth at the gum line, where the crown meets the root.


The crown of each tooth is covered with enamel, which protects the underlying dentine. Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body, even harder than bone. This is because it is the most mineralised substance in the body, made up of crystalline calcium phosphate (Hydroxylapatite). It is as hard as crystal.

Enamel is the only tissue that has no living cells. Because it is not alive, it can’t repair itself from decay or damage.

Gingiva (Gum):

The gingiva is the pink soft tissue that we call our gums. It protects the jaw (alveolar) bone and roots of the teeth, and covers the neck of each tooth.


Dentine forms the major component of each tooth, and extends almost the entire length of the tooth. It is a living tissue, softer than enamel with a structure similar to bone. In contrast to the brittle nature of enamel, dentine is elastic and compressible. It is sensitive, and is protected by enamel on the crown portion and cementum on the roots. It is nourished by the pulp.

Pulp Chamber:

The pulp chamber is the innermost portion of the tooth, lying beneath the dentine and extending from the crown to the tip of the root. The pulp chamber holds the pulp, which is made up of soft tissue. It contains blood vessels to supply blood and nutrients to the tooth to keep it alive, and nerves to enable the tooth to sense temperature. It also contains small lymph vessels carrying white blood cells to the tooth to help fight bacteria.


The cementum is a layer of hard tissue that covers the root of the tooth. It is roughly as hard as bone but considerably softer than enamel. The connective tissues attach to the periodontal ligament, and through this bind the roots of the tooth to the gums and jaw (alveolar) bone.

Root Canal/ Pulp Canal:

The root canal (also called the pulp canal) is the open space inside the root where the pulp extends from the pulp chamber. Blood vessels and nerves from surrounding outside tissue enter the pulp through the root canal.

Periodontal Ligament:

The periodontal ligament is comprised of bundles of connective tissue fibres. One end of each bundle is attached to the cementum covering the root of the tooth. The fibres on the other end anchor the tooth root to the jaw (alveolar) bone and act as shock absorbers, allowing the tooth to withstand the forces of biting and chewing.

Accessory Canal:

Accessory canals are smaller channels that branch off from the main root canal through the dentine to the periodontal ligament. They are usually found near the root end of the tooth (apex). They supply blood vessels and nerves to the pulp.

Apical Foramen:

The apical foramen is the tiny opening at the tip of each root. This is what blood vessels and nerves from surrounding outside tissue pass through to enter the tooth.

Alveolar bone:

The alveolar bone is the jaw bone that surrounds and supports the root of the tooth. It contains the tooth sockets within which the tooth roots are embedded.



Children’s teeth:

Children’s deciduous teeth are also called baby, milk or primary teeth. They are the first set of teeth we receive and will eventually fall out and be replaced with a second set.

When do the first teeth start coming through?

Primary teeth start to form when the baby is in the womb, but start to come through the gums (erupt) when the child is between 6 – 12 months old. Children should have their complete set by 3 years old.

Teeth tend to erupt in parallel, so for example the top molar on the left side should grow in at about the same time as the top molar on the right.

How many teeth do children have, and what are their different types and functions?

The primary set of teeth consists of 20 teeth.

These are made up of: four incisors, two canines and four molars in each jaw.

Incisors bite pieces of food, canines hold and tear food apart and molars grind food.

The diagram below shows where the teeth grow in the mouth:


In adult dentition (the second set of teeth) the 8 primary molars are replaced by the premolar (or bicuspid) teeth. The 12 adult molars erupt (grow up from the gums) behind the primary teeth and do not replace any; giving a total of 32 teeth. The adult dentition is therefore made up of four incisors, two canines, four premolars and six molars in each jaw.

When do children start losing their primary teeth?

Primary teeth are usually replaced by adult teeth between the ages of 6 and 12.

How are primary teeth different from permanent (adult) teeth?

Primary teeth are smaller, have more pointed cusps and are a whiter colour than permanent teeth. They also have thinner enamel and dentine so are more prone to wear, and have relatively large pulp chambers and small delicate roots.

What are my child’s teeth made of?

Crown, Root and Neck:

The tooth has two anatomical parts, the crown and the root.

The crown is the top part that is exposed and visible above the gum (gingiva). It is covered with enamel, which protects the underlying dentine.

The root of a tooth descends below the gum line anchoring the tooth in the mouth.

The neck is the dividing region of tooth at the gum line, where the crown meets the root.


The crown of each tooth is covered with enamel, which protects the underlying dentine. Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body, even harder than bone.

Enamel is the only tissue that has no living cells. Because it is not alive, it can’t repair itself from decay or damage.

Gingiva (Gum):

The gingiva is the pink soft tissue that we call our gums. It protects the jaw (alveolar) bone and roots of the teeth, and covers the neck of each tooth.


Dentine forms the major component of each tooth, and extends almost the entire length of the tooth. It is a living tissue, softer than enamel with a structure similar to bone. It is sensitive, and is protected by enamel on the crown portion and cementum on the roots. It is nourished by the pulp.

Pulp Chamber:

The pulp chamber is the innermost portion of the tooth. The pulp chamber holds the pulp, which is made up of soft tissue. It contains blood vessels to supply blood and nutrients to the tooth to keep it alive, and nerves to enable the tooth to sense temperature.


The cementum is a layer of hard tissue that covers the root of the tooth. It is roughly as hard as bone but considerably softer than enamel. The connective tissues attach to the periodontal ligament, and through this bind the roots of the tooth to the gums and jaw (alveolar) bone.

Root Canal/ Pulp Canal:

The root canal (also called the pulp canal) is the open space inside the root where the pulp extends from the pulp chamber. Blood vessels and nerves from surrounding outside tissue enter the pulp through the root canal.

Periodontal Ligament:

The periodontal ligament is comprised of bundles of connective tissue fibres. One end of each bundle is attached to the cementum covering the root of the tooth. The fibres on the other end anchor the tooth root to the jaw (alveolar) bone and act as shock absorbers, allowing the tooth to withstand the forces of biting and chewing.

Accessory Canal:

Accessory canals are smaller channels that branch off from the main root canal. They are usually found near the root end of the tooth (apex). They supply blood vessels and nerves to the pulp.

Apical Foramen:

The apical foramen is the tiny opening at the tip of each root. This is what blood vessels and nerves from surrounding outside tissue pass through to enter the tooth.

Alveolar bone:

The alveolar bone is the jaw bone that surrounds and supports the root of the tooth. It contains the tooth sockets within which the tooth roots are embedded.


The general information provided by VC Dental is intended as a guide only. It is not to be taken as personal, professional advice. Before making any decision regarding your dental or medical health, it is important to consult with your dentist or medical practitioner.

90,000 Dental prosthetics – Before and after photos – Results

Choose a doctor

Kotkova E.

A. – prosthetics with bridges and clasp prostheses Doctor: Elena Aleksandrovna Kotkova

The patient came to us with complaints about the absence and destruction of a large number of teeth. Dr. Elena Aleksandrovna Kotkova carried out a full-fledged rehabilitation with the help of metal-ceramic crowns on the bridge prosthesis and the clasp prosthesis on the upper and lower jaws.Therapeutic training was performed by Yulia Vladimirovna Petushkova, surgical training – Anastasia Dmitrievna Malysheva.

Repyeva M.V. – prosthetics with metal-free ceramics

Doctor: Repyeva Marina Vladimirovna

The patient complained of an aesthetic defect of the central incisors. Prosthetics were performed with metal-free ceramic crowns IPS e.max Press.

Kotkova E.A. – complex orthopedic rehabilitation

Doctor: Elena Aleksandrovna Kotkova, Anastasia Dmitrievna Malysheva

The patient came to the clinic with a complaint about the unsatisfactory condition of a large number of teeth. Doctor Malysheva Anastasia Andreevna performed the extraction of teeth that could not be restored. Further, endodontic preparation, restoration with fiberglass pins and solid inlays of decayed teeth.Dr. Elena Aleksandrovna Kotkova performed a comprehensive restoration of chewing efficiency and aesthetics using 17 metal-ceramic crowns and a clasp on the lower jaw. The patient regained her beautiful smile and the lost function of a large number of teeth!

Tikhonova T.N. – total rehabilitation with veneers

Doctor: Tikhonova Tatyana Nikolaevna

A patient came to the clinic with a complaint about the unsatisfactory look of his smile.Our orthopedic doctor Tikhonova Tatyana Nikolaevna underwent a complete step-by-step rehabilitation of the patient’s entire oral cavity. The work included the following stages:

Preparatory stage (3-4 visits)
1.Oral cavity sanitation
2. Extraction of teeth 1.4 and 2.3
3. Dental pulp according to indications
4. Treatment of carious cavities

Prosthetics (5-6 visits)
1. Restoration of the crown part of tooth 1.1 on the post, covering with a temporary plastic crown
2.Step-by-step preparation of 23 teeth and production of temporary plastic crowns and veneers
3. Fitting
4. Fixation of crowns and veneers in the oral cavity

The patient was very pleased with his new smile, thanks to which he gained a new look and a lot of self-confidence!

Kotkova E.A. – all-ceramic crowns for central incisors

Doctor: Elena Aleksandrovna Kotkova

The patient came to the clinic “Aesthetics” with a desire to remake two temporary plastic crowns on the incisors of the upper jaw, which he wore for two years due to an operation on the apex of the tooth root. We made two all-ceramic crowns.

Tikhonova T.N. – Prosthetics with removable dentures TermoSence

Doctor: Tikhonova Tatyana Nikolaevna

The patient came to us with complaints of difficulty in chewing food due to the absence of teeth on the upper and lower jaws. Partial removable hypoallergenic nylon prostheses were made from TermoSence material.With their help, the aesthetic appearance of the smile and the chewing function were restored. Please note that with this type of prosthetics, you do not need to grind your teeth, because the prosthesis is firmly held by unmilled healthy teeth!

Tikhonova T.N. – prosthetics with a crown E-max

Doctor: Tikhonova Tatyana Nikolaevna

The girl came to the clinic with a complaint of an aesthetic defect and discoloration of the anterior incisor.In the course of treatment, it turned out that the tooth had been previously treated and depulpated, which is why it changed its color. Our doctor made a metal-free crown, which completely compensated for the aesthetic defect and gave the patient the opportunity to smile again without embarrassment.

Tikhonova T.N. – Prosthetics with complete removable and bridge prostheses

Doctor: Tikhonova Tatyana Nikolaevna

The patient came to the clinic “Aesthetics” with a complaint of a strong aesthetic defect and difficulty in chewing food.In the shortest possible time, two prostheses were made – a full removable one for the upper jaw and a metal-ceramic bridge for the lower one. The patient was very pleased with his new smile!

Tikhonova T.N. – prosthetics with a crown E-max

Doctor: Tikhonova Tatiana Nikolaevna

The patient came to the clinic “Aesthetics” with a complaint about the aesthetic defect of the lateral incisor.At the same time, she categorically refused orthodontic treatment. We decided to reshape the tooth with the E-max all-ceramic crown.

Sviridov S.B. – Prosthetics from cermets

Doctor: Sviridov Sergey Borisovich

Initial situation: teeth on the left of the upper and lower jaws were partially missing.Treatment plan: production of metal-ceramic prostheses. Temporary crowns were installed at the time of manufacturing the prostheses. The photo shows the initial situation (the teeth are prepared for prosthetics) and the view with temporary crowns.

The result is that porcelain fused to metal crowns are fixed in the oral cavity.

Combined dental prosthetics, including prosthetics on implants

Doctor: Sviridov Sergey Borisovich

The patient complained of pain under the dentures in the area of ​​three teeth on the right and three teeth on the left (34, 35, 37, 43, 45, 47).

On the CT scan, it was found that the roots of two teeth (45 and 47) are destroyed, the teeth must be removed. Teeth 34 and 37 were also severely damaged – these teeth were restored. One – with a tab, the other (37) with a seal.

A single metal-ceramic crown is installed on 43 teeth. Further, 3 implants were installed on this side (in the area of ​​the 45th tooth – simultaneously with the extraction of the tooth). The Swedish Astra-Tech system was chosen. Further, metal-ceramic prostheses were installed on them.

On the other side of the lower jaw, a three-unit metal-ceramic prosthesis was installed in the area of ​​34, 35, 36 and 37 teeth with support on 34, 35 and 37 teeth.

Before and after photos:

More details about the result of the treatment:

L.V. Umanskaya – crown made of ceramics on zirconium oxide

Doctor: Umanskaya Lyudmila Valerievna

The central upper incisor has a zirconium oxide ceramic crown.

That is, first, a zirconium oxide cap is made from the impression from the processed (ground) tooth. Then a ceramic mass is applied to it, repeating the color and shape of the native tooth.

One of the main advantages of this type of prosthetics is excellent aesthetic qualities and natural appearance. A metal frame will not show through such a crown. Gums will not darken due to oxidative reactions.

Zirconium oxide crowns are hypoallergenic.The occurrence of galvanic reactions and the appearance of third-party tastes in the mouth are excluded. Due to the low thermal conductivity, neither under the porcelain nor under the zirconium crown there is discomfort when eating hot and cold food. With the correct setting, zirconium oxide crowns last up to 15-20 years.

1 photo – a tooth processed under a crown

2 photos – a tooth with a zirconium oxide cap

3 photos – a finished ceramic crown on zirconium oxide installed in the oral cavity

Umanskaya L.B. – metal-ceramic bridge

Doctor: Umanskaya Lyudmila Valerievna

The patient presented with a defect (missing tooth) in the anterior region of the lower jaw. The doctor installed a metal-ceramic bridge supported by 2 teeth.

Tikhonova T.N. – prosthetics with metal-ceramic crown

Doctor: Tikhonova Tatiana Nikolaevna

The patient came to the clinic after a complete fracture of the coronal part of the central incisor.First, the tooth was pulped, after which a cast stump pin metal insert and a metal-ceramic crown were made.

Tikhonova T.N. – prosthetics with complete removable dentures

Doctor: Tikhonova Tatiana Nikolaevna

Prosthetics with complete removable dentures (with complete absence of teeth), before and after photos:

Tikhonova T.H, – prosthetics with metal-ceramic prostheses, restoration of chewing function using a clasp prosthesis

Doctor: Tikhonova Tatiana Nikolaevna

The patient came to the clinic with complaints of an aesthetic defect, difficulty in chewing food.

After sanitation of the oral cavity, we proceeded to prosthetics. It was decided to install metal-ceramic bridges and a clasp prosthesis on the upper jaw.For the period of prosthetics, temporary plastic crowns were installed. Detailed job description

Before and after photos:

View with temporary crowns:

Bottom line: the patient is satisfied with the result and happily returns to our clinic for a periodic dental examination, despite the distance to the clinic over 100 km!

Tikhonova T.N. – prosthetics with a bridge prosthesis

Doctor: Tikhonova Tatiana Nikolaevna

The patient came to the clinic with complaints of an aesthetic defect due to the absence of a tooth. The abutment teeth were pulped, and a bridge was installed in place of the missing one.

Tikhonova T.N. – prosthetics with single metal-ceramic crowns.

Doctor: Tikhonova Tatiana Nikolaevna

Korsakov M.S. – all-ceramic crowns e-max

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

The patient complained of an aesthetic defect in the 4 anterior teeth of the upper jaw. On examination, it was found that the old fillings were in poor condition and needed to be replaced.

It was decided to supply e-max all-ceramic crowns.

Preparations for prosthetics began, and old fillings were also replaced. The teeth remained “alive”, the nerves were not removed. Temporary crowns made. At the fourth visit, the prosthetics was completed, the crowns were fixed.

Initial situation:

Comparison of e-max all-ceramic crowns and porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns.Crown thickness.

Crowns on the model:

Before and after photos:

Photos of the result from a different angle:

Korsakov M.S. – metal-free ceramic crown made of press ceramics (e-max)

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

Patient R.was directed to prosthetics by a dentist-therapist after endodontic tooth treatment.

The tooth was pulped, and such teeth always become more fragile, less reliable, and large fillings often crumble and fall out. As a result, this can lead to a fracture of the walls and complete destruction of the tooth. Therefore, it was recommended to cover the tooth with a crown.

An all-ceramic restoration was selected with the patient.

This option has many advantages compared to metal-ceramic crowns:

low invasiveness.Metal-free construction is much thinner than metal-ceramic analogs, teeth grinding and irritation of the gums by the edges of the crown are minimized;

biocompatibility (no metal). Due to the low thermal conductivity under the ceramic crown, there is no discomfort when eating hot and cold food.

excellent aesthetic qualities and natural appearance. The metal framework does not shine through the dental crown, and the gums do not darken under the influence of oxidative reactions.

The teeth look perfect and are practically indistinguishable from natural teeth.


1: After endodontic treatment, the tooth is prepared for the crown.

2: Temporary crown.

3-4: Permanent crown on the model and on the tooth.

We got an excellent result: reliability, biocompatibility, aesthetics.

It took two visits in total.Manufacturing took 1 week.

The patient is only at the beginning of aesthetic rehabilitation. So this work is just the beginning of the journey! Micro-abrasion and whitening are planned ahead. One more photo before and after prosthetics:

Korsakov M.S. – Prosthetics of the upper jaw of metal-ceramic bridges and removable clasp prosthesis

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

Patient B.went to the clinic with complaints of missing teeth, tooth mobility, bleeding gums, dark plaque on the teeth, difficulty in chewing food.

An examination was carried out, X-ray examinations were additionally made, a detailed history was collected. This made it possible to diagnose and draw up a plan for the patient’s rehabilitation.
Complex treatment included three stages:

1. Therapeutic stage (Treatment of caries – placement of fillings and periodontal treatment – treatment of gums).

2. Surgical stage (tooth extraction).

3. Orthopedic stage – prosthetics.

At the first stage, all teeth were cleaned from soft plaque and supra- and subgingival dental deposits (calculi), hygiene training. Then the treatment of dental caries was carried out. Periodontal pockets were cleaned with the Vector apparatus. The splinting of the anterior teeth on the lower jaw completed the therapeutic and periodontal treatment.

In order not to leave the patient “completely without teeth”, it was decided to combine tooth extraction and prosthetics.How? This is how: under anesthesia, 4 teeth were grinded on the upper jaw, and two were removed, a temporary bridge was made. It took about two hours. The teeth we grinded several years ago in another clinic were depulpated and filled with high quality, no retreatment was required.

In the photo: initial situation – teeth were grinded, removed – a temporary bridge

With the first temporary bridge (made from an impression from his teeth), the patient passed 4 weeks.This time is the minimum required after tooth extraction to recover before prosthetics.

On the next visit, the remaining teeth were slightly refined, impressions were taken, and a new temporary bridge was made (similar in shape and color to the final metal-ceramic bridge).

After one and a half to two weeks, the metal-ceramic prosthesis was tried on and its delivery was fixed with permanent cement. On the same visit, impressions were taken for the manufacture of a removable clasp prosthesis with clasps.

After a week and a half, the prosthesis was tried on. And a week later, the prosthesis was completely made. The prosthesis was fixed in the oral cavity, the patient was trained in hygiene and the rules for caring for the prosthesis, and a memo was issued.

Now the patient has to learn how to use “new teeth”; the period of adaptation to removable dentures takes from 2 weeks to 6 months. In this case, a quick addiction was predicted, which happened.

Photo: finished work in the oral cavity.

Now the patient can eat, smile (clasp or popularly “hooks” are practically invisible here and the patient is not embarrassed).

But our cooperation does not end there: constant preventive examinations are required, professional teeth cleaning and gum treatment 2-4 times a year. This is the only way to guarantee a long period of operation of prostheses and to delay the extraction of teeth as much as possible due to periodontitis (inflammation of the gums, tooth mobility).

Again before and after photos:

Complex treatment of the oral cavity with metal-ceramic prosthetics

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

The patient came to the clinic with such a situation with complaints about the loss of a seal with a pin, poor condition of the front teeth in the upper jaw (displacement, destruction, abrasion), bleeding of the gums, carious cavities, the presence of dental deposits.

We have carried out a comprehensive treatment of the oral cavity, which includes the following stages:

1. Sanitation of the oral cavity (treatment of carious lesions and removal of dental deposits, training in oral hygiene) – dentist Ermakova Anna Alekseevna.

2. Removal of the unrecoverable root of the left upper lateral incisor – dentist Sviridov Sergey Borisovich

3. Depulpation of the upper right incisors and retreatment of the root canal of the upper left central incisor;


A. Making cast stump inlays on the remaining incisors of the upper jaw;

B. Making a temporary plastic bridge for a period of 1-2 months;

B. Manufacturing of a metal-ceramic bridge.

Before and after photos:

Bottom line: a comprehensive treatment of the patient was carried out, despite this, constant observation by a dentist is required 2-4 times a year (hygiene control 2-4 times a year, removal of dental plaque 1-2 times a year), which will minimize the occurrence of caries and gum disease.

Korsakov M.S. – all-ceramic inlay made of press-ceramic

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

The patient complained of periodic chipping of the restoration on the chewing tooth of the lower jaw on the left.

In another clinic, she was recommended to make and install a cast stump tab and cover the tooth with a metal-ceramic crown.We have proposed an alternative option. Manufacturing of all-ceramic inlays from press ceramics.

Read more about this work here.

Before and after photos:

Korsakov M.S. – production of all-ceramic crowns for anterior teeth

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

A patient came to us who was trying to make ceramic veneers in another clinic.Unfortunately, the result was unsatisfactory. Temporary plastic veneers were left on the teeth. They looked unaesthetic (photo):

After a detailed examination, it was decided to make two all-ceramic crowns, since the previous “turning” of the teeth left no chances for high-quality production of ceramic veneers. The teeth were again prepared for prosthetics. Temporary plastic crowns were made on the newly “ground” teeth:

All-ceramic crowns were fixed on the next visit:

Other angles:


Bottom line: the patient was very pleased!

Korsakov M.S. – complete removable dentures made of plastic

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

Patient P. complained of complete absence of teeth in the upper and lower jaw. The last remaining teeth were removed about a month ago. Previously, P. had already received prosthetics in our clinic and was satisfied, so he turned to us again.

In this case, there are only two options for prosthetics:

1. Fixed with the use of implantation.

2. Complete dentures:

a) removable dentures with fixation on implants;

b) either “simple” removable dentures.

The last option was chosen. This construction requires 4-5 visits, and after 2-3 weeks, full removable dentures were fabricated.

Korsakov M.S. – all-ceramic crowns for anterior teeth

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

The patient complained about the aesthetic appearance of the anterior teeth in the upper jaw.The old metal-ceramic crowns had a bad appearance, there was a gap between the front teeth.

The following plan for aesthetic rehabilitation of the patient was proposed:

1. Removal of old metal crowns

2. Making temporary plastic crowns for 6 anterior teeth of the upper jaw

3. Manufacturing of 6 all-ceramic crowns.

The prosthetics were performed according to the plan.This was the initial situation:

Color matching. Central lower incisors – all-ceramic crowns made about a year ago in our clinic:

View with temporary crowns.

All-ceramic crowns made. Model view:

Crowns are installed in the oral cavity:

Smile appearance:

Korsakov M.S. – prosthetics with ceramic (metal-free) crowns E-max.

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

Ceramic (metal-free) E-Max crowns (6 upper teeth), photo before and after and photo on the model.

Korsakov M.S. – pressed ceramic crown (e-max)

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

The patient complained of an aesthetic deficiency of the central incisor in the upper jaw after endodontic tooth treatment.It was not possible to restore with filling material.

The tooth is prepared for prosthetics – restored under a crown with a fiber post – photo 1.

Temporary crown – photo 2

A permanent pressed ceramic crown (e-max) was made and fixed on the 2nd visit. Photo immediately after fixation – photo 3.

Crown before installation:

General view with a smile 🙂

Korsakov M.S. – clasp prosthesis of the upper jaw with fixation on attachments

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

A patient came to us in connection with a fracture of old metal bridges. They were removed. It turned out that some of the teeth were destroyed and highly mobile. The teeth that could not be preserved were removed. Others were cured (endodontic treatment, fillings).

After that, a temporary removable plastic prosthesis was made for the upper jaw.Two one-piece crowns and two cast stump inlays (with “uni” type attachments from bredent) were made.

A clasp prosthesis of the upper jaw was made with fixation on attachments (locks).
Photos of crowns and inlays in the oral cavity – 1.
Photo of the prosthesis – 2 and 3.
Photo of the prosthesis in the oral cavity – 4.

Korsakov M.S. – all-ceramic crowns on the anterior lower teeth

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

A patient complaining of an aesthetic deficiency and frequent chipping of fillings on 2 central incisors of the lower jaw.

Therapeutic training was carried out (retreatment of root canals and restoration with fiber-optic posts).
After that, all-ceramic crowns were made.
Result photo:

Korsakov M.S. – prosthetics of anterior teeth

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

Four single metal-ceramic crowns on the anterior teeth of the upper jaw. Photos on models and in the oral cavity

Korsakov M.S. – prosthetics of anterior teeth

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

Two metal-ceramic crowns installed on 2 incisors of the upper jaw (left).

Korsakov M.S. – prosthetics of anterior tooth

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

The patient came to the clinic with complaints of an aesthetic defect due to the absence of the crown part of the tooth in the upper jaw (photo 1). Therapeutic preparation was carried out (filling of the root canal of the tooth, the cutting edge of the adjacent tooth was restored with filling material.

Prosthetics included:

1. Making a cast stump pin inlay.

2. Making a temporary plastic crown.

3. Manufacturing of a metal-ceramic crown.

Korsakov M.S. – prosthetics of anterior teeth

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

Several years ago, due to trauma, the patient lost several upper teeth.As a solution to the problem, a metal-ceramic bridge was made. In the photographs, the view before and after the prosthetics.

Korsakov M.S. – production of metal-ceramic crowns

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

The patient came to the clinic complaining of the unsatisfactory condition of the old fillings, the lack of contact between the teeth, and the constant chipping of the fillings.He was sent by a dentist-therapist to make m / c crowns for the teeth of the upper jaw. The photos show the finished construction.

Korsakov M.S. – complete removable denture with attachments

Doctor: Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

Complete removable denture with attachments (denture with a stronger fixation system, improved aesthetics and functionality)

Repyeva M.V., Korsakov M.S. – teeth whitening followed by aesthetic restoration and prosthetics

Doctor: Repyeva Marina Vladimirovna, Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

A girl came to the dental clinic “Aesthetics” with a complaint of aesthetic defects and unsatisfactory appearance of the smile line teeth. The problem was aggravated by some mistrust of doctors and doubts about the possibilities of treatment. Our doctors drew up a treatment plan, which we managed to start already on the first visit.

1. The first stage was professional oral hygiene with the removal of dental plaque, which returned the teeth to their original color. Also, problem teeth were cured and impressions were taken for the manufacture of individual aligners.

2. Further, remineralizing therapy was carried out using individual aligners. This procedure helps to normalize the mineral composition of the hard tissues of the teeth, strengthen them and reduce the risk of further caries.

3. The third stage was decided to start bleaching the teeth of the upper and lower jaws. The patient was very pleased with the result of the procedure.

As a gift from “Aesthetics” she received a course of home whitening NiteWhite, as well as ReliefGel for carrying out remineralizing therapy at home using individual aligners. Two weeks after the whitening procedure carried out in the clinic, the patient consolidated and intensified the result with the help of the home whitening system.

4. The final stage was the aesthetic restoration of the anterior teeth and the production of all-ceramic crowns, taking into account the new shade.

Thus, in just a few weeks, the patient acquired not only a new excellent smile, but also faith in herself and dentists, and for us this is beyond praise!

(The review of our patient, who performed this work, was taken from the site https: //

Sharakhutdinova O.S. – prosthetics of the chewing group of teeth


The patient turned to the clinic “Aesthetics” with a desire to replace the stamped prostheses with titanium nitride sputtering installed more than 10 years ago with modern metal-ceramic structures.

Initial situation in the oral cavity.

Our doctor made stump inlays first on teeth 23, 26, 36, and then on teeth 15 and 16. All inlays were covered with temporary plastic crowns.

Temporary crowns on teeth 23, 26, 36.

Temporary crowns on teeth 15, 16.

In the meantime, the models of the jaws were sent to the dental laboratory of our clinic for the subsequent manufacture of metal-ceramic prostheses.

Ready-made restorations from Duceram Kiss ceramic mass, made in Germany.

After that, the new structures were fixed in the oral cavity, and the patient was very pleased with the result.

Finished work in the oral cavity.

Sharakhutdinova O.S. – metal-ceramic prosthesis


The patient complained of destruction of 17, 16 teeth, food stuck between them, a change in the color of the 14th tooth. On examination, it turned out that the 15th tooth was also missing. The teeth are so damaged that it is necessary to cover them with crowns. And the missing tooth needs to be restored, since the prolonged absence of a tooth leads to adverse consequences.

It was decided to make a metal-ceramic bridge for 17, 16 and 14 teeth.After retreatment of root canals of 17 and 16 teeth, 17 were restored with a stump inlay, 16 and 14 – with fillings with fiberglass pins. Temporary crowns were installed at the time of manufacturing the prostheses.

Intermediate stage – temporary prosthesis:

The result is a view from a different angle:

Sharakhutdinova O.C. – cantilever prosthesis made of metal-ceramic on the stump plate


We were approached by a patient with a defect in the area of ​​the lateral upper teeth on the right. On examination, it turned out that the 14th tooth was missing, and the adjacent 15th strong one was destroyed (by 2/3 of the crown) and changed in color. It was decided to make a cantilever metal-ceramic prosthesis for 15 and 14 teeth (with support for 15 teeth). A cantilever prosthesis is a type of bridge prosthesis when not 2 adjacent to the missing teeth are used for support, but only one (or two) adjacent ones.In this case, it was a good alternative in order not to “touch” the healthy 13th tooth.

The canals in the destroyed 15 tooth were repaired. The tooth was restored with a stump tab. A temporary plastic crown was made. Then a metal-ceramic prosthesis was made and installed.

Situation before the intervention

Stump tab

Temporary plastic crown

Completed ceramic restoration

Before and after

Sharakhutdinova O.C. – crown made of zirconium dioxide


Prettau zirconia single crown.

Sharakhutdinova O.S. – production of a metal-ceramic crown with a stump inlay


The patient came to the clinic with a complaint of unsatisfactory aesthetics due to tooth decay.It was decided to restore the aesthetics with a metal-ceramic crown.

In order to strengthen the structure, a cast stump inlay was made and installed for the patient. Then – a metal-ceramic crown.

At the time of manufacturing the necessary structures, a temporary crown was made and installed for the patient. The whole process took 10 days.

90 017 90 000 Dystopia.Distance canine teeth

Canine dystopia is a fairly common orthodontic problem. The smile has a specific appearance with protruding canines, reminiscent of a “vampire smile”
Do not confuse canine dystopia (dystopic canine teeth) with canine retention (impacted canine teeth).
This photo perfectly illustrates the dystopic canine on the left side of the upper jaw.

We always try to impose on our readers the idea that there is no absolute way in medicine, that the doctor is faced with a choice.Whichever path the doctor determines, this path always has pros and cons. Therefore, there is no recipe that fits all patients. Therefore, our blog gives only recommendations or individual observations and clinical cases in which you can find common features and rules.
For consultation, and even more so for the treatment of each case, it is necessary to apply many rules. Therefore, in order to choose the optimal path (treatment plan), one should take into account all the nuances of the bite, face shape, smile construction, the patient’s age and the characteristics of his psychoemotional status.In this block, we will show that when treating cases of canine dystopia, the orthodontist chooses between two radically different approaches: treatment without extraction and treatment with tooth extraction. In every case, we want to get a great smile, so why do we remove healthy teeth for some patients and not for others?

Cause of impacted canines

What is the reason for the formation of such an abnormal structure of the dentition?
A very vivid picture is circulating on the Internet, well illustrating the reasons for the development of such a pathology.

Let me comment on the illustration. Milk bite. All permanent teeth are located deep in the jaw bones and are just preparing for eruption. Milk teeth are marked with Roman numerals. Permanent teeth – Arabic numerals. The teeth of each of the jaws form three levels. The first row is the level of milk teeth. The second level is permanent teeth. Fangs are located separately – this is the third level. On the upper jaw, the canines are located above all the other teeth, on the lower – deeper than all.This is why the fangs will be the last to erupt. And the “sixth” teeth erupt first. Their movement is not impeded by any milk teeth.

If the IVth or Vth milk teeth are removed earlier than the due date (this happens if the milk teeth are not treated or treated poorly), then the 6th teeth are moved to the vacant place. Thus, when the fangs erupt (and they erupt last), it turns out that all the space in the jaw is occupied.There is no room for the canines to sit normally. Therefore, they are placed atypically. This can be: 1) external position, the topic of our article, 2) palatal position, 3) retention, when the canine tooth cannot erupt at all.

Orthodontic treatment of dystopic canines

There are two main ways of treating dystopic canines:

  1. Orthodontic treatment without tooth extraction;
  2. Orthodontic treatment with tooth extraction.

Using the example of two different clinical cases, we will consider the features of the treatment of abnormally located canines.


A small digression. Do not confuse the treatment plan that lays the foundation for the future of your smile and the method by which you will achieve results. Let’s call different orthodontic appliances and methods of their use by method. After all, it is no secret that both ceramic and metal and lingual braces can get equally good results. But, on the other hand, it is possible in two cases to put exactly the same steel braces (Synergy Roth.022 “Rocky Mountain Orthodontics Inc.) and get two different results – one excellent and the other poor.


Clinical example of treatment of a dystopic canine

without tooth extraction. Braces, Kharkiv CCS

Bite BEFORE treatment

The problem the patient presented was a dystopic canine of the upper jaw on the left. What we find during the examination of the patient: in addition to the atypical position of the canine, there is a displacement of the midline of the upper dentition to the left, the crowded position of the teeth of the lower dentition.

This case again deals with the topic of space deficit and “Determination of space deficit in the dentition of an orthodontic patient.” The canine, designated “1”, is about 7 mm wide. The dentition space for this tooth (indicated by the number “2”) is about 2 mm. The space deficit is about 5mm.
The plan of treatment without tooth extraction suggests that it is necessary to move the lateral group of teeth distally (in the direction from the midline towards the wisdom tooth).

Our plan is complicated enough. It is very difficult to distalize an entire group of teeth distally. That is why such treatment cannot be given to all patients. With such a plan, a complication can be observed: instead of displacement of the chewing teeth back, the frontal teeth can move forward. Then the result of the treatment will not be achieved.

A classic metal brace system (Roth prescription) was selected for treatment.

8 months after the installation of the bracket system on the dentition of the upper jaw

It took 8 months to prepare the space for the dystopic canine.As you can see in the photo, we did not use a canine bracket. The main movements were carried out using an expanding spring. With an increase in the space in the alveolar process, the canine independently lowered into a more correct position.

Much has been written in various sources about the good and bad sliding of the archwires along the groove of the braces. On the Internet and in print media, they write about the high advantages of some braces over others. For example, self-ligating braces are often praised. We have already written that we do not share the opinion of many colleagues that certain braces have “miraculous abilities.”We believe that patients are being deceived.

12 months of treatment. The equipment is installed on the dentition of the lower jaw

The treatment of the upper dentition is coming to an end. In the lower dentition, the stage of initiation of treatment. The installation of the braces system on the lower dentition was delayed by the patient.

After 18 months from the start of treatment. Final stages of treatment using square arches

Orthodontic treatment completed.A fixed wire retainer

is installed on the lower dentition

This case demonstrates a good orthodontic result in the case of treatment of a dystopic canine without the removal of permanent teeth.

Bite BEFORE and AFTER treatment

Shape of the dentition BEFORE and AFTER braces

Attention: such treatment necessarily leads to lengthening of the dentition. In many cases, lengthening the dentition can worsen the proportions of the face.If the lengthening of the dentition worsens the proportions of the face, then it is worth abandoning this treatment option. It is better to choose the option with the extraction of permanent teeth.
Orthodontic tooth extraction is not a bad option! It is not substandard! It is not second-rate! In medicine, this is called “indication”. Indication is about choosing the best option for each patient. To each his own. For a huge army of patients, there are indications for treatment with tooth extraction. That is, for many, the best choice is the option with the extraction of permanent teeth.

Clinical example: dystopic canine,

treatment with tooth extraction. Braces, Kharkiv CCS

Orthodontic treatment should be comprehensive and its purpose is to obtain an orthognathic bite. This process is similar to climbing a high ladder and success is possible only if you consistently overcome each climb step by step. Most often, patients pay attention to uneven teeth and have very abstract ideas about the bite. With a deeper immersion in the issue of treatment with braces, it becomes clear to people that bite is a descriptive concept and consists of a large number of criteria.It is not so easy to get a bite in the final that satisfies all the signs of a correct (orthognathic bite). Not every person with uneven teeth can be treated with conservative treatment. There are cases in which conservative treatment with braces can be dispensed with, other cases require tooth extraction, and still others require supplementing the treatment with braces with a volumetric surgical intervention. For example, in cases where there is a disparity in the size of the jaws, orthodontic treatment should be complemented by a surgical step.All medical devices: braces, aligners, aligners, plates move the teeth within the dentition and do not change the basis of the jaws. It is impossible to change the size of the jaw bones without surgery, we wrote about this in the article “10 reasons not to install braces”. In this publication, we will try to reveal the topic of the minimum set of tasks that conservative treatment should solve.

Of course, in such a situation, the terrible position of the canine is first of all striking.It seems that if you correct the position of such a tooth, then everything will immediately become perfect.

This is how the dentition of the upper jaw looks like with uneven teeth

Yes, indeed, when looking at a face, crooked teeth are striking in the first place. But even not a professional will notice problems with the middle line, gingival type of smile, etc.

We are planning treatment. We study all aspects of the patient’s bite, calculate the TRG and issue a verdict: combined treatment with braces plus orthognathic surgery is necessary.
The patient objects: “I agree to everything, but only without surgery.”
-Then the treatment will be incomplete, the doctor replies.
We will achieve: 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.
We will not be able to receive: A, B, C, D, etc.

This happens in every case. The orthodontist must inform the patient in detail what can be achieved during treatment and what cannot be obtained. It is also important to put all the dots on the “i”, through which you can achieve the result.

In this clinical case, in order to correct a dystopic canine, to obtain the correct closure of the teeth according to the orthognathic principle, not to worsen the proportions of the face, and to improve the smile, we offer the patient a treatment option with the removal of the first two premolars of the upper jaw.

Often permanent teeth have to be sacrificed for the sake of “even teeth”. In orthodontics, the first premolars are most often removed.

Orthodontic treatment is long-term and lasts for years. First, the system is installed on one jaw, then the second is connected to the treatment. Thin arcs are used first. The evolution of arcs involves an increase in the transverse dimension of the arc and an increase in its rigidity.

During treatment, the position of the canines changes relative to the occlusal plane and in the sagittal direction.They went down and shifted back towards the molars. Thus, the canines took the place of the premolars. Only in this position do they meet the criteria for a correct bite.

The hardest part is getting the correct inclination for the canines. Before treatment, the entire tooth, including the root, was outside the alveolar process. It is important for us that not only the coronal part of the canine becomes in the dentition, but that the root is also located in the depths of the jawbone. For orthodontists, this is called inclination or torsion.

Working with a torch is the most difficult step and requires the use of thick rectangular arcs.

Photo AFTER treatment with a braces system. What are the achievements or what has been useful in the course of braces therapy?

The first achievement – the teeth look even, and the patient really likes it.

The overlap depth has been normalized.

Photo of occlusion in the lateral segment, the distal ratio of the teeth was normalized.

The photo shows the teeth of the lateral group. This diagram should be remembered. Physiological (correct) should be considered the bite that corresponds to this position. The canine of the upper jaw (3rd) is located between the canine and the first premolar of the lower jaw (between the 3rd and 4th).

We have contradicted all the criteria that the patient’s bite must meet at the end of the treatment in order for the result to be stable. The rest of the criteria largely depend on the initial conditions.The size of the jaw bones and their position relative to the base of the skull.

Benefits of orthodontic treatment with the removal of the first premolars:
  1. We have already said – often (in a certain category of patients) this is the only way to obtain a harmonious face;
  2. Aesthetically, the smile will look great, the teeth will not be too tilted forward;
  3. The chewing function of the dentition will not lose its effectiveness, but will increase;
  4. Getting the correct bite through tooth extraction will improve dental health.Loads will be balanced;
  5. The roots of the teeth in the body of the jaw will be located more freely, without interfering with each other. Scientifically speaking, there will be no signs of a stress-strain state in the bone tissue. This means that the result of orthodontic treatment will be more stable, less prone to recurrence.

This article demonstrates two treatment options for cases with pronounced canine dystopia. In both cases, the treatment was carried out with standard metal braces.For the final result, it does not matter at all what kind of braces the system is being treated with. It is important: what kind of treatment plan was drawn up by the doctor, how skillfully he leads his patient, and whether the patient follows the doctor’s recommendations in a disciplined manner and adheres to the treatment regimen.

Read more about braces and prices for orthodontic treatment in the following sections:

Braces and aligners in Digital Dentistry Kharkiv

How much do braces cost? Prices for the installation of a bracket system in Kharkov

90,000 Scalloped teeth of a crabeater seal • Dina Yusupova • Scientific picture of the day at the “Elements” • Zoology

In the photo – not strange puzzles, and not even bizarre stalactites and stalagmites, but just teeth.It seems that the owner of such exquisite teeth should be just as graceful and sophisticated. In fact, an ordinary seal flaunts such teeth. More precisely, the crabeater seal ( Lobodon carcinophaga ) is an inhabitant of the Antarctic seas and, according to some estimates, one of the most numerous species of pinnipeds. It is possible that these unusual teeth played a significant role in the fact that this species turned out to be so successful.

The importance of teeth for animals cannot be overestimated: it is this “tool” that allows you to hold and effectively process food.The shape and size of the teeth are not random and are largely determined by the food that animals eat. For example, large canines of carnivores (order Carnivora) serve to kill prey, and the so-called carnivorous teeth (upper last premolar and lower first molar) with cutting ridges are needed to cut the tendons and bones of victims.

Pinnipeds also belong to the order of carnivores, but their dental system, like the way of life in general, stands apart. They have molars and premolars of the same size and shape (they are sometimes called postcanine – postcanine teeth) with one tubercle, relatively small canines.Most pinnipeds feed on fish or squid and swallow their prey whole, but some species can rip their prey apart. The main tasks these animals face are to catch (in the water!) And keep the prey desperately slipping out of their mouths.

But among pinnipeds there are completely different nutritional strategies and dental systems. For example, walruses and bearded seals seek food at the bottom: walruses prey mainly for bivalve molluscs, while bearded seals prey on a wider range of benthic fauna.The teeth of these species are flat or slightly pointed and do not contain lobules or scallops, but both species have powerful vibrissae to effectively search for food at the bottom, as well as a number of features that allow you to enlarge the oral cavity and, as a result, pressure to extract prey from the bottom ” suction “or” blowing “(hydraulic jetting, that is, a sharp release of water from the mouth to get rid of the substrate around the production). The walrus’s dental system is interesting for the small number of teeth – it has 18-24 (in other pinnipeds – 22-38) – and, of course, powerful tusks (modified upper canines), which, nevertheless, are used not for food, but for to climb onto the ice.

Another possible food resource for pinnipeds is small crustaceans (eg Antarctic krill). But in order to feed them, you need to be able to effectively squeeze water out of your mouth. The chief specialist in filtration nutrition among pinnipeds is just our crabeater seal. It is assumed that lobular scalloped-tuberous teeth allow it to very effectively squeeze excess water out of the mouth without losing a small prey.

Another seal with remarkable teeth is the leopard seal ( Hydrurga leptonyx ).Its diet consists of both warm-blooded prey (birds and other seals) and krill. The teeth of a leopard seal resemble those of a crabeater seal, only sharper and less graceful. Probably, this form is a compromise between filtration nutrition and predation.

But not everything and does not always fit into a convenient logic diagram! It is not always possible to predict the type of nutrition by the teeth, and here is a good example. Kerguelen fur seals ( Arctocephalus gazella ) are known to have a diet of fish and krill, but their teeth are fairly normal and do not contain any lobules or scallops.Some atypical features are still inherent in this species. First, their postcanine teeth are smaller than those of other fur seals. Secondly, the distance between the teeth in seals is relatively small. It is possible that this modification contributes to the retention of krill.

However, in some other real seals one can observe, to one degree or another, a pronounced unusual shape of teeth, characteristic of a crabeater:

This form of teeth is especially pronounced in the Baikal seal ( Pusa sibirica ), which feeds on fish, mainly golomyanka and yellowfly.However, recently published work has prompted a revision of conventional views on the diet of these small freshwater seals. Periodically, amphipods Macrohectopus branickii were also found in the stomachs of seals – crustaceans common in Lake Baikal, which fish feed on – therefore, it was assumed that the crustaceans entered the stomach with fish or by accident. To clarify the situation, scientists began to observe the feeding behavior of seals (using video cameras mounted on the backs of seals).It turned out that seals deliberately, often and in large quantities consume small macrohectopuses (weighing less than 0.1 g)! It is also curious that the Baikal seals catch crustaceans one at a time, unlike the crabeater, which can capture several crustaceans at a time. Most likely, the feeding mechanism of the Baikal seals differs from those known for other pinnipeds, but the details of this process have yet to be studied.

This study of Baikal seals shows that if animals feed on large prey and small crustaceans, one can miss how important the latter is as a food resource, since they are too light and do not have insoluble parts (such as fish otoliths or octopus beaks).In such cases, additional behavioral observations or more sophisticated methods of analyzing the contents of the stomach are required. Perhaps further observations of how the seals forage will reveal new interesting facets of the life of these animals.

Photo from

Dina Yusupova

Milk teeth

The appearance of the baby’s first tooth is a great joy for parents. And at the same time, the beginning of new worries. Thoughtful mothers and fathers, and there are more and more of them now, have many questions in the field of such early pediatric dentistry.What to do if baby teeth are crumbling or temporary teeth fall out? What teeth are changing? But the essence of all these questions boils down to one thing: how to achieve the health and beauty of the teeth of your beloved child? Everything in order.

Why are the first teeth called milk teeth?

There are several opinions on this. Doctors attribute the authorship of the term to Hippocrates, who believed that these teeth were formed from mother’s milk. Philologist N.N. Vashkevich argues that “the term is a tracing paper from the Latin lactose“ milk ”.But the tracing paper is false, it is a misunderstood Arab livakt – “for a while”, “temporary” “.

One way or another, but the first teeth really actively “feed” on breast milk, since it is from it that the child assimilates the main building material of teeth and bones – calcium. And although milk teeth erupt, as a rule, at 6-7 months, their formation in the baby’s jaws occurs long before that.

It should be noted that for the health and strength of the first teeth, it is mother’s milk (not cow’s milk) that is necessary, since the nutrients from it are absorbed to the maximum by the baby’s body.Therefore, the universal recipe “breastfeed” will help in this matter as well.

When do baby teeth appear?

The rudiments of milk teeth appear in the embryo at about 5-7 weeks of gestation. By the time the child is born, crowns of 10 temporary and 8 permanent teeth have already been formed in his jaws. The timing of the eruption of milk teeth is rather arbitrary. The average formula is as follows: the child’s age in months minus 6. That is, the first 2 teeth (usually the lower middle incisors) appear at 6-7 months, the next 2 (upper middle incisors) – at 8-9 months.Next, the upper lateral incisors usually come out, then the lower lateral incisors, then the anterior molars, canines, and posterior molars. Thus, by the age of 2-2.5 years, all 20 milk teeth should erupt in a child. These are ideal timing and perfect sequence, and deviations from them are quite common. The teeth can “climb” as early as 4 months, and can be delayed up to 8-9 months. In rare cases, a baby is born with teeth that have already erupted.

If your baby “does not meet the deadline”, do not be alarmed.This does not mean that the child is lagging behind in development. You should also not be proud of the early appearance of teeth – it does not indicate the superpowers of the child. Early or late appearance of teeth can be hereditary. In case of a strong deviation from the schedule – the appearance of teeth before 4 months or their absence after 9 months – just show the baby to the pediatric dentist. In general, the first examination by a pediatric dental specialist should be scheduled at least for the time when the child turns one year old.The doctor will see how the teething process is going, talk with you about the hygiene of the baby’s oral cavity. The kid will get acquainted with the environment of the office, with the doctor, will receive the first positive experience of visiting the dentist, because nothing unpleasant awaits him on this visit, and funny pictures on the walls of the clinic, toys, a chair in which you can ride with your mother – all this will probably be done on he’s a good impression. In the future, you should show your child to a pediatric dentist at least twice a year.

The baby is teething – how to help him?

The child’s profuse salivation will tell you that the first tooth is on its way. 1-2 months before the eruption of the first tooth, the baby’s saliva begins to flow so actively that it is already difficult to do without aprons and bibs.

All older relatives will probably tell you about the unpleasant side effects of teething. However, there are many misconceptions here.

The very first teeth, as a rule, come out painlessly.Most often it happens like this: while feeding the child from a spoon, the mother hears the sound of metal on the edge of the tooth – that is, she discovers an already accomplished event, without even noticing something unusual in the child’s behavior.

The appearance of canines and molars may be more difficult. The kid can be capricious, refuse to eat, sleep poorly, pull everything into his mouth. You should take care of sore gums – regularly treat them with special gels, invite your child to chew on a cooling ring (cold relieves pain well).

However, do not believe that an increase in temperature is associated with teething. Fever and catarrhal phenomena are caused by an infection that has been “caught” by the child’s body weakened by malnutrition and lack of sleep. That is why, during the period of teething of difficult teeth, it is better to keep the baby from communicating with strangers. Digestive disorders, an upset stomach of a child at the time of teething is associated with his desire to chew and suck everything he can reach, just to relieve discomfort in the gums.So pathogenic microbes get into his mouth. Try to keep the child surrounded by clean objects, wash his pens and toys more often. Regularly let your baby chew small pieces of solid food – dried bread, a donut, a slice of apple, etc. This will help the eruption of those teeth that are already “on the way”, will improve the blood supply, and hence the nutrition of the gums, develop the chewing reflex, and help the formation of the speech apparatus.

When should you start brushing your child’s teeth?

Now children’s dentists are inclined to believe that the systematic cleaning of the child’s oral cavity should be started … from the first days of his life.After feeding, you need to take a clean gauze or bandage, wrap it around your finger, moisten it with boiled water and run it over the gums of the newborn. This is how you can avoid such major troubles as, for example, candidiasis (thrush) of the oral cavity.

Cleaning the first teeth can be done with a cotton swab or fingertip. You should start using toothpaste and a brush from 12-14 months. Almost all children’s brushes are now made from soft artificial bristles, but still be careful, check the brush you like: what age it is designed for, whether it is soft enough.Give preference to products from well-known manufacturers. Toothpaste also differs in composition and taste depending on the age of the children to whom it is intended. The kid should be told to spit out the toothpaste, even though it is sweet. However, keep in mind for yourself: nothing terrible will happen if a child first swallows a certain amount of paste: manufacturers know about this tendency of babies and make baby pastes safe for the body.

Of course, it is necessary to involve the child as much as possible in the process of dental care: to show how to use a brush correctly, to brush your teeth in the presence of the child, thereby demonstrating how important this procedure is.You can involve your baby in the process of choosing a paste and a brush, especially since the brush needs to be changed every 3 months. A little older child can be asked to choose brushes for the whole family. It is necessary to develop the child’s skill of regularly brushing teeth 2 times a day. More attention should be paid to brushing your teeth at night. And yet, letting go of the situation and leaving the child to himself in the matter of oral hygiene is possible only when the child turns 10 years old.

Diseases of milk teeth

The most common troubles are caries (including bottle caries), pulpitis, periodontitis.

You should be alerted to any changes in the color of the enamel, spots, dots (both dark and white) on the child’s teeth, redness or swelling of the gums. But the irregularities of the dentition at first can not be scared: when chewing solid food, milk teeth will move a little and gradually take the right place.

The reasons for the appearance of diseases of deciduous teeth are not very different from the causes of problems with permanent teeth. It is:

  • insufficient care for them (lack of proper hygiene),
  • eating disorders,
  • impairment of immunity due to other diseases and taking certain medications.

It is a mistake to think that milk teeth can be not carefully monitored on the grounds that they will fall out anyway. A sick tooth in the mouth is a breeding ground for pathogenic bacteria, which not only destroy other teeth, but also negatively affect digestion, lororgan. A prematurely lost milk tooth is also a problem, since it does not allow the baby to fully chew food, to articulate sounds with high quality. In addition, adjacent teeth try to take the vacant space – they move.And when a permanent tooth begins to grow here, it simply will not have enough space in the dentition and will have to grow sideways. That is why it is imperative to keep an eye on milk teeth, it is imperative to treat them on time!

Some of the pathogenic bacteria we ourselves, out of ignorance, bring into the baby’s mouth. Suffice it to recall the grandmother’s method of disinfecting a fallen nipple: lick it – and into the baby’s mouth. How many times have we done this? Did you feed the child with your spoon? Did you take turns biting an apple or a bun with him? Imagine for a moment the condition of your teeth and only the tender teeth of a child that have appeared, not fully formed.What kind of danger did you put them in?

Particularly harmful is foreign microflora to a baby under 2 years old, while temporary teeth ripen in his mouth and their enamel is very vulnerable.

Food debris also contributes to the rapid growth of bacteria in the oral cavity. A by-product of their activity is acid, it is it that eats away the enamel of the milk tooth, leaving its delicate base – dentin – without protection. Then the matter is small: microorganisms invade dentin and destroy it. This is how caries proceeds. Outwardly, a sore tooth may look normal for a long time: a small black dot (the site of the lesion) is not too noticeable.But inside, it can already be severely destroyed, since caries of milk teeth, due to the softness of their tissues, develops much faster than permanent ones.

There is also the so-called “bottle caries” – a brownish plaque on the front teeth. It is very durable and does not lend itself to brushing. Such teeth decay quickly. This caries is called “bottle-necked” because it is a consequence of feeding a baby from a bottle with sugary drinks and juices at night and during the night. Carbohydrates are known to be the best food for bacteria.Getting such a wonderful nourishment, pathogenic bacteria multiply rapidly and take over the entire territory available to them. It will be very difficult to get them to surrender their positions. The development of “bottle caries” is also facilitated by the fact that at night the natural protector and cleaner of teeth – saliva – is almost not produced. While you are sleeping peacefully, the fragile little teeth of your crumbs are subjected to a powerful attack and are not protected by anything! Should you buy yourself a vacation at such a price?

Dangerous complications of caries are pulpitis and periodontitis.

Pulpitis is an inflammation of the pulp (the core of the tooth filled with blood vessels and nerve fibers). In babies, the pulp is practically insensitive, so they may not feel the usual sign of pulpitis – sharp pain. As a result, pulpitis of milk teeth may not even be noticed by an attentive parent, and the role of preventive examinations at the dentist is irreplaceable here.

If bacteria have passed through the root of the milk tooth and left in the gum tissue, their inflammation begins – periodontitis.Severe pain and temperature are already guaranteed here. The gums become red and swollen. Periodontitis is a serious illness; in no case should a child be brought to it.

With timely access to the dentist, all these troubles can be avoided. Caries is very easy to treat. Here, however, the first place comes the question of exactly where to apply. It turns out that the approach to the treatment of primary teeth in different clinics is very different.

Traditionally, decay of deciduous teeth is treated in a hurry: a small child usually does not really want to endure while the doctor digs in his mouth, so the doctor tries to somehow clean out the damaged area and fill it with fast-hardening material.As a result, the affected teeth remain untreated and may soon become inflamed or completely destroyed. Sometimes you even have to put crowns on milk teeth.

The Nutcracker uses all the possibilities of modern medicine to fully help the smallest patients: from composite materials to “laughing gas” and Sevoran anesthesia. We are convinced that the treatment of milk teeth should be of high quality, and the baby’s impressions from the clinic should be the most pleasant.

How is the replacement of primary teeth in children with permanent ones?

This is a truly amazing process.Milk teeth still do not think to fall out, and permanent teeth – molars – are already forming in the child’s jaws. The order of changing milk teeth in children suggests that as they grow, the roots of the milk teeth dissolve, because of which they begin to stagger and soon fall out. The order of appearance of molars is approximately the same as for temporary ones; terms – from six to 12-14 years, and “wisdom” teeth grow only by 20-25 years.

What should be done for the health of milk teeth?

Let’s summarize all those simple and, in general, obvious rules that will help us to preserve the healthy baby teeth given by nature throughout the entire period of functioning and not to bring it to the moment when the baby has a baby tooth hurts or its premature loss occurs.

  • Avoid unnecessary medication during pregnancy and lactation to avoid damaging the developing teeth.
  • Eat healthy foods during pregnancy.
  • Feed your baby with breast milk.
  • Introduce solid foods into your child’s diet at the right time.
  • Do not share a spoon with your baby (especially under two years of age), do not lick his nipple for the purpose of “disinfection”.
  • Do not let your child fall asleep with a bottle of sugary drink.
  • Carefully monitor your baby’s oral hygiene from the first days of life.
  • Have a regular check-up with your child at the pediatric dentist.

Numbering of teeth. | “BioDent”

Everyone knows that a person has only 32 teeth. However, when visiting the dentist, many are surprised when the doctor says that, for example, the 46th tooth needs to be cured. Where does the 46 tooth come from when a person has 32 in total?

Everything is very simple in modern dentistry, European two-digit numbering of teeth is used for correct diagnosis and ease of filling out a medical card.

Today in dentistry there are 4 basic numbering schemes for human teeth:

1. Square-digital or Siegmond-Palmer system. Permanent teeth are designated by Arabic numerals from 1 to 8, milk teeth – by Roman numerals from I to V. This numbering is most widespread in the post-Soviet space.

2. Two-digit system. This is the newest and most advanced tooth numbering system available today. This system is adopted by the FDI (International Dental Association).According to this system, a quadrant number is added to the serial number of each tooth (1-8) in front (1-4 for permanent teeth and 5-8 for milk teeth). As a result, each tooth gets a two-digit number, the first digit of which denotes a certain quadrant, and the second – an ordinal number. The convenience of the system lies in the absence of cumbersome names with an accurate indication of the location of the required tooth and in the minimum risk of error. This numbering is indispensable when referring a patient to an X-ray, as well as when marking teeth on a panoramic image.

3. Universal system. Permanent teeth are designated by Arabic numerals from 1 to 32 (counting is carried out from the right half of the upper jaw clockwise from the wisdom tooth), milk teeth – in Latin letters from A to T.

4. Alphanumeric system. Widely distributed in the USA. Letters are used for each group of teeth. Capital letters are for a permanent set, uppercase letters are for a milk set. (I – incisors , C – canines , P – premolars , M – molars ) A digital code is also used, which indicates the location of the tooth with a correct bite.Minus – this system does not take into account the left- and right-sided position of the tooth. This system is very convenient for recording teeth in mixed bite.

Appointment of teeth.

According to purpose and shape, teeth are divided into 4 groups: incisors, canines, premolars and molars.


The front teeth are incisors, used to bite off pieces of food without strong pressure. The incisors are flat and have sharp edges. There are 8 incisors in total, 4 each on the upper and lower jaw.The two central incisors are designated by the serial number “1”. After the first incisors, the second incisors are placed under the serial number “2”.

Among the features of the structure of the incisors, one can note: a flattened crown, a single root, a thin edge, with the help of which pieces of food are “cut”. According to the principle of action, the work of the incisors can be compared with the work of ticks.

Canine teeth

Fangs are used to bite off and tear off dense pieces of food. These powerful teeth are tapered.The canines are placed after the anterior incisors, and have a serial number “3”.

Fangs were inherited by humans from wild ancestors who were predators. The structure of the canines differs from the incisors by a stronger crown and a longer root. The canines have the longest root compared to the rest of the teeth. This structure gives the canines considerable stability. In terms of function, canines can be compared to a chisel.


After the pieces of food enter the oral cavity, they must be experienced.For this, the chewing teeth of the premolars (small root teeth) are used. They are located immediately behind the canines, they are designated under the numbers “4” and “5”.

Premolars, four on the upper and lower jaw. Premolars are similar in structure to canines, the difference is that they have a prismatic shape and a wider surface. They can be compared to a kitchen chop hammer in use.


The rest of the teeth are molars (large chewing). Accordingly, they are designated under the numbers “6”, “7” and “8”.Each of these teeth has tubercles on the surface, which contributes to grinding and grinding food.

There are 6 molars on each jaw, 3 on each side. They are called respectively: the first, second and third. The third large root tooth (wisdom tooth) may be missing. Molars have a large crown that has a large chewing surface. There are five bumps on the surface (two at the back and three at the front) to effectively grind large pieces of food.Food debris often accumulates between the tubercles, which leads to plaque, caries and other deposits. The roots of molars are two on the lower jaw and three on the upper. Large root teeth can be compared to powerful hammers.

Dentistry Biodent, Birch tel. (01643) 3-33-33

90,000 Indigenous (permanent) teeth in children

Each person goes through the stages of the eruption of the first teeth, the development of milk teeth and their subsequent replacement with permanent ones. Despite the similar appearance and function performed, temporary and permanent teeth have differences, which we will talk about, at the same time we will consider the timing of the appearance of the main teeth, possible problems with them in the process of their development.

In the photo – a diagram of the structure of human teeth

The structure of human teeth

Teeth are not only intended for mechanical processing of food, but are also necessary for the formation of speech, breathing, and affect facial features. To navigate what dentists advise, how to protect your teeth, what are the risks of diseases, it is useful to know how they work.

Anatomical structure

The 3 parts that make up the tooth:

  • Crown.Used for chewing, the visible part of the tooth. On the outside, it is covered with durable enamel that protects it from bacteria, chemicals contained in food, water, saliva. Surfaces have their own names:
    • Facial (vestibular) – in contact with the lip or cheek.
    • Lingual (lingual) – the opposite of the facial, involved in the formation of speech.
    • Occlusion – the upper surface in contact with the opposite jaw tooth.
    • Contact (approximal) – contacts with adjacent teeth.
  • Neck. The area of ​​the tooth is slightly tapered. It serves to connect the crown and root of the tooth, for which connective tissue fibers are used.
  • Root. Located in the jaw bone (alveolus). The number of roots differs for different teeth and can vary from 1 to 5.

Milk teeth, having a similar structure in many respects, have differences in anatomy:

  • They are noticeably smaller in height than the permanent ones.
  • The crown is much wider than the root.
  • The enamel is thinner and more fragile.
  • The roots are rounder.
  • Erasure of milk teeth, as well as their independent loss, is a normal physiological process.

Histological structure

The structure has several layers:

  • Enamel is the most durable fabric. When a tooth just erupts, a cuticle is located on it, which is gradually, under the influence of saliva, replaced by a pellicle.
  • Dentin is a highly mineralized tissue resembling bone, but with better mechanical strength.Instead of enamel, the root part of the dentine is covered with cement.
  • The pulp, the central part of the tooth, is a soft connective tissue containing a large number of blood vessels. Caries, inflammatory processes “owe” the pain to the pulp with its large number of nerve endings.

Milk teeth are distinguished by dentin with a lower degree of mineralization, which weakens their protection against caries. By volume, the pulp occupies most of the tooth, and small protective layers (enamel and dentin) are less effective in protecting against the penetration of bacteria and the development of inflammatory processes.

Types of teeth

There are 4 groups:

  • Cutters. 4 chisel cutters. The largest are a pair of upper central incisors, with the opposite situation from below – the lateral incisors are somewhat larger than the central ones.
  • Fangs. 2 on the upper and the same amount on the lower jaw. Their length is longer than the rest, the anterior wall is convex.
  • Premolars. A total of 8, prismatic in shape, the upper surface with two tubercles (buccal and lingual). Roots of premolars 2.The second premolar has a larger buccal surface. There are no milk premolars.
  • Molars. The first molar (large molar) is the largest tooth in the upper jaw. The chewing surface has four tubercles, roots 3. The cubic second molar is smaller, and the buccal tubercles are larger than the lingual ones. The third (“wisdom tooth”) is in many ways similar to the second, but not everyone has it.

Dental formula

In order to improve the convenience of describing each tooth, their numbering, filling in cards, it is customary to write down the order of the teeth using a special formula.There are several varieties of it.

Sigmondy-Palmer system (square digital)

Arabic numerals are used, numbering starts from the central incisors in each direction:

  • 1 and 2 – incisors.
  • 3 – canine.
  • 4, 5 – premolars.
  • 6-8 – molars.

Milk teeth are designated differently – using Roman numerals:

  • I and II – incisors.
  • III – canine.
  • IV and V – molars.

Two-digit system Viola

Teeth numbering uses 2 digits. The jaws are divided into 4 quadrants. The first digit shows its number.

For adults it is:

  • 1 – upper jaw on the right.
  • 2 – upper jaw on the left.
  • 3 – lower jaw on the left.
  • 4 – lower jaw, right.

For a similar description of milk teeth, numbers from 5 to 8 are used.

So, there are 8 teeth in each quadrant, its number is shown by the second digit.Thus, the first molar of the lower jaw on the left is designated 35, and the canine in the child from the bottom right has the designation 43. Therefore, the phrase that “treatment of the 48th tooth is required,” or, for example, the 55th, does not mean that the doctor is not qualified or what -or pathology in your child, who suddenly acquired so many teeth.

Teeth development

Differences between milk and molars begin with their number – only 20 milk teeth, 8 incisors and molars, and 4 canines. This is explained by the fact that more teeth in children simply have nowhere to fit.In this regard, there are no milk premolars. By the time the permanent ones appear, the adolescent’s jaws are already sufficiently developed for the appearance of all teeth.

The formation of tooth rudiments in humans begins at the 6th week of intrauterine development, and at the 14th week, hard dental tissue appears. First, the crown develops. The development of the primordia of permanent teeth begins at the 5th month.

By the time the child is born, the formation of the rudiments of both milk and permanent teeth is almost complete.The process of development of permanent teeth, which have no analogues among milk teeth, begins one year after birth.

If the first teeth can appear at 4 months, and their eruption may be delayed up to a year, permanent teeth erupt in everyone at about the same age. The sequence of their eruption is the same as in the case of dairy:

  • 6-7 years old. The central incisors appear below.
  • 7-8 years old. The central incisors above and lateral below are replaced.
  • 8-9 years old.The lateral incisors of the upper jaw appear.
  • 9-12 years old. Canine teeth and premolars are replaced.
  • From the age of 12. From this age, molars begin to change, and from about the age of 14, teeth appear that were not among the milk ones.

Signs of the imminent appearance of molars

It is possible to determine the moment that soon one should wait for the beginning of the change of milk teeth with permanent ones, by several signs:

  • The gradual growth of the baby’s jaws leads to the fact that the gaps between the teeth increase.
  • Zubik starts to wobble. This is due to the fact that the already small root begins to gradually dissolve, which is why the fixation of milk teeth is significantly weakened.
  • The dropped tooth indicates that the formed permanent, which is about to appear, pushed it out.
  • The appearance of swelling, redness on the gums at the eruption site of a permanent tooth is possible.
  • Pain in the gums, where a permanent tooth erupts, fever, poor health of the child indicates problems that have arisen, and it is imperative to see a doctor.The process of eruption of molars should be painless.

Possible problems

At the time of the appearance of molars, certain dental problems are possible. In order to take timely measures to eliminate them, parents must have an idea of ​​them.

Molars do not erupt

A situation is possible in which milk teeth do not fall out in due time, or fell out, but in their place the molars began to appear. The reason for this should be established by the dentist, whom you must definitely visit, without postponing it on the back burner.Usually, an overview x-ray is taken to show the degree of development of the molars.

Among the options for the absence of eruption in the prescribed time frame of molars, you can specify:

  • Hereditary predisposition, which is the cause of a possible delay in the appearance of molars. If the X-ray shows that the formation of tooth buds is underway, then you just have to wait a little for their appearance.
  • Adentia. Violations of the formation of tooth buds during the intrauterine development of a child, inflammatory processes can lead to a similar pathology – the absence or death of tooth buds.The way out is prosthetics.


The first time after eruption, the tooth is poorly protected from caries and the effects of various bacteria on it. This is explained by the low degree of mineralization of the enamel at the initial stage. Almost nothing interferes with the development of caries, tooth tissues are destroyed, pulpitis occurs, followed by the risk of its transition to periodontitis. The appearance of severe pain, changes in body temperature and deterioration of well-being are possible.

It is highly advisable not to start the situation, not to bring it to severe pain, but as soon as painful sensations appear, visit the dentist.If the child has a predisposition to caries, it is better to carry out preventive procedures, for example, sealing fissures. The folds on the chewing surface are covered with a composite material that protects such natural cavities from the accumulation of food debris in them, the development of bacteria, and inflammatory processes.

In the worst case, you can lose a tooth.

Teeth grow crooked

A common situation when the molar tooth has already begun to erupt, but the milk one does not want to fall out in any way.The result is that the new tooth is looking for alternative ways of growth, which leads to its displacement, a change in the direction of growth. Hence the violation of the bite and evenness of the dentition. You will need treatment from an orthodontist.

If such a situation is observed, you should not independently remove or loosen a milk tooth, you must visit a doctor.

Loss of molars

An alarming symptom of the presence of diseases (caries, etc.) in the oral cavity, or there are problems with the whole body (diseases of the connective tissues, diabetes mellitus, etc.)). A visit to a doctor is required.

It is necessary to develop a strategy for the restoration of a lost tooth. This is necessary for the correct growth of the remaining teeth and the formation of the maxillofacial system. Considering that the tissues of the jaw are still in the process of growth, prosthetics is possible only temporarily, which must be corrected as the jaws develop. Permanent prosthetics will be available only after the end of their formation.


The first few years after eruption, teeth are at increased risk of injury from exposure.Sports injuries, falls, impacts can lead to chipping of parts of the tooth, the occurrence of cracks. Be sure to contact your dentist who will restore the lost part with modern materials.


Permanent teeth are not subject to regeneration, they are given once and for life. An attentive attitude, especially in the process of their development, careful care, a timely visit to a pediatric dentist for treatment and preventive procedures will help keep them.

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