Engineering drawing prints: Architectural & Engineering Drawing Prints — CW Print + Design

How to order large Engineer Prints (for $7 or less!)

Have you ever used Engineer Prints?

They’ve been a staple in my decorating for the last 10 years because they’re so inexpensive!

What is an Engineer Print?

They’re printed on large piece of regular paper (no thick card stock or beautiful matte paper here – we’re talking thin printer paper here) and they cost only a few dollars. They’re available in black and white, which is a little cheaper, or color for a few dollars more.

In the past, you’ve been able to use engineer prints for photos – I printed the print in the photo below as an engineering print and it cost me a whopping $12 for that full color engineer print, but many places like Staples are coming down on printing photos on engineering prints because it takes so much ink and ends up being really expensive for them.

It’s not consistent across the board, so it’s worth calling your local Staples or other office supply store and see if they’ll still do it for you.

If they’ll let you print engineer prints for photos, that’s fantastic. 

If not, there are a million other uses for engineer prints. For more simple art (say, any of the free book quote art prints here!), engineer prints are perfect.

I used Staples Engineering prints for my black and white world map and then added gold lettering with a gold sharpie, I used it to print a US map that I hung in our play space in our North Carolina house (I used metallic sharpies on top of the text at the top to add some color) , and I used an engineer print as a stencil to make this colorful world map.

I’ve printed holiday prints with engineer prints (you can see a big Christmas one here that I did a few years ago in the first photo) and to print big summer calendars.

The point is, I LOVE engineer prints.

Where to Order Engineer Prints

I’ve always used Staples Engineering Prints, but Office Depot also has them for the same price (although for a 24×36, you only have the option to get it delivered – they won’t do it in store for you).

FedEx Kinkos will also do engineer prints, although they’re slightly more expensive (about $11 for a 24×36 black and white, instead of $7-8 like a Staples Engineering Print).

Also, I’ve linked to each of the correct pages for those stores, but some of them call them Blueprints or Construction Prints or Architectural Prints instead of Engineering Prints if you’re having a hard time finding them.

A step by step guide to ordering a Staples Engineering Print

  1. Go to the Staples Engineering Print page. At the bottom, select the size you want (the price will change depending on what size you choose).
  2. Choose whether you want color or black & white and click “Buy Now.”
  3. On the screen that pops up, choose “Add Files” from the top left corner and then select “Upload files.” Choose your image (you can use a PDF or a JPG), then press “Upload.” When it’s completely uploaded, choose “Done.”
  4. Your image may look wonky on the display. On the left menu bar, choose “Orientation” and change to portrait or landscape, depending on the orientation of your file. If it’s still not looking right, choose “Media” from that same toolbar and then select the right size of printing and then click the “Fit Content to Paper” option and then click “Done.”
  5. Name your Job in the left hand toolbar (the name doesn’t really matter – I usually do something like “Janssen’s World Map”).
  6. Choose “Add to Cart” in the bottom right hand corner.
  7. If everything in your cart looks good, click “proceed to checkout” and select “Pick Up in Store.”
  8. Choose your date for pickup (it’ll usually charge you a rush fee for same-day, so I always choose the first free day and then call in after my order has been placed and ask if they can do it that day for me. They’ve never said no) and then your store.
  9. I choose “Pay at Store” but you can also pay online if you’d rather.
  10. When it’s ready, go pick it up and you’re ready to roll!

Any other questions about Engineer Prints?

Stay tuned because I have a really fun way to use these engineering prints coming on Monday – I can hardly wait to show you!


If you liked this post about how to order Staples engineering prints, you might like these posts too:


How to Read Engineering Drawings – a Simple Guide

You don’t have to be an engineer to be able to read engineering drawings, while learning how to read engineering drawings can be a big advantage for you in your work.  

What are engineering drawings used for?

Engineering drawings (also sometimes known as blueprints, manufacturing blueprints, prints, manufacturing prints, dimensional prints, drawings, mechanical drawings, and more) are a rich and specific outline that shows all the information and requirements needed to manufacture an item or product. It is more than simply a drawing, it is a graphical language that communicates ideas and information.

Why not just use a 3D model?

Unlike a 3D model, an engineering drawing offers a lot more specific information and requirements, including: 

  • Dimensions
  • Geometry 
  • Tolerances
  • Material type
  • Finish
  • Hardware

3D models are good to have and are usually (especially nowadays) used in conjunction with drawings. They are a good visual representation of the desired item, but do not contain all the information that drawings do. 


Information blocks

These blocks contain essential information about the assembly. They are usually located in the bottom right-hand corner of the drawing. These blocks provide details about what the drawing is for, for whom, part number and description, as well as information about the material and finish.

These are the main information blocks:


Title block

Start off by reading the title block found at the bottom right-hand corner of the drawing. There are other information blocks like it, but the title block serves as the context in which the drawing should be perceived. 


The title block contains information such as:

  • Name and address of the company or agency who prepared or owns the drawing
  • Part number and description
  • Material
  • Mass
  • Finish
  • General tolerances
  • Projection details
  • Scale used in the drawing
  • Revision numbers
  • Status of the drawing (Preliminary, Approved, etc.)
  • Units used in the drawing

Note that any information in the notes outside the title block that conflicts with the information in the title block should be considered as the right information and supersede the title block information.


Revision block

The revision block, located in the upper right hand corner, shows details about the changes that were made to roll the revision. The Revision Block includes the revision, the description of what changes were made, the date of the revision, and approval of the revision.


Bill of Materials (BOM) Block

Located usually either just above the title block or in the upper left-hand corner, the Bill of Materials block (also known as a BOM, Schedule or Parts List) contains a list of all the items and quantities that are required for the project or assembly. This is used for parts that either require assembly or when hardware should be added to the part. 




It is important to understand what each line type is and what they mean. There are three types of lines: 

  • Visible line: Indicates an edge is visible in relevant view
  • Hidden line: Indicates the edge is behind a face
  • Phantom line: Mostly used to indicate an alternate position of a moving part. Also used to indicate a break when the nature of the object makes the use of the conventional type of break unfeasible.
  • Centre lines: drawn to indicate the exact geometric centre of the assembly. They are made from a series of lighter long and short dashes.


Reading engineering drawings – What’s next?

Now it’s time to try to visualize how the assembly is supposed to look like in 3D (for this you can ignore the exact dimensions). Most new drawings will have an isometric view to guide you. You can use the Bill of Materials to find the components in the drawing in order to understand the role they play in the assembly.

Remember that reading an engineering drawing can take a long time, depending on the complexity of the assembly and the experience of the reader.

If you’re interested in learning more, our one-day introductory course will teach you how to read and interpret drawings accurately and have a better understanding of the specific requirements of a project.  

Northern New Mexico Section | ASME Engineering Network

Print Reading and Engineering Drawing Practices

WHEN: June 24-25, 2019, all day Monday and Tuesday from 7:30AM to 4:30 PM

WHERE: UNM-LA (University of New Mexico, Los Alamos), Building 6, Room 631 (UNM-LA address: 4000 University Drive, Los Alamos, New Mexico)


Course Length: 16 Hours total, 8 Hours per Day

The primary objective of this course is to introduce the basic principles of drafting and the skills required to be proficient in interpreting engineering and manufacturing drawings.

These skills are essential in mechanical design, production and inspection. Training in drafting/print reading will also expand one’s ability to visualize various fabricating processes required to produce a part. Students will develop skills to draw and visualize parts using orthographic projection (multi-view drawings) through hands-on practice. Participants will understand the use of cutting planes and the differences between section views and auxiliary views.

Students will also receive an introduction to Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing.

By the conclusion of the course, the students will:

  • Understand the importance of drawing management: title blocks, bill of materials, drawings notes and revisions.
  • Be able to read Multi-view Drawings and Orthographic Projection, Section and Auxiliary Views.
  • Understand application and interpretation of dimensions, surface finishes, screw threads/fasteners, and welding symbols.

Prints from industry will be used and students are encouraged to bring in work-related prints for the workshop discussions and exercises.

Who Should Attend: Engineering, manufacturing, quality, purchasing, and shop personnel, summer students or anyone else who needs to read engineering drawings.

Prerequisites: only the desire to learn Print Reading.

Instructor:  The instructor, Tony Cimabue, is a Senior GD&T Professional certified by ASME in accordance with the qualifications of ASME Y14. 5.2. Tony has over 39 years of professional experience using GD&T on complex design problems and has been providing GD&T workshops both nationally and in Los Alamos for over 16 years.

Workbook/Reference Guides provided: Print Reading and Engineering Drawing Practices by Anthony Cimabue and Al Neumann and Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Pocket Guide by Al Neumann and Scott Neumann.



  1. Please first contact Leslie Puckett if you wish to register
  2. Please read our refund policy before registering for a class
  3. Then go to our ECWID Store to Order and Pay

ASME Contact:
Leslie Puckett
E-mail: nnm.asme at gmail dot com      Replace at and dot with symbols
Cell: (505) 670-1821

Construction Drawings: Size & Scaling



When it comes to architectural and engineering drawings there can be some confusion regarding size and scaling. Let’s take a closer look at some of the industry standards to better understand the roles of each.

~Construction drawings are usually created at ARCH D or ANSI D size~


Most construction drawings are created by the engineer or architect to be at a specific scale. This identification will be noted somewhere on the document, usually near the bottom of the page, in the title block, or underneath an individual section.

~When a drawing is in its original size, it’s considered FULL SIZE & TO SCALE~


There are two sets of standardized page sizes for construction documents:

ANSI (American National Standards Institute) and ARCH (Architectural).

When a drawing is created to scale by an architect or engineer it is typically formatted to fit one of these page sizes. The chart below shows both sets of standards:

Most scaled documents at full size are created at ANSI D or ARCH D size. Occasionally they will be created at a larger or smaller size depending on the needs of the project.


To save money during the printing process, contractors may have their documents printed at half size or half scale. This is done by printing the original document at a 50% reduction. If done correctly, the document will still be to scale, albeit, a half scale of the original (1/8” = 1’ becomes 1/16” = 1’). As you can see in the chart above, the standardized page sizes are formatted to accomplish this.


Most construction drawings are scaled and drawn at their full size. If you’re working with a PDF you can find out the document’s dimensions by moving your mouse to the lower left corner of the program window. After a moment, the document’s dimensions will be shown. Refer to one of the standard construction drawing sizes when making a print order and clarify if you need the document to scale or not.

~Rylee imparts her deep understanding of blueprint sizes.~

How to Read a Manufacturing Drawing

When learning how to read a manufacturing drawing, it can seem quite daunting because there is so much information to take in. This blog post will break down a drawing and make it easier to understand. But, first thing is first! What is the purpose of a manufacturing drawing if there are 3D models? Manufacturing drawings show numerous features of a part that a 3D model doesn’t. For instance, drawings show the material type, the finish, dimensions, hardware, company information, and other specific requirements. The sole purpose of a drawing is to show all the details of a part. Imagine if you were looking at a single part in your hand, a drawing would essentially describe and illustrate all the details of how to place the part in your hand.

Sheet Metal Part Drawing
Machined Part Drawing

Manufacturing drawings can be referred to as manufacturing prints, dimensional prints, prints, drawings, manufacturing blueprints, blueprints, mechanical drawings, and more. Drawings are designed by engineers, so there is a lot of engineering lingo and symbols that are used to identify and describe certain aspects of a part. This is the “daunting” part of a drawing because unless you have experience with reading drawings or you’re an engineer, learning what everything means on a print can be a challenge. So let’s break down a print and make this easier! This blog post will specify the format, location, and type of information that should be included in drawings like blocks, notes, specifications, and symbols you may find on a drawing.


Engineers include a lot of critical information in the blocks in order to give the reader information about who the print belongs to, part number and description, and information about the material and finish. The information blocks are located in the bottom right-hand corner of the drawing. Occasionally, some blocks are left blank if the information in that block is not needed or hasn’t been decided. From a manufacturing point of view, the more information the better and all blocks should be filled in so there are no assumptions. The information blocks include the following:

Title Block

The following information is located within the title block in the lower right hand corner of a blueprint as shown above:

  • Name: company or agency who prepared or owns the drawing
  • Address: location of the company or agency
  • Name and date: responsible engineers who drew, checked, and approved the drawing
  • Part name/description: describes what the part is
  • Part/drawing number: assigned number to identify the part
  • Revision: identifies the correct version of the drawing
  • Scale (optional): ratio of actual size of the part compared to the size of the part on the drawing. It can be shown as 1:1 or 1=1. The first number represents the actual size of the part and the second number represents the print. In other words, 1:2 means the the print is double the actual size. Whereas 3:1 indicates the actual size is three times what is shown on the print. Note: even if the sale says 1:1, never measure the drawing, use the dimensions.
  • Size: specifies the drawing sheet size; A = 8.5 x 11, B = 11 x 17, C = 17 x 22, D = 22 x 34, E = 34 x 44, F = 28 x 40 (inches)

Revision Block

In addition to the revision shown in the Title Block, there is a revision block that is located in the upper right hand corner. The Revision Block indicates the specifics in regards to the changes that were made to roll the revision. The Revision Block includes the revision, the description of what changes were made, the date of the revision, and approval of the revision.

Bill of Materials (BOM) Block

For parts that require assembly, require hardware to be added to the part, or there is a kit of parts, there is a Bill of Materials Block that contains a list of all the items that are needed for the assembly or project. Bill of Materials can also be referred to as a Parts List, Schedule, or for short BOM (pronounced either “be-oh-em” or “bomb”). The BOM includes the part number, the description/name of the part or item, the material specification (if any), and the quantity to be required of that item.

The BOM can be located in different areas on the print. The two most common are located right above the Title Block or in the upper left hand corner.


Prints contain a border around the entire print which include letters and numbers as shown in the above print between the red lines. These letters and numbers are used like a map in order to help locate and pinpoint certain areas of a print. The letters are in alphabetical order from the bottom up. The numbers are in numerical order from right to left. Therefore, you are to read the zones from right to left.


Since the blueprint shows the part graphically and with dimensions, many times there are more specifics to the part that cannot be seen graphically which are described in the Notes and Specifications which are generally located in the upper left hand corner or lower left hand corner. Notes are additional information about the part. Whereas, Specifications are a reference to an actual document or statement that describes how the parts are to be manufactured, assembled, and maintained.

Now that all the different components of a print have been identified and described, the next step is learning how to read a manufacturing print. This blog post will help you to understand the lines of a part of a print in order to visualize the part correctly.

Thanks for reading along. Vista Industrial Products, Inc. has specialized in fabricating sheet metal for over 57 years. We provide CNC machining, sheet metal fabrication, and welding fabrication for the medical, defense, kiosk, commercial, and high technology industries who require high quality products. If you’re company requires these types of services and you are looking for a precision sheet metal company, please contact us today for a quote. We will require manufacturing drawings like those described above and quantities. We look forward to hearing from you!

For more information about manufacturing prints, check out these articles:

Blueprints and Architectural Line Drawings

Architectural Drawing, and Engineering / Blueprint Details
Most orders are printed on 24lb and 32lb opaque uncoated paper stocks that can be easily be rolled into tubes and shipped same or next day. Both gloss & uncoated stocks can be mounted or laminated to accommodate your specifications.

Available Paper Stock & Substrates
• 24lb (text) uncoated opaque bond (standard)
• Smooth White Vinyl & Adhesive Vinyl
• Transparent Vinyl & Mylar

Size & Specifications
Common ARCH and ANSI sizes include 11 x 17″, 18 x 24″, 22 x 34″, 24 x 36″ and 36 x 48″ blueprints and drawings that we roll and ship in tubes. However, we can print up to 60 inches by any length for all your custom sized printing needs. Take a look at our architectural drawing size chart for reference below.

Standard US Architectural Drawing Size Chart ARCH A 9 x 12″
ARCH B 12 x 18″
ARCH C 18 x 24″
ARCH D 24 x 36″
ARCH E 36 x 48″

Standard US Engineering Drawing Size Chart ANSI A 8.5 x 11″
ANSI B 11 x 17″
ANSI C 17 x 22″
ANSI D 22 x 34″
ANSI E 34 x 44″

Upload Your Artwork For A Free File Review If you are designing your own artwork and would like our art department to review your files before production begins, we offer free artwork review for our customers. Upload Your Files.

Get Answers To The Most Common Print Related Questions Check out our printing and design blog where you can find articles on how to avoid common printing issues, artwork setup and other useful topics related to printing and design. Learn More

Need A Design Template For Your Artwork? Visit the template download area of our website where our art department has prepared PDF template files for use as a guideline to setup your print ready files correctly. If you need any assistance setting up your artwork or would like a custom template for an upcoming project, just let us know. Contact Us

Download Print Ready PDF Design Templates

Prefer Speaking With A Print Specialist?
We are experts in large format digital printing and we are here to help. If you have any questions and prefer discussing your printing requirements over the phone, please call us toll free at 877-922-0612

Engineering Symbology, Prints and Drawings

Engineering Symbology, Prints and Drawings

A. Bhatia, B.E.

Course Outline

Engineering drawing is a formal and precise way of communicating information about the shape, size, features and precision of physical objects. The drawings of the engineer are an obvious case of making visible the practical expression of the profession, the interpretation of which has a direct impact on the final product.

This 4-hr course provides a thorough explanation of how engineering drawings are structured and the conventions that are used in making them and reading them. The course is designed to demonstrate how to read mechanical and technical drawings of piping and mechanical devices, controllers, and instruments connected to the network of pipes in an industrial plant.

The course material is extract from Department of Energy, handbook (DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93), ENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY, PRINTS and DRAWINGS, Volume 1 of 2 and covers Module 1 and 2.

This course includes a multiple-choice quiz at the end, which is designed to enhance the understanding of the course materials.

Learning Objective

At the conclusion of this course, the reader will learn:

  • How to interpret and create engineering drawings;
  • How to communicate dimensions properly;
  • What are the different types of engineering drawings;
  • What are the standard engineering drawing formats;
  • How to identify and interpret the line conventions used on engineering drawings;
  • What are the common terms, symbols, legends, notes and abbreviations used on engineering drawings;
  • How to interpret the various views shown on engineering drawings and to identify an object from an orthographic drawing;
  • How to identify elements located within the title block of a detail drawing;
  • How to find useful information on a flow diagram;
  • Demonstrate an understanding of hydraulic and pneumatic drawings;
  • What symbols represent the common components on hydraulic and pneumatic drawings;
  • How to identify piping-system components shown in single-line drawings;
  • What are the basic characteristics of schematics, single line diagrams and P&ID; and
  • How to identify components by their symbols: Electrical, Fluid-power, Piping.

Intended Audience

This course will be useful for anyone who interprets engineering drawings: product manufacturing, and quality engineers; inspectors; machinists; mechanical and process engineers, production personnel; fabrication and construction workers, purchasing agents; etc.

Benefit to Attendees

Attendee of this course will get to learn the basic symbology, common standards and conventions of the engineering drawings. The knowledge gained will be immensely useful in preparation, interpretation and reviewing of P&IDs, logic diagrams, fabrication, construction, architectural and other forms of engineering drawings.

Course Introduction

The ability to read and understand information contained on drawings is essential to perform most engineering-related jobs. Engineering drawings are the industry’s means of communicating detailed and accurate information on how to fabricate, assemble, troubleshoot, repair, and operate a piece of equipment or a system. To understand how to “read” a drawing it is necessary to be familiar with the standard conventions, rules, and basic symbols used on the various types of drawings.

This course provides the detailed description of Engineering Symbology, Prints and Drawings.


Course Content

This course is in the following PDF document:

Engineering Symbology, Prints and Drawings

Please click on the above underlined hypertext to view, download or print the document for your study. Because of the large file size, we recommend that you first save the file to your computer by right clicking the mouse and choosing “Save Target As …”, and then open the file in Adobe Acrobat Reader. If you still experience any difficulty in downloading or opening this file, you may need to close some applications or reboot your computer to free up some memory.

Course Summary

Drawing is the universal language of engineering. Drawings from an engineer provide a raw account of the fundamentals that will eventually go into making something useful and necessary, something which may save time, effort, record, or make a thing work. The five common categories of drawings are:

  • P&IDs
  • Electrical single lines and schematics
  • Electronic diagrams and schematics
  • Logic diagrams and prints
  • Fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings

Working with any of these engineering drawings type involves analyzing, making decisions, and processing data. This course provided a good understanding of drawing terminology and knowledge of the view representation, dimensions, tolerances, and other miscellaneous items used on the mechanical devices and piping. Representation of instruments and controllers on P&IDs and piping layout drawings of an industrial plant are also provided.


Once you finish studying the above course content, you need to take a quiz to obtain the PDH credits.

DISCLAIMER: The materials contained in the online course are not intended as a representation or warranty on the part of PDH Center or any other person/organization named herein. The materials are for general information only. They are not a substitute for competent professional advice. Application of this information to a specific project should be reviewed by a registered architect and/or professional engineer/surveyor. Anyone making use of the information set forth herein does so at their own risk and assumes any and all resulting liability arising therefrom.

In terms of engraving ›News of St. Petersburg›

The thematic and genre range of the exhibition is very wide – from book illustrations of liturgical books to magazine satirical graphics, from folk pictures – popular prints – to the author’s engraving.

“I appreciate in this art the incredible conciseness and brevity of expression, its laconicism and, thanks to this, especially sharp expressiveness. I appreciate the merciless determination and clarity of its lines in wood engraving, ”wrote Anna Ostroumova-Lebedeva, who made wood engraving an independent art in Russia, and was the first in the country to create colored woodcuts.

After the rapid development of woodcuts in Russia in the 17th – early 18th centuries, a period of calm began. And the revival of engraving began in the 1840s. Galina Pavlova, senior researcher in the engraving department, explains that the flourishing is associated precisely with the emergence in Russian literature of such a genre as a physiological or moral descriptive essay: “The same hero appears – a small person, he finds himself in the field of vision of a writer, artist and, of course , engraver.A short, but bright period of woodcut took off, during this period it displaces metal engraving from the book ”. In 1844-1845, the collection “Physiology of St. Petersburg” was published under the editorship of Nekrasov, most of the woodcuts were engraved by Eustathius Bernardsky, who managed to achieve incredible creative freedom when translating a drawing into the language of engraving. The exposition presents, for example, works from the cycle of Eustathius Bernard and Alexander Agin “One hundred drawings from the work to” Dead Souls “by Gogol, admitted by the censor for publication, but never made public for various reasons.Initially, Gogol was not happy with Bernard’s proposal to buy out the rights to publications of Dead Souls in order to publish them with pictures. The writer believed that one had to be the greatest artist to compete with the text. However, later, as they say, he suggested that Bernardsky publish The Inspector General with his illustrations.

The art of woodcuts in Russia of the century before last experienced ups and downs associated, oddly enough for us to read about it now, with European revolutionary events, which in Russia were responded by toughening or weakening of censorship – a little “thaw”, as the art of woodcutting flourishes – in a book, in brochure in periodicals.

In the twentieth century, woodblock printing saw a “change of fate” – it began to develop mainly as an author’s technique. However, not only in Russia. Irina Zolotinkina, senior researcher at the Russian Museum, notes that artists in different geographical coordinates still see the world synchronously: “One cannot fail to notice the similarities between our leading artist Anna Ostroumova-Lebedeva and the famous French master Felix Vallotton: both are representatives of the Art Nouveau era. If we take a decade later, then Nikolai Kupreyanov and especially Vladimir Kozlinsky were compared with German masters – Franz Maserel and others, although domestic authors said that they did not know and did not see the works of foreign colleagues.The artists felt the general atmosphere of the era ”.

The woodblock history is presented at the exhibition in the Engineering Castle quite widely: the milestones are marked, the names are mentioned. Anna Ostroumova-Lebedeva, Vadim Falileev, Solomon Yudovin, David Shterenberg, Pavel Shillingovsky, Vladimir Kozlinsky and Vladimir Favorsky, Alexey Kravchenko. Pavel Pavlinov, Vladimir Konashevich, Vsevolod Voinov, Vera Vilkoviskaya and other masters. The enthusiasm for chiaroscuro – chiaroscuro, shades of light and dark, the ability to convey volume with shades of one or several colors allowed artists, using laconic language, to achieve incredible expressiveness.“The whole world was viewed by me from the point of view of color engraving,” wrote Vadim Falileev. – Looking at the faces of people, wandering the streets, I saw everything in 2 or 3 colors, or even more. ”

The exhibition in the Engineering Castle awaits careful, close examination, scrutinizing every stroke and detail. According to the organizers, “Xylography” is a continuation of a series of exposition projects of the Russian Museum dedicated to certain engraving techniques, the peculiarities of certain types of printed graphics and the history of their development in Russia.

90,000 Applied and easel in wood engraving Text of a scientific article in the specialty “Art history”

DOI 10.25712MSTU.2518-7767.2019.01.006

UDC 76


Verkholantsev Mikhail Mikhailovich Honored Artist of the Russian Federation, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Arts, member of the Regional Public Organization “Moscow Union of Artists”.Russia, Moscow. [email protected]

European graphics, like all fine art, have always strived for easeliness, for maximum liberation from the shackles of applied art (William Morris, with his ideas for introducing art into industry, is a rare exception). Easel graphics in Europe is called “Freigraphik”, that is, free, free graphics.

Russian art, on the other hand, remained for a long time within the Eastern traditions of decorative two-dimensionality.Only after the reforms of Patriarch Nikon did Russian fine art rush to catch up with “Western progress”, which had long been striving for verism and photography. It is precisely the flat background of Russian graphics that explains the popularity of woodcuts in Russia.

Woodcuts, even reproduction, imitating photographic three-dimensionality in the 19th century, stubbornly clinging to the plane of the sheet, did not allow the spirit of easeliness to play out. The beginning of the 20th century returned woodcut printing to the plane of the sheet, and considered the aesthetics of reproduction engraving as a hopeless anachronism.An artist – an engraver or a carver, faced with the technological peculiarities of engraving on wood, inevitably grows smarter as an artist, choosing the best way to achieve color and linear expressiveness.

European typography owes its entirety to woodcuts. Movable letters are small woodcuts, now cast in metal, but which were once carved on a single board.

Another example of the stubborn striving of woodcut for utilitarianism is the attempt to use it as a reproduction of painting already in the 16th century.The article mentions the invention of Chiaroscuro Ugo da Carpi. It should be noted that it was precisely applied artists – jewelers, stained glass painters and architects of the 16th century who widely used woodcut as a means of reproducing and widely popularizing their ideas and inventions. It is surprising that these engravings-drawings in our time are perceived as purely easel works. Many of the authors of these prints are mentioned in the publication.


Artists of our time have noticed that an engraved or cut board is much more beautiful than an imprint from it.This phenomenon prompted the idea of ​​decorating interiors with huge woodcuts. This is how woodcuts invaded architecture.

This is the paradox: woodcut of large format, it would seem, should be ideally easel, but no, it retains the functions of applied art.

Keywords: drawing, graphics, woodcut, woodcut, fonts, miniatures, incunabula, form schneiders, kleinmeisters.

Bibliographic description for citation:

Verkholantsev M.M. Applied and easel in wood engraving // Art of Eurasia. – 2019. – No. 1 (12). – S. 71-91. DOI: 10.25712 / ASTU.2518-7767.2019.01.006. [Electronic resource] URL:

Woodcut by its nature avoided easeliness.And it was born at the end of the XIV century from a purely utilitarian wooden form for fabric printing. Easeliness, among other features, also presupposes a visual intrusion into three-dimensional space, and woodcut stubbornly holds the two-dimensional plane of the sheet, striving for decorativeness. For this reason, it is so difficult to choose a frame for woodcut that imitates and symbolizes a new window opening in the wall, and behind this window there is a new life, a new space, three-dimensional, for the most part.

And for a short time the lover of prints will admire the engraving, by chance, appeared on the wall of his chambers.The paper will instantly darken from daylight. True, glasses have been invented that protect graphics from burning out, but they are expensive. Usually a collector keeps prints in a folder and admires them from time to time. Any print, even if it is very well arranged in a spot and decorated with a decent frame, loses its decorative and informational expressiveness when the viewer leaves for a long distance. That is why engraving is a weak assistant in interior decoration, but on the other hand, being on the page or spread of a printed publication, it becomes the undivided mistress among the gray mass of the typeset, especially since each letter of this set is a small engraving.

Looking over the seven-hundred-year history of European woodcutting, we see clearly that this type of graphic art has repeatedly tried to be easel, but each time it returned to its element of utilitarianism. I will note that art, born of everyday necessity, accompanying a person’s life, is always young and endowed with good health.

Even before Gutenberg’s invention of printing (in fact, it was the invention of movable, type-setting letters), original books were published.These were collections of woodcuts of spiritual content. The texts, albeit small, but carefully cut, and even in Gothic type, accompanied the image on a single board. Here it is appropriate to recall the popular print, Russian and European, and all these printed products were widely disseminated thanks to engraving and on wood. The modern “Artist’s Book” partly continues the traditions of such collections, and these block books were called Blockbuecher. Any parishioner not only received visual knowledge of the gospel, but could also create a home altar from prints.

Here is an example of the applied and at the same time easel meaning of woodcut, and when a parishioner meditates in front of it, it becomes quite easel.

This is how a new mobile and energetic, moreover, a very expressive type of engraving was born in Europe, which was destined to have a stormy life, full of sharp rivalry with other types of printing. In China, however, woodcuts were widely used already in the time of the great poet Du Fu, in the Tang era, that is, more than 700 years before European printing.

Fig. 1. Chinese Du Fu. [one].

5th Times

Fig. 2. Shu HaiLu, contemporary Chinese artist. Horse. Collection of M.M. Verkholantseva.

The invention of typesetting cash registers opened the era of the printed book in Europe, and woodcut was a faithful companion of the book, and it is she who should be blamed for the oblivion of the art of miniature.No wonder the famous fundamental Nuremberg edition of the World Chronicle by G. Schedel in 1493 is downright oversaturated with woodcuts. They were cut by several formschneiders under the guidance of Michael Wolgemuth, A. Dürer’s teacher. These are the leaders of cities, images of prophets, characters of the Old Testament, electors and emperors. The typographer seems to enjoy choosing quarters and shafts from typesetting to insert engravings into. These engravings still retain the Gothic angularity, but already portend the magnificent grandeur of Dürer.The first books of the late fifteenth century are called incunabula. They were published in very small editions, and these few books were often torn apart into separate sheets to decorate walls or cassone, so beautiful were the engravings colored with watercolors and gouache.

Of the famous incunabula, it should be noted the remarkable book of the engineer Roberto Valturio (1413-1483) “De ge tNiapo” on military affairs, published in Verona in 1472. It contains 82 woodcuts, very ascetic and at the same time filled with invention and cheerful imagination.They resemble similar inventive exercises by Leonardo, but these engravings were cut by the architect and medalist Matteo de Pasti 10-15 years earlier than the war fantasies of Leonardo da Vinci. Presumably, it was these sketch engravings-drawings that Leonardo had in mind when asking future publishers of his anatomical drawings not to resort to woodcuts because of poverty. But for the present-day printmaker, satiated with visual information, this asceticism of early Italian woodcuts is especially exquisite and sweet.

Fig.5.M. Verkholantsev. Pride. Longitudinal woodcut from the artist’s book “Virtues and Vices”. 2013 25 x 25. [2].

Another famous incunabula was published in Ulm in 1486. This is the “Eunuch” of the Roman comedian Terence. Woodcuts illustrating ancient drama are full of charm due to … ignorance of direct perspective. During these years, Italy enthusiastically studied perspective as a science. Even fundamental works of painting were conceived only to demonstrate knowledge of perspective, and on the other side of the Alps, artists, not armed with theory, just barely groped for direct linear perspective and instinctively painted the opposite.And it must be admitted that the reverse perspective is compositionally much more convenient than the direct one.

Fig. 6. Triumph of Europe. Plate engraving no. 166 from Francesco Colonna’s book “Hypnerotomachia of Polyphilus” of the first edition (Venice, 1499). Author: an unknown artist called the Master of Polyphilus. Duke Augustus Library, Wolfenbüttel, Germany. [12].

The short time of incunabula, the happy childhood of books and woodcuts, ended in triumph.Without mentioning the many excellent publications of this time, let’s go straight to the pinnacle of typography of all time. This is an amazing book “The Hypnerotomachia of Polyphylus”, published in Venice in 1499 by the famous typographer Ald Manutius. Its title is expressive: “Love struggle in a dream, which shows that all human deeds are nothing but a dream, and also mentions many other objects that are very worthy of knowledge.”

The author of the text is not known to us, but presumably he is an architect, there are so many detailed and sublime descriptions of portals, obelisks, pyramids, temples, and in the woodcut illustrations there are even architectural breaks.Compositions of spreads, stripes, engravings and typesetting, variously arranged in kerchiefs or in quarters, also testify to the architect’s supervision. The woodcuts themselves are more complex and sophisticated than the usual Italian woodcuts of that time, strictly sketchy and foreshadowing the style of John Flaxman. The novel tells about several phases of the sleep of Polyphilus, who, like Orpheus, lost his beloved Polia, but happily united with her in a dream. There are many branches from the storyline, interpreting almost the entire philosophical and aesthetic program of the Renaissance.Even the beginning of the novel, which tells about the hero’s wanderings in a dense forest, reminds the beginning of Dante’s Divine Comedy: “After halfway through my earthly life, I found myself in a gloomy forest, having lost my right path in the darkness of the valley …”. And there are many images of the triumphs of love, beautifully and richly engraved, and all these are reminiscences of the motives of ancient Roman triumphs. One cannot but recall the triumphs of Andrea Mantegna and the fantastic triumphs of the Arch of Maximilian, which in turn inspire modern engravers.

The coming XVI century is justly considered the golden age of woodcut and easel engraving.Everyone knows the grandiose cycles of woodcuts by Dürer (1471-1528) “Apocalypse” (1498), “Life of Mary”, “Passion of Christ” (large and small). All these sheets, in cycles and individually, were taken by Dürer’s wife to sell to the market, let us note, on a cart.

Much less popular is another titanic work by Dürer and his associates of 1515-1519. This is a cycle of 190 engravings that make up a single composition in the form of a complex architectural structure 3.41 m high and 2.92 m horizontally.A similar in scope easel print, however, glued from many sheets, called the “Arc de Triomphe of Maximilian”, no longer knew the history of art.

It is clear that not only Dürer painted allegorical scenes glorifying the deeds of the founder of the Habsburg empire, Kaiser Maximilian, but also A. Altdorfer, Burgkmair and other artists. And not only Hieronymus Andres cut numerous boards, but other formschneiders as well. In 1519, Maximilian died, so the work immediately stopped.But editing began, corresponding to the political situation, editing not only texts, but also woodcuts. These interventions, however, are not rare in the history of art, have introduced some confusion in the interpretation of the grandiose work. We are interested in woodcuts depicting processions and triumphs, as well as fantastic attikas in the form of griffins and chimeras, because they are the ones that inspire modern Eastern European graphic artists –

surrealists to depict the processions of monstrous monsters, griffins and arthropod chimeras, it is a pity that Maximilian’s arch is extremely rarely reproduced.

Fig. 7. Durer A. Maximilian’s Triumphal Arch. 1515 295 x 357. [141.

Fig. 8.L. Cranach. Frederick the Magnanimous. Woodcut. 19.8 x 10.3. [four].

Woodcuts and paintings of the Cranachs perfectly demonstrate the monstrous fusion of Mannerism, penetrating from Italy to the north, with German Gothic.

Woodcuts by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553) fascinate with just this strange mixture of Gothic mysticism and Mannerist sensibility.Unusual, eccentric deformation of human figures, trees and even architecture, sophistication and at the same time some kind of naivety of the composition are the characteristic features of the pictorial language of the Cranachs.

In 2016 the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts hosted a luxurious exhibition of paintings and graphics called “Cranachi. Between Renaissance and Mannerism ”. Many old prints from wooden boards were exhibited, and others were also tinted with watercolors, which testifies to the past desire to decorate a private dwelling with printmaking.These were the cycles of the Passion of Christ, Evangelists and Martyrdom of the Apostles. Dürer, whose prints were widely distributed throughout Germany and were known in Italy, so exalted the woodcut that it from the class of servants passed into an independent, almost easel form of art. Of course, Cranach was familiar with the woodcuts of the renowned master. The exhibition exhibited engravings in a smaller format than similar cycles of Dürer’s work, but unusually thinly cut, so thinly, and, moreover, on a longitudinal board, as, perhaps, a modern engraver would not cut on the butt.Lucas Cranach worked at court

Saxon electors who professed Protestantism and even fought with the Habsburgs. A series of picturesque portraits of the court amazes with its pure, downright childish innocence, creating a tart, even caustic realism. We see Johann Friedrich the Magnanimous both young, still full of hope, and in adulthood, already obese and swollen. His portrait, cut on a wooden board, is so expressive, so cleverly composed, so good in scale, and his puffy face is so lopsided that one would like to steal it and admire it all my life.Many researchers of the work of Cranach the Elder consider him, and not Hugo da Carpi, to be the inventor of color woodcut. Others, however, believe that Burgkmayr was ahead of everyone. Be that as it may, the championship should be awarded to Hugo da Carpi, because his second color worked as an active drawing, and not as a simple lining under a black outline. This active second color with chiaroscuro sculpted the shape, which is why the Italian color woodcut is called Chiaroscuro. Its direct direction, a direct path to the reproduction and advertising of paintings.And after all, the most famous chiaroscuras of Hugo da Carpi are reproductions of Raphael and Parmigianino. Our A.P. Ostroumova-Lebedeva followed the same path of color woodcuts, treating the engraving as a production watercolor, softening and even suppressing the specific, tart sharpness of woodcuts. And her contemporaries, expressionists and constructivists, Russians and Weimar, on the contrary, cultivated and increased this sharpness.

Fig. 9. Hugo da Carpi. A wonderful catch of fish.Woodcut. 1523 [10].

Fig. 10. A. P. Ostroumova-Lebedeva. Kryukov channel. Color woodcut. 1910 [7].

Fig. 11.V. Masyutin. Woodcut. [6].

Fig. 12. Peter Fletner. Grotesque ornament. Longitudinal woodcut. 1533 12.1 x 8.9. [fourteen].

The Kleinmeisters, unlike Dürer and Cranach, did not cut large-format prints.They used engraving as an auxiliary means for replicating their architectural ideas, as a kind of template for the practical application of ornaments in jewelry and grotesques in monumental paintings. A striking example of this is Peter Fletner, a jeweler, sculptor, furniture maker. And he promoted many of his projects with the help of very skillful woodcuts. As a sculptor, he is clearly underestimated by his contemporaries, but it is impossible to break away from contemplating his reliefs and small sculptures. It is very interesting to watch how the sculptor tries to transfer the sophistication and sophistication of his round sculpture to a two-dimensional image of a woodcut.

Tobias Stimmer (1539-1584), Swiss draftsman for monumental sgraffito and jewelry, woodcut, was, as we see, an applied artist. His woodcuts served books published in Strasbourg. Many are framed by purely mannerist hobbies. Precisely this style is seen in his caricature of papism, which is quite natural in the face of the victory of Calvinism in most of the Swiss cantons. This longitudinal woodcut is analogous to the pictorial fantasies of the Rudolphian mannerist Giuseppe Arcimboldo.

Urs Graf (1485-1529), Swiss stained glass painter, jeweler, woodcut and, in addition, landsknecht. Swiss mercenary warriors were highly regarded. Everyone knew their stubborn loyalty. It is clear that the favorite theme of this artist’s drawings and prints was the life of a landsknecht. There is always a woman next to the landsknecht, because the experienced fear of death requires a certain kind of compensation. Famous for his preparatory drawing, depicting a terrible scene of the execution of the landsknecht, caught by the enemy.

Fig. 14. Urs Graf. Execution scene. 1512-1513 21.8 x 23.8. Albertina Gallery, Vienna. [17].

Virgil Solis (1514-1563), author of many woodcuts for books published in Nuremberg. His polytypes and designs of ornaments for jewelry with their amazing imagination convince that this Kleinmeister was a typical applied artist.

Jost Amman (1530-1591) is very interesting as the author of the series of woodcuts “Professions and Crafts”.Our review of the applied value of engraving begins with his Formschneider. He left behind a number of engraved portraits of, for example, Stefan Bathory and Hans Sachs.

Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543), the great German portrait painter, while living in Basel, befriended Erasmus of Rotterdam and drew charming little illustrations in the margin of his book Praise of Folly. Holbein was served by Hans Lutzelburger, a conscientious formschneider. He cut the cycle “Dance of Death” according to Holbein’s drawings, then several cycles of illustrations for the Old Testament and numerous initials.All engravings are designed in a very small format to make it easy to print, and books decorated with these miniatures would not be too expensive. The drawing of biblical cycles clearly strives for simplicity and accessibility, as if following the rules of Calvinism, and therefore seems insipid in comparison with the Swiss prints of Tobias Stimmer and Urs Graf, in which Mannerism, the style of the Counter-Reformation, is raging. As soon as Gutenberg invented printing, books began to be published in the Slavic countries, in Montenegro and in the Czech Republic.Fonts were cast in various modifications of the Cyrillic alphabet, and initials were cut in the form of a Celtic-Roman braid, clearly copying similar initials of contemporary manuscripts to the carver.


Fig. 15. G. Holbein. Basel. [nine].


Fig. 16. Francis Skaryna. Page of the book “Song of Songs”.1518 [11/

Francis Skaryna from Polotsk (1486-1551), who attained the glory of a Slavic enlightener and perpetuated the glory of the University of Padua, joining the ranks of its best graduates, left his main specialty as a doctor of medicine and became a typographer. The books published by our compatriot in the Slavic language are beautifully designed in the most advanced taste of contemporary typography and are decorated with polytypes, drop caps and illustrations carved on wood.These engravings, tart and expressive, stylistically differ little from the German woodcuts, as if they were cut by a formschneider from the workshop of Michael Wolgemut, so Gothic angularity is often found in them. Francis Skaryna, while studying in Padua, visited neighboring Venice, where the glory of Alda Manucius thundered, and here, among the lagoons, his dream of becoming a typographer ripened. Throughout his life, he proudly carried his guild banner of the enlightener of Russian polite people, supplying even church books with scientific information.

Our Ivan Fyodorov (1520-1583) published his “Apostle” only forty-four years after the publication of the first books by Skorina.A messenger was specially sent to Novgorod for the engraver for the frontispiece. Vasyuk Nikiforov, an innocent Novgorod carver, faithfully copied a typical Nuremberg frontispiece, but Luka seated the evangelist in a mirror-like manner. The figure had to be cleaned out of the arch, decorated with a baroque order, and cut again, because the frontispiece was printed in two runs.

Nicolo Boldrini (1500-1566) belongs to the circle of woodcut printers who served Titian. The picturesqueness of the engravings of the carvers of this circle is usually explained by the influence of the great painter.Their sumptuous engravings seem to have been intended to reproduce Venetian painting. However, examining Boldrini’s engravings, we are convinced of his frequent independence as a draftsman. A strong-willed, even despotic and purely mannerist drawing could not be dictated by Titian.

Jan Stefan van Kalkar (1499-1546) – also a student of Titian, but the drawings and woodcuts of cadaveric preparations amaze with unexpected audacity, dictated by fashionable mannerism, which Titian avoided.The quite surreal monstrousness of the engravings is enhanced by the serene landscape background, of course, Titian’s. It is easy to imagine why Kalkar so enthusiastically set out to illustrate the young and daring Andrea Vesalius, who dared to correct Galen himself.

Fig. 17. Ya.S. Kalkar. Woodcut to Anatomy of Vesalius. 1543, 13].

Left: Fig.18. A. Durandin. Still life. End woodcut. 1984 Collection of M.M. Verkholantseva.

Right: Fig. 19. To Yeager. Drunken Silenus (Silenus accompanied by a satyr and a faun). 1635 44.5 x 33.9. [10].

Giuseppe Scolari (worked between 1551 and 1600) also belonged to Titian’s circle and, of course, tried to achieve maximum color in black and white engraving. Large masses of black, covered in some places with a white stroke, work very nicely next to gray and white.Modern woodcut printers are not afraid of large areas of black, although this makes it difficult to replicate the engraving. For them, on the contrary, gray, stable, even and impassive gray is a great difficulty.

The 17th century has come, the century of the dominance of copper engraving and etching. These methods of intaglio printing almost ousted woodcut from the book, leaving it with auxiliary functions in the form of publishing stamps, polytypes, endings, headpieces and initials. This increased the easel value of wood engraving.Rubens kept the wonderful formschneider with him, Christophele Yeager. This formschneider and fine artist worked for the famous Plantin publishing house in Antwerp. Christophele Jaeger (1596-1652) revived the art of woodcut, almost forgotten in the 17th century. He reproduced Rubens’ paintings with his large woodcuts. Other woodcuts were cut according to drawings by Rubens, and then the great painter corrected the prints with sanguine or charcoal.

In the Moscow library.ON THE. Nekrasov has a unique book published in Leiden in 1628 “The Academy of the Epee”, written by the famous swordsman Gerard Thibault (1574-1627). According to his diagrams and drawings, luxurious incisor prints are engraved, which overshadow the modest woodcut polytypes. However, I was able to sketch and even engrave one of them. In the editions of the 17th century, drop caps come across, beautifully, boldly arranged and cut. Presumably, it was they who inspired and served as a model for the famous initials engraved by V.Favorsky for the book by Anatole France “Views of Abbot Jerome Coignard”.

Fig. 20. Engraving with a chisel from the book of Gerard Thibault “Epee Academy”. Photo by M.M. Verkholantsev, made in the library named after N.A. Nekrasov (Moscow, 1984).

Fig. 21. M. Verkholantsev. Polytype. End woodcut. 1984 Photo: M.M. Verkholantsev.

Fig.22. V. Favorsky. Initials to the book by A. Frans “Judgments of Abbot Jerome Coignard”. [eight].

Fig. 23. M. Verkholantsev. Drop caps. End Fig. 24. Italo Zetti.

woodcut. Photo: M.M. Verkholantsev. Ex-libris. End woodcut.

Collection of M.M. Verkholantsev.

Fig. 25.D. Bramanti. Street. End woodcut. Collection of M. M. Verkholantsev.

In the 18th century, editions were decorated with headpieces by Jean Michel Papillon (1698-1776). At the end of the century, the English engraver and orintologist Thomas Buick (1753-1828) invented woodcut woodcut. From that moment on, wood engraving reigned in the book and became fully reproductive.

Reproduction engravers, wishing to get as close as possible to photography, widely used the white stroke, which was first introduced into the practice of engraving by Giuseppe Scolari.But they also practiced the white cross-hatch. This led to the invention of the raster cliché. Now the work of woodcutters was no longer needed for books and magazines, so a lot of end boards were freed up. Numerous artists rushed to these boards, which were cheap at the beginning of the 20th century, however, they did not have engraving training. This explains the woodcut boom in our country, in Weimar Germany, Mexico and even in France. They liked to insert engraved cliches directly into the font set of not only books, but also magazines.In addition, engraving was widely distributed in individual easel sheets.

Tranquillo Marangoni, who adorned the panels of wealthy yachts and liners with colossal woodcuts, showed the most striking example of woodblock applications. Of course, no one was going to make prints from these engravings, but they took the place of monumental painting.

Fig. 26.Tranquillo Marangoni. Eater. End woodcut. 1948 Collection of M. M. Verkholantsev.

Fig. 27. A. Kalashnikov. Notre Dame. Woodcut. Collection of M. M Verkholantsev.

Tranquillo Marangoni engraved and bookplates. His influence can be clearly seen in the work of Anatoly Kalashnikov and the Vologda artists Burmagins.

In 1963, the architect L.Polyakov, who was on friendly terms with the director of the Taganka theater Yuri Lyubimov, hoped to design and build a new theater building. He ordered the students of the Stroganov School to cut large longitudinal engravings,

depicting famous theatergoers. Rather large drawing boards were purchased, polished, toned and cut. And so the interior of the theater was decorated with portraits of Brecht, Stanislavsky, Vakhtangov and other celebrities. Generous Yu.Lyubimov presented all these boards to the Berlin “Komische Oper”, and left himself bad copies.

We have been observing a strange phenomenon lately. Colossal wood engraving has become fashionable. Nobody thinks about the practical purpose of giant prints. It is extremely inconvenient to store them, rolled into a pipe, they will wrinkle. Duplicating on a canvas means losing the embossing, but this is the only way to exhibit a giant canvas-engraving on the wall. There are times when an imprint from a huge plywood mold is made using an asphalt roller.

When creating huge woodcuts, artists, as a rule, do not bother looking for a spectacular composition, but simply fill the area with continuous ornamentation.

The exact opposite of what has been said is the genre of miniature engraving, ex-libris, but it also grows and swells before our eyes and turns into easel engraving. So, we observed how the woodcut was tossed between easelness and the book, sometimes bursting into monumental art.

are working on engravings for the Taganka Theater, 1963

Archive of M.M. Verkholantsev.

Fig. 28. Photography. Students


1. Bezhin L.Ye. Doo Fu. – M .: Molodaya gvardiya, 1987 .– 272 p.

2.Verkholantsev M.M. Virtues and vices. – M., 2012.

3. Zabolotskikh B.V. Russian engraving. – M .: Publishing house “AUTOPAN”, 1993. – 240 p.

4. Cranachs. Between Renaissance and Mannerism. – M .: Art-Volkhonka, 2016 .– 256 p.

5. Markin Yu.P. Expressionists: Painting. Graphics. – M .: AST; Astrel; VZOI, 2004.- 335 p.

6. Masyutin V. Engraving and lithography. – M .; Berlin: “Helikon” publishing house, 1922. – 133 p.

7. Ostroumova-Lebedeva A.P. Autobiographical notes. – Leningrad, Moscow: State Publishing House “Art”, 1945. – 192 p.

8. Frans A. Judgments of Abbot Jerome Coignard. ” – M .: Goslitizdat, 1958.

9.Chuvashev Yu.I. European woodcut of the 15th-16th centuries: a textbook. – M .: Moscow State University of Printing Arts, 2006 .– 127 p.

10. Masterpieces of European graphics from the collection of V.N. and N.V. Basnins. To the 100th anniversary of the State Museum of Fine Arts named after A.S. Pushkin. – M .: Publishing house “Red Square”, 2010. – 432 p.

11. Shmatov VF The art of the book of Francysk Skaryna.- Moscow: Kniga Publishing House, 1990. – 207 p.

12. Kristeller P. Gravures sur bois: Illustrations de la Renaissance Florentine. – Paris, L. Aventurine, 1996 .– 90 p.

13. Polo d’Ambrosio L., Bordin G. Le livre d’Or du corps humain, anatomie et symbols. – Milan, Mondadori Electa S.p.A., 2015.

14. Preiss P. Panorama manyrismu: Kapitoly o umeni a kultufe 16.stoleti. – Praga, Odeon, 1974 .– 397 s.

15. Stukenbrock Ch., Topper B. Meisterwerke der europäischen Malerei. – Köln, Könemann 1999 .– 1007 p.

16. Swiss painting: from the Middle Ages to the dawn of the twentieth century / Florens Deuchler, Marcel Roethlisberger, Hans Luthy; [English translation by James Emmons]. – Geneva: Skira; New York: Rizzoli, 1976 .– 197 p.

17.Zeichnungen altdeutscher Meister Duererszeit. – Dresden, Verlag Ernst Arnold, 1924.

Received on 05.03.2019

The Art Of Eurasia № 1 (12) • 2019

DOI 10.25712 / ASTU.2518-7767.2019.01.006


Verkholantsev Mikhail Mikhailovich Honored Artist of the Russian Federation, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Arts,

Member of the Regional public organization “Moscow Union of artists”.Russia, Moscow. [email protected]

European graphics, like all fine arts, has always sought to easel, to maximize their freedom from practical application (William Maurice, with his ideas of introducing art into industry, is a rare exception). The easel graphics in Europe is called “Freigraphik”, i.e. free graphics.

Russian art, on the contrary, has long remained within the Eastern traditions of decorative two-dimensionality.Only after the reforms of Patriarch Nikon Russian art rushed to catch up with the “Western progress”, long since striving for to verism and photography. It is the planar background of the Russian graphics that explains the popularity of woodcutting in Russia.

Woodcut, even reproduction, imitating photographic three-dimensionality in the 19th century, stubbornly clinging to the plane of the sheet, did not let the spirit of easel play its role.The beginning of the 20th century returned woodcuts to the plane of the sheet, and considered the aesthetics of a reproductive engraving a hopeless anachronism. An engraver or a carver, faced with the technological features of wood engraving, willy-nilly becomes wiser as an artist, choosing the best way to achieve color and linear expressiveness.

European typography is entirely due to woodcut. The moving letters are small woodcuts, now molded in metal, but the former were once carved on a single board.

Another example of the stubborn aspiration of woodcuts to utility is an attempt in the 16th century to use it as a reproduction of painting. The article mentions the invention a chiaroscuro by Hugo da Carpi. Attention should be paid to the fact that it was applied painters-jewelers, stained glass artists and architects of the 16th century who widely used woodcuts as a means of reproducing and widely popularizing their ideas and inventions.Surprisingly, these engravings-drawings nowadays perceived as a purely easel works. Many of the authors of these prints are mentioned in this publication.

Artists of our time have noticed that the engraved or chopped board is much more beautiful than the print from it. This phenomenon prompted the idea to decorate interiors with huge woodcuts. So xylography invaded architecture.

This is a paradox: large-format woodcuts, it would seem, should be ideally easel, but no, it retains the functions of applied art.

Keywords: drawing, graphics, engraving, fonts, miniatures, incunabula, formschneider, kleinmeister.


The Art Of Eurasia № 1 (12) • 2019

Bibliographic description for citation:

Verkholantsev M.M. Applied and easel in the woodcut. Iskusstvo Evrazii – The Art of Eurasia, 2019, No. 1 (12), pp. 71-91. DOI: 10.25712 / ASTU.2518-7767.2019.01.006. Available at: (In Russian)


1. Bezhin L.E. Du Fu [Du Fu]. Moscow, Molodaya gvardiya, 1987, 272 p.

2. Verkholantsev M.M. Dobrodeteli iporoki [Virtues and vices].Moscow, 2012.

3. Zabolotskikh B.V. Russkaya gravyura [Russian engraving]. Moscow, AUTOPAN Publ., 1993, 240 p.

4. Kranakhi. Mezhdu Renessansom i man’erizmom [Cranach. Between the Renaissance and Mannerism]. Moscow, Art-Volkhonka, 2016, 256 p.

5. Markin Yu.P. Ekspressionisty: Zhivopis’. Grafika [Expressionists: Painting.Graphics]. Moscow, AST, Astrel, VZOI, 2004, 335 p.

6. Masyutin V. Gravyura i litografiya [Gravur und Lithographie]. – Moscow, Berlin, Gelikon Publ., 1922, 133 p.

7. Ostroumova-Lebedeva A.P. Avtobiograficheskie zapiski [Autobiographical notes]. Leningrad, Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1945, 192 p.

8. Frans A. Su% hdeniya abbata Zheroma Kuan’yara [Judgments of the Abbot Jerome Coignard].Moscow, Goslitizdat Publ., 1958.

9. Chuvashev Yu.I. Evropeiskaya ksilografya XV-XVI vekov [European woodcut XV-XVI centuries: study guide]. Moscow, Moscow State University of Press, 2006, 127 p.

10. Shedevry evropeiskoi grafiki i% _ sobraniya V.N. i N.V. Basninykh. K 100-letiyu Gosudarstvennogo muzeya i% obra% itel’nykh iskusstv imeni A.S. Pushkina [Masterpieces of European graphics from the collection of V.N. and N.V. Fables. To the 100th anniversary of the A.S. Pushkin]. Moscow, Krasnaya ploshchad Publ., 2010, 432 p.

11. Shmatov V.F. Iskusstvo knigi Frantsiska Skoriny [The Art of the Book of Francis Skaryna]. Moscow, Kniga Publ., 1990, 207 p.

12. Kristeller P. Gravures sur bois: Illustrations de la Renaissance Florentine. Paris, L. Aventurine, 1996, 90 p.

13.Polo d’Ambrosio L., Bordin G. Le livre d’Or du corps humain, anatomie et symbols. Milan, Mondadori Electa S.p.A., 2015.

14. Preiss P. Panorama manyrismu: Kapitoly o umeni a kultufe 16. stoleti. Praga, Odeon, 1974, 397 s.

15. Stukenbrock Ch., Topper B. Meisterwerke der europäischen Malerei. Köln, Könemann 1999, 1007 p.

16.Swiss painting: from the Middle Ages to the dawn of the twentieth century / Florens Deuchler, Marcel Roethlisberger, Hans Luthy; [English translation by James Emmons]. Geneva: Skira; New York: Rizzoli, 1976, 197 p.

17. Zeichnungen altdeutscher Meister Duererszeit. Dresden, Verlag Ernst Arnold, 1924.

Received: March 5, 2019.

90,000 Collections of the Russian Museum – Russian Museum

The collection of engravings of the State Russian Museum contains one of the most complete collections of printed graphics: from the end of the 17th the present day, with a total number of about 80,000 units. These are individual sheets, series and albums, geographical and playing cards, book illustrations, cartoons, popular prints, posters, posters and a unique collection of engraved boards – metal, wood, linoleum.

These works give an idea of ​​almost all printing techniques, from classical wood and metal engraving to the latest, associated with the stage of formation of industrial printing and the development of information technology.Temporary exhibitions and expositions of their collection of prints systematically present to the viewer masterpieces of Russian woodcuts, metal engraving, mezzotinto, etching in its many varieties (needle, aquatint, lavis), lithography, chromolithography, linocut, monotype and other engraving techniques. Modern masters of printed graphics are represented by works created both in classical engraving techniques and with the use of newly invented in recent years, such as, for example, laser printing.The constant searches of contemporary artists in the field of printed graphics, their creation of unique copyright techniques of engraving and printing does not go unnoticed by the engraving department and are reflected in museum exhibitions.

The collection of the engraving department makes it possible to trace all the stages of the development of this type of art in Russia. The engraving of the 18th century is presented quite fully. Moreover, such significant masters as A.F.Zubov, E.P. Chemesov, I.A. Bersenev are represented not only in prints, which often have different states, but also in the author’s forms – copper plates.The collection contains boards from which one of the last masterpieces of classical carving engraving was printed – a series of views of the imperial country residences – Gatchina, Pavlovsk, Petrodvorets. They were made at the turn of the 18th – 19th centuries. outstanding Russian masters A.G. Ukhtomsky, brothers K.V. and I.V. Cheskikh, S.F. Galaktionov, mainly based on the originals of Semyon Shchedrin. There are also metal boards of F.P. Tolstoy, from which in the 1820s – 1840s. sketch drawings were printed – illustrations for the poem by I.F. Bogdanovich “Darling”.

Russian satirical graphics related to the Patriotic War of 1812, as well as publications of the Society for the Encouragement of Artists, founded in 1820, are presented quite fully. This organization played an important role in the development and dissemination of lithography in Russia. In the collection, along with other sheets, the best edition of the Society is presented – a large lithographic series “Views of St. Petersburg and its environs” (182-1826), made on stone mainly by S.F. Galaktionov, AP Bryullov and others. Sheets of KP Beggrov are also available in excellent author’s coloring.

Among the masters of early lithography, the work of A.O. Orlovsky is presented with great completeness, and among the artists of the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries: I.I.Shishkin, V.V. Mate and A.P. Ostroumova-Lebedeva. The unsurpassed master of color woodcut, A.P. Ostroumova-Lebedeva bequeathed to the Russian Museum not only the best prints of her works, but also wooden boards and tools.The department contains a complete collection of boards by P.A.Shillingovsky and I.I.Nivinsky.

The rare collection of futuristic books, represented by the names of O.V. Rozanova, N.S. Goncharova, M.F. Larionov, P.N. Filonov and other outstanding masters of the Russian avant-garde, is of great historical and artistic value.

An extensive section of printed graphics of the Soviet period includes a collection of posters, which also includes the famous Petrograd “Windows of Rosta”, made in the technique of linocut and hand-painted.Here are all any significant names of artists of both Moscow and Leningrad schools: avant-garde artists A.M. Rodchenko, V.F. Stepanova, El Lissitsky, V.I. Kozlinsky, woodcut N.N. Kupriyanov, lithographer V.V. . Lebedev.

The fund contains a fairly complete collection of works printed in the experimental lithographic workshop at the Leningrad branch of the Union of Artists in the period 1930-1960s. These are lithographs by N.A. Tyrsa, Yu.A. Vasnetsov, A.F. Pakhomov, V.M. Konashevich, A.S. Vedernikov. The legacy of A.L. Kaplan and B.N. Ermolaev has been collected almost in full.

The department has excellent works by Moscow artists – representatives of the classical technique of wood engraving: A.I. Kravchenko, V.A.Favorsky, I.V. Golitsyn, G.F. Zakharov and others. Funds of engraving are replenished with works of contemporary masters. So, in recent years, the works of M.M. Shemyakin, M.S. Karasik have been acquired. B.A. Messerer, A.P. Belkin, Yu. K. Lyukshina, O. V. Dergacheva, I.P. Makoveeva and many other artists.

View exhibits of the engraving collection on the Virtual Russian Museum portal

Firefighters in painting 17-21 centuries: paintings and drawings by artists

The profession of a firefighter has always been honorable and respected. Artists have also paid attention to them for a long time, however, unfortunately, it is much easier to find a genre painting with a steelmaker. This review does not claim to be a serious study, but simply presents some work performed in different techniques at different times.

17th century German engravings for treatises on engineering science

Fire pump with barrel (Feuerloschspritze), Pacard, Abraham, Verleger, 1615

Fire fighting with a fire fighting device (Brandbekampfung mit einem Feuerloschgerat) Furst, Paul & Gerhard, Christoph, Verleger, 1661

19th century engravings and lithographs

Louis Maurer (Louis Maurer, 1832-1932) – American lithographer of German origin. From 1852 to 1860 he worked for the Currier and Ives lithography firm, where he became known to the general public for his series of engravings “The Life of American Firefighters”.In addition to Maurer, some of the series were engraved by other authors such as John Cameron and Charles Parsons. The engravings were produced for general consumption in two versions – color and black and white.

Series of engravings “American Fireman” (The American Fireman). Prompt To The Rescue. Louis Maurer, 1858.

Series of engravings “American Fireman” (The American Fireman). Rushing to the Conflict. Louis Maurer, 1858.

Series of engravings “American Fireman” (The American Fireman).Always Ready. Louis Maurer, 1858.

Series of engravings “American Fireman” (The American Fireman). Facing the enemy. Louis Maurer, 1858.

Series of engravings “The Life of Firemen”. On the ruins (The ruins – “Take up” – “Man your rope.”). Louis Maurer, 1854

Series of engravings “The Life of Firemen”. Night alarm (The night alarm – “Start her lively boys.”). Louis Maurer, 1854.

Series of engravings “The Life of Firemen”.City system (The Metropolitan System). John Cameron, 1866

Series of engravings “The Life of Firemen”. The new era, steam and muscle. Charles Parsons, 1861

Engraving “Fireman” from the series “Heads of people”, Charles Green, 1880.

German engraving “Fire Alarm”, 1888.

Nikolai Yegorovich Sverchkov (1817-1898) – Russian battle and genre painter.

He owed his artistic development exclusively to his own attraction and natural ability for art.He studied at Petrishul from 1829 to 1833. Even as a child, he painted animals with love, especially horses. Since 1844, his works began to appear at annual academic exhibitions and soon drew general attention to him. These were pictures based on scenes from Russian folk life. In 1852, he received the title of Academician for the painting “The Landowners’ Troika Crosses at Full Gallop a Wagon Train Stretching along the Highway”

Another significant painting: “An overweight carriage with passengers traveling on a hot summer day” delivered to him in 1855., professorship. Around this time, he became very famous, producing many paintings and drawings depicting thoroughbred horses, dogs, hunting scenes, ugly troikas, genre scenes with horses among winter landscapes.

Firefighters in St. Petersburg at night. Sverchkov N.E. 1845 year.

19th century cartoons and frivolous drawings

Cartoon “Animals disguised as firemen”, Germany, 1947.

Watercolor by Felicien Rops Where it burns, Germany, 1878.

Classical genre paintings of the 19th century

Firefighters Parade in New York, painting from 1853, author unidentified.

Gustave Courbet (Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet, 1819 – 1877) is a French artist who laid the foundations of realism in painting in France. It occupies an important place in the history of the fine arts of France, as an innovator and ideologist of a new trend.

Gustave Courbet. Firefighters flee to a fire, 1850

John Everett Millais (Sir John Everett Millais, 1829-1896) – English artist and illustrator, one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood.

John Everett Millay. Salvation, 1855.

Paul Gustav Fischer (Paul Gustav Fischer, 1860-1934), Danish artist. He began his career as a painter, but later became known as a manufacturer of paints and varnishes.

Paul Gustav Fischer (Denmark). Fire pump.

Julian A. Scott (Julian A. Scott 1846-1901), famous American artist, was born in Johnson, Vermont, served in the army of the northerners during the American Civil War, where he earned the highest award – the Medal of Honor.

Julian Scott (USA). Portrait of a firefighter.

An interesting fact from the history of painting, not directly related to firefighters. Fire-fighting art (French Les Pompiers, Art) – this is the name of the official art of the second half of the 19th century. At this time, pompous pretentious style with a claim to antiquity became widespread in the official court art. This term has long had a derogatory meaning, being a synonym. It probably goes back to the tradition of the School of Fine Arts.In the era of romanticism, the pupils of the School sneered at the soldiers in antique helmets depicted in the paintings of David and his followers.

The term comes from a play on words and images and is derived from the horsehair helmets depicted in the paintings, which were worn by French firefighters at the time. Their appearance, often present in such works, evoked associations with Greek-style helmets, allegorical characters, classical warriors, or warriors of the Napoleonic cavalry.

Painting of David

This term is also a pun due to the similarity in French of the words “Pompei” (Pompeii), and “pompeux” (pompous). “Pompier” sounds like “Pompeii”, a city buried under the ash of the Vesuvius volcano. Pompeii became a place of pilgrimage for young artists of the 19th century who aspired to write large historical paintings. There, on the spot, they had the opportunity to contemplate the original ruins and artifacts, trying to reproduce them in their paintings on classical themes.These artists became known as “Les Pompiers (firefighters)”.

Also, the term “Pompier” sounds like “pompeux”, which means pompous, and the official taste of the French Academy at the end of the nineteenth century was very pompous. Traditionally, large and theatrical paintings of this direction and period were something out of the ordinary and in comparison with the modest modernist art, as contemporaries noted. Official academic art seems tough and out of touch, as well as insincere and exaggerated.

From character to painting, from painting to artist, the term soon began to be applied to the teachers of the School, to the members of the Institute, to the jury of the Salon. Then he covered most of the members of the Society of French Artists and Nat. Society of Fine Arts, and later foreign artists. When the official painting of 1848-1914 again began to arouse the interest and respect of the public, this term, freed from ridicule, began to be used as a historical concept and as a definition of that artistic period.

Russian and Soviet painting of the 20th-21st centuries

Poster for the “Firefighters to Soldiers” charity event during the First World War, Russia, 1915.

N.A.Lich. Firefighters

Peter Mironov. Putting out a fire at an oil refinery in the city of Grozny. 1975, USSR.

N. S. Pogrebnyak. Firefighter

Arlen Mikhailovich Kashkurevich – graphic artist, People’s Artist of Belarus, laureate of the State Prize of Belarus, Honored Art Worker of the BSSR, professor.Was born in 1929. Works in the genres of easel and book graphics. The decorated books have been repeatedly exhibited at republican and international exhibitions, participated in competitions and were awarded high honorary awards. Graphic works are recognized both in the post-Soviet space, but also outside it. Has a great influence on the Belarusian graphics.

Arlen Kashkurevich. Firefighter portrait

Boris Ivanov. Picture from the cycle Planet of Fatties: weekdays and holidays.

Shalaev Alexey.Firefighter Games

Caricature by an unknown artist

Foreign painting of the 20th century

In the late 19th – early 20th century, French artist Jean-Marc Cotet released a series of illustrations “Visions of the Year 2000”, in which he depicted what, in his opinion, technologies will be at the beginning of the 21st century. In addition to electrically controlled bindings and cooking dinner in test tubes and retorts, firefighters, in his opinion, will be most comfortable using wings to extinguish a fire.

Science fiction of the early 20th century.Flying firefighters, Jean-Marc Cotet, France.

Bernard Hailestone (England). Portrait of Andrew Nabarro, senior firefighter of the Portsmouth auxiliary fire department.

Bernard Hailestone (England). A portrait of the Chemshold District Fire Support Officer.

In 1940 Hitler began bombing London and other major cities in Great Britain. Night after night for months, London burned. After a particularly heavy bombing on December 29, Winston Churchill regretfully telegraphed Franklin Roosevelt: “They burned down a large part of the City of London last night.”

Residents of cities organized auxiliary fire brigades to save their homes, factories and monuments from fires. Some of them managed to reflect in their works the hell that was happening around. The first picture was painted by a firefighter, whose comrades are running with buckets of sand in order to extinguish the “lighter”.

Firefighters with buckets of sand to extinguish an incendiary bomb. England, 1940.

Leonard Rosoman. The death of firefighters. England, 1940.

Firefighters in London, in between bombings, were often limited in their means of displaying reality and took every opportunity to express their creativity.For example, the following painting was done by a firefighter on the only surface available to him – a table tennis table top.

Marvin Wright. Firefighters. The painting on the table tennis table top. England, 1940.

Norman Percevel Rockwell (1894-1978) – American artist and illustrator. His work is popular in the United States because it reflects the versatility of American life and a variety of professions.He has illustrated 321 covers for The Saturday Evening Post for four decades.

The most famous works dedicated to firefighters are “The Volunteer Firefighter” (1931), which depicts a hurrying firefighter armed with an ax, a boy with a bucket and the symbol of the US fire department – a dog and “Portrait of a Firefighter with a Smoking Cigar” (1944), which is distinguished by humor and is a kind of parody of “Portrait of a Firefighter” by Julian Scott.

Norman Rockwell, Volunteer Firefighter, USA, 1931.

Norman Rockwell, Portrait of a Firefighter and a Smoking Cigar, USA, 1944.

Drew Beam (illustration studio Fahrenheit-212). Dedication to Norman Rockwell, 2007, USA.

Mentor Huebner. Firefighter. USA, 1960.

Contemporary painting

David McEwen (UK). Firefighter

David McEwen (UK). Firefighter

Bill Bresnan. A little boy’s dream (USA).

Richard Timmons. Portrait of a firefighter (USA).

Richard Timmons.Portrait of the chief of the fire battalion Howard Russell (USA).

Stephen Assael. Portrait of a firefighter with a helmet (USA).

Tom Hutchinson. Firefighter (USA)

According to the artists from studio MjSuber Studio (USA), firefighters are modern knights. Just like knights in ancient times, they come face to face with monsters and flames, saving those who are dear to us, without fear or reproach. They sacrifice their lives not because they were taught so, but because they are who they are.They expressed this image in their 2009 work. Interestingly, the face of the firefighter is not depicted in the picture, which personifies many men and women of this heroic profession.

MjSuber Studio illustration studio. Firefighter in the guise of a modern knight, 2009, USA.

Larry Maddox Firefighters raise the flag. USA, 2001.

Drawing of a firefighter with a child in his arms. Aubrey Nenderson (Epoque Times, USA), 2005.

Artist Sarah Yuster (USA) describes her memories of September 11, 2001: “This day turned out to be extremely successful for me.My brother Jared survived the attack on the Twin Towers. He said that when people made their way downstairs, smoke filled the stairwells, one could smell burning jet fuel.

Firefighters encouraged everyone with their calmness, leading people and assuring them that everything would be fine. People tried to remember the face of each of those who passed by, going upstairs. They could not help knowing that they could never come down … ”

Sarah Yuster. The face of courage. Portrait of Chief of the Firefighters Battalion Ed Ellison.

Susan Smolenski (USA). Portrait of firefighter Jeremy Slocum, 2010.

Cover of the book “Fireman”. Retired New York City Fire Lieutenant George Kreischer.

Fan art

The development of the Internet has made it possible for creative people to easily share their works with the public. And although such works do not always have a deep meaning and do not differ in technique, one can catch in them both the creative intention and, sometimes, the feelings of the artist.

Angel and Firefighter.Fan art by paperdragon1967 (DevianArt).

Firefighter in the guise of a zombie. Fan art by mischeviouslittleelf (DevianArt)

Instead of a conclusion

Studying art dedicated to firefighters, even an unprepared person can easily notice the difference in the perception of this profession by artists in foreign countries (in particular, the USA) and in Russia.

If in American works the firefighter mainly appears in the form of a slightly tired, courageous, and sometimes harsh hero, in whose eyes there is readiness to give his life to the altar of service, saving his neighbors, and even cartoons and cartoons (like the work of Norman Rockwell) are imbued with deep respect , then in domestic art, with rare exceptions, the simple life and work of firefighters is mainly reflected, without any piety, and sometimes with derision.

I don’t want to make any global conclusions, but in my humble opinion, our artists lack some respect for this difficult, heroic and deadly profession.

90,000 For the anniversary of the First World War

World War broke out on August 1, 1914. Soon it will be called in Russia the Great or Second Patriotic War, also German, and in the 1920s – the Four Years War. Only after 1939 will it go down in history as the First World War.The confrontation between two coalitions of states – the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy) and the Entente (France, England, Russia) – became the cause of the world massacre, in which more than thirty states were involved. Russia from the side of the Entente, Germany and Austria-Hungary from the side of the countries of the Central Treaty became the main participants in the Eastern European theater of military operations. He was the main one in the 1st World War.

The history of the Great War, in which the losses of Russia in killed and died from wounds amounted to about 1,700,000 people, is reflected in documents, diaries and memoirs.Photos are an essential addition to these sources.

Correspondents and photographers were called in to cover the war in the press.

In addition to military photojournalists, employees of the Commission for the Description of War Trophies of the Russian Army and Old Banners (created on March 5, 1911 at the Military Campaign of His Imperial Majesty’s Chancellery) contributed to the chronicle of the war. Since 1915, the tasks of the Trophy Commission have expanded: military art detachments were formed.They were attended by students of the battle class of the Academy of Arts with their leader, the famous battle painter N.S. Samokish.

Unlike the Patriotic War of 1812, to the greatest regret, the artists did not have time to immortalize the heroes of that war in large-scale battle canvases. However, numerous front-line drawings and engravings remained. During the First World War, the popular prints of popular prints were very popular.

The First World War was marked by the massive use of new types of weapons: submarines, tanks, armored trains and armored vehicles, anti-aircraft weapons, airplanes, and the use of asphyxiant gases. All this became the property of a photographic lens and an object of fine art, as well as the heroes and exploits of Russian soldiers and officers, their everyday life, prisoners of war, trophies and much more from the life of Russia during the war period.

The collection of the Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineering and Signal Corps contains the most complete collection of World War I monuments in Russia.These are samples of firearms and edged weapons, artillery, ammunition from all countries participating in it (Russia, Germany, France, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, USA, Italy, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, etc.). The richest collection of banners, uniforms, equipment, household items of soldiers and officers of the opposing sides. The museum also houses a collection of front-line drawings by artists of the First World War, paintings, posters. Many of these items have become exhibits in a number of thematic exhibitions prepared by the museum for the 100th anniversary of the outbreak of the First World War.More detailed information on them is available in section “Archive of exhibitions” .

An important event was the opening after the re-exposition of Hall No. 2, dedicated to the development of artillery since the mid-19th century. until 1917 , in which the section describing the events of the First World War was significantly enlarged. At the permanent exposition, visitors will be able to see exhibits from the museum’s funds that have never been exhibited before. In addition to the previously presented samples of weapons, ammunition, uniforms, etc.about 300 items were added, most of which are authentic items from the period of the First World War.

The new exposition allows you to get acquainted with the main stages of the war, combat training and traditions of the Russian army before its start. The presented samples of weapons show the development of artillery and small arms, as well as means of protection, introduce the outstanding designers of domestic weapons. The hall displays easel machine guns, experimental and serial self-loading weapons, as well as similar foreign models.Of undoubted interest are the samples of the first anti-aircraft guns designed to combat enemy aircraft. A reminder of the “trench war” are the bombs presented in the hall, including home-made ones.

An important addition to the previously existing exposition was the coverage of the heroic deeds of the Russian army on the fields of the First World War through personal belongings, awards, banners of distinguished units. Of particular interest is the authentic portraits of the cavaliers of St. George, presented in the hall, made by members of a special military art detachment that worked at the forefront in order to create works of art that, to one degree or another, reflected the events of the First World War of 1914-1918.As you know, before the revolution, it was planned to open the Museum of the Great War with a gallery of portraits of the Knights of St. George. The museum was never created then, but the works of frontline artists have been preserved in the collection of the Museum of Artillery and now its visitors can get acquainted with them.

A true symbol of courage and a unique relic of the Great War is the original banner of the 209th Bogorodsky infantry regiment presented in the hall. In 1915, a regiment of the 53rd Infantry Division was surrounded.Then it was decided to bury the regimental banners. However, the regimental priest, the monk Felofey, saved the banner from the banner of the Bogorodsky regiment. Subsequently, the banner became part of the Belgrade Banner Collection, which ended up in Dresden during World War II. Russian banners were found by Soviet troops, then transported to the USSR and, with military honors, were transferred to the museum.

All visitors to the new exhibition will be able to get acquainted with the newsreels of the First World War, which will be shown on specially installed screens in the hall, and in the complex stylized as a dugout, they will be able to see unique stereo photographs of the First World War in 3D format.

The Russian Museum has opened an exhibition on the artistic heritage of the Klodt family of the XIX-XX centuries – Culture

SAINT-PETERSBURG, December 23. / TASS /. Works of art created in different genres by representatives of the Klodt family are shown at the exhibition, which opened on Wednesday at the Russian Museum. The exhibition features sketches of equestrian statues, drawings, paintings and engravings, the press service of the museum said.

“An exhibition dedicated to the artistic heritage of the Klodt von Jurgensburg family of barons opens in the Mikhailovsky (Engineering) Castle.For the first time, sculpture, painting, drawing and engraving are presented in one exhibition. The central place is given to the works of the founder of the dynasty, sculptor Pyotr Karlovich Klodt (1805-1867) – the master monumentalist, the ancestor of the animalistic genre in Russian easel sculpture, “the message says.

At the exhibition, visitors will be able to see models of horse groups for the Anichkov Bridge in St. Petersburg, sketches of a monument to Emperor Nicholas I and a rarely exhibited wax model of a monument to fabulist I.A. Krylov in the Summer Garden.

A large section of the exposition consisted of works by painters – representatives of the Klodt family: genre paintings by the sculptor’s son, Mikhail Petrovich Klodt, and works by his nephew, landscape painter Mikhail Konstantinovich Klodt. The exposition is complemented by works by the grandson of Pavel Klodt – Nikolai Aleksandrovich Klodt (1865-1918), a painter and theater artist, a master of the impressionistic landscape, a pupil of the Moscow art school. One of the sections of the exhibition is devoted to the role of representatives of the Klodt dynasty in the development of printed graphics.The name of Konstantin Karlovich Klodt (1807-1879) is associated with the revival in the middle of the 19th century of the art of woodcut (woodcut).

The exhibition in the halls of the museum will be valid until March 29. From December 30 to January 10, St. Petersburg museums are prohibited from receiving visitors, in accordance with the resolution of the city government, due to the situation with the pandemic, at this time you can get acquainted with the works in electronic form. The exposition is duplicated by the electronic version, which is available in the mobile application of augmented reality “Artifact”.

The virtual project “The Klodt Family” includes ten audio guides to the works of five representatives of the Klodt dynasty from the collection of the Russian Museum. Augmented reality elements allow you to focus on individual details of the works.

90,000 the most interesting events of the week / City news / Moscow website

Cold weather has come to the capital, and this is another reason to look into museums, theaters and concert halls. How to meet winter in the most interesting way – in the article

Studying the History of Pop Art

Date: 2 December

Location: Zaryadye Park, Zapovednye Embassy pavilion

Address: Varvarka street, household 6, building 1

Time: 19: 00–20: 30

Age restrictions: 0+

Poet and prose writer Dmitry Makarov will give a lecture on the phenomenon of Andy Warhol, the artist who turned consumer goods into works of art and revolutionized pop culture.Some consider Warhol a charlatan, others are ready to give fabulous sums for his work. Who is right?

Dmitry Makarov will tell how a sickly boy from a poor family became an icon of Pop Art, and explain what can be considered a work of art and what cannot.

Registration required.

Learning to understand Soviet art

Date: 3 December

Place: Moscow Museum of Modern Art

Address: Ermolaevsky lane, house 17

Time: 19: 30-21: 30

Age restrictions: 12+

Socialist realism as the main method of Soviet art demanded from the artist a truthful depiction of revolutionary reality.At the same time, truthfulness was supposed to serve the ideas of socialism: painting, cinema and literature looked to the communist future with unfailing optimism.

Art critic Kirill Alekseev, Ph.D. in Philosophy, will tell how socialist realism turned into a harsh style depicting the life of representatives of romantic professions – geologists, oilmen, sailors and others, as well as how unofficial art developed in the USSR – conceptualism, social art and political actionism 1990-2000s.

Considering “Invisible Light”

Date: 3 December

Place: New Tretyakov Gallery

Address: Krymskiy Val street, house 10

Time: 10: 00-21: 00

Age restrictions: 0+

Arsen Revazov’s exhibition “Invisible Light” opens in the New Tretyakov Gallery, which includes more than 100 works made in the technique of infrared photography.

The first section of the exposition is the Red-Beautiful project, curated in 2017 by journalist and public figure Anton Nosik.With infrared photographs, the photographer tried to convey the boundlessness and multi-layeredness of the concept of “Russia” – from the suburban interior to the panorama of a big city taken from a great height.

The second section consists of photographs measuring a meter by one and a half, taken in different cities of the world using double exposure. The third section, created with the participation of the architect and artist Alexander Brodsky, is dedicated to Venice – a space filled with video projections of Arsen Revazov’s works. The fourth section presents three monumental photo panoramas, as well as more than 30 architectural and landscape landscapes, captured on wide-format infrared film using a black filter.

Looking for painting in cinema

Date: 4th December

Place: Cultural Center ZIL

Address: Vostochnaya street, house 4, building 1

Time: 19: 00-21: 30

Age restrictions: 18+

At the meeting, the cinema lecture hall “The meaning and form of beauty: art cinematography in dialogue with the world of painting. Picture in picture “cultural scientist Anya Ostrovskaya will tell about the fate and works of two directors, whose work is closely related to the fine arts.

Peter Greenway could not enter film school, became an artist and worked as a documentary editor for 11 years, after which he made his directorial debut – the film “The Draftsman’s Contract”, which brought him great success. Another hero of the lecture, Patrice Chereau, was born into a family of artists. The inspiration for his film “Queen Margot”, which won a jury prize at the Cannes Film Festival, was largely inspired by samples of European painting.

The lecturer will illustrate his story with excerpts from films.

Getting to know the current classics

Date: 5 December

Place: Moscow International House of Music

Address: Kosmodamianskaya embankment, 52, building 8

Time: 19: 00-21: 00

Age restrictions: 6+

An evening of actual classics Re: Formers Fest will bring together world-famous musicians on one stage. The Moscow Chamber Orchestra Musica Viva, violinist Boris Brovtsyn, percussionist and composer Nebojshi Zhivkovich, saxophonist Vitaly Vatulya, pianist Maria Nemtsova and drummer Rostislav Balchyunas will perform.

The musicians will begin with Dmitry Shostakovich’s Violin Concerto No. 2, and the second part will be devoted entirely to the 21st century. Concert for marimba and orchestra by modern Slovenian author Slavko Sjuklar, as well as Concerto for saxophone, piano and percussion with orchestra by Takashi Yoshimatsu, a composer whose music is influenced by jazz, rock and Japanese classics, will be performed.

re: Formers. What to listen to at the international festival of topical classics

Go to Non / fiction

Date: 5-9 December

Place: Gostiny Dvor

Address: Ilyinka street, house 4

Time: 14: 00-21: 00 (December 5), 11: 00-20: 00 (December 6-9)

Age restrictions: 0+

The International Fair of Intellectual Literature this time will be held in a new place – in Gostiny Dvor.Every day until next Monday, writers, publishers, literary scholars and critics will meet here to share important new books you may have missed. You can find a lecture or round table with a topic that interests you in the schedule.

The guest of the fair this year is the State of Israel. Eight thematic events are planned for December 8 – meetings with Israeli writers, lectures by researchers of contemporary Israeli literature and presentations of books recently translated into Russian.

Reading the Bible from engravings

Date: 6 December

Place: State Museum of Architecture named after A.V. Shchuseva

Address: Vozdvizhenka street, 5/25

Time: 11: 00–20: 00

Age restrictions: 0+

The exhibition “A Christmas Story in Western European Engraving of the 15th-19th Centuries” is dedicated to how Albrecht Durer, Francesco Parmigianino, Hendrik Goltzius, Peter Paul Rubens, Gustave Dore, Claude Vignon and other outstanding artists of this period, as well as unknown authors of the 15 and the beginning of the 16th century from the Netherlands and France.

Eight sections of the exhibition correspond to specific events in the history of Christianity: from the journey from Nazareth to Bethlehem to the flight to Egypt. Viewers will find 32 original antique engravings, some of which are exhibited for the first time.

Old engravings. How the travelers of the XVII-XIX centuries saw Moscow

Watching Soviet films

Date: 7 December

Place: New Tretyakov Gallery

Address: Krymskiy Val street, house 10

Time: 18: 00–20: 00

Age restrictions: 12+

Films by Soviet directors Vladimir Bychkov, Mikhail Kalik and Inna Tumanyan will be shown at the New Tretyakov Gallery.

“Tambu-Lambu” – Vladimir Bychkov’s directorial debut, a short film based on a story by Galina Karpenko. This is a story about two guys, Mitya and Vova, who are looking for the owner of a notebook left in a telephone booth.

The film “To Love” by Inna Tumanyan and Mikhail Kalik is based on the stories of Ion Druta, Abner Zak, Isai Kuznetsov, Vladimir Sapozhnikov and Yuri Kazakov. Four movie novels about love begin with epigraphs from the Old Testament and alternate with documentaries in which Inna Tumanyan interviews random people and asks what it means to love.

Films will be presented by film expert Artem Sopin. Admission to the show is with free tickets, which can be obtained at the box office of the New Tretyakov Gallery half an hour before the show.

Remembering The Great Gatsby

Date: 8 December

Place: State Museum of A.S. Pushkin

Address: Prechistenka street, house 12/2

Time: 18: 00-19: 15

Age restrictions: 6+

In the State Museum of A.S. Pushkin will host a jazz concert dedicated to the novel by Francis Scott Fitzgerald “The Great Gatsby”.It tells the story of the American roaring twenties – a time of loud parties and questionable deals. The writer himself called the period between the First World War and the Great Depression the age of jazz. During these years, the classics of this genre were created – Scott Joplin’s ragtimes, musical miniatures by Leroy Anderson, works by George Gershwin. They will be performed on December 8 by the Instrumental Capella chamber orchestra.

We are going to a play based on Soviet fiction

Date: 8 December

Place: Moscow Drama Theater “Sphere”

Address: Karetny Ryad street, house 3, building 6

Time: 18: 00–20: 50

Age restrictions: 16+

The “Sphere” theater will show the play “The Hyperboloid of Engineer Garin” based on the story of the same name by Alexei Tolstoy.The main character, Soviet engineer Pyotr Garin, designs the perfect weapon and begins to take over the world with the help of threats and economic machinations.

Related Posts

Leave a Reply